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CONTENTS Chapter 1 Technology for teaching……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………04 Chapter 2 MultimediaProjects………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..08-16 Chapter 3 Critics´circleproject………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..17-23 Chapter 4 MultimediaProjectTypes…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..24-47 Chapter 5 7 Principles of good practice in technology…………………………………………………………………………………….48-57 Chapter 6 OrganizingInformation……………………………………………………………………………………………………………58-68 Chapter 7 Programs that support teaching with multimedia69-84……………………………………………………………………….69-84 References…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………85


PREFACE My purpose in writing this book has been to provide the most important information about the integration of technology to the teaching-learning process. This book is intended for those people who want to get a broader approach about the benefits that multimedia brings to both teachers and students in the teaching field. I should like to think that this book will be of some interest also to the general reader who wishes to learn something about modern teaching methodologies. I am convinced about the importance that multimedia has in education, therefore, through this book I tried to cite relevant aspects about technology in the classroom as well as some other complementary aspects that will undoubtedly be of big help to those who decide to read this book. It remains to me to acknowledge my indebtedness to those who have assisted me most directly in the writing of this great book. When I first learnt about technology in education, I had the inestimable good fortune to come under the personal help of my great teachers: Silvia Sowa, Yvette MenĂŠndez, Evelyn Quiroa, Karen Gudiel and Federico Salazar. There is much in the present book that I have learnt from them. I should like them to look upon this book as a tribute from their pupil. I also thanks my classmates for sharing information with me and my parents for their support and patience. To all of them I express my appreciation of this very valuable assistance. Finally, but not the least I want to thank God for having given to me the opportunity to learn about this interesting topics that are helping me in my teaching journey.

Guatemala, 02 October 2011.

V. S.




Over the past fifty years or so, teachers and parents have read and heard forecasts of an impending educational revolution each time a new technological innovation arrived on the scene. Now, the computer is being hailed as the next technological innovation to have a major impact on the educational process. Modern education, in fact, has sustained a long-term interest in the use of educational technology as a means to design more efficient learning opportunities for students. As a matter of fact, in 1970, the Commision on Instructional Technology stated its conviction that 窶付echnology can make education more productive, more individual and powerful, make learning more immediate, give instruction a more scientific base and make access to education equal. Nevertheless, the fate of the computer is still unknown, and the struggle to find the most appropriate role for technology continues.

THE DILEMMA OF TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION IN EDUCATION Educational change is a difficult and complex process; consequently, claims predicting changes in teacher practice and student learning begin to dominate the literature in a wave of enthusiasm for the new technology, and efforts are made to bring these technologies and visions to the classroom and in order to do so, teachers are the ones who must develop strategies to maintain control, teach a prescribed content, capture student interest in that content, match levels of instruction to differences among students, and show tangible evidence that students have performed satisfactorily. Teachers must also ration their time and energy to cope with these demands, and certain teaching practices have emerged as resilient, simple, and efficient solutions. Therefore, the tools that teachers have to add to their repertoire are those that are simple, durable, flexible, and responsive to teacher defined problems in meeting the demands of daily instruction. Education urges for an overall innovation, technologically speaking, but what we need to know first is that sometimes we think that only for having acces to the internet, projectors, radios, televisions, and especially computers, we are innovating,


since it is necessary to say that not only for using all of those technological aids, we are doing a good job, but we need to learn how to use them in the correct and better way as well in order to get the results expected, since sometimes those resources are scarce and teachers are not always skilled at their use.

TECHNOLOGY’S PLACE IN EDUCATION Students who had computers at home submitted much more complex assignments, spent many more hours completing assignments, showed greater enthusiasm for their learning, and demonstrated more pride in their accomplishments. Teachers who make a range of tools part of their educational practice offer these possibilities to all students. Technology offers only limited possibilities for solving ―conventional‖ educational problems, but it offers limitless possibilities for solving ―emerging‖ educational problems. Technology can support learning that is:

Active—Learners are engaged by the learning process in mindful processing of information and are responsible for the result.

Constructive—Learners can accommodate new ideas into prior knowledge in order to make sense or make meaning or reconcile a discrepancy, curiosity, or puzzlement.

Collaborative—Learners work in learning and knowledge building communities, exploiting each others’ skills while providing social support and modeling and observing the contributions of each member.


Intentional—Learners are actively and willfully trying to achieve a learning objective.

Conversational—Learning is inherently a social, dialogical process in which learners benefit from being part of knowledge-building communities both in and out of school.

Contextualized—Learning tasks are situated in meaningful real-world tasks or simulated through some case-based or problem-based learning environment.

Reflective—Learners articulate what they have learned and reflect on the processes and decisions that were part of the process.

As educators, we are confronted with a conundrum. One, conventional school mandates have resulted in a set of educational practices that are simple, versatile, and efficient but in which the newer technologies offer Little in the way of helping us cope with existing instructional problems.

Two, new problems are emerging as a result of contemporary insights into learning and from the social shifts resulting from the integration of technology into our economic, political, and social practice. Three, there is danger that, as educators, we will miss the opportunities technology offers to enrich the learning and lives of our students because it creates new problems instead of solving conventional problems.






BENEFITS a. Help students achieve specific academic objectives. b. Improve higher-order thinking skills. c. Enhance interpersonal group skills. d. Help students learn content by constructing and organizing representations of knowledge. e. Teach students how to make effective use of media and computers.


f. Give students the chance to learn meaningfully more than they could learn by writing a report that contains text and images. g. Allow students through the use of links to visualize more relations and organize content in more meaningful ways. h. Help students to learn and practice a wide variety of methods for using hypermedia links to organize information. I. Students learn material more completely, and can remember it longer.



BENEFITS a. Using a multimedia authoring system programme, students can create buttons, and links very easily. b. Students organize the information by deciding which one they want to place on the screen as well as the buttons and links to interact with the user.

THE ROLE OF COMPUTERS IN MULTIMEDIA c. Help students to carry out activities that were impossible in the past. For example: word processors provide the chance to students to edit their documents at any time they want.



This kind of projects consist of a collection of computer screens that contain some or all of text, graphics, images, audio, and video allong with buttons that the user can choose with the mouse.



Improvements in the function of speed, price and digtal electronics.

Information is presented in several media.

Students are more involved in creating their own multimedia projects.

THEORY Students learn better if:

They are actively involved in the construction of their own learning.

They are required to practice both interpersonal and intrapersonal activities.


Their senses are stimulated in different modalities along with the processes of writing and reading.







The key to defining or choosing a project is having clear what it is needed to be accomplished.

Variation of projects that lead students to achieve their goals.


To take students to analyse and come to conclusions about the subject matter they are studying.



Students learn how to apply and understand media to develop their analyisis skills.


Enhance students’ social relationships by allowing them to work cooperatively.



Ss learn to understand and use concepts and topics.









Select a movie and divide the class into groups of 5 students each.

Each group holds a roundtable discussion of the movie.

The group makes a collective decision on which 3 members will be ceitics.

The group creates its own multimedia project.




The group records their opinions about the movie.

The group’s members also create icons that they think illustrate the respective critics’ opinions.

The group agrees on a written summary of the opinions and enters that summary on the template’s “Summary Page”.



Students create projects in groups, playing the role of critic, image and icon specialist, analyst.

Teacher selects projects, executes four-step process, facilitates creation.

Users enjoy and evaluate the projects.

Support staff assists the teacher in setting up equipment and installing templates.



Voice Drawings Images to present informal information that captures each critic’s emotion and mood. emphasize that each critic is a real individual whose opinion deserves a respectful hearing. Text to present a formal analyisis and summary. Icon buttons that invoke links that go from one page to another.


It uses an image to


Provides attention to spoken and written skills.

Invokes higher-order or metalevel skills that include recognizing differents points of view and organizing differents view.

Helps students develop the skills to organize and present record ed speech, written text, images, and graphics.

Invokes using distinct modalities of expression or media.

Basic teamwork involved in cooperative learning.












SIMULATIONS Computer simulation had become so powerful by the 1980s, in fact, that some were beginning to talk about simulations as a ―third form of science‖, standing between theory and experiment. Consequently, scientists began to recognize the power of computer simulations to support the research process. On the other hand, educators are now beginning to recognize the power of computer simulations to support the teaching and learning process.

Computer simulations are replacing textbooks as a means for organizing the essential elements of knowledge.

THE FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS OF SIMULATIONS A simulation is a computer-based model of a real or unreal system created to teach how a certain system works. They differ from tutorial and dril and practice activities by providing less structured and more learner-centered learning experiences. As a matter of fact, simulations offer learners the opportunity to manipulate variables that affect the results of that experience.

During the process that involves the simulation itself, students get actively engaged in constructing and reconstructing their knowledge base. All of this allows students to test and communicate their own ideas on how things work. As a result, the learning process takes place by doing.


SIMULATION CATEGORIES There are two main types of simulations: a) Those that teach about something. b) Those that teach about how to do something.

These two main types of simulations are divided into four categories: Physical Simulations: Learners have the opportunity to manipulate objects or phenomena represented on the screen. Process Simulations They show students how a process takes place by slowing it down when this happens so quickly so that students can really understand the process itself. Procedural Simulations: They explain the appropriate steps to take in order to carry out procedures. Situational Simulations: They present a variety of situations so that students can choose from all of them the most suitable one to solve any problem.


CHARACTERISTICS OF SIMULATIONS There are 5 characteristics to look for in all simulations: a) A vision of knowledge: Knowledge in simulations is presented as a whole. In other words, simulations not only take into account the content but also the context. b) An authentic problem: Computer simulations present students with real problems which only exist in real world contexts. c) A context or setting: Students need to attend to the context of the simulation which must be manipulated as part of the problem-solving process. d) Variables: They are important for the students to identify them because that way, they are going to be able to make important decisions about how to manipulate them.


e) Rules of interaction: They must be discovered as the game progresses since play and experimentation will lead learners to draw conclusions as to the rules that are part of the simulation’s universo.

LEARNING WITH SIMULATIONS Using a computer simulation, students become an active part of the educational environment and can usually see immediate reward of the decisions they make in this environment. Most educational researchers agree that simulation is one of the best ways to make abstract concepts concrete, since it is possible to show how variables change state, what happens in a process, and how a process functions. Problem Solving: It has been proved that simulations improve students’ problem solving skills by giving them an opportunity to practise and refine their higher-order thinking strategies. Simulations are also seen as a powerful tool to teach not only the content but also thinking or reasoning skills necessary to solve problems in real contexts.


ADVANTAGES ASSOCIATED WITH COMPUTER SIMULATIONS a) Student involvement: Simulations can capture students’ attention by placing them in charge of the program’s events and asking students what they think should be done. b) Low cost: A simulation activity may be just as effective a learning experience at a fraction of the cost of a real activity. c) Safety: With simulations, students can experiment with strategies that might result in personal injury to themselves or others in real life. d) Better transfer: Simulations can provide learning that transfers to other situations. e) Reduce threat and anxiety: Students are allowed to do the same activity over and over in order to obtain feedback from their own mistakes. f) Encouragement of socialization and collaboration: Simulations allow students to get involved in decisión making as well as to work collaboratively.


g) Adjustments to realism for maximun learning: Activities that require more time than others can be speeded up so that students can get the rewards and consequences of their own decisi贸n-making process. h) Making the imposible, possible: Simulations can provide students with experiences about imposible events for common people and see the results of their own decisi贸n-making process.

LIMITATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH COMPUTER SIMULATIONS Simulations are not appropriate environments for teaching isolated facts or sequences of events. Some of the limitations that can be found in simulations are: Time demands. More threat and anxiety. Adoption of the material but not the concept. Deciding when to intervene directly is difficult. Objectives mismatch.


TEACHING WITH SIMULATIONS Students are best used in the application stage of the teaching process because learning through experimentation puts a high cognitive demand on learners. Thus, for simulations to be effective, they require the presence of an instructor to provide guidance in their use. Preparation: Students must become familiarized with the simulation in all its dimensions before they start to use it.

Debriefing: Teachers and students must go over the simulation in order to learn what and how it works so that better results can be obtained.

SIMULATIONS AS AN INTEGRAL PART OF CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION Simulations permit students to experiment with the structures of a domain and test their knowledge through productive play. Simulations also have the potential to build student knowledge in different and more elaborate ways.


Research Magazine Students are required to use some of the techniques mentioned previously, such as: a. brainstorming b. interviewing c. discovering d. creating information e. soliciting and expressing opinions f. summarizing Through this project, students work cooperatively by searching for the information on the web. To this respect, it is very important to mention that creating a magazine will provide benefits to the students such as learning how to give their own opinion and developing metacognition skills. When students carry out their own projects, they have to create two separate sections as follows: 

The ToolBook: that is, students are using Asymetrix Multimedia, and a folder if they are using LinkWay Live, or a stack if they are using HyperCard. At the beginning, the main parts are a title page and buttons; however, as it grows, we have to include attractive icons background, color schemes, and buttons layouts.


The following buttons have to be included in each page:Next, Previews, Main, Index and Exit. Very important; the Exit buttons does need to take completely out of the project but it takes students to other sources, citations, and conclusions.




They use it to exchange information with people around the world. This improves the students’ interpersonal relationships.

They use it to get information from the web in order to include it in their projects.

They also use it to distribute parts of the project that has been developed.


Students have the willingness of reaching anyone in the world without making any long distance call.

Without the slow part of phone network, students can connect to a worldwide network.

Learners can leave messages in electronic mailbox which later will be read by the second student.

GENERAL NETWORKING One of the advantages that highways provide is the potential access to a great deal of information and to many people the world over, but learners have to know how to deal with on-line information, how to get it, and generate it. The information superhighway is the manipulation of a computer that is connected to different networks in some way in order to provide access to others’ computer information which could also be used to exchange information in the same network.


FINDING COLLABORATORS There are two main methodologies: Prepare a description, a call for collaboration, following a prescribed template for the Global SchoolNet on/line list.

Prepare a concrete but brief proposal and send it by e-mail to one of the educational forums.

It is good to remember that learners understand and learn better when they get feedback from others as well as if they have the opportunity to face other students’ problems.



Multimedia Authoring Tool - Multimedia Presentation Software Authoring tools helps you to easily combine audio, video, text and images into a single object by defining the objects' relationships to each other, and by sequencing them in an appropriate order.

Multimedia Authoring Tool There are many types of multimedia authoring tools (software programs) which can be used for developing instructional multimedia products. However, as technology became more powerful, so did the authoring tools -- permitting more complex instructional design. A multimedia authoring tool enables you to create a final application merely by linking together objects, such as a paragraph of text, an illustration, or a song. Attractive and useful multimedia applications can be produced by defining the objects relationships to each other, and by sequencing them in an appropriate order. Multimedia Authoring Tool easy and exciting for beginners... dynamic and interactive for experts... It requires less technical knowledge to master and is used exclusively for applications that present a mixture of textual, graphical, and audio data. Multimedia authoring tool can be used to create anything from simple slide shows to full-blown games and interactive applications. The splendid, yet refined, contents with multimedia materials (text, image, sound, video, animation, Flash, web document and database) with easy and convenient editing can be applied to the web as well as CDs and presentations. A multimedia authoring tool supports a wide variety of multimedia file formats including images, video, and sound. Clip-art and sound libraries are rarely bundled with a multimedia authoring tool.

Multimedia Presentation Software Multimedia software comprises a wide variety of software that allows you to combine images with text, music and sound, animation, video, and other special effects. Many kinds of multimedia software are available. Multimedia software is sometimes broadly grouped as:



Multimedia Authoring Tools


Multimedia Tools for the Web


Multimedia Presentation Software

Multimedia Authoring can be used to create anything from simple slide shows to full-blown games and interactive applications. A professional multimedia development program is called an authoring tool or authoring software. An authoring tool allows you to give the user interactive control over the sequence and timing of videos, graphics and animation. It also provides a scripting language, also called a macro or authoring language to control the action. Multimedia presentation software is capable of stunning multimedia slideshows, brandishing dynamic sound, 3D Animation and cinematic quality special effects. Multimedia Presentation can be described as an intuitive book. Each page of the book can include pictures, animations, sounds and other controls. The pages can turn themselves or wait for their users to click on Next. Unlike the pages of a traditional book, they can talk to their readers too. No matter what your particular need may be, whether to e-mail an electronic photograph album to your relatives, allow users of your web page to download a multimedia catalog, show prospective clients samples of your work or make a dull subject come alive in class, multimedia presentation software can transform your ideas into a complete, professional application. In a live multimedia presentation, the slides are commonly projected onto large screens or printed on overhead transparencies. The slides may be distributed in printed form as handouts to accompany the live presentation. Multimedia Presentation Software can build self-displaying, interactive slide shows, electronic books and brochures, clickable advertisements, distributable portfolios and all sorts of other multimedia applications. Almost everything it can accomplish requires nothing more than a few mouse clicks. It has a short learning curve. Some multimedia presentation software documents are EXE files - they can be opened on any system. They can be freely distributed on disks and CDROMs, and over the Internet. Multimedia Presentation Software has some great features like the ability to:


Build and distribute slide show style presentations.

Write your own clickable advertisements, to distribute alone or with other products.

Design training materials that include pictures, sounds and interactive elements.

Compile a distributable portfolio.

Completed presentations are frequently published in multiple formats, which may include print, the Web, or electronic files.

Multimedia Presentation Software requires a faster processor. A display adapter and screen driver capable of displaying more than 16 million colors is needed to get the best out of it. Multimedia Application: Design Training, Entertainment It is a media which is a combination of different forms of content such as tex, audio, video, images, etc... Creative industries use it for various purposes such as fine arts, entertainment, etc... Multimedia is one of the most fascinating and fastest growing areas in the field of information technology. Text, pictures, animation, movies and sound - all these varied media are seamlessly blended, resulting in simple slide shows to dazzling, interactive presentations. Before the advent of computers, multimedia projects were difficult to put together. Computers enable to combine the media and can be stored for reuse. Multimedia is widely used in entertainment and education.

Multimedia Application Multimedia can be used for entertainment, corporate presentations, education, training, simulations, digital publications, museum exhibits and so much more. With the advent multimedia authoring applications like Flash, Shockwave and


Director amongst a host of other equally enchanting applications, your multimedia end product is only limited by your imagination.

Multimedia Design Training Multimedia presentations are a great way to introduce new concepts or explain a new technology. In companies, this reduces the desi Design and Training time of multimedia. Individuals find it easy to understand and use. Multimedia Entertainment: The field of entertainment uses multimedia extensively. One of the earliest applications of multimedia was for games. Multimedia made possible innovative and interactive games that greatly enhanced the learning experience. Games could come alive with sounds and animated graphics. Multimedia Business: Even basic office applications like a word processing package or a spreadsheet tool becomes a powerful tool with the aid of multimedia business. Pictures, animation and sound can be added to these applications, emphasizing important points in the documents. Miscellaneous: Virtual reality is a truly absorbing multimedia application. It is an artificial environment created with computer hardware and software. It is presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels real. In virtual reality, the computer controls three of the five senses. Virtual reality systems require extremely expensive hardware and software and are confined mostly to research laboratories. Another multimedia application is videoconferencing. Videoconferencing is conducting a conference between two or more participants at different sites by using computer networks to transmit audio and video data.


Multimedia Development Process: Storage Cabinet, Interactive Multimedia Production Multimedia Development Process: Multimedia development Process can be described as the use of many different communication medias, technologies and delivery platforms. A multimedia production can be expensive. Their preparation requires a team of people, each with a special skill set. Instructional designers explain how people learn and how materials should be structured. Producers coordinate the development process. Subject matter experts bring their knowledge of the subject. Interface designers are in charge of the onscreen navigational system. Writers work on scripts and any text that appears on the screen and documentation. Designers work on the program's graphics, it's overall look and feel, and interface design. Artists create graphics. Programmers put together all these elements using development software. Multimedia Developer The multimedia developer has communication medias such as color, text, images, graphics, music, sound, narrations, video, 2d animation, 3d animation, interactivity and light at his disposal. A multimedia developer can design, build and implement strategies that make effective use of the medias and the technology used to produce and deliver the final systems. Multimedia Storage Cabinet Multimedia storage solutions are available in plenty for your Compact Disc, DVD, VHS Tape and cassette collections. Holders are available in library, rack, cabinet, desktop, portable and tower styles to store from 10 to over 1500 CDs and other media. The highest quality of wood and metal are used to create the multimedia storage units. All of the pieces required for assembling the multimedia storage cabinet are provided. The time required for assembly will be 1-3 hours. For some of the larger units, two people may be necessary for assembling.


Interactive Multimedia Production All elements used in multimedia have existed before. Multimedia combines all these components into a powerful medium. Interactive multimedia weaves five types of media: text, sounds, graphics, video and animation into a multimedia production. The final multimedia production becomes interactive only when these distinct pieces are put together in an organized manner. Interactive multimedia does not follow a linear pattern. Research does not happen in a single step, it flows throughout the project. Deciding on a topic leads to identifying sub-topics, which in turn lead to more sub-topics. Non-linear links begin to appear between ideas in the project. These links must be researched in greater depth. The final document itself becomes non-linear. The reader does not have to start at the top and read to the bottom, they can move around within the information the author has presented. The author presents ideas and provides links for their readers to navigate. In a multimedia production classroom the number one problem is not discipline, it is running out of time. Interactive multimedia firms derive the majority of their business from servicing Web sites and corporate businesses than home consumer, government or other institutions. Larger companies who employ greater than 100 employees appear to be performing the majority of interactive multimedia production. Productivity in smaller companies has declined slightly while it has increased in larger firms. This is because larger businesses are better able to meet the costs of doing business and have access to premier clientele. Challenges in interactive multimedia production are the lengthy decision making cycles and meeting the client's requirement on a nominal budget. Multimedia Servers and Databases: Universal servers are databases that store multimedia elements. Different fields store the text, images, sound and video files. These powerful databases can be accessed over the network and function as organizational libraries. High performance multimedia storage server software supports both streaming media data (e.g., video, audio) and conventional data (e.g., text, binary, images). It can be used as a next-generation file system as well as a stand alone video or audio on-demand server. Example for such a multimedia storage server is Fellini. Computers are now able to handle continuous media. Continuous media data has real-time requirements. A traditional file server cannot distinguish between continuous and non-continuous media. A multimedia storage server must be able to


handle a large number of real-time requests with different rates. A multimedia storage server should support non real-time requests without violating the requirements of the real-time requests. It should support the storage and retrieval of multimedia data like: text, images, and other binary data. Delivering Multimedia Many multimedia programs are designed to work on the computer. To show one to a larger audience, you need a projection device like an LCD panel, projector, or a large-screen TV. A cordless mouse is also useful. One use of multimedia is to offer information or services in public places using presentation devices called "kiosks" where you touch the screen to locate information. Kiosks can be seen in museums and other public places. Multimedia Search There are plenty of specialized multimedia search tools available. Some of these covers several types of multimedia content, while some focus on images and specific file types. Major search engines have the ability to search for multimedia files on the web. Many search engines index all kinds of image formats. Some are associated with general search engines; some are stand alone image search engines. Some just index pictures available on the Web. Others have specialized collections of images. The image search engines are much more diverse than the general Web search engines. Copyright is one important issue to consider when searching for images.


Multimedia Web Design - Computer Graphic Design Guidelines to create a website with incorporating the multimedia to reach the targeted audience. Multimedia Web Design: A good multimedia web design is one that adds to the overall value of your site. Depending on the kind of services you want to convey using a Multimedia web Design depends on the web site design as per your unique needs. The very last thing you want is to distract your viewer from the key message on your web page through Multimedia web Design. Weave your designs around your site theme. Make sure your designs communicate your business objectives in a clear manner. Strive towards creating an appealing, convincing design which informs, entertains, and also sells your products or services. Focus to enhance user experience. Yet, don't overwhelm the user. Multimedia web design products will allow you to publish two versions of your content. One version is published strictly with HTML and doesn't include the rich features of the multimedia project, but it allows most users to get to the content they want. The multimedia version will require additional download time or a plug-in, but the viewer will be able to see, hear, and interact with the content exactly as it was intended. Much of multimedia web design software utilizes compression technology to create the smallest possible files, thereby reducing the download time and wait time for the viewer. Multimedia software combines text, audio, images and animation. You can publish it to the web as streaming multimedia. Streaming multimedia means that the user does not have to wait for the files to download completely before he can see them. Usually a portion of the content is downloaded, and the remainder is downloaded while the content is being viewed. Multimedia software products allow you to design slide shows, product demonstrations, tutorials, brochures, movies, cartoons, walk-through demonstrations, advertisements, interactive photo albums and more. Adding multimedia design to web site greatly enhances the visual experience of the visitor. Multimedia for web design requires the viewer to install a plug-in or player to view the content. However, some products employ technology that is


already included with the latest Web browsers. Many Web surfers do not upgrade their browsers or install additional software to view the content they're looking for. The Web is a very versatile medium and multimedia enhances the experience. Web pages can display animated graphics and play sounds, even allow for user interaction. These make the web pages more attractive and informative. Many web sites offer great multimedia information and how it is used in day-to-day life. Computer Graphic Design Computer graphic desings are picture images created and manipulated digitally on computers. Using computer graphic designs in video prjects can be an excellent way to convey complex ideas. There are basically two forms in computer graphic design: bitmaps and vector graphics. Bitmap images are widely used. The number of pixels in the image determines the size of these images. They must be printed or displayed at the same size. Any other size distorts the image. Vector graphics are a set of graphical objects stored as coordinates, and mathematical formulas that determine their shape and position. These graphical objects are called primitives. Lines, curves, rectangles, ellipses etc. are all primitives. These are widely used in computer-aided design. Computer graphic design entails editing and polishing graphics. 2D or 3D computer graphic design programs can be used to create animations. One of the issues in computer graphic design is choosing the image that will convey the meaning best. The graphic must complement the text on the page. The graphic designer must produce a visual communication product for a specific audience. Technology has given us the tools to create finished products quickly with a high level of professionalism. An effective advertising or education campaign does much more than deliver a message; it also influences the audience' response. There is no point in telling people how good a product is if we can't make them start using it.


MULTIMEDIA PROJECT TYPES This unit explores the use of multimedia projects in the classroom. Information is presented about various types of multimedia projects students can create, including: electronic portfolios, multimedia slideshows, slideshows for reviews and drills, tutorials, research presentations, virtual tours, interactive storybooks, and class yearbooks.

Multimedia in the Classroom Multimedia is the combination of more than one type of media. Types of media include: •


Graphic images




Multimedia projects can be created using many commonly used types of software, including: •

Word processing software (Word)

Presentation graphics software (PowerPoint)

Web page authoring software (Dreamweaver, Netscape Composer, FrontPage)


Students can use multimedia to construct various types of classroom projects. Types of student multimedia projects include: •

Electronic portfolios

Multimedia slideshows

Slideshows for reviews and drills


Research presentations

Virtual tours

Interactive storybooks

Class yearbooks

Electronic Portfolios Electronic portfolios are collections or displays of student work that are systematically compiled to demonstrate skill level , growth over time, or understanding of a particular concept or discipline. Generally, teachers provide students with directions, a list of content, and guidelines for building a portfolio. Web page authoring software or presentation graphics software can be used to create electronic portfolios. Multimedia Slideshows Students can create slideshows consisting of text, graphic images, audio clips, and/or video clips for projects about almost any subject. Presentation graphics software can be used to create multimedia slideshows. Slideshow Reviews and Drills


Slideshow reviews and drills can be created by students to help them practice and study many types of learning content such as spelling words, vocabulary words, math facts, and possible test questions. These slideshows can be created using presentation graphics software. Tutorials Students can create multimedia tutorials that provide step-by-step directions to guide users through the components of a subject. Topics for tutorials can be just about anything with an instructional sequence. Tutorials can be created using word processing, presentation graphics, or web page authoring software. Research Presentations Multimedia research presentations can be created by students to present findings for research projects. These presentations can be developed using presentation graphics software. Virtual Tours Students can create virtual tours of local places of interest and field trips locations using presentation graphics or web page authoring software. These tours can include text descriptions of the places with photographs, audio clips, or video. Interactive Storybooks Students can write their own stories, format them, and add illustrations using word processing, presentation graphics or web page authoring. Class Yearbooks Students can compile class yearbooks containing information about class activities, photographics, audio clips, music clips, and video clips from throughout the year. Class yearbooks can be compiled using web page authoring or presentation graphics software.





1.Good Practice Encourages Contacts between Students and Faculty: Communication between students and faculty members is important to increase student motivation and involvement. With technology communications this contact has improved because it reaches most students despite their shyness in some of them, lack of time in other cases and gives the students the chance to go beyond and ask other things they may need to, in order to understand better a topic. The use of e-mail at first was only to deliver homework to the teacher, but now, with other available tools such as computer conferencing and chats, gives the opportunity to converse and exchange work faster and safer than before and in a better way than being face – to – face. Using asynchronic communication gives students the chance to analyze what they are going to ask and to write, avoiding unnecessary details. .

2. Good Practice Develops Reciprocity and Cooperation Among Students: Collaborative work is enhances with the use of technology because it is easier to be in communication among students and with faculties. Using cooperative learning is better because members in the group help each other to accomplish tasks and each member learns from the others. But it has to be team effort and not isolated cooperation. Group work is strengthened when using communication tools.


3. Good practice uses active learning techniques. Practice makes excellent teachers. In order to have a meaningful learning practicing knowledge plays an important role. So in technology everybody needs to practice to developed skills.    

Everybody learns by doing, not only by watching or hearing. To improve learning: Students need to have activities that require the use of technology. Support students.

4. Good Practice Gives Prompt Feedback Knowing what you know and still don’t know help you to focus your learning. Students need opportunities to perform and receive feedback, to reflect on what they have learned and need to learn. Technology provides different ways to give feedback. E-mail Simulations Videos Blog comments E-portfolios Computers can also keep track of the actions done to demonstrate how much knowledge has been gained. By using technology giving feedback becomes more meaning for the student. 5. Good Practice Emphasizes Time on Task Value time is important to meaningful learning.


With technology the amount of time people spend it is important in order to increase knowledge. 6. Good Practice Communicates High Expectations. ―expecting to have more‖ is a good motivation, a motivation applied for all type of students, when someone try to get something bigger and powerful every day, it is known that this person will get it, because his vision of the results will search to fulfill the expectations. New technologies can communicate high expectations explicitly and efficiently, because it sharpens their cognitive skills of analysis, synthesis, application, and evaluation. This is because students know that at the end of their work, their results will we shown in the internet, so they search by themselves to obtain the best results they can. 7. Good Practice Respects Diverse Talents and Ways of Learning

Students need opportunities to show their talents and learn in ways that work for them. Every one of the students in a classroom have different ways to learn, so they need to use different methods and activities; internet provides us, as teachers, many opportunities to enhance our students into knowledge, and this is because it provides us a lot of resources of information and application. Students need to become familiar with the Principles and be more assertive with respect to their own learning. When confronted with teaching strategies and course requirements that use technologies in ways contrary to the Principles, students should, if possible, move to alternatives that serve them better.



The arrangement and presentation of text and images can aid or hinder effective communication. ď‚Ľ One key aspect of print design is providing visual signposts or visual cues that let readers know where they are and where they are going. ď‚Ľ Signposting breaks up text and images into readable, easy-to-follow blocks or panels of information.



 photos and captions  clip art  charts and graphs  elaborate initial caps



 nameplate / title page  headlines  secondary headings including kickers, decks, and subheads

Paragraph Emphasis and Organization  Solid blocks of unbroken text are difficult to read. Text is made more readable by breaking up the text and using visual indicators to show where paragraphs start and end.

Character Emphasis Using bold or italics text is one common method of letting the readers know what information is especially important or noteworthy.


HIGH QUALITY DESIGN  Build the page layout around the main message  All elements of the page layout including images, fonts, and colors must be appropriate to the message the piece is designed to convey.  Choose a page layout size that fits the intended or expected use.  Choose a standard tri-fold format for a brochure  tabloid size for a newsletter, or an oversized postcard size for a direct mail piece only after considering the recipient, budget, need for portability or filing, and postal regulations.  Plan a page layout around how a piece is seen and handled.  Think about the visibility and use of a piece when arranging page elements. Does the title, headline, label, or key visual need to be visible, readable, or recognizable from a distance, from a magazine rack, on a shelf, in a binder?

BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES  Use of typefaces (fonts) Unusual typefaces can help direct the eye toward text, but too many different fonts on a page are distracting.  Use visual cueing: When information on a page is particularly important, cueing it visually can draw attention in several ways. Use boxes or frames around text, bullets or arrows to designate important points, shading, boldface or italics.


 Use White space well: This helps focus attention on areas that do have information.  Create and use graphics carefully: Use pictures and designs to focus attention and convey information, but too many or too elaborate or merely decorative pictures detract from the message.   Avoid common text format errors: Be very careful about using irregularly shaped blocks of text, angled type, excessive underlining, widows and orphans, unequal spacing, excessive hyphenation, exaggerated indentations, grammatical errors, cramped logos, and too many typefaces. THE D in DEAPR THE D in DEAPR stands for the Design process. The D represents the prewriting phase of the writing process. The design process includes both the design of content and the design used to present the message. THE E in DEAPR It stands for the Encoding process. The E represents the first half of the writing process. Recognizing that the use of these tools allows writers to combine different types of symbolic information—graphs, illustrations, sound, text---the writing phase of the writing process requires writers to encode or symbolize parts of their message using different tools. The P and the R in DEAPR The P stands for publish, and the R stands for Revise. These two phases of the process interact.


Tips for matching the page layout to distribution method and use What you need             

Purpose and Main Message for the Page Layout Project Audience Characteristics and Intended Use of the Desktop Publishing Document Paper Sizes and Common Page Layout and Document Sizes Folding Requirements Postal Requirements Ad Design Alignment Initial Caps Rule of Thirds Single Visual Size Margins Z Layout





Benefits of organizing information Organizing information by relating pieces of information to one another is an essential part of constructing knowledge. Selecting an organization helps students        

to understand meanings of, and relationships among, different pieces of information. to use information, to answer questions, and to explain situations. Understanding the assignment Brainstorming Selecting information Discussing selection of different organizations Deciding the media Prepare scripts and story

Authentic Projects A project’s creator should think about how to help users avoid getting lost in hyperspace. Here are some tips:      

Providing a welcome screen Do not use more than four levels of menus Providing a map Leaving footprints Providing a set of buttons that appear on nearly all screens Dividing the project into sections


Helping Students Organize Information  Articulating a well thought-out assignment  Demonstrating examples of other projects  Encouraging students to unleash their creativity by finding new metaphors for information.

Types of Links   

Next Event Return Play, stop



Students can use existing multimedia as sources of:

Ideas and techniques to apply it in their works.

For actual inclusion in their projects.

Historical timelines to include in projects.


Development of material for later use.



Extendible title

Editable title that has been made for you to modify it to create your own project.

It can be added material, but it can be modified.


Closed title

It can be observed, but it can’t be modified.


As models to use in the creation of their projects.

To see how a creator organized information.

To browse through a title, thinking about its content and techniques.

To include both audio and images in their porjects. Sources of media clips.



General References and Databases

Microsoft Encarta 95 TIME Almanac of the 20th Century.

The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclpedia.

Compton’s Interactive Encyclopedia for Windows.



Microsoft Cinemonia 95, from Microsoft, (800) 583-0040.

U.S. Presidents, from Compton’s New Media, Inc. Mammals: A Multimedia Encyclopedia from National Geographic Society. History Disquiz, from Voyager, Inc.,

Columbus: Encounter, Discovery and Beyond, from IBM EduQuest The Honeybee, from the MultiMeanings Co.


Computer Related Instruction

 

Comprehensive Chemistry CD-ROM Math and More 1 and 2

Provides video of the results of many chemistry experiments. Provides complete mathematics curriculum for 1 st. and 2nd. graders.

HyperGlot Software Co. Foreign Language Stacks

Provides extensive multimedia instruction in different foreign languages.

Triple Play Plus!, Spanish

Includes a microphone so that students can record their voices and receive feedback about their pronunciation.

Magazines and Books Just Grandma and Me,

Contains books for children. Provides talking characters, animations, sound From Broderbund Software, Inc. children to choose.


effects, music, and many other options for

Nautilus CD, from Metatec

Provides multimedia examples for those people interested in the field. Corporation.

Newsweek Interactive, from Software Toolworks.

It is an interactive version of the eponymous magazine.

COPYRIGHTS AND ETHICS Every time students use others’ work, they must give credit whoever the creator was in order to apply the principles of ethics. This has to be taken into account either when the work is copied or used for another purpose. It is important to mention that the same ethics rules are applied for both multimedia and printed material. The correct moment to tell our students about copyrights is only after they have finished creating a project. We can ask them about how they would feel if they see that their own projects are being sold by a company when they don’t even know anything about it. They will certainly react in favor of them with some exceptional opinions.

REQUETING PERMISSION TO USE CONTENT Whenever we want to include in our projects’ content information that has not been created by ourselves, we have to request permission to the owner of the work we are going to get the copy from in order to avoid violating copyrights. This is very important for our students understand it so that they can not made the mistake of using others’ work without giving credit to the creators.


EVALUATING EXISTING MULTIMEDIA CONTENT Multimedia content has to be evaluated according to your own situation. Some of the criteria that could be taken into account are: If the content meets your intended objectives, the cost of the hardware to use, the information is presented in a very eye-catching way, the content is suitable for your students’ age, it includes content interactivity, it is easy to manipulate and learn, etc.




PROJECTS IN FLASH Flash is a wonderful multimedia technology tool that can be used to create a wide range of content which can be enriched with graphics, text, video, audio and animation. It also provides the experience to develop web-based multimedia materials with interactive components. The main file types associated with flash projects include:    

.fla which stands for source material. .swf stands for movies. .as stands for action script. flv stands for flash video file.

Among other things, flash provides us the experience of creating projects that incorporate animation, interaction and multimedia elements. Flash is an effective, efficient and appealing means to design materials that meet the diverse needs, learning styles and interests of students. In the development of flash projects there are 3 important elements that interact in order to make the projects more efficient and interesting to the students. These elements are the following:  Animation: Allows to create eye-catching presentations.  Interaction: Allows to make use of dynamic functions.  Multimedia: Enriches the students’ learning styles. REASONS FOR USING FLASH PROJECTS     

Differentiate: Engage: Teach: Versatile: Quality:

They focus on the different learning styles. They motivate students. They produce teaching materials. A variety of teaching applications can be created. High-quality files are produced.


 Technology:

Flash player doesn’t change very often.

PROJECT PLANNING It is one of the most important steps to consider before developing a flash project. To this respect we have to take into account the following aspects:  The audience. Take into account their ages, contexts, characteristics, developmental level, socioeconomic status, learning styles, ways to motivate them, interests, needs and technological facilities.  The Purpose: The goals, objectives and the means to reach them.  Architecture: The project´s organization, multimedia elements, instructions to use it, etc.

Among the questions we have to take into account before creating a flash project are the following:    

Is the project intended to entertain, inform, teach, or convince? What are the suitable pedagogical techniques and strategies for the content? What is the correct form of organizing and presenting the information? What multimedia elements are appropriate to make use of?

It exists a wide variety of choices in which we can use flash properties and facilities to develop projects that contemplate either to entertain, inform, explore information or teach. Q&A projects are another teaching-learning tool that can be created with flash options. These kinds of projects allow students to practice skills and reinforce concepts. These kinds of programs support review, information exploration as


well as to provide endless and instant feedback to meet the individual needs of final users. It is also important to mention that when we consider to design our own Q&A projects, the following questions are relevant to ask ourselves:

    

Are those the questions that users would probably ask? Are the questions presented stimulating and essential? Are answers and feedback provided adequately? Is the questions organization appropriate? Are auditory and visual elements contributors to good understanding?

FLASH APPROACHES Information Focus: Projects have to be centered on one idea in-depth, a wide variety of ideas, a process, or a diversity of ideas. Information Organization: At the time of designing a flash project, it is always recommendable to consider the audience’s needs and interests so that information has to be in a very facilitating way that makes the audience to become critical thinkers about the topics. Information Presentation: Interesting, informative projects can be developed if we make use of animation, interaction and multimedia elements so that users can get more interested in what they are reading.


Another important aspect to take into account when we carry out flash projects is: evaluation which leads to ask ourselves the following questions:  What makes great projects effective?  Why are some projects more interesting and engaging than others? Here there are some evaluation criteria to apply in the project evaluation:           

Overall impressions: Is this project a good use of flash? Audience and purpose: Is the project’s purpose clear? Content: Does the content meet the audience’s needs and interests? Organization: Are the information and events presented in a logical sequence? Design: Is the project design eye-catching and imaginative? Navigation: Does the project provide icons, interactive elements and helpful retrieval tools? Technical-Overall: Are multimedia elements , transitions smooth, consistency provided? Technical-Animation: Is animation used with an intended purpose? Technical-Interaction: Do interactive elements promote better understanding? Technical –Multimedia: Do media elements focus on different learning styles? Accessibility: Is it easy to access to the materials?


Three Benefits of Using Powerpoint for Presentations

a. The program is easy to use: Through this program it is possible to organize information in a very eye-catching way. b. It is possible to put together an excellent slide show with various arrows and other leading images into pointing out the key points in the topic. c. It is not necessary to memorize the information because we can use the power point presentation as reference point. d. You can create games and simulations which make the teaching learning process more interesting and motivating for students.

Benefits to Using Prezi a. It introduces a new way of visual storytelling that is much less boring. b. You can use high-resolution still images, wordcharts and graphics. Besides that, clean text and zooming and planning allow the presenter to show a big picture visual. c. PDF files can be placed. d. It lets the user to hide or show elements by making them too small to be used until a specific time in the whole presentation. e. It lets the designer to take the audience on a path from the beginning to end, or to stop along the path and interact with the content. f. Presenters can show the zoomed-in portion of a graph and then easily back out to visualize the big picture.


Adobe The premier publisher of multimedia software. Products include Adobe Director (multimedia authoring), Dreamweaver (web publishing), PhotoShop (photo editing), and more. Create Together [Win] ―multimedia environment that integrates creation, collaboration, communication, problem solving, and publishing in one seamless tool... Create animated games, randomly generated puzzles, interactive simulations, searchable multimedia databases, hyperlinked presentations and more.‖ Dazzler ―software products for producing interactive multimedia presentations, training courses, product catalogues and kiosk systems.‖ Flying Popcorn [Win] ―new computer users can create multimedia contents with 3D sound effects, images, geometrical shapes, text and movie files. Also, professional users will find abundant application potentials and dazzling transformation capabilities to develop sophisticated contents.‖ GraFX Saver Pro [Win] create and distribute your own professional screen savers with over 30 image, video, and audio formats. HyperStudio [Win, Mac] classroom multimedia authoring program.


Live Stage ―QuickTime authoring application with the ability to converge more than 200 media types.‖ MediaBlender [Win, Mac] easy to use multimedia authoring package. ―Access MediaBlender from any computer with Internet access, host the software on your own servers for better performance, and load a stand-alone application on your computer for use without an Internet connection.‖ Mistyk Media [Win] all-in-one software for conversion, editing, recording, burning, playback, and more for nearly all audio, video, and graphics formats. MovieWorks [Win, Mac] ―combines simple-to-use video, sound, animation, paint and image editing tools with a powerful time-based, object-oriented sequencing and authoring program. The five integrated MovieWorks Deluxe production applications work together seamlessly, making it easy to incorporate analog or digital video, buttons, photos, graphics, animations, 3D, narration, MIDI, MP3, CD music, text and titling, and even virtual reality movies into stunning, professional-quality multimedia productions.‖


SKILLS SOFTWARE DRILLING AND PRACTICE Educators’ efforts to understand how technology might be part of the teaching and learning process have passsed through a number of stages, such as:    

Computer programming Computer literacy Computer for problema solving Computer as a tool

Some educational programmes have attempted to combine the previous four stages even though it has been difficult for educators to accommodate the demands of each of these programmes in an overloaded curriculum. Nevertheless, attempting to do that combination into a single guiding principle for decision making has not led to a unified approach to technology in education. THE INFUSION MODEL: The important question underlying this model is: ―Given the curriculum objectives for a particular discipline, what kind of software would be most desirable as a means of increasing instructional effectiveness?  This model rests on the belief that a computer is most beneficial when ways are found to use it to support existing curriculum.


 It changes according to the subject, grade level activity, and teacher and learner needs.  The use of computers should be related with the objective of the curriculum.  Both computer use and a selected software should not be expected to teach the entire lesson. Teachers must use the computer and other resources in order to support the teaching and learning process.  There are some software tools that are useful in order to make students think and play with language at a variety of levels. They can also help them increase their comprehension skills such as:

o Using context clues o Building vocabulary and o Improving spelling


THE FEATURES AND FUNCTIONS OF INTEGRATED LEARNING SYSTEMS ILSs are computer systems that provide instruction in one or more content or skill areas and include the production of student progress reports. The most common subjects targeted by ILSs include reading, language arts, and mathematics. HOW DOES IT WORK? The computer programme prompts students with a question, and students must respond with a fixed answer, generally choosing from three or four possible answers. The computer programme provides feedback to the student, assessing students’ responses for correctness. The ILS features are: Cos Scope and sequence Management system Reporting system Implementation model COST: Its cost is estimated to be too high even though this kind of programme is very popular with many school districts.


SCOPE AND SEQUENCE: Its sequence makes it to be very useful since it follows a hierarchical order. Besides that, once the material has been learnt in a beginner level, the same material is presented, but this time in a more difficult way. MANAGEMENT SYSTEM: It collects and records the results of student performace. It is also that part of the overall system designed to test students and place them at their appropriate acedemic level. REPORTING SYSTEM: It can include information on an individual student ora n entire class. It produces gains reports to show the growth that has occurred during identified or present intervals such as weekly, monthly, or quarterly. IMPLEMENTATION MODEL: Four key components appear to be essential for implementing ILSs and positively impacting student learning. These components are:

   

A. B. C. D.

Student time on the system Teacher involvent with the system Integration into the curriculum Staff training

LEARNING WITH INTEGRATED LEARNING STYLES Benefits of Integrated Learning Systems: They are perceived to be a vehicle for the individualization of instruction. As a matter of fact, it has been demonstrated that individualized instruction provided by ILSs are most effective for students whose needs are met less directly by whole class instruction.



It permits individualized instruction. It provides another option for presenting classroom curriculum. The color of graphics that are presenting in ILS programming. ILS is seen as a way to integrate technology into the classroom without having to change the way is taught. 5. It is motivating for students.


ILSs are not implemented the way the developer intends. Teachers have not been adequately trained to use the ILS. Students are not provided with equal opportunities to use the ILS. Students are not given the opportunity to apply the material learnt in a meaningful way. ILSs prevents the development of higher-order thinking skills. Management system does not always place students at the appropriate level.


TEACHING WITH INTEGRATED LEARNING SYSTEMS Cooperative Use of Integrated Learning Systems: Personal relationships and affective learning can not take place by ILS, due to that researchers began to investigate the effects of using a cooperative learning model with ILSs. Some studies concerning to the use of ILSs cooperatively have shown that using such a strategy facilitated mathematics performance more than using the system individually. Integrating cooperative learning with ILSs is an effective instructional strategy since students have a strong need to interact with others during the learning process.


USING ILSs FOR PRACTICE AND TO SUPPORT TEACHING AND LEARNING ILSs Curriculum and the Power of Educational Technology The use of educational technology to support curriculum that emphasizes learning outcomes or products against the use of educational technology to help transform curricular practice into a view of learning that emphasizes the processes associated with learning and thinking. Teaching with technology other than ILSs and skill-based programmes presents teachers with opportunities to design learning experiences for students that differ substantially from the traditionally product approach.


REFERENCES Book of: Multimedia for effective teaching Ash, L. E. (2000). Electronic student portfolios. Arlington Heights, IL: Skylight Training and Publishing, Inc. Carroll, J. A. & Witherspoon, T. L. (2002). Linking technology and curriculum: Integrating the ISTE NETS standards into teaching and learning (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc./Merrill Prentice Hall. Cunningham, C. A. & Billingsley, M. (2003). Curriculum webs: A practical guide to weaving the web into teaching and learning. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc. Roblyer, M. D. (2003). Integrating educational technology into teaching (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc./Merrill Prentice Hall. Schipper, B. & Rossi, J. (1997). Portfolios in the classroom: Tools for learning and instruction. York, ME: Stenhouse Publishers.


Benefits of using multimedia in the teaching learning process  

This book states the richness that multimedia provides to learning and teaching.

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