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PAU 10 Practice Exams for Catalunya Based on the 2005 exam format


This document has been prepared by the ELT Department of Oxford University Press España. The overall marking scheme and the format of the reading comprehension questions for each exam, is based on the guidelines posted in 2005 on the ―Web de la Generalitat de Catalunya‖ (http://www10.gencat.net/dursi/ca/un/pau_logse_angl.htm). The main difference with respect to the 2004 exam is that: 1) There are now four options for each multiple choice question. 2) Marks are now taken away for wrong answers.

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Contents

Page Prova 1 The effects of jet lag

2

Prova 2 The best time of your life

4

Prova 3 Seeing the world before university

6

Prova 4 Internet shopping

8

Prova 5 Car Wars

10

Prova 6 Radio Tarifa

12

Prova 7 The language instinct

14

Prova 8 Close encounters of the fishy kind

16

Prova 9 London to Cape Town on a bike

18

Prova 10 Smoking in Japan

20

Prova 11 The new face of slave labour

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Prova 12 A good reaction, but will it last?

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Prova 13 In two minds about therapy

26

Prova 14 Space travel!

28

Prova 15 Robot’s rights?

30

Prova 16 An unusual World Cup

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Answer Key

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Prova 1 The effects of jet lag Recently, Tony Blair flew 26,000 miles in three weeks. General Haig, when he was American Secretary of State, once travelled 30,000 miles in two weeks. As well as describing the delicate nature of their diplomatic missions, commentators also speculated on how a person could possibly stand such a punishing schedule. Persistent jet lag1 is the most obvious problem since the circadian rhythm – the changes that occur in a person‘s body throughout a 24-to-25 hour cycle – is affected by crossing time zones. Blair and Haig had the advantage of having irregular lifestyles and jobs, since jet lag is much worse for anyone who is tied to a daily routine and is obsessive about the clock–someone, for instance, who must have their breakfast at 8am, their lunch at 1pm and their dinner at 8pm. It is hardly surprising, then, that people who have to travel, but always go to bed at the same time and need a precise amount of sleep, are the group who suffer the most severe jet lag. Age is also an important factor. Children are much less likely to suffer jet lag than adults, while the elderly are more at risk of being thrown into physical and mental confusion. The symptoms of jet lag are well known and they affect both the body and the mind. If they occurred when there was no obvious explanation for them, travellers might be forgiven for thinking that they were sick with some dreadful disease. ‗Mental‘ symptoms of jet lag include tiredness, combined with a lack of energy, enthusiasm and concentration. People also suffer feelings of disorientation, irritability and sometimes a sense of lack of reality. Westward journeys induce less jet lag than eastward flights. This is partly because travelling west disrupts the circadian rhythms of many travellers less and partly because it is easier to sleep when you travel in the same direction as the sun. For this reason, tough negotiators always try to travel west, so that they have the advantage of alertness and mental agility after a good night‘s sleep. Of course, it is not just the psyche2 that suffers. Physically, it is usually the gastrointestinal tract which is most affected, and people often lose their appetite. Other symptoms include the stomach seizing up, indigestion (even before trying the local cuisine!) and, of course, constipation. This can only partly be blamed on the dehydration that everybody experiences when flying. Drinking a lot of water is recommended as it keeps the body hydrated and helps the stomach. Are there any long-term ill-effects of jet lag? While there is evidence that shift workers suffer long-term effects from a disrupted sleep rhythm, the accepted view is that once life returns to normal, the ordinary traveller recovers. However, studies also indicate that pilots and other airline staff who regularly fly long distances across time zones may possibly suffer long-term effects. The moral of all this seems clear: if you have to go on a long-haul flight, try to travel west, and drink plenty of water! Vocabulary 1 jet lag cansament provocat pel canvi horari/fatiga provocada por el cambio horario 2 psyche psique

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Jet lag… is more of a risk for old people.  is particularly dangerous for children. affects all ages in the same way. is very dangerous for travellers.

1. a) b) c) d)

Commentators… have contemplated how politicians can put up with such demanding timetables. have reflected on the instability of politicians‘ timetables. have paid no attention to the political aspect of diplomatic missions. have questioned how diplomats can stay on their feet for such a long time.

2. a) b) c) d)

People who suffer least from jet lag are… old people. people without fixed routines. adults. people who need the same amount of sleep each day.

3. a) b) c) d)

Jet lag can… increase the traveller‘s enthusiasm. increase the traveller‘s alertness. result in increased energy. cause confusion in the traveller.

4. a) b) c) d)

Negotiators aim to travel west in order to… save time. follow the direction of the sun. save money. sleep well.

5. a) b) c) d)

‗Tough‘ (underlined in paragraph 4) means: experienced. determined. intelligent. inflexible.

6. a) b) c) d)

Symptoms of jet lag include… feeling hungry. feeling sick. dehydration. coughs and colds.

7. a) b) c) d)

For the ordinary traveller jet lag… causes indigestion. causes health problems. is not a health hazard. causes long-term sleeping problems.

8. a) b) c) d)

On a long flight the effects of jet lag can be reduced by… avoiding water. drinking water. eating very little. eating plenty of food.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. ‗I hate travelling, I like to spend my holidays in one place.‘ Write an essay saying if you agree with this opinion. 2. How has air travel changed the way people spend their holidays?

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Prova 2 The best time of your life? Deciding which university to attend is not just about educational factors. There is also the difficult question of the cost of rented accommodation. Money for students is now so tight that debt-limitation has become a key degree skill, and rent levels have become a significant factor in the choice of institution. Although many universities guarantee accommodation for first-years, the days when students could live on campus for the whole of their course are gone. With the exception of students at a few of the richer Oxford and Cambridge colleges, undergraduates will, at some stage, be part of the private rental market. Even those students who manage to secure a place in university halls of residence face big price rises. Over the past year, the average weekly rent has increased by nearly 8 per cent. One survey shows that the price of university accommodation varies widely: from £27 a week for self-catering at Staffordshire, to more than £120 a week for the most luxurious, catered accommodation at King‘s College, London. Over a threeyear course, based on a 31-week year, the saving for a Staffordshire student amounts to a staggering1 £8,649. The National Union of Students (NUS) estimates the average overall cost of accommodation is £55.54 a week outside London, £69.98 in outer London, and £79.18 for inner London. In the private rented sector, the average weekly rent for a shared house is £48.45—a rise of 5.3 per cent over the past year. A recent study discovered the extent to which the cost of accommodation weighs on undergraduates2. On average, they said their monthly rent accounted for 57 per cent of their expenditure. In some areas, up to 80 per cent of a student‘s income will be spent on accommodation. This is a huge amount when we consider that the average house mortgage3 accounts for just 14 per cent of earnings. Unbelievable though it seems, students are generally having to spend between 40-65 % more on a place to live than the average working person. Owain James, the NUS president, offers some practical advice to hard-pressed students: ‗They should visit the accommodation offices to find out how much accommodation is available and how much it costs. Secondly, if they are entering the private rental market, they should contact the student union for advice. They should also check both the market and contract conditions. Finally, they certainly shouldn‘t rush into anything—they risk taking something that is a long way from the lecture halls, or may be more expensive than necessary.‘ He adds that increasing numbers of poorer students are being forced to stay at home because they simply cannot afford to live away. ‗This is restricting their choice of institution and course, not because of their academic ability, but because they do not have rich parents.‘

Vocabulary 1 staggering 2 undergraduates 3 mortgage

sorprenent, impressionant/sorprendente, asombroso estudiants universitaris/estudiantes universitarios hipoteca

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following statements about accommodation is correct? University accommodation is usually quite cheap. It is cheaper to live nearer the centre of London than outside London. In general there is a great variety in the cost of university accommodation.  Rented accommodation is always an expensive option.

1. a) b) c) d)

When choosing a university, students should… think about how much a flat or house will cost them each month. consider only the course they wish to study. consider the cost of university fees. think about tax rates.

2. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following is now as important as a student‘s ability to study at university? Choosing the right course. Choosing the right place to study. Being able to manage money well. Key skills.

3. a) b) c) d)

Many students can rely on having somewhere to live… unless they study in Oxford and Cambridge. at the beginning of their course. during all the time they are at university. if they are rich and come from either Oxford or Cambridge.

4. a) b) c) d)

Students who have a place in university accommodation… will have to pay considerably more money than the students did the year before. will be safe. will be able to manage at university. are protected from rent rises.

5. a) b) c) d)

For a student, the cost per month of renting a house or flat is… as expensive as buying a house. the same as buying a house. less than buying a house. more than buying a house.

6. a) b) c) d)

‗Hard-pressed‘ (underlined in paragraph 5) means: with a lot of work. in a rush. affluent. with little money.

7. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, what should students do to try to avoid accommodation problems? Students should rent accommodation far from the university. Students should take their time before they choose their accommodation. Students should try to live in private rented accommodation. Students should choose a university near their home.

8. a) b) c) d)

Many students decide to go to a university near their home… because their parents don‘t have very much money. because their parents have a lot of money. because of their academic ability. to avoid travelling a lot.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. Is it better to live at home or on campus when you are at university? Give your opinion. 2. Write a letter to a newspaper giving your opinion on the price of student accommodation.

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Prova 3 Seeing the world before university Images of Prince William cleaning lavatories in Chile during his gap year 1 have given a new angle to volunteer work and environmental projects. Many more gapyear travellers, who once would simply have trailed around the bars of Australia or the beaches of Thailand, are now signing up for projects such as ditch-digging in rural Africa, bridge-building in South America or teaching in India. ‗Applications are at their highest level for five years,‘ says Ollie Mack, of Raleigh International, an organisation which runs many volunteer projects. Another factor that has contributed to the rise in volunteer work is the increased number of companies offering this type of experience. ‗People used to worry that they would be dropped in the middle of Africa and left there to get on with it,‘ says Tom Griffiths, founder of the website gapyear.com. ‗But now there are a lot of responsible companies with brochures and websites.‘ About 10,000 people take part in environmental projects each year, but the fashion for ‗travelling to do good‘ needs to be focused to be effective. ‗People need to be committed and understand what it entails and what responsibilities they and the project have,‘ says Nick Hartley, operations manager at Student Partnerships Worldwide (SPW). ‗Some people think they can go in, do the odd bit of teaching and then head off backpacking2. This type of attitude contributes nothing to the local community.‘ In an attempt to set standards for overseas projects, 20 established volunteer organisations have set up the Year Out Group. ‗As the market increases, there is the prospect of cowboys3 creeping in,‘ says Michael Amphlet, founder of Quest, which has programmes in South America and Africa. The market may be increasing, but numbers remain small. Quest takes 130 volunteers to South America each year and 60 to Africa; SPW takes 250 to sites in Asia and Africa. The cost of the trips may also keep volunteers away—three months away can cost as much as £3,000, a daunting amount for many students to raise. The work is hard and the funding hard to find, so what is the motivation for volunteering? ‗It sounds clichéd, but I just wanted to help people. A year abroad in one place means really getting to know the people and becoming involved in the community,‘ says Aidan Silver, 16, from Wales. Helping people is not the only benefit, as another volunteer explained, ‗I really enjoyed it and think I matured a lot‘. Living and working away from home clearly helps young people to become more independent. And, of course, volunteer work looks good on the CV 4employers look favourably on candidates who have done this kind of trip. ‗Five years ago, employers would ask if you took a gap year, and be impressed if you said yes,‘ says Tom Griffiths. ‗Now they ask what you did in your gap year.‘ Backpacking and bar jobs are no longer good enough. Vocabulary 1 gap year 2

backpacking cowboy 4 CV 3

any sabàtic que s‘agafa abans d‘entrar a la universitat/año sabático entre el instituto y la universidad excursionisme/excursionismo no professional/no profesional currículum vitae

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

How has the way gap-year travellers spend their year off changed? Many of them now go to Africa. A lot of them prefer to work in companies now. They tend to prefer voluntary work rather than just long holidays.  There has been no change in the way travellers spend their gap year.

1. a) b) c) d)

Seeing a member of the royal family doing voluntary work… has changed the image of voluntary work. was good news for Chile. has encouraged people to work in bars and visit beaches. reinforced old ideas of volunteer work.

2. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following statements about voluntary work is correct? Volunteer numbers have remained stable. Voluntary work is well paid. A lot of people now do gap-year voluntary work. The number of people doing gap-year voluntary work is increasing.

3. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following is true about companies that organise voluntary work projects? They produce a lot of brochures. There are not very many companies of this type nowadays. They provide information and support for the volunteer. The number of companies has dropped.

4. a) b) c) d)

When taking part in voluntary projects… participants are free to go off backpacking. participants should be fully aware of what the work involves. participants mustn‘t get involved with the people in the community they are working in. participants should travel and work in schools.

5. a) b) c) d)

The Year Out Group aims to… provide information about cowboys. remain small. establish and maintain a certain level of quality in the area of voluntary work. reduce costs for volunteers.

6. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, which of the following is true about gap-year voluntary work? Participants are never out of pocket. The trips are expensive because not many people participate. Participants can make a lot of money. The cost puts people off participating.

7. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, people like doing voluntary work because… it is motivating. they find it rewarding to help people. it is more interesting than working in a bar. they can travel around lots of different places.

8. a) b) c) d)

Companies prefer to employ people who… have worked as a volunteer in their year out. have gone straight to university. have not taken a year out. have travelled and worked.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. Describe what you would do if you could take a gap year before going to university. 2. You want to take part in a voluntary project. Write an application letter to a company that organises this type of trip explaining why you would like to participate in the scheme.

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Prova 4 Internet shopping More and more people are staying at home and doing their shopping by Internet. However, a new survey of Internet shopping sites has concluded that some e-commerce companies have a lot to learn about customer service. The survey reveals that the Internet shopping experience is extremely variable, and that the levels of customer service do not always match the bold promises made on attractive websites. Many small businesses come out of the survey very well, the best delivering goods within 24 hours and offering a 30-day returns policy. ‗However, large businesses generally delivered a disappointing level of service, particularly in cases where they relied upon independent courier companies,‘ according to the report. ‗Late or nondelivery of goods was a typical problem, with many companies failing to track goods to ensure delivery, thus leaving consumers to spend additional time and money chasing their goods.‘ Some 38% of orders did not arrive on time, and 17% did not arrive at all. The findings include one firm which took credit card details and then disappeared, and a vitamin supplement supplier whose site was not secure and who breached security by e-mailing credit card details. The slow growth of Internet shopping is attributed in the report to the reluctance of consumers to send sensitive financial information in electronic messages, and to the fear that the companies would not exist. However, in reality indifference to customer service and poor procedures are far more common than criminal activities by an electronic mafia. ‗This survey highlights some of the possible problems consumers and businesses might experience,‘ said David Sibbert, chief trading standards officer for the county1 of Oxfordshire. ‗I am pleased that many businesses are trying to get it right, but there are still too many Internet traders who are either not aware of their obligations to their customers or, worse still, don‘t care. My officers will continue to monitor trade on the Internet and, as shown in the past, will not hesitate to take firm legal action when it is necessary.‘ Local enforcement will be helped by new European legislation which came into force in October. This legislation will help to protect consumers who buy on the Internet. It stipulates that websites must include the name of the company, a full description of the goods or services offered, prices including taxes and delivery charges. In addition, companies must offer cancellation rights up to seven working days after delivery of goods. It is predicted that good Internet shopping providers will flourish and poor ones will go bankrupt. So, in the end, the secret of success in business on line and off line is very much the same. Vocabulary 1 county

comtats/condados

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Why aren’t more people shopping on the web? Because there is a bad level of customer service. Because few people have Internet access at home. Because people are afraid to send sensitive information over the web.  Because there is not a wide enough variety of goods available.

1. a) b) c) d)

Promises made on websites are… very attractive. sometimes not realistic. written in large black letters. always fulfilled.

2. a) b) c) d)

Large companies came out worse than small companies in the survey because… the product was more expensive. customers had to collect their own goods. couriers got lost. the product often did not arrive.

3. a) b) c) d)

Credit card fraud… is disappearing. is the customer‘s fault. is common when buying health products. is mentioned in the survey.

4. a) b) c) d)

According to the survey, on the Internet there are: more cases of bad customer service than poor procedure. more cases of bad customer service than criminal activities. more cases of electronic mafia than bad customer service. as many cases of bad customer service as electronic mafia.

5. a) b) c) d)

Dave Sibbert… does not oblige companies to work in a certain way. doesn‘t care about what happens on the Internet. is encouraged by the way some companies work. is encouraged by all internet companies.

6. a) b) c) d)

Trading standards officers… are obliged by customers to prosecute companies. never take legal action. follow companies‘ activities on the Internet. wait for customers to complain.

7. a) b) c) d)

New legislation… will hinder local enforcement. means websites do not have to provide information about prices. will start next October. aims to look after customers‘ interests.

8. a) b) c) d)

What is the view expressed about on line companies? A good on-line company should be as successful as a good off-line company. On-line and off-line companies have different reasons for success. Good on-line companies should be more successful than off-line companies. More on-line companies than off-line companies go bankrupt.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. Write about the advantages and disadvantages of Internet shopping. 2. You have had problems trying to buy a product from a company on the Internet. Write a letter to a newspaper describing the problems you have experienced.

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Prova 5 Car Wars As more than 23 million people took to their cars this weekend, transport chiefs unveiled a series of plans designed to force people out of their cars and on to public transport. In 50 towns and cities, from Edinburgh to Exeter, bus drivers will be given remote controls to change traffic lights to green so that they can take priority over cars. Thousands of new bus lanes will also be introduced, and the government has said it will help implement schemes for making motorists pay to enter city centres. The initiatives have provoked an outcry from motoring organisations, who called them ‗drastic‘. Kevin Delaney, a spokesman for the Royal Automobile Club, warned that the moves ‗alienated‘ motorists. ‗Motorists feel there is a war against them,‘ he said, adding that they were being penalised and forced out of their cars without a viable alternative. Nigel Humphries, of the pro-car British Drivers Association, said, ‗These are negative measures to obstruct the private motorist. The majority of people have little choice about how they travel, and they are being penalised.‘ He said speed cameras, bus priority measures and congestion charging in London and other cities added up to a war against the car—with government support in the form of extra money for councils which give buses priority. This opposition does not appear to be influencing transport leaders. Faced with a doubling of car use over the last two decades, they are determined to introduce measures that will enable buses to move faster. These latest initiatives are in reality a desperate measure to reduce the increasing congestion in British cities. Until now, the Government had tried to discourage car use by imposing a higher tax on petrol, but this has done nothing to combat congestion in cities, partly because the cost of motoring is the same now as 25 years ago, while bus fares have increased by 80 per cent. Although car driving is relatively cheap, it has obvious drawbacks: drivers in large urban areas now spend a third of their time driving at below 5mph, and over the last five years the speed of traffic in the rush hour has fallen by about 20 per cent. The government estimates that the volume of traffic will rise by a fifth in the next 10 years, making it one of the fastest-growing sources of pollution. Reducing the use of the car and increasing the use of public transport is central to the government‘s plans to meet its targets in reducing emissions of greenhouse gases 1. One can only hope that the new measures being introduced are more effective than past attempts to reduce the volume of city traffic. Vocabulary 1 greenhouse gases

gasos responsables de l‘efecte hivernacle/gases responsables del efecto invernadero

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. Traffic problems in cities… a) have been solved by a new tax. b) have not been reduced by a higher petrol tax.  c) have been solved by introducing cheaper bus fares. d) Have been made worse by a war on cars. 1. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, new plans mean that… cars will have as much priority as buses. traffic lights will automatically change to green for buses. people will be forced out of their cars. bus drivers will have an element of control over traffic flow in the city centre

2. a) b) c) d)

New government plans… have caused a lot of opposition from the car lobby. have started a price war. include building more buses. have been welcomed by the car lobby.

3. a) b) c) d)

Motorists feel… forced to stop using their cars. that speed cameras give priority to buses. forced to get out of their cars and use public transport. that there are feasible options at their disposal.

4. a) b) c) d)

The real reason that the government has introduced new plans is… to make traffic move faster. to slow down the rise in traffic in cities. to make more money from taxes. to promote public transport.

5. a) b) c) d)

Past efforts to reduce the amount of traffic in the city have failed, partly because… the government used to encourage private transport. of a petrol tax. the price of using the car has changed a great deal over the years. bus tickets are too expensive.

6. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following best describes the present situation? Nowadays the average speed of traffic in cities is slower than in the past. Rush-hour traffic moves more quickly now than five years ago. Drivers in cities spend over half their time driving very slowly. Drivers spend a fifth of their time driving very slowly.

7. a) b) c) d)

The government needs to reduce the use of the car… to win the green vote. in order to put public transport at the centre of transport issues. so that it can meet environmental objectives. to decongest roads.

8. a) b) c) d)

The author of the text… thinks that past attempts were more realistic. thinks that the new measures are more effective than past attempts. wants the plans to succeed. thinks that the plans will succeed.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. My favourite way to travel. 2. Write a letter to a newspaper giving your opinion on the issues in the article Car Wars.

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Prova 6 Radio Tarifa We meet in the Casa Lucía, a typical bar in a nondescript back-street of a workingclass area in Madrid. Standing at the bar is Faín S. Dueñas, a man in his midforties. An architect by training, he is now the leader of the group Radio Tarifa, one of the glories of the world music scene, whose alchemical sounds span centuries, cultures and continents, from the sultry passions of Spanish flamenco to the mysterious, ancient rhythms of a Moorish casbah1. Spain has a long history of Christian, Jewish and Arabic cultures co-existing together more or less peacefully, and it is this centuries-old melting pot2 that is celebrated in the evocative music of Radio Tarifa. Dueñas explains that Tarifa, which lends the group its name, is itself a real enough place, a dusty, sun-baked town on the southernmost tip of Spain at the edge of Europe, where the call of North Africa drifts across the sea. Tarifa is a place where worlds meet–Iberia and Morocco, Christianity and Islam, ancient and modern–a location that is the perfect symbol for the swirling combination of influences that is Radio Tarifa‘s music. Dueñas proceeds to give me a lecture about the history and impact of Arabic culture in Spain since it arrived via North Africa over a thousand years ago. We walk to the group‘s studio over the road, situated in the same courtyard as an immigration advice centre. Alongside the mixing desk and electric guitars in the studio, the room is full of weird and wonderfully exotic Arabic instruments: ouds and neys and tambours and derbukas3. The group‘s core trio of Dueñas, multi-instrumentalist Vincent Molino and singer Benjamín Escoriza, came together in Madrid ten years ago through a shared fascination with the unique cross-pollination4 of Jewish, Moorish and Christian cultures which has created modern Spain. ‗We used to play in a group making medieval music, but we wanted to make music that was alive, not a museum piece. We started studying flamenco and then Arabic music. Now we use a lot of electric guitar, which makes the music seem more modern,‘ Dueñas says. To illustrate the blend, he plays a song they have recorded that afternoon for their next album. First we hear the tracks of the individual instruments, then he plays the mix. The result is magical. ‗Sounds are like colours for us, and there are no ugly colours. It‘s a matter of how you mix them together,‘ he says. ‗Radio Tarifa is not folk music or rock music or ancient or modern or Arabic or European. It‘s all of them … and none of them.‘

Vocabulary 1 casbah 2 melting pot 3 ouds, neys, tambours, derbukas 4

cross-pollination

mercat/mercado entorn multicultural/entorno multicultural instruments musicals àrabs/instrumentos musicales árabes barreja/mezcla

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following is true about the group? The trio mainly play medieval music. They prefer to use Arabic instruments. They used to play together in another group.  The group usually meets in the Casa Lucia

1. a) b) c) d)

The street where the Casa Lucía bar is situated… is busy. is not special. is not very easy to find. is full of workers from the area.

2. a) b) c) d)

The sound of Radio Tarifa… comes from one particular century. has its roots in one country. is influenced by chemistry. has a wide variety of influences.

3. a) b) c) d)

The town of Tarifa is an ideal symbol for Radio Tarifa because… it is not special. it is near North Africa. like the music, it combines many different elements. it is very hot and sunny.

4. a) b) c) d)

The mixing studio… is a very strange building. is also a place where immigrants go for help. is not far from the bar. is on the same side of the street as the bar.

5. Radio Tarifa … a) has 3 members who specialise in certain instruments. b) has 3 main members as well as other contributors. c) has just 3 members. d) consists of people who come from Madrid. 6. a) b) c) d)

The group… usually play medieval music. met at university when studying music. are interested in preserving medieval music. are interested in Spain‘s cultural roots.

7. a) b) c) d)

Radio Tarifa… use many colours on the cover of their albums. believe that all sounds are attractive. like mixing colours. think that some sounds are uglier than others.

8. a) b) c) d)

The group… always use the electric guitar. use the electric guitar on rare occasions. have no particular favourite sound. are influenced more by Arabic than European music.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. You have just been to see a concert by your favourite artist/group. Write a letter to a friend describing your experience. 2. Modern music is not as good as classical music. Give your opinion.

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Prova 7 The language instinct The language instinct was first noted in 1871 by the great naturalist, Charles Darwin, who witnessed this distinctive tendency ‗in the babble1 of our young children‘, adding that no child, in contrast, ‗has an instinctive tendency to bake, brew2 or write‘. Today, Darwin‘s observation has just been supported in a way he could not have dreamed of, with the discovery of a gene that, when mutated, disrupts both speech and language. The discovery marks nothing less than a milestone3 in understanding this uniquely human characteristic and will help scientists to understand the underlying cause of a spectrum of language disorders, and, consequently, to develop effective treatments. The first clue to the discovery came from the way a severe speech and language disorder was passed down through three generations of a London family. Half of this 30-strong family have great problems with articulations which affect both the structure and content of speech. They are so incapable of co-ordinating their mouth and facial movements that people unfamiliar with the family find it difficult, if not impossible, to understand what they are saying. Three generations of the family also have difficulties with grammar and phonemes–the smallest unit of sound necessary for speech, divided into vowels and consonants. Yet the non-verbal skills of some of them are average, showing that the problem is not with their general intelligence. The final breakthrough in the discovery came when scientists found an unrelated young British man who had a similar speech problem. They managed to isolate a mixed chromosome at the location of the gene, thus enabling the gene to be identified. The name of the offending gene is the rather complicated SPCH1. The next step in the research process is to study how SPCH1 does its job, in order to provide a molecular understanding of how speech and language emerge during child development. As the discoverers of SPCH1 explain in their journal 4: ‗SPCH1 cannot act alone, it will need to co-operate with other genes and proteins. Its identification gives us a key to unlocking the molecular mysteries of this most human of characteristics. It is extraordinary to think that we have now got an entry point into understanding one of the most important features that distinguish us from other animals.‘

Vocabulary 1 babble 2 brew 3 milestone 4 journal

balbucejar/bablucear elaborar cervesa o infusions/elaborar cerveza o infusions fita/hito diari/diario

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following best describes the London family? The London family all have the same speech disorder. Many of the London family members also have non-verbal problems. The speech disorder has affected several generations of the family.  Only a few of the existing generation suffer from speech problems.

1. a) b) c) d)

Charles Darwin noted that children… have a natural instinct to cook. have a natural instinct to try to talk. have a natural instinct to write. have no innate desire to talk.

2. a) b) c) d)

Darwin… recorded children‘s behaviour. would have supported genetic research. dreamed of discovering genes. carried out research on language learning.

3. a) b) c) d)

The discovery of the new gene… contradicts Darwin‘s observations. means scientists will have a better understanding of our characters. will make it easier for scientists to discover the real reason for many language problems. affects our speech and language.

4. a) b) c) d)

The disorder means that the London family… are uncoordinated. have problems with the joints of their body. cannot be understood easily. express themselves with ease.

5. a) b) c) d)

Examining a young British man complicated the situation for the scientists. was the final breakdown. was unrelated to similar speech problems. allowed scientists to discover the gene responsible for the language disorder.

6. a) b) c) d)

Following the discovery of the gene, scientists must… study speech and language. now look carefully at the way it functions. not leave it to act alone. find a cure for speech problems.

7. a) b) c) d)

Scientists believe… that the discovery of this gene will definitely cure many speech problems. that their research is now over. that the gene works closely with other genes. that they now know for certain how SPCH1 operates.

8. a) b) c) d)

The discovery of this gene… helps us to understand human characteristics. opens the door to further discoveries about speech and language. proves that humans are superior to animals. helps us to understand molecules.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. What do you think is the best way to learn a language? 2. Communication would be easier if we all spoke the same international language. Discuss.

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Prova 8 Close encounters of the fishy kind We all think of sharks as killing machines and perfect predators. However, sharks are now also becoming the stars of home videos around the world thanks to the new pastime of shark diving. This strange hobby is the latest addition to the world of extreme sport, and the biggest thrill on the market is now the three Fs–feed them, feel them and film them. Specialized tour operators in places like California, South Africa and Australia are promising to put divers and sharks together for the encounter of a lifetime. No need for a gun or knives: most operators allow the divers to watch, unprotected, as man-sized sharks are fed fish. Shark cages are rarely provided, except when divers venture out to the deep ocean to watch sharks dine. In the Bahamas, most islands offer daily shark dives. Restricted to certified divers, the typical experience has tourists sitting on the bottom, 40 feet down, while shark wranglers1 hand out frozen pieces of fish to the huge sharks who have learned where and when dinner is served. They pass within touching distance of the divers. Cameras flash. Videos whirl. Heart beats increase. Why aren‘t tourists eaten? Basically, sharks consider humans too bony and lean to make a good meal. Bloody fish bits are much better and far more convenient since they are already cut. Intent on the easy meal, the sharks have no interest in the voyeurs. Sometimes, however, sharks do attack humans... … In 80% of cases the Great White Shark will spit out a diver after taking one bite. The problem is that with the sheer power in the jaws of a Great White, one bite is usually fatal. With that in mind, operators of dive encounters with Great White Sharks provide underwater protection for customers and staff alike. Steel cages are lowered into the water and the divers climb inside to await the arrival of the Great White. Bait2–bloody pieces of meat–is hung right beside the cage so that the feeding will occur within centimetres of the spectators. Naturalists don‘t like shark feeding. They say it promotes bad feeding patterns for the sharks and sets up the possibility of sharks attacking scuba 3 tourists. They add that underwater tourists can always choose a destination where they are likely to encounter sharks without the use of conditioning techniques and boxes of fish parts. The professionals have completely different concerns. ‗Our biggest problem here is not with the sharks, but with fishermen,‘ explains Captain Mike Rohrbaugh. ‗As soon as we get a group of sharks used to the divers, the fishermen move in for the kill. Some fish for the sport and for the meat, while others kill them out of fear. Whatever their reasons, it is the fishermen who represent the real danger for sharks.‘ Vocabulary 1 wrangler guardià/guardian 2 bate esquer/cebo 3 scuba submarinista

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following statements about sharks is correct? Sharks often attack people. Sharks can attack people.  Only the Great White Shark attacks people. The Great White Shark usually attacks when provoked.

1. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, shark diving… has made sharks into film stars. is the most recent trend in extreme sport. is only available in the Bahamas. has been practised for ages.

2. a) b) c) d)

When divers go into deep oceans… they use cages. they are less adventurous. they only go in the evenings. they aren‘t forced to use cages.

3. a) b) c) d)

When watching sharks feeding… tourists must hold a diving certificate. tourists must be sitting down in the water. tourists should carry a gun or knife. tourists are also allowed to feed the sharks.

4. a) b) c) d)

Sharks prefer pieces of fish to humans because… they prefer the bones in the fish. pieces of fish are more nutritious. humans are not bloody enough. there is not enough meat on humans.

5. a) b) c) d)

The Great White Shark… attacks 80% of divers. kills a high percentage of divers after biting them. can kill a human with one bite. usually swallows divers without biting.

6. a) b) c) d)

Steel cages… are dropped into the water with the divers inside. contain meat for the sharks to feed on. are dropped into the water after the sharks arrive. allow divers to have an excellent view of shark feeding.

7. a) b) c) d)

People who oppose shark feeding say that… it uses too much fish. it affects sharks‘ feeding habits for the worse. it makes sharks attack tourists. it makes sharks ill.

8. a) b) c) d)

According to Captain Mike Rohrbaugh… fishermen are as much of a problem as tourists. fishermen are more of a problem than tourists. fishermen only kill groups of sharks. all fishermen kill sharks for the same reason.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. You think that shark watching is a cruel and unnatural sport and tourists should not be allowed to do it. Write a letter to a newspaper explaining your point of view. 2. You have just come back from a holiday during which you went shark watching. Describe the experience for your local newspaper.

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Prova 9 London to Cape Town on a bike It started as a crazy idea 18 months ago when two friends asked Rob to cycle with them from London to Cape Town. He had already refused twice. Aged 25, he had a job as a website editor for a national newspaper. He was writing. Life was good. Cycling 7,000 gruelling1 miles was not on the agenda, even if it was for a good cause. However, looking through his diaries and photographs from previous cycling trips in Europe and Asia, the memories of the open road, of meeting new friends and sleeping under the stars came back. With the help of three glasses of wine and a map that made Africa look flat, he said a quiet ‗yes‘ and everything changed. Whenever he feels exhausted, Rob will remind himself that the blame for the stupid scheme rests with Phil. He met him eight years ago when Phil was about to leave England to cycle to Delhi. More recently, following the death of his parents from cancer, Phil spent 19 months pedalling his way from London to Sydney. This African trip will raise 25,000 Euros for cancer research and hospices2. For Laurence, a photographer with a passion for the outdoors, the opportunity to cycle through the landscapes of the Middle East and Africa was irresistible. She first met Phil in Melbourne, just after he had finished his London-to-Sydney expedition. A couple of years later on holiday in London, Laurence and Phil met again. They now live together and have spent their holidays cycling around England, Wales and Corsica. The trip will mean leaving behind her hectic city life (and 15 years of smoking) but it will also allow her to gain invaluable photography experience and to put into practice her newly-acquired Arabic skills. The group of three struggled to find a fourth person. Late last year, Phil contacted Rich in Australia. They had met in Malaysia and were united by a love of cycling, a taste for adventure and whisky. As a documentary film-maker, relating travel experiences is second nature to Rich. The documentary of his bike journey through Tibet and China has been shown at short-film festivals and is used as an educational resource in Australia and the UK. Rich was keen to make another feature3 and to lead an outdoor life again, but the trip meant leaving his wife for 10 months. Just four months ago, never having met Laurence or Rob, Rich decided to come. The group was ready. It is impossible to imagine the journey before they start, but two things are certain. The trip will be tough. The demands of crossing the Sahara and the Ethiopian Highlands, and following the Great Rift Valley will at times be exhausting. But it will also be magical. Cycling forces you to build intimate relationships with the land, the climate and the people around you. Cycling in Africa, home to some of the world‘s most vibrant landscapes, wildlife and cultures, will be a privilege. Vocabulary 1 gruelling difícil, extenuant/difícil, extenuante 2 hospice hospici/hospicio 3 feature pel.lícula/película

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. Which person has experience in film-making? a) Rich.  b) Rich and Laurence. c) Laurence. d)…Phil 1. a) b) c) d)

When asked to cycle from London to Cape Town for the third time… Rob accepted immediately. Rob had to check his diary. Rob decided to write about it. Rob wasn‘t going to accept.

2. a) b) c) d)

Rob decided to do the trip because… he was fed up with life in London. Africa is a flat country. He had good memories of other trips he had done. He wanted to make new friends.

3. a) b) c) d)

Rob… met Phil when they were both cycling to Delhi. will blame Phil if he feels tired on the trip. is exhausted already. will blame himself if he feels tired on the trip.

4. a) b) c) d)

Phil cycled from England to Sydney… because his parents died. in order to raise money for charities. after his parents died. before his parents died.

5. a) b) c) d)

Laurence… prefers the indoor life. does not smoke. leads a relaxed life. has just learnt to speak Arabic.

6. a) b) c) d)

The group … found it easy to find a fourth member. did not want to find a fourth member. found it difficult to find a fourth member. were reluctant to add a fourth member.

7. a) b) c) d)

Rich decided to go on the trip… even though he hadn‘t met the other members of the group. after meeting the other members of the group. because he wanted to leave his wife. because his wife encouraged him to leave her.

8. a) b) c) d)

Which of the following correctly describes the trip? It is very easy to imagine what the trip will be like. The trip will be impossible. The trip should not be too difficult. The trip will be tiring but rewarding.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity) 1. Would you take a risk and join an expedition like the one described in the article? Give your answer and explain your reasons. 2. Describe the preparations you would need to make before going on a long journey like the one described in the text.

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Prova 10 Smoking in Japan Japan‘s heavy-smoking population marks World No-Smoking Week with a cough at just how little progress the country has made in addressing the health risks of tobacco. The annual event has always been something of a joke in Japan, which is arguably the last sanctuary for smokers in the developed world. This is not to say that there has been no progress in reducing smoking in Japan, but the pace of change is comical in contrast to moves in other countries. In Europe, debate has begun on introducing tough new warnings covering 40% of cigarette packets. By contrast, the warning in Japan is an ambiguous notice in small print: ‗Try not to smoke too much as there is a risk that it might damage your health. And be sure to observe smokers‘ etiquette.‘ Cigarette taxes are also far lower in Japan, and restrictions on advertising and sales to young people are less strictly controlled. Perhaps because of this, one in four high school students smoke. Although it is against the law, they can buy a packet of 20 cigarettes costing just £1.70 from any of the hundreds of thousands of vending machines on city streets. Preventing smoking is in reality made near-impossible by the fact that, under Japanese law, the government is obliged to promote the tobacco industry as a means of boosting1 public revenue and the national economy. The finance ministry even holds a 67% stake in Japan Tobacco, the world‘s third biggest cigarette maker. As a result, levels of cigarette consumption in Japan are among the highest in the world. More than 55% of adult males smoke, and tobacco use among teenagers and women is on the rise. According to the World Health Organisation, one in nine deaths in Japan are the result of smoking-related illnesses. The health ministry has tried to reverse this trend with some success–overall smoking rates are declining and limited advertising restrictions have been introduced in recent years. However, the real problems are the financial interest the state has in tobacco production and the current government‘s attitude. The ruling Liberal Democratic Party actually opposes controls on tobacco, saying they violate the constitution by infringing on freedom of choice. It is hardly surprising that the tobacco producers also support this view. ‗Tobacco is a long-established recreational product for adults and whether to smoke or not should be the decision of each individual, not a question of government control,‘ says Japan Tobacco. The giant company also refuses to accept a causal link between smoking and cancer, though its subsidiary has begun work on a lung cancer vaccine. This puts the firm in the unusual position of marketing products that cause, prevent and treat the same disease. And it makes a profit on them all. Vocabulary 1 boosting incrementar

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. a) b) c) d)

What is the present situation in Japan with regard to smoking? Over half the deaths in Japan are caused by a smoking-related illness. The number of young people smoking in Japan is increasing.  More people smoke in Japan than in any other country. The Japanese joke about smoking.

1. a) b) c) d)

World No-Smoking Week in Japan… is not taken seriously. is a week when smokers from all over the developing world meet up. is an event for people with coughs and smoking related illnesses. is treated with respect.

2. a) b) c) d)

The warning on cigarette packets in Japan is… is unambiguous. similar to the message on European cigarette packets. not very obvious. very amusing, but small.

3. a) b) c) d)

According to the text, one of the reasons that many young people smoke in Japan is… because shop assistants break the law by selling cigarettes to very young people. they can buy cigarettes easily without having to prove how old they are. there is no law against it. that they have no self control.

4. a) b) c) d)

It has been difficult to reduce smoking in Japan because… there has been no coordinated effort to do so. there isn‘t any help for people who want to give up smoking. the government has to encourage smoking in order to make money. the finance minister owns a tobacco company.

5. a) b) c) d)

In general, the number of smokers has gone down… because less women are smoking. because people‘s attitudes have changed. because advertising has been banned. due to work done by the ministry of health.

6. a) b) c) d)

The Liberal Democratic Party… have banned all forms of tobacco advertising. have introduced strict controls on tobacco consumption. have increased the price of cigarettes. believe that people should have the right to choose to smoke.

7. a) b) c) d)

According to Japan Tobacco… cancer has many causes. smoking causes many different diseases. there is no connection between smoking and cancer. causal smoking causes cancer.

8. a) b) c) d)

Japan Tobacco… markets unusual products. makes money on cigarettes and vaccines. makes sporting products. only makes money on cancer treatments.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. You want a ban on smoking in public places. Write a letter to a newspaper expressing your point of view. 2. There is a proposal to ban smoking in all public places and in the streets. Write a letter to a friend giving your opinion on the idea.

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Prova 11 The new face of slave labour Every day millions of professionals in the UK work for free since they notch up hundreds of hours of unpaid overtime. This unpaid overtime is not written into contracts, and often it's not even spoken of. It's just part of the 21st century workplace. This may sound like a ridiculous notion. After all, it's only slaves or the most altruistic of people who work for nothing, isn't it? But according to the Trades Union Congress (TUC) millions of Britons work so much unpaid overtime that, on average, they are providing their employers with free work for the equivalent of nearly eight weeks of the year. You could say those affected - predominantly the increasing number of white-collar workers in the UK - are providing their services voluntarily every day from 1 January to 25 February. That overtime is worth ÂŁ23bn to employers, says the TUC‘s survey. Why do people tolerate the long hours culture? The TUC says that it is certainly not a question of what type of job people have: staff at all levels are affected, from top management, where it has always been more accepted, down to machine operatives. For example, it's not uncommon for supermarket checkout staff particularly in smaller stores - to work four or five hours extra. The reasons for going that extra mile are hugely varied, ranging from overt pressure from bosses, to personal dedication from employees: in a survey a couple of years ago, around 15% of people said they worked overtime because they loved their job. The "culture of presenteeism" - the unspoken message that people should be seen to be staying late in order to "get on" - is also a factor. However, the most common reason for doing unpaid overtime is simply sheer workload. In the TUC survey, teachers ranked second in a list of professions doing the most unpaid overtime. Ironically though, said a spokesperson for the National Union of Teachers, teachers do no unpaid overtime technically, because their working day has no official end. While moves to decrease teachers' workloads have been proposed by the government, the NUT has refused to sign the agreement because it would mean unqualified people covering teachers' classes at certain times. The NUT says that teachers certainly believe they are working excessive hours, but at the same time if they think something is good for their children then they will do it. Despite working 54-hour weeks on average, and taking work home in the holidays, there is still a public perception that teachers have a "cushy number". To make matters worse, European Union directives do not provide protection for teachers because the way the hours are averaged out across holiday periods means they come out with less than the maximum 48 hours per week allowed. Workers in the UK may work longer hours than in most other countries in the EU, but do they actually produce more? The irony is the UK ranks poorly when it comes to productivity compared to other European nations with shorter working hours. So it seems that people who work more hours also produce less per hour.

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer.

Look at the example.

Example 0. People at work… a) have contracts which force them to work long hours b) do many extra hours of work for no extra pay  c) don’t talk about their contracts d) think that doing overtime is ridiculous --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------1. Employers… a) on average, ask their staff to work for forty four weeks a year. b) are provided with extra workers for eight weeks of the year. c) don‘t agree with the Trades Union Congress. d) don‘t pay for the extra hours workers put in. 2. White collar workers… a) are less affected by this problem. b) usually work less in January and February. c) are the most affected by this problem. d) often take on charity work. 3. This problem affects… a) the new laws which have been passed. b) high level employees and also ordinary workers. c) only people working with machinery and checkout staff. d) the toleration of small stores checkout staff. 4. A survey… a) has shown that most people love their jobs. b) has shown that people don‘t talk about their workload. c) has shown that most people have too much work to do. d) has shown that most people stay late after work. 5. Teachers… a) are often sick because of the amount of work they do b) don‘t have fixed working hours c) do technical work without getting paid d) feel less pressure than they used to 6. Reducing the teachers‘ workload… a) is against government policy. b) is not supported by the teacher‘s union. c) would be good for their students. d) would mean them having to take home work in the holidays. 7. People are under the impression… a) that teacher‘s have an easy life b) that teachers are protected by government directives c) that teachers are sometimes unqualified d) have a long working week 8. The UK… a) ranks below other European nations in working hours b) has the worst productivity in Europe c) has lower productivity than other European nations d) is poorer than most other European nations PART TWO: WRITING

Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of the text, maturity.) 1.

‗People in my country work too many hours a week‘. Write an essay saying if you agree with this opinion.

2.

How has the modern workplace changed in the last few years?

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Prova 12 A good reaction, but will it last? The massive amount of cash contributed by ordinary people to the tsunami appeal is unprecedented. There are many touching tales of generosity, involving both the poor and the not-so-poor. There is the elderly Welsh woman, for example, who withdrew her £120 weekly pension, before giving £100 to the disaster appeal; or the prisoners in Kent who gave up smoking for the New Year if their governor would make a donation. At the other end of the scale, the rich and famous have been reaching for their chequebooks too. Actress Sandra Bullock has given $1m while Michael Schumacher has multiplied that sum by 10. The internet has undoubtedly made giving easier, allowing people to donate quickly and efficiently. Another positive factor is that many well-off people, who can afford to give quite a lot, have previously holidayed in the blighted areas. Overall, the British public have surpassed expectations, donating £100m in less than a fortnight. The final sum is set to far outstrip the Live Aid appeal of the mid-1980s when £80m was raised over 12 months. This burst of generosity has set the charity sector abuzz with questions and speculation about the future. The major charities are waiting to see whether people's willingness to donate to the tsunami appeal, and public pressure on Western governments to make big contributions, suggests a major breakthrough in charitable giving trends. The problem is that massive appeals in the past, such as the Live Aid appeal for Ethiopia, have failed to make a long-term impact on our giving habits. Charities say that the message from the past is that soon after big appeals, things tend to settle down. Will this be the case again this time? On a superficial level, the public‘s largesse, coming immediately after Christmas, traditionally a time of belt-tightening in many households, is a positive sign. However, if the tsunami is to lead to more sustained giving to charity, the aid agencies must first show that they have used the public's hard-earned cash well: there have been far too many examples in the past of people‘s donations being swallowed up in bureaucratic costs or, even worse, of ending up in the pockets of private individuals in the countries affected. Encouragingly, the high profile of the Disasters Emergency Committee, an umbrella organisation which acts for several large charities, has so far been very good in showing that aid agencies can work together and can make sure that a large part of the money donated does get through to the people who most need it. If the tsunami really has instilled a new spirit of philanthropy, how much is enough? One percent of annual income. That, at least, is the suggested amount we should give to charity every year, according to the Giving Campaign, a group set up by the government and voluntary sector in 2001. This would be almost double the 0.6% average, leading to an extra £11bn a year. However, the Church of England recommends a more hefty "tithe" of 5% on the faithful‘s income. Other religions have different markers - Muslims, for example, are expected to pay a "zakat" of 2.5% on income. The sad reality is that, until governments donate what they should do, individuals like you and me will be asked to make up the difference.

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. Ordinary people … a) Haven’t given so much to charity since the Live Aid appeal.

b) have never given so much to charity before. 

c) have appealed for a massive amount of cash. d) contributed a disappointing amount of cash to the tsunami appeal. 1. a) b) c) d)

There have been… more stories about contributions to charity than about the victims. more goodwill stories than donations. a lot of examples of well-off people donating money. donations from prisoners.

2. Donations… a) have come up to expectations. b) have been more generous that people thought they would be. c) have raised as much money as the Live Aid appeal. d) have been questioned by the charity sector. 3. The major charities… a) think there has been a change in the way people give. b) still haven‘t decided if the tsunami appeal has made a difference. c) expect Western governments to make large donations. d) are surprised that people have given so much to the tsunami appeal. 4. a) b) c) d)

Charities… think that people usually forget about disasters quite quickly. think that the amount of money donated is a minor sum. think that public pressure will force more people to give money. are sure that attitudes to giving will change as a result of the tsunami appeal.

5. a) b) c) d)

Wealthy people have give a lot to the tsunami appeal… because the internet has publicised the problem. because a lot of rich people know the area personally. because many charities are working in the area. because the appeal was launched at Christmas time.

6. a) b) c) d)

‗Largesse‘ (underlined in paragraph 4) means: a lot of money. goodwill. generosity. happiness.

7. a) b) c) d)

The Giving Campaign… says we should give more to charity. is a government-run organisation. suggests that the government should double the amount it gives. gives one percent of it‘s annual income to charity.

8. a) b) c) d)

The Church of England… says that churchgoers should pay 5% of their income to charity. is twice as generous as the Muslim tradition. suggests that people ought to give more to charity than they do on average. gives £11bn a year to charity.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. ‗Ordinary people shouldn‘t have to give money to charity. It‘s the governments who should make donations.‘ Write an essay saying if you agree with this opinion. 2. Are financial donations the best way to help developing countries?

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Prova 13 In two minds about therapy A new play which suggests that therapy may increase dependency has reignited the debate about whether therapy is becoming an addiction in itself. The surprising fact is that the number of qualified counsellors has tripled in 10 years to keep up with rising demand. So, is the increase in therapy due to a new race of ―therapy junkies‖? Or is it merely the reflection of a changing society which is becoming more mobile, detached, stressed and divorce-ridden? According to the author of the new play, Alicia Kahrmann, therapy can indeed become addictive. Ms Kahrmann herself had an eating disorder for five years and went on a 12-step treatment programme, an approach popular all over the world with groups such as Alcoholics Anonymous. However, she says that she ended up merely substituting one addiction for another. In her experience, the programme doesn‘t empower the individual but makes him or her dependent on the group. Sociologist Frank Furedi sustains that Ms Kahrmann's experience is not uncommon for people undergoing counselling or psychotherapy. He argues that therapy really can increase dependency, and distracts people from dealing with their problems. A lot of people say it works for them, but what they really mean is that they are being listened to and taken seriously by someone. Despite therapy, their problems remain and the wretched sufferers go from one therapy to another, on a lifelong quest. Obviously, not everyone takes such a poor view of therapy. An Alcoholics Anonymous spokeswoman said the 12-Step Fellowship was designed 70 years ago for people with drink problems and had been successful in "repairing the damage of the past" for thousands of people. Phillip Hodson of the British Association of Counselling and Psychotherapy thinks that the idea that therapy can be bad for you is nonsense and shows nostalgia for the repressed 1950s. In his view, counselling has spread because organisations have found it to be an extremely successful and cost-effective solution. It can reduce rates of sickness and absence by half. He adds that life has changed in the affluent twenty-first century. These days we aren‘t concerned about the struggle to survive, but we may well be troubled by the meaning of life and where it's going. In the absence of an overwhelming theology or a paternal family, we look for therapy to help us in a supportive and questioning role. It doesn't just deal with problems, but existential philosophy as well - the meaning of life. Hodson describes therapy being able to tell the story of your own life and the feelings you've been hiding, so you can address them, put them away, and free up your behaviour. He concedes there needs to be more regulation of practitioners but scotches the theory that counsellors encourage dependence. After all, the goal of a therapist is to get rid of his clients. Whether therapy is part of the problem or part of the solution, one thing seems sure: it‘s here to stay for the foreseeable future.

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Questions Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. This is… a). the first time a play has been written about therapy.

b). not the first time that the effectiveness of therapy has been questioned c). the first time that people have needed therapy. d). not the first time therapy has been increased 1. a) b) c) d)

There are… more and more professionals giving therapy sessions. more counsellors demanding qualifications now. more and more drugs being given out by therapists. three times as many people in therapy as 10 years ago.

2. Changes in society… a) have made people more dependant on the family. b) have led to people not talking about their problems. c) have made therapy available to more people. d) have led to an increase in the divorce rate. 3. a) b) c) d)

Alice Kahrmann‘s play… is about a society which has become more mobile. is used in therapy sessions by counsellors. is about alcoholics in therapy. is based partly on her personal experience.

4. a) b) c) d)

The 12 –Step treatment… is a fairly new, and popular form of therapy. is only used to help alcoholics. can help people with different types of problems. is based on substituting one addiction for another.

5. a) b) c) d)

The 12-Step treatment works for some people… because they were damaged by drink problems in the past. because they feel that the therapist understands them. because they feel empowered as individuals. because they feel they listen to others in the group.

6. a) b) c) d)

People nowadays… are more concerned with material things than the meaning of life. are nostalgic for the lifestyle of the 1950‘s. use therapy as a substitute for the extended family. have questioned the supportive role of therapy.

7. a) b) c) d)

Therapy… enables people to talk about themselves. allows practitioners to describe the story of peoples‘ lives. allows people to hide their feelings. only deals with existential philosophy.

8. a) b) c) d)

According to Phillip Hodson, counsellors… have not been regulated in the past. don‘t encourage dependence in their clients. are happy for their clients to leave when they like. concede that there should be regulation of practitioners.

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. ‗Group therapy is a waste of time and money.‘ Write an essay saying if you agree with this opinion. 2. Do you think changes society have made taking therapy more necessary for ordinary people?

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Prova 14 Space Tourism! This month a very special flight took off from a cosmodrome in Kazakhstan - a spaceship carrying two Russian cosmonauts and one space tourist set off for a 13day trip to the International Space Station (ISS). Charles Simonyi, a Hungarianborn American billionaire, became the fifth 'Spaceflight Participant' in history. He is a software designer, and as well as having a space holiday, will also be carrying out important tests on the ISS. Simonyi, who made his fortune developing Word and Excel for Microsoft, has paid 20 million dollars for the trip. It might seem incredible, but space travel is becoming so popular that even at that price, the Russian Space Agency is fully booked until 2009. But if you think that's a bit too expensive, don't worry - there is an alternative. Many other companies are now working on commercial space travel. Sir Richard Branson's new company, Virgin Galactic, is already selling return tickets to space for only 200,000 dollars (about 150,000 Euros)! Virgin hopes that their passenger flights will begin in 2009. Although the spacecrafts haven't been built yet, more than 300 people have already bought their tickets. So what do you get for your money? Travel agent Chris Barker gave us the details. 'Before take-off, passengers will get three days of training while they are staying in luxury hotels in New Mexico. Then they will be given spacesuits and helmets, and six passengers at a time will board SpaceShipTwo." Of course, safety is very important, and at least a hundred test flights are planned before tourists make the trip. SpaceShipOne, which is about a third of the size of the new ship, made three successful test flights in 2004, with only pilots on board. SpaceShipTwo will be taken to a height of about 15,000m by an aircraft similar in size to a 757 jet, where it will be released. It will then rocket to an altitude of about 113km in only 90 seconds, going at 4,800km per hour, which is three times the speed of sound. Passengers will be able to look at Earth through large windows, and will be able to see for up to 1,600km in all directions. For four minutes, they will experience the feeling of weightlessness at zero gravity -they will be allowed to remove their seat belts and float around the plane! The entire flight will only last about two hours. The first 100 people to fly will be called 'founders' and will have to pay the whole price in advance. The next 400 will be called 'pioneers', and they will have to pay a deposit of about 150,000 dollars. However, the deposit for later flights will only be 20,000 dollars, so start saving now! To learn more about the space flights, visit www.virgingalactic.com

GLOSSARY: rocket (verb) - augmentar molt ràpidament, weightlessness - ingravitació, float - flotar

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. The text is about travelling to... a) Russia b) Hungary c) Space ďƒź d) New Mexico _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Before Charles Simonyi, how many tourists had been sent into space? a) Four b) Five c) One d) None 2. Simonyi became rich through his work with... a) space tourism b) computers c) the Russians d) Sir Richard Branson 3. Who paid for Simonyi's trip? a) Microsoft b) The Russian Space Agency c) Simonyi himself d) The ISS 4. How many companies are planning space tourist trips? a) Two b) Three c) Four d) The text doesn't say 5. According to the text... a) no flights are going to space until 2009 b) you can buy a ticket now for flights leaving this year c) all flights after 2009 are sold out d) you can buy a ticket now for travel after 2009 6. In addition to the flight, what is included in the 200,000-dollar ticket? a) Only preparation and equipment b) Preparation, accommodation and equipment c) Preparation, accommodation and hotel d) Only accommodation and equipment 7. According to the text... a) SpaceShipTwo is the same size as a 757 jet. b) a 757 jet can fly at 4,800km per hour. c) SpaceShipTwo will be able to travel at three times the speed of sound. d) SpaceShipTwo will reach a maximum altitude of 15,000m. 8. For their ticket, the 501st passenger will have to pay... a) the same as the 'founders' b) more than the 'founders' c) less than the 'founders' d) less than the 'pioneers'

PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity). 1. Imagine the possible advantages and disadvantages of living on another planet. 2. What would your dream trip be, and why?

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Prova 15 Robots' Rights? Using robots in industry is nothing new, but making the headlines this month is something that sounds more like science fiction - the Robot Ethics Charter in South Korea. South Korea is one of the world's most hi-tech societies, and its government is well known for its commitment to future technology - for example, 72 percent of all households already have ADSL phonelines. It has set up a committee, which includes a science fiction writer, to draw up guidelines on how people and robots should interact. Robots are already in use, not only in factories, but also in post offices. A spokesperson said: "Robots are expected to develop strong intelligence in the near future. We predict that every South Korean home will have a networked robot by 2020." These robots will not only do the housework, they will even be able to sing, dance and teach children English! The Charter, which will be released later in 2007, will cover a wide range of legal and social issues, from illegal use of robots to what would happen if a human being wanted to marry one! One of the main questions is that of safety. The famous sci-fi writer, Isaac Asimov, was considering this problem when he wrote the 'Three Laws of Robotics' in the 1940s, for one of his short stories: 1. A robot must not injure a human being, or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm. 2. A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law. 3. A robot must protect its own existence, as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law. Asimov's robots didn't exist, but now that scientists are working to create real ones with similar capabilities, including being able to kill, perhaps these laws will mean something in the future. But will a robot really be able to tell the difference between a human being and other robots? Let's hope so, because another report has predicted that by 2018 robots will be carrying out surgery in South Korean hospitals! Even more worryingly, South Korea also plans to have armed robot border guards. Meanwhile, a UK government study predicts that within fifty years humanoid robots will be doing many different jobs and demanding the same rights as humans. People in fast food, gardening, housecleaning and sales industries are worried about becoming unemployed. In April, the European Robotics Research Network will also be releasing guidelines on robot use. It says: 'In the 21st Century, humanity will coexist with the first alien intelligence we have ever come into contact with - robots. It will be an event rich in ethical, social and economic problems.' GLOSSARY: Headlines - titulars Come to harm - fer-se mal Surgery - cirurgia Sci-fi - science fiction

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. The text is mainly about... a) future government studies b) the future of South Korea c) the future use of robots ? x d) social problems in the future _______________________________________________________________________________ 1. Robots in South Korea are already 'working' in... a) post offices and the home b) factories and hospitals c) post offices and factories d) hospitals and post offices 2. The South Korean government... a) is against new technology b) is in favour of new technology c) has never spent money on new technology d) is employing Asimov to promote new technology 3. Nearly three-quarters of South Koreans have... a) a robot in the home b) science fiction books c) problems with technology d) fast-speed internet connection 4. According to the text, will it be legal for a human to marry a robot? a) Yes b) No c) The text doesn't say d) Yes, but only in South Korea 5. According to Asimov's Second Law, robots... a) don't always have to do what humans tell them b) never have to do what humans tell them c) always have to do what humans tell them d) can decide what to do themselves 6. According to Asimov's Third Law, robots mustn't protect their own existence... a) unless human beings could come to harm b) if human beings could come to harm c) unless they could come to harm d) even if a human being tells them to 7. According to the text, the job with most potential for danger is a robot... a) border guard b) English teacher c) surgeon d) post office worker 8. According to the text, which of the following could lose their jobs to robots? a) English teachers and housecleaners b) Dancers and border guards c) Gardeners and singers d) Salespeople and restaurant workers PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. What kind of 'ethical, social and economic problems' do you think could arise when robots coexist with humans in the future? 2. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of modern technology in our lives today.

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Prova 16 An Unusual World Cup You may be surprised to know that this month a very unusual World Cup Final is taking place. The fans have to be very quiet, the ball makes a strange sound, and whenever a plane flies overhead the referee has to stop the match. This is no ordinary game of football, but the fourth World Championships of Soccer for the Blind. Eight nations are competing for the title in Buenos Aires, where seven qualifiers, including England and Spain, are challenging the current champions, Argentina. Each team has five players, and, except for the goalkeepers, all the players are blind. In this version of football, the normal rules have been adapted. The pitch is a cement area of 42 by 22 metres (less than half the size of an ordinary pitch), and the sidelines are clear plastic walls that keep the players from running off the pitch. The ball contains small pieces of metal and sounds like a big rattle, so that the players can hear where it is. Players shout "Voy!" to signal their position, and run with one arm stretched out in front of them, to try to avoid collisions. However, with blind people moving at such high speeds some accidents are inevitable, so the players all wear protective clothing. The crowd has to remain as silent as possible, even when they're excited, so that the teams can hear their coaches shouting instructions from the sidelines. This is also why the game is stopped when a plane passes. During a match, spectators are sometimes invited onto the pitch and blindfolded, so they can try to imagine what it's like to play football without being able to see. The results are understandable - they don't know where they are or where the ball is! Indeed, it seems incredible that blind people are able to play such a fast-moving game. Manolo Diaz coaches blind teenagers in Argentina. He says that their ears are their eyes, and that they all have to focus on sounds and vibrations. Many teams have names that reflect this ability, like 'Owls' and 'Bats'. Of course, it takes time to build up such skills. When the players first start, they often feel a bit scared, but this changes over time. As one centre-forward says: "I'm slowly gaining confidence. Now I can move really fast!" Blind football is becoming more popular all the time - more than 1000 fans watched Brazil thrash France 4-1. The championship is held every four years, and Argentina and Brazil are the strong favourites for 2006. Also this month, the third Blind Cricket World Cup is taking place in Pakistan. There are already about 26 nations who play blind cricket, and the sport is growing in popularity. GLOSSARY: cement - hormig贸n, rattle - sonajero, thrash - machacar

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PART ONE: READING COMPREHENSION Choose the correct answer according to the text. Only one is correct. 0.5 points for each correct answer. Look at the example. Example: 0. This World Cup is unusual because. a) it's taking place in Argentina. b) it's the fourth World Championship. c) the players are all blind, except for the goalkeepers. x d) England and Spain are playing. __________________________________________________________________________________ 1. The referee has to stop the match when a plane flies overhead because. a) it's dangerous. b) the players can't hear what's happening in the game. c) the noise distracts the goalkeepers. d) the fans are quiet. 2. Accidents on the pitch. a) never happen. b) won't happen. c) used to happen. d) sometimes happen. 3. Spectators are invited onto the pitch. a) because they want to help their side. b) because there aren't enough players. c) to try to experience what it's like to be a blind player. d) if they are making too much noise. 4. To 'blindfold' someone means to. a) give them a football. b) make them follow a blind person. c) cover their eyes with something. d) make them play a fast-moving game. 5. In order to play football, blind people depend mostly on. a) their sense of touch. b) their sense of hearing. c) their fans. d) their protective clothing. 6. According to the text. a) blind players are natural football players. b) blind players are nervous when they first play. c) it doesn't take blind players a long time to learn. d) blind people shouldn't play football. 7. According to the text. a) it was easy for Brazil to beat France. b) it was difficult for Brazil to beat France. c) it was easy for France to beat Brazil. d) it was difficult for France to beat Brazil. 8. When will the next championship be held? a) 2008 b) 2010 c) 2012 d) 2014 PART TWO: WRITING Choose one topic: write about 100 words. (4 points in total given for: grammar, vocabulary, organisation of text, maturity.) 1. Does your school, or local town council, do anything to help people with disabilities? In your opinion, what should they do, in order to make an effective difference? 2. Is it right for children with disabilities to be in mainstream education, or should they be taught separately?

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ANSWER KEY PROVA 1

PROVA 9

1a , 2b , 3d , 4d , 5b , 6c , 7c , 8b

1d , 2c , 3b , 4c , 5d , 6c , 7a , 8d

PROVA 2

PROVA 10

1a , 2c , 3b , 4a , 5d , 6d , 7b , 8a

1a , 2c , 3b , 4c , 5d , 6d , 7c , 8b PROVA 11

PROVA 3

1d , 2c , 3b , 4c , 5b , 6b , 7a , 8c

1a , 2d , 3c , 4b , 5c , 6d , 7b , 8a PROVA 12 PROVA 4

1c , 2b , 3d , 4a , 5b , 6c , 7a , 8a

1b , 2d , 3d , 4b , 5c , 6c , 7d , 8a PROVA 13 PROVA 5

1a , 2d , 3d , 4c , 5b , 6c , 7a , 8b

1d , 2a , 3a , 4b , 5d , 6a , 7c , 8c PROVA 6

PROVA 14 1a, 2b, 3c, 4d, 5d, 6b, 7c, 8ª

1b , 2d , 3c , 4c , 5b , 6d , 7b , 8c PROVA 15 PROVA 7

1c, 2b, 3d, 4c, 5a, 6b, 7a, 8d

1b , 2a , 3c , 4c , 5d , 6b , 7c , 8b PROVA 16 PROVA 8

1b, 2d, 3c, 4c, 5b, 6b, 7a, 8b

1b , 2a , 3a , 4d , 5c , 6d , 7b , 8b

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Reading and Writing Practice for Selectivitat