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10 THINGS YOU NEED TO KNOW ABOUT PRINT A brief summary of things you need to know before sending a design to print.


CONTENTS COLOUR RGB, CMYK and when to use them. RICH BLACK The difference between standard black and rich black. MULTITONE The process of creating multi-tonal image (duotone). PAPER SIZES & FORMATS ISO A series and more. FILE TYPES What should you save your file as? PRINT PROCESSES What print method should I use? PREFLIGHT & PROOFING Making sure your document is ready for print. IMPOSITION The arrangement of a printed products pages. FINISHING How to add that finishing touch. COSTING How much will it cost?

CONTENTS BLACK


CMYK Subtractive

RGB Additive

CMYK

RGB

The CMYK colour model (process colour, four colour) is a subtractive colour model, used in colour printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

Digital cameras, scanners and computer monitors create images using combinations of just three colours: Red, Green and Blue (RGB). These are the primary colours of visible light and is how computers and televisions display images on their screens.

CMYK refers to the four inks used in some colour printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). Though it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer and press run, ink is typically applied in the order of the abbreviation.

CONTENTS BLACK

RGB colours often appear brighter and more vivid specifically because the light is being projected directly into the eyes of the viewer.

COLOUR CMYK AND RGB


RICH BLACK RICH BLACK BLACK

RICH BLACK There are many variations of black which differ when printed but look exactly the same when displayed on your computer monitor. This is because there is only one way to represent black - the absence of light. Standard black - C0, M0, Y0, K100 Rich black - C63, M52, Y51, K100 Cool black - C60, M0, Y0, K100 Warm black - C0, M60, Y30, K100 Registration - C100, M100, Y100, K100 Standard black often creates a subdued, dark grey colour as opposed to a more ‘richer’ and dense black. The solution is to use the colour values highlighted above and use these across all programs to ensure a continuous black.

COLOUR BLACK


MULTI TONE MULTITONE BLACK

MULTITONE Multitone is usually referred to as duotone and is a process of composing an image with two, three or four inks. This process requires that the press be set up with special inks, usually Pantone designated colours, instead of the standard CMYK inks used for process colour printing. Monotone - single ink Duotone - two inks Tritone - three inks Quadtone - four inks

MULTITONE MONOTONE - PANTONE 274 C


PHOTOSHOP Multitone is usually referred to as duotone and is a process of composing an image with two, three or four inks. This process requires that the press be set up with special inks, usually Pantone designated colours, instead of the standard CMYK inks used for process colour printing. Monotone - single ink Duotone - two inks Tritone - three inks Quadtone - four inks

MULTITONE DUOTONE - PANTONE 274 C AND PANTONE RED 032 C


PAPER SIZES

ISO A SERIES

RGB

The CMYK colour model (process colour, four colour) is a subtractive colour model, used in colour printing, and is also used to describe the printing process itself.

Digital cameras, scanners and computer monitors create images using combinations of just three colours: Red, Green and Blue (RGB). These are the primary colours of visible light and is how computers and televisions display images on their screens.

CMYK refers to the four inks used in some colour printing: cyan, magenta, yellow, and key (black). Though it varies by print house, press operator, press manufacturer and press run, ink is typically applied in the order of the abbreviation.

PAPER SIZES BLACK

RGB colours often appear brighter and more vivid specifically because the light is being projected directly into the eyes of the viewer.

PAPER SIZES BLACK


105

210

420

125

A6

250

B6 176

A5

B4

A3

A0 A1

PAPER SIZES BLACK AND PANTONE 301 U

353

A2

707

297

148

A4

594

500

B5

B2 B3

B0 B1

PAPER SIZES BLACK AND PANTONE RED 032 C


FILE TYPES

Preflight

General proofing issues

A preflight check checks all used images and fonts in the document. It checks whether the images can be found at their indicated locations, if they are in the correct colour mode and if fonts are use load correctly.

The preflight does not recognise all errors within the file therefore you need to make sure you do various general proofs.

Tip: Copyrighted fonts may cause problems with embedding, though this is usually brought up in the preflight check. If there are any missing files, you are able to replace them from the Preflight check dialogue screen. You can access Preflight by going to File > Preflight. In the dialogue window, a small warning icon will indicate a problem area. Tip: To create a more efficient workspace, save all linked images alongside the main document.

PREFLIGHT BLACK

Is the size of the document correct? It may seem obvious but you need to make sure the size complies with the printers request. Check spelling and grammar. Is the bleed correct? The bleed ensures there is no white edges when the print is trimmed. Are your colour separations correct? Make sure there are no PMS colours mixing with your CMYK colours and vice versa. Check the resolution of all images is at 300 dpi to avoid blurs and pixilation.

PAPER SIZES BLACK


PRINT PROCESS

Offset lithography

Rotogravure

Offset lithography is the most widely used printing technique on the market, suitable for printing on paper, cardboard, plastic and other flat materials.

Gravure is a type of the intaglio printing process that involves engraving the image onto an image gravure. Two large print reels of paper are pressed together as opposed to sheets of paper.

Colours are separated into the four colour process colours or PMS (pantone) colours. Each colour is then etched into thin, aluminium plates which are then taken to the press to print the job. The press is comprised of four separate presses, one in each tower. The four plates are wrapped around a plate cylinder in each of these ‘towers’. The image is transferred as a reverse image from the plate to a blanket cylinder. The paper is moved from unit to unit to create the full composite image. An impression cylinder squeezes the paper at just the right pressure to make sure the print is as smooth as possible. However, it is not a high-volume print method as each colour has to dry before another can be applied. Benefits Versatile Flexible Wide range of possible inks and substrates

PRINT PROCESS BLACK

There is one designated printing unit for each colour, most commonly CMYK. As the engraved cylinder rotates, it draws ink out of the fountain with it. Acting as a squeegee, the doctor blades beside the cylinder, scrapes the ink before the cylinder makes contact with the paper therefore ink is removed from the non-printing areas. The paper is then forced between the impression roller and the gravure cylinder ensuring maximum coverage of ink. The paper is then pressed onto the gravure cylinder and subsequently dried in order to absorb another coat of ink. Benefits Fastest and widest printing press in operation High density range Able to transfer more ink to the paper than any other printing processes.

PRINT PROCESS BLACK AND PANTONE RED 032 C


Screenprinting

Flexography

Screen printing is a printing technique that uses a woven mesh to support an ink-blocking stencil. It imposes an image on to a substrate by forcing ink through a screen containing the aforementioned stencil.

In Flexography, a flexible printing plate is used which extends the range of substrate that can be printed on. A positive, mirror image rubber polymer plate, on a cylinder, transfers ‘sticky ink’ directly onto the print surface.

A roller or squeegee is moved across the screen stencil, forcing the ink past the threads of the woven mesh in the open areas. Screenprinting is far more versatile than traditional printing techniques as the surface does not have to be printed under pressure, unlike lithography, for example. Different inks can be used on a diverse range of substrates. This printing technique is therefore used in many different industries such as balloons, clothing, decals, product labels... and so on. Benefits High volume High speed Consistent Clean results

An ink roller transfers the ink to the Anilox roller (which is what makes Flexography unique) as this meters the predetermined ink that is transferred for uniform thickness. The ink is then applied to the plate cylinder which holds the plates. The impression cylinder applies pressure to the plate cylinder, where the image is transferred to the substrate. Typical substrates include crisp packets, bottle labels and packaging. Benefits Better resolution Uses a wider range of inks Can print on a range of substrates Low viscosity for faster drying Faster production Lower costs

PRINT PROCESS BLACK AND PANTONE RED 032 C


PRE

FLIGHT

Preflight

General proofing issues

A preflight check checks all used images and fonts in the document. It checks whether the images can be found at their indicated locations, if they are in the correct colour mode and if fonts are use load correctly.

The preflight does not recognise all errors within the file therefore you need to make sure you do various general proofs.

Tip: Copyrighted fonts may cause problems with embedding, though this is usually brought up in the preflight check. If there are any missing files, you are able to replace them from the Preflight check dialogue screen. You can access Preflight by going to File > Preflight. In the dialogue window, a small warning icon will indicate a problem area. Tip: To create a more efficient workspace, save all linked images alongside the main document.

PREFLIGHT BLACK

Is the size of the document correct? It may seem obvious but you need to make sure the size complies with the printers request. Check spelling and grammar. Is the bleed correct? The bleed ensures there is no white edges when the print is trimmed. Are your colour separations correct? Make sure there are no PMS colours mixing with your CMYK colours and vice versa. Check the resolution of all images is at 300 dpi to avoid blurs and pixilation.

PAPER SIZES BLACK


Imposition Dummy 8 page booklet

IMPOS -ITION

Imposition

What can affect imposition?

Imposition is one of the fundamental steps in the prepress printing process as it allow you to arrange the printed products pages on the printers sheet in the most efficient way. As a result, this obtains faster printing, simplified binding and less waste of paper.

The size of the finished page determines how many pages can be printed on a single sheet.

Correct imposition minimises printing time by maximising the number of pages per impression, therefore reducing the cost of press time. Imposition Dummy

The number of pages and subsequently units, affects how many sheets are needed per book/per order. Stitching/binding & finishing - these may cut or impair the information laying close to the edge of the page. Many papers have a grain which reflects the alignment of the paper fivers. These fivers must run lengthwise along the fold.

An imposition dummy should be created in order to envision how the pages relate to one another.

IMPOSITION BLACK

IMPOSITION BLACK AND CMYK


Gold foil blocking Elephant stationery

FINIS -HING

Blind embossing Metric by The International Office

Finishing

Embossing

Print finishing encompasses a wide range of processes that provide a final touch to a design. Despite being at the end of the production process, they are integral and can either provide added functionality or simply for decorative means - either way, they can make or break a design.

An emboss is a design that is stamped into a substrate (stock) with ink or foil - a blind embossing is a raised impression made in conjunction without ink or foil. Debossing is a recessed impression. Use thicker stock as it is able to hold an emboss much better than thinner stocks.

Die Cut Foil blocking Die cutting is a process that uses a steel die to cut away a specified area of a print. This can be purely for aesthetic reasons such as rounded corners to a business card or serve a purpose such as a window to view the packagings content.

FINISHING BLACK

Foil blocking is a process where coloured foil is pressed onto a substrate through a heated die which causes the foil to separate from its backing. Foil blocking may be referred to as foil stamp, heat stamp, hot stamp, block print or foil emboss.

FINISHING BLACK


Fore-edge printing

Varnishes

A process where ink is applied on the cut, outside edges of the book block of a publication. It originates from gilding, a process that applied fold or silver to the pages of a book to pretect them.

A typical varnish is defined as a colourless coating that is applied to a printed piece to protect the substrate from scuffing, ear or smudging. It is sometimes used to enhance the visual appearance of a design.

Varnish

Description

Gloss

A gloss varnish is often used with photographic imagery as it adds to the sharpness and saturation of images.

Matt (dull)

Diffuses light and reduces glare therefore increasing text legbilitiy. It provides a smooth and non-glossy finish to a page.

Satin (silk)

A mid-option between gloss and matt.

Neutral

An almost invisble coating that seals the printing ink without affecting the print design. Often used to accelerate the drying of fast turnaround prints.

UV Varnish

A clear liquid which is instantly cured using UV light. It is sometimes used as a spot covering to highlight a particular image as it provides more shine than a standard varnish.

Pearlescant

Varnish that subtly reflects myriad colours to give a luxurious effect.

FINISHING BLACK

Yellow fore-edge print Apal business card

Blind embossing Metric by The International Office


COST -ING

Imposition

What can affect imposition?

Imposition is one of the fundamental steps in the prepress printing process as it allow you to arrange the printed products pages on the printers sheet in the most efficient way. As a result, this obtains faster printing, simplified binding and less waste of paper.

The size of the finished page determines how many pages can be printed on a single sheet.

Correct imposition minimises printing time by maximising the number of pages per impression, therefore reducing the cost of press time. Imposition Dummy

The number of pages and subsequently units, affects how many sheets are needed per book/per order. Stitching/binding & finishing - these may cut or impair the information laying close to the edge of the page. Many papers have a grain which reflects the alignment of the paper fivers. These fivers must run lengthwise along the fold.

An imposition dummy should be created in order to envision how the pages relate to one another.

COSTING BLACK

COSTING BLACK

10 things you need to know about print  

A summary of things you need to know before sending a design to print.

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