When we report the exact words someone says or writes. Kerry told Julia, “James is so nice…” James is so nice...
When we report something that has been said or written. “Kerry told me that you were so nice…” Julia said to James. Kerry told me that you were so nice...
When we report a statement or a question we use reporting verbs. Such as: said, told, asked, promised…
VERB CHANGES DIRECT SPEECH PRESENT SIMPLE “I work very long hours”, Helen said PRESENT CONTINUOUS “We are writing a postcard”, Tom said PAST SIMPLE “Carol worked as a secretary”, Jim said to me PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE “Frank has been to USA twice”, Bob said PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS “We have been cooking all morning”, Chris said FUTURE “WILL” Tom said, “I won’t win the match” FUTURE “BE GOING TO” “They are going to travel next week” He said CAN “We can’t speak German” Flora said MUST “You must take off your shoes”, The girl said to me MAY “I may arrive late”, The boss said
REPORTED SPEECH PAST SIMPLE Helen said (that) she worked very long hours PAST CONTINUOUS Tom said (that) they were writing a postcard PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Jim said to me (that) Carol had worked as a secretary PAST PERFECT SIMPLE Bob said (that) Frank had been to USA twice PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS Chis said (that) they had been cooking all morning CONDITIONAL “WOULD” Tom said (that) he wouldn’t win the match FUTURE “WAS/WERE GOING TO” He said (that) they were going to travel the following week COULD Flora said (that) they couldn’t speak German HAD TO The girl said to me (that) I had to take off my shoes MIGHT The boss said (that) he might arrive late
Verbs in the PAST CONTINUOUS, PAST PERFECT, USED TO, WOULD, SHOULD, COULD and MIGHT do not change Ex. “He had been missing for several months”, she said She said he had been missing for several months. “We were playing cards when he arrived”, I said I said we were playing cards when he arrived. “You should tell him the truth”, He said He said I should tell him the truth
OTHER CHANGES DIRECT SPEECH now today / tonight tomorrow yesterday this (morning) last (week) next (month) ago here this / that
INDIRECT SPEECH then, at that moment that (day / night) the next day / the following day the day before / the previous day that (morning) the (week) before / the previous (week) the following (month) before there the
REPORTED STATEMENTS REPORTING VERB + (THAT) + CLAUSE Ex. “I took the money” she said She said that she had taken the money.
REPORTED “YES/NO” QUESTIONS When there is no question word in the direct speech, we use “IF / WHETHER” The word order is the same as in the statements. REPORTING VERB + IF / WHETHER + SUBJECT + VERB The verb tense and other changes are the same as for other types of reported speech Ex. “Are you going to Peter’s party?” she asked me She asked me IF I was going to Peter’s party.
REPORTED “WH-” QUESTIONS Where Question Word is used in the direct speech, the Question Word is also used in reported speech. The word order is the same as in the statements. REPORTING VERB + QUESTION WORD + SUBJECT + VERB The verb tense and other changes are the same as for other types of reported speech Ex. “What’s your favourite colour?” she asked him She asked me WHAT his favourite colour was.
REPORTED ORDERS REPORTING VERB + OBJECT + TO INFINITIVE. Ex. “Go to the shops and get some tea”, she told me She told me to go to the shops and get some tea. Negative imperatives or orders are made with “NOT” before the infinitive Ex. “Don’t smoke in this room” she told him She told him NOT to smoke in that room.
REPORTED SUGGESTIONS There are 3 differents ways to express a suggestion. SUGGEST + V-ing SUGGEST + THAT + SUBJECT + SHOULD + INFINITIVE (without TO) SUGGEST + SUBJECT + PAST SIMPLE Ex. “Let’s have a surprise party for Ellie”, she suggested She suggested having a surprise party for Ellie She suggested that we should have a surprise party for Ellie She suggested we had a surprise party for Ellie
REPORTING VERBS VERB + OBJECT + INFINITIVE (advise, ask, beg, encourage, order, persuade, remind, warn) “Why don’t you take up a new sport?” She encouraged me to take up a new sport. VERB + THAT + CLAUSE (claim, admit, say, explain, promise) “I won’t do it again” She promised me that she wouldn’t do it again. VERB + OBJECT + (THAT) + CLAUSE (tell, remind, warn) “Remember that you work for a big company” He reminded us that we were working for a big company. VERB + GERUND (admit, deny, suggest, recommend) “I lied to the teacher” She admitted lying to the teacher VERB + PREPOSITION + GERUND (accuse of, apologize for, blame for, congratulate on, insist on) “I’m sorry to be so rude” He apologized for being so rude VERB + INFINITIVE (agree, decide, offer, promise, refuse, threaten) “Let’s meet again in September” We agreed to meet again in September