Before, During, and After Reading (BDA)
BDA is a reading-thinking strategy that utilizes a graphic organizer. BDA helps students to make predictions and/or define purposes for reading, to read and select relevant information during reading, and to evaluate, confirm, or revise predictions after reading. Resouces: Anticipation Guide blm/ela/g/anticipation guide SBLM Before, During, and After Reading Strategies: Self-Reflection-Middle Years ela/g/elablm17 SBLM Before-During-After Map /ela/g/elablm74 SBLM Comprehension Focus (Before, During, and After Reading) blm/ela/g/elablm6 TBLM Comprehension Strategies for Narrative Text blm/ela/g/elablm76 SBLM Reading Strategies-Student Monitoring Sheet blm/ela/g/elablm8 SBLM Retelling elablm/ela/g/elablm75 SBLM Strategies for Construction Meaning (Metacognitive Reading Inventory) blm/ela/g/elablm90 SBLM
- [Statement] In order to plan for instruction and assessment think about your learners' needs and your goal. What is your purpose for using BDA? [Cluster] - [Statement] To clarify and extend understanding (Clarify and Extend- Cluster 1.2): Students combine ideas about a given text before reading using a BDA Map. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate ability to explore prior knowledge (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- Cluster 2.1): Students use &lsquoB' section of BDA to activate prior knowledge of concepts expected in text before they read. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate ability to use strategies and cues (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- Cluster 2.1): Students use the &lsquoD' processes in BDA while they read. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate responses to texts (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- Cluster 2.2): Students employ the &lsquoA' strategies in BDA to explain similarities and differences in texts read. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate responses to texts (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- Cluster 2.2): Students employ a BDA Map to structure responses to texts. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate understanding of forms and genres (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- cluster 2.3): Students use the &lsquoD' strategies in BDA while reading to determine the genre of text. [Cluster] - [Statement] To demonstrate understanding of techniques and elements used by authors (Comprehending: Reading/Listening/Viewing- Cluster 2.3): Students use the &lsquoD' strategies in BDA while reading to find techniques and elements used in texts. [Cluster]
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- [Statement] To demonstrate ability to gather, assess, and process information (Gather and Make Sense of Information- Cluster 3.2): Students use organizational text patterns to make sense of information using a variation of a BDA Map. [Cluster] Specific Learning Outcomes LICT Descriptors How To Do
- Before: Step 1 Select reading material and predetermine three or four logical stopping points in the text. Provide each student with a copy of the selection or use a large-format book. - Before: Step 2 Focus student attention on the title, author, and illustrations. Allow students time to peruse the text or slowly peruse a large-format text together. - Before: Step 3 Predict and set a purpose for reading. Ask the students questions to develop predictions about the characters, setting, and plot by asking W5 questions such as: What do you think a story with this title might be about? Why? Who are the people or characters in the story? When does the story take place? Where does the story take place? What is the problem in the story? - Before: Step 4 Encourage discussion by asking, "With which of these predictions do you agree? Why?" - Before: Step 5 Record the title, author, and predictions beside B under each of the story elements on the BDA Map. Consider enlarging map on chart paper. - During: Step 1 Have students silently read the first segment of the story. Students turn their books face down, or close their books, when they have finished reading the first section. - During: Step 2 Begin comprehension check by asking: Were your predictions correct? What do you think now? What in the selection makes you say that? What do you think will happen now? Why? - During: Step 3 Record the revised predictions in another colour beside D under each of the story element headings on the BDA map. If no revisions were necessary, then simply put a check to indicate that the predictions were confirmed. Or, if further evidence is required before confirming or rejecting the original prediction, leave the space blank until new information is gleaned from the story. - During: Step 4 Continue the predicting-reading-proving cycle until the selection is completed. - After: Step 1 Review the predictions that were made before the reading of the selection began and check: Were they confirmed, revised, or rejected? If not, students explain why predictions had to be changed. Record any new information beside A on the BDA map. - After: Step 2 Discuss: How was this story similar to other stories the students may have read? How was this story similar/unlike other stories the students may have read by the same author? What was their favourite part? Why? If they were the main character, then what would they have done differently/the same? - After: Step 3 Have students retell the story in their own words, using the BDA
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map as a guide so that all elements are included. Scribe the retelling or have students write independently. Encourage the use of signal words. Related Information
Model and provide guided practice using the BDA map and directed reading procedure Read the text to EAL students who may have limited English language skills. Through active listening, students with EAL can learn what to expect from narratives and increase their facility with language, which transfers to reading. Concept mapping software may be utilized to record the information provided by the students.
Anticipation Guide Before reading a selection, listening to a presentation, or viewing a film, students respond to several statements that will support or challenge their prior knowledge about the subject. Link to file Critical Viewing of Media Use the BDA map to promote active viewing before, during, and after watching videos or films. Link to file Pre-Reading Question Strips Use Pre-reading Questions Strips to help students access prior knowledge and to confirm comprehension. Link to file Sketching/Imaging Have students use illustrations, instead of written text, to represent their ideas on the BDA map. Link to file
Assessment / Think Abouts
Observe students';discussion about their reasons for predictions and proof they found in text. Record focused observations to determine students';degree of participation, evidence of inferential reasoning skills, listening skills, and ability to use BDA independently when reading unfamiliar text.Focused Observation Form blm/ela/kg/blm_5 TBLMFocused Observation Form Sample blm/ela/g/blm_5a TI Conference with students using their completed BDA maps to clarify misunderstandings and to discuss how their predictions enhance comprehension.
- The Diagnostic Learning Centre. Before, During, and After Reading: BDA. Winnipeg, MB: The Winnipeg School Division No. 1, undated.
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