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A Comparative Study on Educational Administration in Japan and Peru

In partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the IN-SERVICE TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAM

by Joel Pierre Madrid Vivanco Peru

Presented to PROFESSOR CHIKUSA TOMOAKI Academic Adviser And Hyogo University of Teacher Education, Graduate School of Education, Educational Administration

Sponsored by THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT And the THE MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, CULTURE, SPORTS, SCIENCIE AND TECHNOLOGY (MEXT)

Hyogo, Japan MARCH 2009

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgment

Page

INTRODUCTION:   

Purpose of the research......................................................................1 Education in Japan................................................................................2 Education in PerĂş..................................................................................4

1. ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN JAPAN 

The System of Law in Japan (Fundamental Law of Education)............5



The Administrative Structure of National Government........................12



Government Structure for Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology..........................................................................................13



School Boards and Decentralization...................................................17  Educational Administration at the Prefecture and Municipal Level  Reform Movements in Educational Administration Decentralization)

2. EVALUATION AND SUPERVISION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN JAPAN 1. School Evaluation and School Management Evaluation in Japan...20 2. Supervision of Educational Administration in Japan.........................28

3. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN PERU History ..................................................................................................31 3.1 Organization of Educational Administration in Peru........................34 3.1.1 The System of Law in Peru..........................................................36 3.1.2 School Boards and Decentralization............................................40

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3.2 Evaluation and Supervision of Educational Administration in Peru 3.2.1 School Evaluation in Peru...........................................................49 3.2.1 Supervision of Educational Administration in Peru......................53

4. COMPARATIVE TABLE ON EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION BETWEEN JAPAN AND PERU (Differences and similarities)........55

5. CONCLUSION.....................................................................................62

6. BIBLIOGRAPHY................................................................................65

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INTRODUCTION The purpose of my research is to find some guidelines for school administration based on the knowledge and experiences acquired through the training program and make a comparative study between Japanese and Peruvian Educational Administration. First, I have to document Japanese educational administration and the deployment of its related systems (historical and current) to understand the administration and the roles of local administrative offices of educational institutions in Japan. Next, to find similarities and differences in administrative duties conducted both in Japan and Peru. Finally, to present a comparative study focusing on the educational organization, evaluation and supervision practiced in both countries.

Education plays a vital role in establishing a well-developed country, but Successful operation of an educational institution requires competent administrators. Education administrators provide instructional leadership and manage the day-to-day activities in schools, preschools, day care centers, and colleges and universities. They also direct the educational programs of businesses, correctional institutions, museums, and job training and community service organizations.

Friendship, brotherhood and permanent peace in our country and in the world is only possible with education that is guided by national and universal values. Each administrator to manage the educational processes in which individuals learn the necessary skills, knowledge, attitude and behavior to live happily in their countries and in the world are basically expected to have the administrative skills, knowledge, and experience, to produce national and world class service, to be equally “far” or “close” to each political opinion and belief.

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EDUCATION IN JAPAN

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) is responsible for educational administration. Compulsory education Gimu kyoiku In Japan, compulsory education (gimu kyoiku) is from elementary school to junior high school, for children between the ages of 6 and 15; six years in elementary school and three years in junior high school. All lessons are taught in Japanese. The Japanese educational system was reformed after World War II. The old 6-5-3-3 system was changed to a 6-3-3-4 system (6 years of elementary school, 3 years of junior high school, 3 years of senior high school and 4 years of University) with reference to the American system. Gimukyoiku (compulsory education) time period is 9 years, 6 in shogakko (elementary school) and 3 in chugakko (junior high school). Japan has one of the world's best-educated populations, with 100% enrollment in compulsory grades and zero illiteracy. While not compulsory, high school (koko) enrollment is over 96% nationwide and nearly 100% in the cities. High school drop out rate is about 2% and has been increasing. At the University (daigaku) level, there are 98 national universities, 53 other public universities and 425 private universities. About 46% of all high school graduates go on to university or junior college. The Ministry of Education closely supervises curriculum and textbooks, and classes with much the same content are taught throughout the country. As a result, a high standard of education becomes possible.

Structure Nursery School Hoiku-en Nursery school (hoiku-en) is not, strictly speaking, an educational institution, but rather a type of day-care facility. A child can be admitted to nursery school if the child's primary caregiver has a job, or must deal with illness in the family. Usually, a nursing school accepts children from the ages of three years until they enter elementary school.

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Primary Education Kindergarten (Yochi-en) Kindergartens educate children between the ages of three and five. Although kindergartens accept children within the same age range as nursery schools do, the aim of kindergarten is different.

Elementary School (Shogakko) Elementary school education begins for children at age six, and continues for six years (children must be 6 years of age as of April 2 to enter elementary school).

Secondary Education Junior High School (Chugakko) After completing six years of elementary education, students begin three years of education at a junior high school. Senior High School (Kotogakko) High schools are classified as regular (Kotogakko) or vocational high schools (Koto senmon gakko). The senior high school program is normally three years, although night schools (yakan koto gakko) offer four-year courses. Higher Education Vocational Schools (Senmon gakko) Vocational schools are intended to provide a vocational or technical education. A foreign national wishing to enter a vocational school must have completed 12 years of schooling in Japan, or the equivalent level which has been recognized by an educational authority and must pass either the 1st or 2nd level of the Japanese Proficiency Test. Universities (Daigaku) Universities offer four-year programs, while junior colleges (tandai) normally offer two-year programs. To enter a university or college, a foreign national must have passed the same entrance exam that is given to Japanese students. For overseas (or exchange) students (ryugakusei), see the Japan Student Services Organization.

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EDUCATION IN PERU

Education in Peru is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which is in charge of formulating, implementing and supervising the national educational policy. All curricular materials, syllabi, and course outlines are created and provided by the Ministry of Education. According to the Constitution, education is compulsory and free in public schools for the basic education (elementary school 6 years and lower secondary school 5 years). It is also free in public universities for students who are unable to pay tuition and have an adequate academic performance.

Education is nominally free and compulsory for children ages 6 to 16. The government has been responsible for public education since 1905; free lower secondary school began in 1946, but with far too few public schools to meet the need. Although Spanish is the official language of the nation and the primary language of instruction, the 1972 law also established Quechua and Aymarรก as languages of instruction for non-Spanish-speaking Amerindians, especially in the lowest grades.

As of the early 1980s, the educational system consisted of three levels: pre-school education, consisting of nurseries and kindergartens; basic education, consisting of elementary and lower secondary schools; and higher education (pre-university and university).

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I. ORGANIZATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN JAPAN

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) executes the education function. Its Minister is appointed by the Prime Minister of Japan. The organization of the national administration in education is stipulated according to the principle of legislation in the Fundamental Law of Education and the Law of the Establishment of the MEXT.

The System of Law in Japan Japanese laws are composed of written laws and unwritten laws. Written laws in which the supreme statute is the Constitution of Japan, are divided into two types of law: one is national laws that are enacted by the Diet, the Cabinet and Ministries, while the other is autonomous

ordinances

provided

by

autonomous

regional

entities

and

other

organizations. The kinds of unwritten laws are customary laws, case laws, construction by administration and rational laws. In Japan, construction by administration such as through notification and reply on provisions by the responsible Civil Service authorities has substantial function as law formulation.

Fundamental Law of Education - Basic Act on Education (Act. 120 of 2006) Preamble

We, the citizens of Japan, desire to further develop the democratic and cultural state we have built through our untiring efforts, and contribute to the peace of the world and the improvement of the welfare of humanity. To realize these ideals, we shall esteem individual dignity, and endeavor to bring up people who long for truth and justice, honor the public spirit, and are rich in humanity and creativity, while promoting an education which transmits tradition and aims at the creation of a new culture. We hereby enact this Act, in accordance with the spirit of the Constitution of Japan, in order to establish the foundations of education and promote an education that opens the way to our country’s future.

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Laws of Education 2006

1947

Chapter I. Aims and Principles of Education (Aims of Education) Article 1 Education shall aim for the full development of personality and strive to nurture the citizens, sound in mind and body, who are imbued with the qualities necessary for those who form a peaceful and democratic state and society.

(Objectives of Education) Article 2 To realize the aforementioned aims, education shall be carried out in such a way as to achieve the following objectives, while respecting academic freedom: (i) to foster an attitude to acquire wide-ranging knowledge and culture, and to seek the truth, cultivate a rich sensibility and sense of morality, while developing a healthy body. (ii) to develop the abilities of individuals while respecting their value; cultivate their creativity; foster a spirit of autonomy and independence; and foster an attitude to value labor while emphasizing the connections with career and practical life. (iii) to foster an attitude to value justice, responsibility, equality between men and women, mutual respect and cooperation, and actively contribute, in the public spirit, to the building and development of society. (iv) to foster an attitude to respect life, care for nature, and contribute to the protection of the environment. (v) to foster an attitude to respect our traditions and culture, love the country and region that nurtured them, together with respect for other countries and a desire to contribute to world peace and the development of the international community.

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Article 1. Aims of Education Education shall aim at the full development of personality, striving to nurture the citizens, sound in mind and body, who shall love truth and justice, esteem individual value, respect labour and have a deep sense of responsibility, and be imbued with the independent spirit, as builders of the peaceful state and society.

Article 2. Educational Principle The aims of education shall be realized on all occasions and in all places. In order to achieve the aims, we shall endeavor to contribute to the creation and development of culture by mutual esteem and co-operation, respecting academic freedom, having a regard for actual life and cultivating a spontaneous spirit.


[added] (Concept of Lifelong Learning) Article 3 Society shall be made to allow all citizens to continue to learn throughout their lives, on all occasions and in all places, and apply the outcomes of lifelong learning appropriately to refine themselves and lead a fulfilling life. (Equal Opportunity in Education) Article 4 Citizens shall all be given equal opportunities to receive education according to their abilities, and shall not be subject to discrimination in education on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin.

Article 3. Equal Opportunity in Education Citizens shall all be given equal opportunities to receive education according to their abilities, and shall not be subject to discrimination in education on account of race, creed, sex, social status, economic position, or family origin.

(2) The national and local governments shall [added] provide support in education to persons with disabilities, to ensure that they are given adequate education in accordance with their condition. (3) The national and local governments shall take measures to provide financial assistance to those who, in spite of their ability, encounter difficulties in receiving education for economic reasons.

(2) The national and local governments shall take measures to provide financial assistance to those who, in spite of their ability, encounter difficulties in receiving education for economic reasons.

Chapter II. Basics of Education Provision (Compulsory Education) Article 5 Article 4. Compulsory Education Citizens shall be obligated to have children Citizens shall be obligated to have under their protection receive a general children under their protection receive education pursuant to the provisions of other nine-year general education. acts. (2) The objectives of general education, given in [added] the form of compulsory education, shall be to cultivate the foundations for an independent life within society while developing the abilities of each individual, and to foster the basic qualities necessary for those who form our state and society. (3) In order to guarantee the opportunity for [added] compulsory education and ensure adequate standards, the national and local governments shall assume responsibility for the implementation of compulsory education through appropriate role sharing and mutual cooperation.

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(2) No tuition fee shall be charged for (4) No tuition fee shall be charged for compulsory education in schools compulsory education in schools established by established by the national and local the national and local governments. governments. [deleted]

Article 5. Co-Education Men and women shall esteem and cooperate with each other. Coeducation, therefore, shall be recognized in education.

(School Education) Article 6 The schools prescribed by law shall be of a public nature, and only the national government, local governments, and juridical persons prescribed by law shall be entitled to establish them.

Article 6. School Education The schools prescribed by law shall be of a public nature and, besides the national and local governments, only juridical persons prescribed by law shall be entitled to establish them.

(2) The schools set forth in the preceding [added] paragraph shall, in order to fulfill the objectives of education, provide a structured education in an organized way suited to the mental and physical development of the recipients. It shall be carried out in a way that emphasizes instilling the recipients with respect for the discipline necessary to conduct school life, and strengthening their own motivation to learn. [see (Teachers) Article 9]

(2) Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall be servants of the whole community. They shall be conscious of their mission and endeavor to discharge their duties. For this purpose, the status of teachers shall be respected and their fair and appropriate treatment shall be guaranteed.

[added] (Universities) Article 7 Universities, as the core of scholarship activities, shall cultivate advanced knowledge and specialized skills, inquire deeply into the truth and create new knowledge, while contributing to the development of society by broadly disseminating the results of their activities. (2) University autonomy, independence, and other unique characteristics of university education and research shall be respected.

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(Private Schools) [added] Article 8 Taking into account the public nature of privately established schools and their important role in school education, the national and local governments shall endeavor to promote private school education through subsidies and other appropriate means, while respecting school autonomy. (Teachers) Article 9 Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall endeavor to fulfill their duties, while being deeply conscious of their noble mission and continuously devoting themselves to research and self-cultivation.

(From Article 6, above) (2) Teachers of the schools prescribed by law shall be servants of the whole community. They shall be conscious of their mission and endeavor to fulfill their duties. For this purpose, the status of teachers shall be respected and their fair (2) Considering the importance of the mission and appropriate treatment shall be and duties of the teachers set forth in the ensured. preceding paragraph, the status of teachers shall be respected, their fair and appropriate treatment ensured, and measures shall be taken to improve their education and training. (Education in the Family) [added] Article 10 Mothers, fathers, and other guardians, having the primary responsibility for their children’s education, shall endeavor to teach them the habits necessary for life, encourage a spirit of independence, and nurture the balanced development of their bodies and minds. (2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to take necessary measures supporting education in the family, by providing guardians with opportunities to learn, relevant information, and other means, while respecting family autonomy in education. (Early Childhood Education) [added] Article 11 Considering the importance of early childhood education as a basis for the lifelong formation of one’s personality, the national and local governments shall endeavor to promote such education by providing an environment favorable to the healthy growth of young children, and other appropriate measures.

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(Social Education) Article 12 The national and local governments shall encourage education carried out among society, in response to the demands of individuals and the community as a whole.

Article 7. Social Education The national and local governments shall encourage education carried out at home, in places of work and elsewhere in society.

(2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to promote social education by establishing libraries, museums, community halls and other social education facilities, opening the usage of school facilities, providing opportunities to learn, relevant information, and other appropriate means.

(2) The national and local governments shall endeavor to attain the aims of education by the establishment of such institutions as libraries, museums, community halls, etc., by the usage of school facilities, and by other appropriate means.

(Partnership and Cooperation among [added] Schools, Families, and Local Residents) Article 13 Schools, families, local residents, and other relevant persons shall be aware of their respective roles and responsibilities regarding education, and endeavor to develop partnership and cooperation. (Political Education) Article 8. Political Education Article 14 The political literacy necessary for The political literacy necessary for sensible sensible citizenship shall be valued in citizenship shall be valued in education. education. (2) The schools prescribed by law shall refrain (2) The schools prescribed by law shall from political education or other political refrain from political education or other activities for or against any specific political political activities for or against any party. specific political party. (Religious Education) Article 15 The attitude of religious tolerance, general knowledge regarding religion, and the position of religion in social life shall be valued in education.

Article 9. Religious Education The attitude of religious tolerance and the position of religion in social life shall be valued in education.

(2) The schools established by the (2) The schools established by the national and national and local governments shall local governments shall refrain from religious refrain from religious education or other education or other activities for a specific activities for a specific religion. religion.

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Chapter III. Education Administration (Education Administration) Article 16 Education shall not be subject to improper control and shall be carried out in accordance with this and other acts; education administration shall be carried out in a fair and proper manner through appropriate role sharing and cooperation between the national and local governments.

Article 10. Education Administration Education shall not be subject to improper control, but it shall be directly responsible to the whole citizens. (2) Education administration shall, the basis of this realization, aim at adjustment and establishment of various conditions required for pursuit of the aims of education.

(2) The national government shall [added] comprehensively formulate and implement education measures in order to provide for equal opportunities in education and to maintain and raise education standards throughout the country. (3) The local governments shall formulate and [added] implement education measures corresponding to regional circumstances in order to promote education in their respective regions. (4) The national and local governments shall [added] take necessary financial measures to ensure the smooth and continuous provision of education. (Basic Plan for the Promotion of Education) Article 17 In order to facilitate the comprehensive and [added] systematic implementation of measures for the promotion of education, the government shall formulate a basic plan covering basic principles, required measures, and other necessary items in relation to the promotion of education. It shall report this plan to the Diet and make it public. (2) Local governments, referring to the plan set forth in preceding paragraph, shall endeavor to formulate a basic plan on measures to promote education corresponding to regional circumstances. Chapter IV. Enactment of Laws and Regulations Article 18 Laws and regulations necessary to implement the provisions stipulated in this Act shall be enacted.

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on the the the


The Administrative Structure of National Government (as of April 1st, 2006) mainly include the Cabinet, Prime Minister, and the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. The Cabinet has the executive power of administration in Japan (Article 65 of the Constitution of Japan). Regarding to education administration, the Cabinet settles the legal budget, as well as the policies concerning education at the Cabinet council. As previously explained (Monbugakusho) which is the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, is responsible of the management of the national administration in education, as well as the promotion and diffusion of school education, social education, science, technology, sports and culture. The MEXT (Monbugakusho) is responsible for the establishment and adjustment of education conditions. It also supervises and assists the activities relating to education, as well as giving advice and assistance to local boards of education. When it is necessary, the Ministry makes inquires and gives notices to local boards of education concerning improvements or corrections. The local education administration plays an important role in the educational management. The local education administration is one of the administrative objects of the Ministry of Education, and it is in charge of research and planning concerning local education administration; guidance and advice concerning the organization and management of local education administration. It also gives measures to check violations of the provisions of laws and regulation or inadequate management, etc. The educational administration as whole research and planning concerning the promotion of education, science, technology, sports, culture etc; execution and publication of their technical material. The local educational administration research and planning concerning local educational administration; guidance and advice concerning and management of local educational administration; gives measure to check violations of the provisions of laws and regulations or inadequate management; etc.

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Government Structure for Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology The Monbugakusho is divided into the regular Ministry and the Commissioner for Cultural affairs. The principle subdivisions include the following bureaus and their functions are as follows:

Minister's Secretariat The Minister's Secretariat is responsible for general administrative duties, such as personnel affairs, general affairs and accounting. Other responsibilities of the Secretariat include policy coordination and evaluation for the Ministry as a whole, public relations and information technology development related to the administrative functions, organization of international work, implementation of international aid and cooperation, and work on the development of educational facilities.

Lifelong Learning Policy Bureau In order to promote educational reform, the Lifelong Learning Policy Bureau plans and drafts basic policy, conducts research and analysis on domestic and overseas education, and strives to promote policies on information technology. The Bureau also promotes social education, supports education in the home, and develops various lifelong learning opportunities such as gender equality. The Bureau is also responsible for the maintenance and enhancement of the University of the Air and advancement of specialized training college education and miscellaneous school education. Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau In order to advance elementary and secondary education, the Elementary and Secondary Education Bureau is responsible for establishing curriculum standards in elementary schools, lower and upper secondary schools, secondary schools, schools for the blind, schools for the deaf, and schools for the otherwise disabled children and kindergartens. It is also responsible for the enhancement of student guidance and career guidance, the promotion of education for Japanese children living overseas, and the free provision and authorization of textbooks. Lastly, the Bureau is responsible for the system for local education, systems related to government employees working in education, legal standards for class size and staffing numbers for schools, and the payment of school staff. 16


Higher Education Bureau In order to advance higher education, the Higher Education Bureau is responsible for the formulation of basic policies for higher education, the establishment and approval of universities, junior colleges and colleges of technology, university entrance examination and the conferring of degrees, duties related to student welfare guidance, the scholarship loan program, and the promotion of student exchanges. In addition, to promote private education, the Bureau is also responsible for approving the establishment of school corporations, guidance and assistance on the management of school corporations, and the subsidization of private schools.

Science and Technology Policy Bureau The Science and Technology Policy Bureau are responsible for the planning and drafting of basic science and technology policies. The Bureau is also responsible for the formulation of research and development programs, the promotion of research evaluation, the training of researchers and specialists, regional science and technology promotion, promoting the understanding of science and technology, the promotion of a comprehensive policy on international research exchange, duties related to safety regulations, and environmental surveys for nuclear reactors for experimental research and radioactive isotopes, etc.

Research Promotion Bureau The Research Promotion Bureau is responsible for promoting a wide range of scientific research, from the humanities and the social sciences to the natural sciences, by establishing academic research institutions and provision of assistance for academic research. It is also responsible for promotion of research and development in such areas as life sciences, information and communications, nanotechnology and materials, and quantum and radiation research, as well as for strengthening coordination between industry, academia, and government and Japan's intellectual property and development of research foundations.

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Research and Development Bureau The Research and Development Bureau is responsible for promoting research and development centered on large-scale projects, such as research and development on earthquakes, disaster reduction, the ocean, the earth, and the environment; the promotion of Antarctic observation, the International Space Station (ISS) Program and other research; the development and utilization of space; and research and development on nuclear power, nuclear fusion promoting the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and nuclear fuel cycle including the prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju''. The Bureau is also responsible for areas related to nuclear energy policy, including the peaceful use of nuclear energy.

Sports and Youth Bureau The Sports and Youth Bureau is responsible for promoting policies to encourage sports and improve children's physical strength. These policies include enhancement of physical education in schools, realization of a lifelong sports society and the improvement of international competitiveness in sports. The bureau is also responsible for the enhancement of health education, including education on dietary habits, enhancement of school safety and mental care, promotion of school health, etc., and promotion of fostering health in youth, including promotion of experiential activities for youth, measures to deal with problem behavior, promotion of children's reading activities, etc.

Director-General for International Affairs Acting as the Secretariat for the Japanese National Commission for UNESCO, in accordance with the Law Concerning UNESCO Activities, the Director-General for International Affairs is responsible for promoting UNESCO activities. The Office also works on negotiations concerning Free Trade Agreements, Economic Partnership Agreements, and services trade in the World Trade Organization (WTO).

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Agency for Cultural Affairs The Agency for Cultural Affairs is responsible for activities aimed at the promotion of culture, as well as international cultural exchange. These include cultivation of artists and support of creative artistic activities; support for the promotion of culture in communities; designation of national treasures, important cultural properties, important tangible and intangible folk cultural properties, historic sites, places of scenic beauty and natural monuments; preservation and passing down of intangible cultural properties; maintenance and dissemination of copyright systems; improvement and dissemination of the Japanese language and Japanese language education; promotion of international cultural exchange; maintenance and establishment of cultural facilities; and advancement of Ainu culture. The Agency is also responsible for religious affairs.

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SCHOOL BOARDS AND DECENTRALIZATION Educational Administration at the Prefectural and Municipal Level In Japan there are 47 prefectures, each of which is further divided into a number of municipalities. In every prefecture there is a prefectural board of education which serves as the central education authority in the prefecture. The board is responsible for the administration and management of government services relating to education, science, technology, sports and culture in each prefecture. The Japanese Board of Education system was made by drawing from the example of America’s educational administrative system after World War II. While the latter system did not address Japan’s actual conditions, the concepts and philosophy of the Japanese system clearly reflect America’s Board of Education system. The Municipal Boards of Education which establish public elementary schools and lower secondary schools need to cooperate with the heads of municipalities regarding financing of general education because the boards don’t have authority over budgeting. Also, they need to explain the meaning and contents of the philosophy of independent general administration because municipality heads are concerned with educational administration. In addition, the distinction between the theoretical philosophical level and actual practice is needs clarification under decentralization policies, since these are directly linked to the recent revisions of the Law concerning the Organization and Functions of Local Education Administration. The board of education is a council system of organization that usually consists of members. While the board of education has the right to decide policies about the management and enforcement of educational / academic / cultural administration from a broad point of view, a major duty of the superintendent of the board of education as an expert on educational administration is the actual execution of policies. The superintendent is required to attend all meetings of the board and to give advice on proceedings. Educational administration in Japan has been characterized as rigidly uniform and centralized in the pre-war period, after pre-war era, Japan adopted a decentralized system of educational administration for that actually The Public schools established by municipalities and Local School Boards have authority to manage them.

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The responsibility and management of educational administration was given to local authorities with the enactment of, Boards of Education Law in 1948. Along with this act school boards were established. School boards are set up in all prefectures, cities and towns, so school boards are established in all municipalities around Japan. At the prefectural level, school boards mainly manage senior high school, and city town school boards manage the elementary and junior high school. The central government, trough the MEXT continues to impose various kinds of restrictions on local school boards, for instance as national standards of curriculum have heavy government regulations, local school or local school boards do not have the power to shuffle personnel and they do not have financial authority, either.

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Reform Movements in Educational Administration (Decentralization) Until the 1960s, post- World War II reforms focused mostly on educational administration. After the 1970s, reforms shifted from centralization to decentralization. The Board of Education Law in 1948 enabled Japanese educational administration to start over based on the principle of democratization. During the 1950s, when the key policy concern was to secure political neutrality in education, the Board of Education Law was revised and the Law concerning the Organization and Functions of Local Educational Administration was enacted. These reforms promoted centralization of educational administration. We can see the prototype of the educational reform steps taken since the 1980s in the Report of the Central Council for Education based on the three principles (respect for the individual, transition to a lifelong learning system, accommodation to the changes in society such as internationalization and information exchange). When comparing the pre-war and the post-war Japanese educational philosophy and responsibility there are three prominent features. First, before World War, legislation of educational laws was based on the principle of Imperial Ordinance. After the war, it switched to the principle of legislative enactment embodied in the Constitution of Japan and the Fundamental Law of Education. Second, before the war, education was a national affair, not autonomous. While the Government was responsible for administration of schools and personnel management, regional entities were responsible for maintenance of school plan and the pay for teachers. After the war, whereas regions have responsibilities for education based on the principle of decentralization, the national government retains the functions to provide guidance and advice to the regional bodies. Third, before the war, educational authority in Japan was based on a top-down mechanism centered in the School Inspector System: Minister of Education (School Inspector) School Inspector and County School Inspector)

Governor (Prefecture

Mayor (Education Affairs Committee)

Principal and Teacher. After the war, however, the basic principle was adopted that the Ministry of Education and the Boards of Education are legally equivalent.

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II. EVALUATION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION AND SUPERVISION IN JAPAN The evaluation is today perhaps one of the issues with greater role of Education, and not because it is a new issue at all, but because administrators, educators, parents, students and the whole society in its Together, they are more aware than ever of the importance and impact the fact of being assessed or evaluated. There is perhaps a greater awareness of the need to achieve certain aspects of quality education, appropriate use of resources, time and effort, and other pro the level of competition between individuals and institutions is also major. Decisions on the evaluation are numerous and complicated. Some affect their function, others to the model chosen, and others, finally, the use of information obtained and the consequences of the evaluation. The evaluation may have two different purposes: first, administrative control and accountability, on the other, improving the functioning of schools. In the first case, the objective of the evaluation is to learn about the functioning of schools to see if they meet the educational objectives set. In this way the education authorities can detect the most important problems and to make decisions it deems appropriate. Normally the implementation of this feature often leads to some kind of external evaluation. The systems used are routine self-evaluation and internal evaluation, though it can be completed with some type of external evaluation. The evaluation is being done by teachers or the educational community of each school. It is an activity that must be part of the normal processes of learning. Its advantages are obvious: they know better the school, its history and its main features, problems that may have been there in the past and the present condition and the relationship between the various data that are obtained.

7. School Evaluation and School Management Evaluation in Japan

After the World War II a reform period that school evaluation was introduced into Japan. The reason for which the school evaluation is necessary is that certain and reliable activities are requested to be created up at public school, people who are related to the school education need to review those practices, and they need to think about the ideal way of the school education based on the reflection. 23


Educational Reform and School evaluation after World War II A lot of theories, practices, and thoughts of education in the United States had entered Japan just after World war II. The idea of the early school evaluation in the United States was counted as the one of these.

At

the time, “Training course of the Japan-U.S

combine” and “Handbooks by the Ministry of Education of Japan” had enormous influences on teachers and public schools in japan. There were things like work-shops and handbooks that concerned the Ministry of Education tentative plan. There were concerning the influences on the practices, the content of evaluation, and the method in details at public schools. Studies of the school evaluation of the United States were progressed and of comparison with ideas of Japan with the practices were examined and there were methodologies of school evaluation. “The Political structure of 1955” and School Evaluation under the Appointment System of the Board of education System Centralization of education System and Confrontation at school Site. After the war, the school personnel felt strong reflection that school education had assisted to the war. In labor union activities of them, the school personnel recited the maintenance of the peace constitution and the ban of the atomic and hydrogen bombs experiment. Their one of biggest slogan was “we must never send the battlefield our pupil.” and the appealed for the autonomy of education. “The political structure of 1955” gave the educational policies substantial changes. The board of education system was changed from the public election system by residents in region derived from American model, to the appointment approval system by the head of local government because the law of local educational administration was enacted in 1956. The power of the Ministry of Education to local educational administration was strengthened. Minister of education

had the power that gave official approval the

textbook used schools in the textbook screening system in 1953. Some schools tried school evaluation from 60's to 70's. However, the school evaluation of 60's to 70's was only a mere ideal or an idea in the realities that the administration of public school were strengthened. Afterwards, the school evaluation boom occurred in the 80's again. However, it can be said that a structural distortion of management at school, the above-mentioned, continued to the of “the political structure of 1955”, until the beginning of the 90's. 24


Deployment of School Evaluation

Concepts and View

Saburo koda (1964) was pioneering scholar who had multilaterally discussed problems of school evaluation. Koda included three deployments of school evaluation just after World War II mentioned above, and had serialized “Introduction to school evaluation” (19671968) to “School management studies journal”, and discussed problem of school evaluation multilaterally. The educational management scholars strengthened the concern from evaluating 2school” to evaluation “Management school”. However it can be said that the school evaluation concept of Koda was different from other disputants because his concepts concerning teachers at schools and staff's specialties were assumed to be a base.

Controversy over Concepts and View of School Evaluation Tanako (1962) pointed out that evaluating school education and evaluation school management were undifferentiating in a lot of school evaluation concepts and views. He discussed the necessity for identifying “Evaluation of education” and “Evaluation of school management” He described for evaluating of school to have to include this evaluating of both aspects, and to be planned from each function side. Maki (1975) pointed out, “School management evaluations clarified the content and the method more than school evaluation” Yoshimoto (1979) described “if the school management is not functioning essentially, the school evaluation becomes the covering principle of the whole area but the grasp by the evaluation becomes monotonous.” School evaluation was discussed until 70's by a dichotomy between the two diagram 2school evaluation” or “School management evaluation”. And, “School management evaluation” concepts and views became superior, and these arguments were settled once in 80's. However, a rapid change in society and the information society have progressed from 90's to today. Actually we need to understand public schools being as “Evaluate concerning the school” and investigate the function and the structure of the school evaluation in the public educational administration system.

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Evaluation of Educational Administration A lot of educational administration scholars were pointing out not only the self evaluation of the school but also the necessity of external valuation and evaluation of educational administration. Nagaoka (1978) discussed to be necessary for the school evaluation to be done by the collaboration of the school, educational administration, universities, and research laboratories. Moreover, Tanako (1998) pointed out the aspect that the problem of educational administration was clarified by evaluating the inside at the school from the angle of the profession, too. The evaluating concepts and view of educational administration are related to the evaluating concepts and views of school management.

Modern Function of school Evaluation – The opportunities of school evaluation in Japan of today Each public school was requested to establish independent and autonomy. The concrete strategy is “Self-check and self-evaluation of school” and “conditions and results of school management need to be announced.” These were instituted to be obligated. The government guidelines for teaching has been revised every about ten years. Received the report of central education Council in 1998, Curriculum Council in December 1998 located the implementation of the self-check and the self evaluation as a responsibility of each school to understand the established situation of the government guidelines for teaching. As a result, the school evaluation was stressed further more. The establishment of the school evaluation system including the external evaluation instituted, the Board of education of prefectures and the ordinance-designated cities were received trust from MEXT, and they work on research and development of the school evaluation. In the correspondence of the MEXT these results, the self-check and the self evaluation by education board and school bear a big function.

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Modern Trends of Studies concerning School evaluation in Japan A lot of researches and practitioners may fall the approach of the school evaluation. The reason is that the understanding of the past failures is shallow and the problem of preventing established of school evaluation cannot be clarified. We need studies and practices to over come these problems. The school evaluation does not have studied accumulation enough. A lot of boards of education have mainly advanced the school evaluation manual making with schools and scholars of education who advise to them. The trust of MEXT is received, each administrative division's board of education has advanced studying concerning the school evaluation after the enforcement of the school requirement for establishment in 2002. They have made the guidance book, the manual, and the guideline concerning the school evaluation. As for school evaluation manual in administrative divisions, the following various features are seen. 

Checklist methods and questionnaire methods.



“school external evaluation” or “ School evaluation by persons outside”, questionnaires by guardian, and mention concerning “ The School Councilor System.”



Evaluation of class activities and school events on school year schedule.



“Plan, Do, See” shift to the “plan, do , check, action” of management cycle.



Relevancy of public sector evaluation and policy assessment.



Mid-term and long-term vision.



Mention concerning “The school wonderful trait is made”.

These are advices concerning school management of organization. In conclusion School Evaluation is “Evaluation of school that has aimed at developing ideal ways by which school is improved”. Public school in Japan, specially junior high schools and elementary schools, are not said that each school is independent managing in region. The basis is provided to the educational contents and the curriculum by the government. Public school should improve “self-organization power” and “self-evaluation power”.

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When school was able to put out the potential, “school evaluation as the strategies for the school organization development” will become possible.

Public school should be

established originality, independent, and the autonomy and restructure as a strong organization.

Self -Evaluation

In order to improve standards of education and to achieve its goal, schools should make efforts to undertake self-inspection and self-evaluation about educational activities and other aspects of school management and to publish the results. Self- inspection and self-evaluation of schools has become an obligation. A regulation providing for a similar obligation was added to the criteria for school establishment for schools at other educational levels such as upper secondary schools and specialized training colleges. Generally, school evaluations are based on “management in accordance with objectives” derived from business management methods. In practical terms, school evaluations are conducted based on the “Plan, Do, Check, Action cycle.” It is important that numerical target sand action targets are set during annual planning phases in schools in order to evaluate progress. There are, however, some problems that derive from the difficulty in quantifying aspects and outcomes of school educational goals and targets each academic year. External school assessments have not become obligatory under existing ordinances. However, many schools voluntarily have started to assess the validity of self-inspections and the self-evaluations. The main approach is to survey opinions of parents to help them to participate in accountability. Third party school assessments have been introduced in some schools and are carried out by third parties such as educational researchers, sometimes by involving them in the school boards.

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Personnel Evaluation of Teachers and Professional Development A large number of corporations have introduced the principle of competency- and performance-based evaluation. This principle seeks to include or make use of the process of goal achievement in personnel evaluation. Evaluation can be classified into the following three categories: 

Regular evaluation – implemented regularly for all employees, more than once a year, except for probationary employees.



Probationary period evaluation – implemented for probationary employees at a set time, five months after the start date of employment.



Unscheduled evaluation – implemented on an unscheduled basis for employees who are determined by evaluators to be in need of appraisal. Often in such cases as job transfer, reinstatement, and promotion of the employees, as well as when it is difficult to implement fair appraisal by regular evaluation or on the date a probationary evaluation.

Evaluated employee

Evaluator

Coordinator (who adjust evaluations)

Principal

Superintendent of prefectural None ( municipal) education board

Non-principal School teacher (teachers, school nurses, assistant teachers, assistant school

Principal of the employee's

Superintendent of prefectural

school

( municipal) education board

nurses, instructors, administrative employees) Work performance evaluation covers a wide variety of items, including a wide range of teacher indispensability’s, and the elements covered in evaluation, i.e., assignments, characteristics, and abilities, remain major criteria for appraisal. Although teacher organizations have apposed work performance evaluation, it has become a fixed institution.

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Self-assessment of and Interviews on goals Teachers implement self-assessment on self-set goals, and have interviews with principals in order to explain their perspectives and content of their goals. Principal and teachers augment their mutual understanding regarding specific teacher task and on-the-job challenges, as well as the state of school operation. Trough interviews. Principals discuss teacher goals with them and help finalize the goals from the perspective of examining compliance of teacher goals with school and group goals, as well as expected roles for each teacher; further developing teacher abilities; fostering of teachers over the medium and long term, and teachers collaborating with fellow teachers. Methods and Content of Teacher Evaluation The purpose of teacher evaluation is to set goals, plan in accordance with the set goals, as well as for enhancing and improving motivation, qualifications, and skills, as well as for enhancing and improving school operations for the following school year. In order to fulfill this purpose, evaluation should be easy to understand and persuasive for teachers. It is also desirable that evaluation leads to improvement of specific abilities and enhancement and improvement of school operations. School principals are expected to evaluate teachers by sharing common understanding with them and considering multiple aspects of evaluated teachers. Principals also refer to the opinions of students, guardians, and the teachers' colleagues. Absolute evaluation is applied at three appraisal categories: performance, ability, and overall appraisal. Three grade levels of A, B and C – with B being overall having achieved goal and possesses the basic ability to carry out work responsibilities. Evaluating of the Management – Differences with Teacher Evaluation Principals, as managers and supervisors, have responsibilities for teacher execution of their duties and their own schools. As such, they are expected to have the ability to process jobs and leadership and crisis managements skills. Teachers are evaluated in carrying out their duties, with specific viewpoints, whereas principals are evaluated in their abilities for task-setting, solving problems, and organizational operation as managers and supervisors in situations where they are required to use their abilities. 30


2. SUPERVISION OF EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN JAPAN 2.1 Definitions Following a definition, Supervision means the act of watching over the work or tasks of another who may lack full knowledge of the concept at hand. Supervision does not mean control of another but guidance in a work, professional or personal context. For example in a classroom the term can also mean a tutorial, that is, a meeting between a student or small group of students and a teacher responsible for their learning. In childcare and general use, the verb "to supervise" means to watch over, and is often used in the context of an adult watching children to ensure they are attended, acceptably behaved, and safe. School Supervision is thus a method of teaching staff to act in more conscious ways. Its goal is to provide teachers and supervisors with more information and deeper insights into what is happening around them. This increases the options teachers have as they work with students. If the partnership between supervisors and teachers works, teachers learn to identify and resolve their problems, while supervisors get a better idea about what is happening in different classrooms. This provides supervisors with more opportunities to think about their actions and emotions and to adopt conscious plans to improve the learning situation. Roles of School Supervisor: 

Administrative Role

Procure resources Provide leadership and direction Establish and enforce rules and standards, policies and procedures Establish and maintain boundaries Adhere to prevailing societal laws Create and maintain a team-based atmosphere

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Managerial Role

Establish and maintain a communication system Distribute the workload Establish and clarify staff roles Protect and maintain resources Work within effective timeframes 

Educational Role

Teach values and belief system of agency Teach skills Provide and/or support educational program Teach discipline and correction Provide information about agency history Provide coaching and mentoring to promote staff development



Service and Support

Nurture physical and personal wellbeing Respect staff members Resolve conflict among staff Support all staff consistently in the way most suited to each person Demonstrate empathy and concern for staff Communicate with staff

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2.1 School Supervision in Japan The Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) may offer necessary guidance, advice and assistance to local boards of education and local educational personnel on curriculum standards, methods and techniques of instruction, guidance and school management, trough direct or indirect methods as follows: 

Official notification to prefectural or municipal boards of education,



Supervision of local boards of education and, trough local boards, supervision of public schools.



Conduct of conference and workshop on a nation-wide scale for principals, supervisors and teachers.



Publication of guides, manuals and handbook for teachers.

A number of school inspectors and senior specialists for curriculum are employed in the ministry. School inspectors of the ministry provide guidance on elementary education. Senior specialist for curriculum serve full-time and their function is to conduct research and study on the standards of curriculum for the school level and subjects areas which they are assigned, and to give prefectural boards of education and advice and assistance on the curriculum. Direct guidance and advice to elementary and lower secondary school teachers are given by the prefectural and municipal boards of education. The supervision section give guidance and advice to schools, conduct conferences and workshops for principal and teachers and publish guides, manuals or handbooks for teachers, based on the central policy for supervision, and taking into consideration the specific situation of the prefectures concerned. The principal supervisory personnel of prefectural boards of education are supervisors, who are assigned for guidance on curriculum, teaching, and other professional matters related to school education within their prefecture. School supervision is the primary function of supervisors. Supervisor must be experienced professional educators with thorough understanding of the curriculum, teaching methods and objectives and other professional matters related to school education.

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III. EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION IN PERU Education in Peru is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Education, which is in charge of formulating, implementing and supervising the national education policy. According to the Constitution, education is compulsory and free in public schools for levels of initial, primary and secondary education. It is also free in public universities for students from low income and have a satisfactory academic performance. 3.1 History of Education in Peru Education in pre-Inca cultures There is no oral or written records about a school system organized into the pre-Inca cultures. But the degree of evolution that reached some indirect evidence of their existence. Each culture because of its competitive advantages and expertise in a specific field would have developed an ideal way of training, for example could explain the work in metalwork, ceramics or textiles that are preserved until today, and whose technique is perfected with the passing of time and unfortunately that would be lost along with the achievements of many other cultures. Education in the Inca Formal education, according to the Inca Garcilaso de la Vega, was founded by the Inca Roca and distributed by Pachacutec, was designed exclusively for the elite real and subsequently for the children of conquered Curaca At this level are educated to be managers and leaders. the Amauta were teachers, a man famous in the philosophy and moral contents were based on arithmetic and astronomy needed for an economic organization based on agriculture. The Haravicus, who were the inventors of poems; the Willac Umu, were transmitters of knowledge of the Divine Office. Learning the Quechua was mandatory for political reasons that more educational. The education we gave the Amauta was an education and strict punishment is practiced. Education in the Viceroyalty

In the Colony was necessary to Christianize the people

defeated and transform them into loyal subjects. It is re-educate the Indians give instruction to adults and children and young people in training, indoctrinating them and teach them the rudiments of social life for European use them to the State; this was called to elementary education, because there were other bodies like the University (founded 1551) to which only had access to the aristocratic caste, holders of political and economic power; intermediate education, which educated the Creoles, mestizos and some wealthy merchants; college of chiefs, which starts from 1536 until it is abolished by Sim贸n Bol铆var. 34


But the republic of Indians in general had no access to formal education, were left with only informal education. Education was predominantly religious, as it was in charge of various religious orders and priests. In the Viceroyalty of Peru there were many colleges, among the main we can mention the following: Maximum of the College of San Pablo Lima, run by the Jesuits in the city of Lima, founded in 1568; in this school were taught art classes, philosophy, and the study of languages native of Peru. College of San Felipe, for the children of the conquistadors, led by priests of the Archdiocese of Lima, and the Colegio de San Marcos, founded by the Viceroy Toledo in 1575. The Royal College of San MartĂ­n, founded by the Viceroy Don Martin Enriquez of Almansa in 1582, where he conducted studies of jurisprudence. San Idelfonso, run by the Augustinian. San Antonio de Abad (Cusco), which led to the university. Colegio de San Pedro de Nolasco, founded in Lima, in charge of Mercedario, whose facilities have been preserved until today. The Prince's College, established by Royal Decree of King Carlos III after the expulsion of the Jesuits, was the former College of Chieftains to Indian nobles, created during the government of Viceroy Francisco de Borja and Prince of Aragon Esquilache in Lima; its equivalent Cuzco was the Colegio San Francisco de Borja, for the sons of chiefs, who received teachings of the Castilian, religion, and so on. College of Huancavelica, founded by the Jesuits in 1709. College of the City of Moquega founded in 1711 by the Jesuits. College of Ica founded in 1719 founded by the Jesuits. Colegio de San Carlos founded in 1770, being Viceroy and Junient Manuel Amat, was created in compensation for the expulsion of the Jesuits, worked in what is now the mansion of San Marcos. It was at this school where Don Toribio Rodriguez de Mendoza and Fray Diego Cisneros opened the movements of reform in teaching. St. Thomas, in charge of the Dominicans. San Buenaventura by the Franciscans.

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History of Educational Administration in Peru The Peruvian Education face from long-standing problems inherent in its administration and management, with experience that the history of education must not forget, let's see:

Nuclei school peasants, were created in 1946 in the government of Dr. JosĂŠ Luis Bustamante and Rivero, in each core there was a complete primary school equipped with arable land, grain, workshops, etc.. Subsequently had the experience of Pre-Vocational schools. In the'50s was made the first National Plan of Education, created the School unit, common and technical, were organized regions, is strengthened inspections and monitoring Primary Technique. In 1962, we began the decentralization of the education sector, created 4 regions. In 1972, at the time of the Education Reform was created Nuclei Educational Commons, was organized around 600 cores, which were consolidated into directorates within Area and Regional. The dominance of administrative tasks on pedagogy and participation, which did not reach the nuclei develop their activities. In 1975, with the economic crisis led to spending cuts that affected the equipping of schools and cores, and remuneration of teachers. The administrative reorganization of 1972, I think the INABEC, the National System of the University and the Peruvian Geophysical Institute of Peru, which became part of the budget of Education. In the second half of the eighties, the supervisions and subsequently Educational Service Units (USE) replaced the nuclei and the Directorates Area. USEs currently are called UGEL (Local Education Management Unit).

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3.1 Organization of Educational Administration in Peru



The System of Law in Peru Fundamental Law of Education

no. 28044 (July 28th, 2003)

Constitution of Peru (Constitución Política del Perú) December 29th, 1993 

Structure of the education system (Educational levels)

Early Education and Initial starts from 0 to 2 years old and from 3 to 5 years old for the initial level. Is to enhance sensitive periods, which are appropriate moments in which the child will easily assimilated some learning. It is therefore important to know where to focus educational efforts as the ages of the children by providing opportunities. Where the child is the protagonist of his apprenticeship with the internal and external actors to provide optimal conditions for the deployment of its capabilities. Objective of the Early Education The goal of early education is to foster the development of the child, through a rights approach where the parents involved (domestic servants), people from around the child to educators / promoters / (external agents ) Implemented early education centers (CET) with strategies based on the free play and the role of children. Primary Education It begins with the first cycle, comprising the 1st and 2nd grade. The entry age for children is 6 years old. This level starts in 1st grade and ends in the 6th grade, for purposes curricular sets 3 training cycles: I cycle (1st and 2nd grade), II cycle ( 3rd and 4th grade), and III cycle (the 5th and 6th grade) thus become secondary.

Secondary Education Secondary education consists of 5 years: 1st the 5th year. 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, and 5th secondary, as it is one of the educations that fewer people could pass with satisfaction.

Higher Education

The technological colleges, public and private offer 3-year career

title behalf of the nation as Vocational and Technical also get less recognition that universities, but it depends on the performance of students. 37


University education exists in Peru University Law No. 23,733; in force since 1983, which sets the guidelines, principles and rules of organization of universities. However, Legislative Decree No. 882 "Law for the Promotion of Investment in Education", has allowed several universities operate without the legal framework of the previous law, giving greater autonomy in the administrative part.

No university education

In Peru, non-university education: technical institutes,

educational institutes, occupational centers, etc., are under the guardianship of the Ministry of Education, which is responsible for providing licenses for operation. Special Education This section is empty or is it an outline. You can help expand this section.

Quality

Law No. 28740, the National System for Quality, Evaluation and

Certification (SINEACE) is a system to promote quality education in the country through the establishment of agencies operators certifying the quality of educational institutions, from the level basic, technological and university. but does not perform its work Peru being one of the lowest countries in education this for the low investment in the government's own education.

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LEGAL FRAMEWORK Constitution of Peru (Constitución Política del Perú) December 29th, 1993 TITLE I CHAPTER II: CONCERNING SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC RIGHTS

Article 13. The purpose of education is the integral development of the human person. The State recognizes and guarantees the freedom of education. It is the duty of parents to educate their children and their right to select schools and to participate in the educational process.

Article 14. Education promotes the knowledge of training in, and the application of, the humanities, science, technology, the arts, physical education, and sport. It prepares for life and work and encourages solidarity. It is the duty of the State to promote the country’s scientific and technological development. Ethical and civic training and the teaching of the Constitution and of human rights are mandatory in the entire civil or military educational process. Religious education is provided in keeping with freedom of conscience. Education is provided at all levels subject to the constitutional principles and the goals of the educational institution involved. The communications media must cooperate with the State in education and in moral and cultural development.

Article 15. The teaching faculty in public education are civil servants. The law determines the requirements for the position of school principal or professor as well as their rights and obligations.

The

State

and

society

insure

their

constant

evaluation,

training,

operationalization, and development. The student is entitled to instruction which respects his identity as well as to appropriate psychological and physical treatment.

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Any person, natural or juridical, has the right to develop and manage schools and to dispose of the latter’s property, in accordance with the law. Article 16. Both the educational system and its regulation are decentralized. The State coordinates educational policy. It formulates the general framework of the curricula [lineamientos generales de los planes de estudios] as well as the minimum requirements of the organization of educational centers. It oversees their implementation and the quality of education. It is the duty of the State to insure that no one should be prevented from receiving an adequate education on account of his economic circumstances or his mental or physical disabilities. Education is given priority over the ordinary items [recursos ordinarios] in the Budget of the Republic.

Article 17. Early education, primary and secondary, are mandatory. In public schools, education is free of charge. In State universities, the government guarantees free education to those students who maintain an adequate standard but lack the economic means to defray the cost of education. In order to insure the greatest choice in the educational offering and to favor whoever is unable to defray their educational expenses, the law determines the method of subsidizing private education in every form, including community and cooperative modalities. The State encourages the creation of educational centers wherever the citizenry may require them. The State guarantees the eradication of illiteracy. Similarly, it promotes bilingual and inter cultural education, according to the characteristics of each district. It preserves the diverse cultural and linguistic manifestations of the country. It promotes national integration.

Article 18. The goals of university education are professional training, cultural diffusion, intellectual and artistic creativity, and scientific and technological research. The State guarantees

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academic freedom and rejects intolerance. Universities are supported by private or public institutions. The law sets the conditions for the authorization of their operations. A university is a community of faculty, students, and graduates. Also forming part are the trustees, in accordance with the law. Each university is autonomous in its standards, governance, academic, administrative, and financial affairs. Universities are administered according to their own bylaws in keeping with the Constitution and the laws.

Article 19. The universities, institutions of higher learning, and other educational centers established according to the relevant legislation are free of all direct and indirect taxes pertaining to assets, operations, and services related to their educational and cultural objectives. As regards import duties, a special regime may be established on specific purchases. Donations and scholarships for an educational purpose benefit from tax preferences in the form and according to the limits sets by law. The law determines the taxation procedures under which the said institutions operate as well as the requirements and conditions that other cultural centers must meet and which may exceptionally also enjoy the same benefits. As for private educational institutions that collect revenues which under the law rate as taxable earnings, a profits tax may be levied on them.

Article 20. Professional colleges are autonomous institutions recognized by public law. The law identifies those cases where membership in an association is mandatory.

Fundamental Law of Education no. 28044 (July 28 th, 2003) Article 12 .- Universal Basic Education To ensure the universalization of basic education throughout the country and sustenance of human development, education is compulsory for students in the levels of early, primary and secondary schools. The state provides public services needed to achieve this goal

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and ensures that the time is equated education with international standards. It is up to parents, or those in their stead, ensuring the timely enrollment of students and retention in schools and educational programs. Article 27 .- The Distance Education

Distance Education is a form of the educational system characterized by the simultaneous or deferred interaction between the actors in the educational process, facilitated by technological means that foster independent learning. It applies to all stages of the education system, according to the regulations in this area. This mode is designed to complement, enhance or replace education attendance to address the needs and demands of the people. It helps to expand coverage and learning opportunities.

Article 29 .- Stages of the Educational System The education system comprises the following steps: a) Basic Education Basic Education is intended to promote the integral development of the student, the deployment of its potential and developing skills, knowledge, attitudes and values that the person should possess to act appropriately and effectively in the various fields of society. With an inclusive serves the demands of people with special educational needs or learning difficulties. b) Higher Education Higher Education is aimed at research, development and dissemination of knowledge to the projection to the community; to achieving high levels of professional competence, in line with demand and the need for sustainable development of the country. Article 32 .- Organization Basic Education is compulsory. When provided by the state, is free. Satisfies basic learning needs of children, youth and adults, considering the individual characteristics and socio-cultural learners. It is organized in: a) Basic Education Fair 42


b) Alternative Basic Education c) Special Basic Education •School

Boards and decentralization

The ministry of Education in Peru The direction and management of the Ministry of Education, is entrusted to the Minister of Education, as provided in Article 119 of the Political Constitution of Peru (1993). By constitutional mandate, it shall endorse the decrees and resolutions of the Supreme bouquet. Also, as every minister, and it relates directly to issue its own initiative, devices that are the so-called ministerial resolutions. Law no. 26510

gives the Minister of

Education the power to approve by Supreme Decree, with the approval of the Council of Ministers, the internal organization of the Ministry of Education. Among the main functions, the Minister issued directed, executes, monitors and evaluates the sectoral policy on education, science and technology, culture, sport and recreation, consistent with the General Policy of the State and national development plans. The Minister is empowered to propose projects of legislative decrees, emergency decrees, supreme decrees and resolutions relating to the sector and endorsed as appropriate. Prefectural Level Regional Education Directorates (DRE) The DRE, by definition and purpose, according to Law No. 28044, is an expert body, which is awaiting transfer to the regional government and is responsible for the education service of this Region. Aims to promote education, culture, sport, leisure, science and technology, ensures the smooth running of educational services and care programs, with quality and equity, which coordinates with the permanently Local Education Management Unit (UGEL) and Institutions of Higher Education non-University. The regions of Peru (Spanish: Regiones del PerĂş) are the first-level administrative subdivisions of Peru. Since its independence in 1821, Peru had been divided into departments (Spanish: departamentos) but faced the problem of an increasing centralization of political and economic power in its capital, Lima. After several unsuccessful decentralization attempts, departments were replaced by regions and regional governments elected on November 20, 2002. Unlike the earlier departments, regions have an elected government and have a wide array of responsibilities within their

43


jurisdiction. Under the 2002 Organic Law of Regional Governments (Spanish: Ley Orgánica de Gobiernos Regionales), there is an ongoing process of transfer of functions from the central government to the regions. Peruvian regions are subdivided in provinces and districts. According to the Regionalization Law which was passed on November 18, 2002, is divided into 25 regions (regiones; singular: región) 1. DRE Amazonas 2. DRE Apurimac 3. DRE Arequipa 4. DRE Ayacucho 5. DRE Cajamarca 6. DRE Callao 7. DRE Cusco 8. DRE Huancavelica 9. DRE Huánuco 10. DRE Ica 11. DRE Junín 12. DRE La Libertad 13. DRE Lambayeque 14. DRE Lima Metropolitana 15. DRE Lima Provincias 16. DRE Loreto 17. DRE Madre de Dios 18. DRE Moquegua 19. DRE Pasco 20. DRE Piura 21. DRE Puno 22. DRE San Martín 23. DRE Tacna

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24. DRE Tumbes 25. DRE Ucayali

The Regional Director of Education is the highest-level official with hierarchical, with Authority and Power to take decisive decisions and management according to law.

Duties: a) Have the articulation Pedagogical Regional Policy, under the National Education Policy with the view of the Participatory Regional Education Board. b) To comply with and enforce the functions approved by Law No. 28,044 - General Education Act and the provisions of the DS. 009-2005-ED. c) the diversification drive curriculum at the regional level in coordination with the Local Education Management Units. d) Monitor, assess the management and operation of the units to office, the Institutes of Technology and Higher Educational Public and Private, by taking timely preventive measures and corrective relevant. e) agreements and contracts in Subscribe gain the support and cooperation of the national and international community, with educational institutions of higher education does not serve the university that improving the quality of education in the region, according to the established rules on the matter. f) Implement measures to modernize and strengthen the administrative management at the Regional Bureau for Education in Metropolitan Lima and in the Technology and Higher Educational Institutions Public Accountants. g) To advise, assist and supervise the Technical Education Units of Educational Management and Local Government and Private Higher Institutes. h) To promote counseling and support for access to quality care and progressive to students with special educational needs in coordination with the Local Education Management Units. i) Authorize, in coordination with the Local Education Management Units, the operation of public and private educational institutions. j) To evaluate periodically and systematically the achievements of the region in education and supporting the actions of assessment and measurement developed by the Ministry of 45


Education.

Local Level The Local Education Management Unit (UGEL)

The Local Education Management is an instance of decentralized implementation of the regional government with autonomy in its area of competence. Provides educational support, Institutional and Administrative to educational institutions under its jurisdiction, to ensure a quality service with equity in cooperation with local governments.

Peru has only 39 Local Education Management Unit (UGEL)

DRE Lima Metropolitana UGEL 01 - San Juan de Miraflores Districts: San Juan de Miraflores, Villa María del Triunfo, Villa el Salvador, Lurín, Pachacamac, San Bartolo, Punta Negra, Punta Hermosa, Pucusana, Santa María, Chilca. UGEL 02 - Rimac Districts: Los Olivos, Independencia, Rimac, San Martín de Porras UGEL 03 - Lima Districts: Cercado de Lima, Lince, Breña, Pueblo Libre, San Miguel, Magdalena, Jesús María, La Victoria, San Isidro UGEL 04 - Comas Districts: Comas, Carabayllo, Puente Piedra, Santa Rosa, Ancón UGEL 05 - San Juan de Lurigancho Jurisdicción: San Juan de Lurigancho, El Agustino UGEL 06 - Ate Vitarte Districts : Santa Anita, Lurigancho – Chosica, Vitarte, La Molina, Cieneguilla, Chaclacayo UGEL 07 - San Borja Districts: San Borja, San Luis, Surco, Surquillo, Miraflores, Barranco, Chorrillos

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DRE Lima Provincias UGEL 08 - Cañete UGEL 09 - Huaura UGEL 10 - Huaral UGEL 11 - Cajatambo UGEL 12 - Canta UGEL 13 - Yauyos UGEL 14 - Oyón UGEL 15 - Huarochiri UGEL 16 - Barranca DRE Callao

UGEL -

Callao

DRE Amazonas 1 UGEL DRE Apurimac 1 UGEL DRE Arequipa 1 UGEL DRE Ayacucho 1 UGEL DRE Cajamarca 1 UGEL DRE Cusco 1 UGEL DRE Huancavelica 1 UGEL DRE Huánuco 1 UGEL DRE Ica 1 UGEL DRE Junín 1 UGEL DRE La Libertad 1 UGEL DRE Lambayeque 1 UGEL DRE Loreto 1 UGEL DRE Madre de Dios 1 UGEL DRE Moquegua 1 UGEL

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DRE Pasco 1 UGEL DRE Piura 1 UGEL DRE Puno 1 UGEL DRE San MartĂ­n 1 UGEL DRE Tacna 1 UGEL DRE Tumbes 1 UGEL DRE Ucayali 1 UGEL Duties: 

Direct, coordinate, guide and monitor the implementation of policy and legislation on education, culture and recreation of its jurisdiction.



To advise and provide technical assistance to educational institutions in charge of education, encouraging the teaching work focused on learning, fostering innovation, research, adaptation and diversification of the curriculum, improving the utilization of educational resources, software development prevention and educational activities of non-formal.



Promote the diversification and suitability of the Basic Curriculum Programs of different levels and types of education at school and classroom. They also provide support and ongoing monitoring to ensure the implementation and operation of the respective programs.



Promote and advise schools and educational programs implementation of innovations, research projects and / or pedagogical experiments conducted by the Central Headquarters of the Ministry of Education. To promote teamwork, the development of the initiative and creativity to generate synergies.



Promote, implement and support actions ongoing training of staff as well as the improvement of educational quality and strengthening its management capacity.



Encourage and support the implementation of programs that ensure students in training in values, in developing a culture of peace and work, as well as the skills required for their insertion into the working world and in democratic life.



Monitor and ensure that educational activities are conducted according to schedule, avoiding the loss of class hours at the Centers and Educational Programs. 48




Support the measurement of the quality of education that runs the Central Headquarters of the Ministry of Education.

The Ministry of Education (1)

Regional Education Directorates (DRE – Direccion Regional de Educacion) (25)

Local Education Management Units (UGEL) (39)

(Instituciones Educativas) SCHOOLS (87,090) (66,409 Public Schools and 20,681 private Schools)

49


Educational municipalization (Spanish: Municipalizaci贸n Educativa) What is Municipalization Educational Management?

It is a pilot scheme which applies in 47 district municipalities in the country. It aims to improve the quality of education received by students in educational institutions through the implementation of a management model with the democratic participation of the municipality and the local education school board in the local development plan and the decentralization process.

Why is it important? 

the municipal authorities responsible will ensure the smooth functioning of the institutions where they studied their own students;



it develops educational infrastructure further to provide adequate amount of help for students according to the culture of the community;



teachers and principals will be selected in a transparent manner through professional preparation and fitness;



to distribute suitable, sufficient and timely educational materials. It will work with calendars and schedules that are consistent with needs, production, trade, cultural and social aspects of the locality.



to implement projects that educational institutions formulated which are consistent with local development plans.

What comprised this organization? Each municipality has a Municipal Board of Education

or CEM (Centro Educativo

Municipal), the governing body of educational management at the local level. The Municipal Board of Education or CEM is chaired by the municipal mayor together with the representatives of all CONEI (Consejo Educativo Institucional) from all educational institutions within the municipal jurisdiction.

50


How is the program supported? UGEL (Unidad de Gestion Educativa Local) supports the implementation of the actions which are formulated by the CEM for the city, in favor of educational institutions in improving the quality of education. It is also supported by the municipality by providing technical assistance in administrative, personnel, logistics operations. The Regional Bureau of Education supports the programming and implementation projects and activities that the city and municipal council of education developed in the performance of their functions and powers. The DRE (Direccion Regional de Educacion) also provides support to the municipality by generating activities involving pedagogical and institutional management which are required to be provided for. The Committee on Transfer Ministry of Education, is the body responsible for supervising the process of municipalization educational management by establishing guidance and technical criteria for its implementation.

51


3.2 Evaluation and Supervision of Educational Administration in Peru 3.2.1 School Evaluation in Peru The educational evaluation in Peru is done by the SINEACE, the National System of Evaluation, Accreditation and Certification of Quality. The Peruvian Institute of evaluation, SINEACE was created by Law No. 28740 of May 23, 2006.

Article 9. Processes for assessing the quality of education 9.1 Assessment processes for the improvement of educational quality are: self, external evaluation and accreditation. 9.2. In the case of the accreditation process, the processes of the preceding paragraph are stages sequence of it. The national operator and establishes the specific requirements of each stage. Article 10 Accreditation Process The accreditation process consists of the following steps: a) Stage Pre-accreditation process b) Self-evaluation c) External Evaluation d) Accreditation Article 11 pre-deployment stage accreditation process It comprises the following: a) Decision of the institution or program accredited b) Informing the operator of the organ credited decision c) Selection of the valuation entity d) Appointment of a mentor for the valuation entity e) Adaptation of the institution or program to the standards and criteria for accreditation based on a strategic plan, developed with support from the mentor.

52


Article 12 Self-Evaluation 12.1 Self-evaluation is the assessment process conducted by the institutions themselves or educational programs with the participation of its stakeholders, namely students, alumni, teachers, administrative authorities, parents and interest groups, aimed at improving of quality. 12.2. Self-evaluation carried out by the institution may be part of the accreditation process or be independent of it, as a component of the process of self-regulation. 12.3 When the self is made for accreditation, the institution or program will use the standards, criteria and procedures approved by the national operator question. 12.4 The outcome of the self is a report that is sent to the valuation entity to their study, with supporting documentation as appropriate. The structure of the report self-evaluation and supporting documentation are provided by the national operator. The report includes the views of the mentor about the process of adaptation.

Article 13 External Evaluation 13.1 The external evaluation is the process of analysis and assessment is made to a program or an educational institution, run by a valuation entity that has existing authorization issued by the body corresponding operator. The external evaluation shows the veracity of the self that has been done by the educational institution or program. 13.2 It is run by a review committee composed of three to five pairs academic appointed by the entity responsible for the evaluation process. The specific requirements of academic peers determines the body operator. 13.3 The institution or program can challenge the composition of the review committee if believes it has a conflict of interest with some of its members, which would affect necessary impartiality of the process. 13.4 The external evaluation consists of the following: a) Receipt of the self-assessment report accompanied by a request for evaluation, from the institution or program. b) Designation of the evaluation committee. c) Review of self-assessment report.

53


d) Visit the verification of the evaluation commission at the headquarters of the institution or program. The visit lasts three to five days depending on the complexity of the subject of evaluation. e) Preparation of the report of the evaluation committee. f) Presentation of the preliminary report to the institution or program, with comments concerned, if any. g) Removal of the remarks by the institution or program. h) Development of the final report by the commission evaluator i) Proposal on accreditation by the governing body of the valuation entity. j) Report on the proposal to the body operator. k) Decision of the body operator on the accreditation of the institution or program. l) Report of the body OPERATOR to the institution or program evaluator about the decision. 13.5 The proposal for the valuation entity can be in any of the following alternatives: a) accredited program or institution. Is granted when it meets all the standards and evaluation criteria. b) institution or program with conditional accreditation to rectify weaknesses that persist after the external evaluation. These weaknesses should be such they do not affect significantly the quality of the processes and results. The national operator sets deadlines for the cure. c) not accredited program or institution. It is awarded when identified weaknesses affecting the quality of the processes and results of the institution or program. In this case, the accreditation process is back to pre-accreditation process. Article 14 .- Accreditation Accreditation is the formal recognition of the quality demonstrated by an institution or program education, granted by the State, through the body corresponding operator, according to the report assessment issued by an external evaluator Entity, duly authorized, in accordance with existing rules. The accreditation is temporary and renewal necessarily imply a new process of self and external evaluation.

54


Teacher Evaluation Since of the year 2006, the Ministry of Education has implemented an National Examination to all teachers, with a stable work or contract work, who work in public schools. In the same way teachers graduates, that applying to the area of educational management. Program for incorporation into the Magisterial Public Career Service is done through a national test, which has several forms according to the requirements for magisterial level and area of performance to which posited the professor. The results are published by strict order of merit on the website of the Ministry of Education and, moreover, are sent in an official manner for dissemination to the Directions Regional Education and Local Education Management Units, which correspond to their respective jurisdictions. Access to it is for Magisterial Public Career strict order of merit. For a teacher to the next level teachers must pass the national examination that consists of the following: Verbal and logical reasoning, as well as knowledge of curriculum and academic specialty.

55


3.2.1 Supervision of Educational Administration in Peru The Supervision Team of the Ministry of Education jointly with the DREL and the UGEL make the educational supervision to public schools, according to an annual schedule. The supervision and verification caution that the construction curriculum is consistent with the mission, vision and pedagogical principles of the school, enabling the development of skills that the student possesses as a person. The monitoring guides and promotes the development of curriculum, the school calendar of extracurricular activities, and so on., According to local or regional characteristics, needs and possibilities of students and the demands of the community. The service of educational supervision of Peru is aimed at improving the quality and efficiency of education through counseling, advocacy and evaluation of the educational process and its administration. Supervisors and specialists from the Ministry of Education only go to visit some schools in each region once a year, these schools are chosen strategy and the results are used as samples. In the case of the DRE and the UGEL have the function of supervising all school districts in the region twice a year. THE PLAN OF SUPERVISION It should be clear that the monitoring plan is part of the Annual Plan of Work. Then a proposed outline of the monitoring plan. SCHEDULE I. DETAILS OF THE BODY 1.1.1 Entity or i.e. 1.1.2 Mission 1.1.3 Diagnostics (in synthetic form)

II. DESCRIPTION OF THE ACTIVITY 2.1.1 Objectives 2.1.2 Issues and / or aspects to monitor 2 .1.3 Shows (only if the surveillance is partial) 56


2.1.4 techniques and instruments to monitor 2.1.5 Timeline of tasks * Planning. * Implementation. * Evaluation - report.

III. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PLAN

3.1.1 Organization of the team (assigning responsibilities)

3.1.2 Allocation of resources (cost of materials, tickets, etc.).

TECHNIQUES FOR FIELD WORK OBSERVATION OF CLASS Using this technique aims to identify the strengths and weaknesses of teaching experience on a learning session, in line with its planning. To do so is as follows: *Entry interview with the teacher to be monitored, to explain what will be our job. *Observing a teacher in class. The information is collected from the activities of the Teacher in a document prepared for it. Compared with the programming and the bimonthly lesson plan. Is the analysis and interpretation of data collected. * Exit interview. It was a conversation with the teacher about your strengths and weaknesses. This stage is important to start asking the teacher a self-assessment of their performance. Only then will the advice and provide guidance for improving their performance. *New observation of the teacher in class. We carried out a second future supervision on another opportunity to see if the teacher has overcome the weaknesses identified. The efficiency of the supervisor must be translated into improved teacher performance. In the teacher-supervisor that the teacher should be avoided falling into the situation of supervised simple, because in that case dependency only brings responsiveness to suggestions and guidelines imposed by another (the supervisor), lost the most significant impact of supervision, which is the liberation of the creative talent of the teacher. It is not therefore a reason of subordination, or psychological or hierarchical, but a partnership,

57


which must govern this fundamental relationship: teacher-supervisor.

IV. COMPARATIVE TABLE ON EDUCATIONAL ADMINISTRATION BETWEEN JAPAN AND PERU (Differences and similarities) Japan and Peru are very different countries, beginning with its location, are in opposite continents, using different languages, ways of living and use cultural and religious traditions totally different. But the two countries practice a democratic system and seeking the welfare of the individual. DIFFERENCES

TOPICS JAPAN

SIMILARITIES PERU 11 years

9 years

Free and Compulsory education

Both countries have

system of It is from elementary It is from elementary a compulsory and free school 6 years to junior school 6 years to beyond high school 3 years. lower secondary education For children between school 5 years. For the 9 years. the ages of 6 and 15.

children between the ages of 6 and 16. 6-5-5

6-3-3-4

of Peruvian Students in the two are Most distinctively separate schools do not provide countries are from elementary for only one level of required to study for education. In public six years at the schools. Kindergartens

At the secondary level, all The system of Education

lower-secondary

schools in Japan are operated from

separated the

upper

secondary schools.

and private schools, primary levels. the pre-primary, the primary secondary

and education

are usually operated together. kindergartens

Peruvian are

There are more special generally included in schools for the elementary schools. handicapped

children

58


than in Peru. And

most

elementary are

of schools

included

in

secondary schools. There

is

differences lower

no between

and

upper-

secondary schools.

Japanese require

students 4

years

complete

to the

undergraduate courses. There Higher Education

are

universities

in

Studying university

at

the level,

Peruvian students are usually

required

5

years to complete the more undergraduate Japan courses.

than in Peru. It can be said that the Japanese upper

secondary

school students

have

more opportunities for higher education than those in Peru.

and In contrast, there are music rooms, secondary schools in no Japan have excellent science rooms, and All

elementary

educational including Facilities in

facilities, art rooms in most of libraries, Peruvian schools.

music

rooms,

art

rooms,

gymnasiums, 59


Schools

and playground. Most of public schools have swimming pools, Science and Art are also well equipped.

In Japan, it starts on st

April 1 Academic year and schedule

March

and ends on st

31

of

the

following year. Learning

In Peru, it starts on March 1st and ends on December 31st of the same year.

and teaching activities All

educational

are carried out from institutions in Peru Monday to Friday, and adopt five days of the Saturday morning schooling, that is, Similar to the learning and teaching also. Japanese, activities are carried kindergarten and out from Monday to elementary school Friday, only in the teachers in Peru are mornings (mainly assigned to a single kindergartens and class and elementary schools) responsible for or in the afternoons teaching all or most (secondary schools). subjects to the class.

School Teacher and subjects

Most

of teachers

in But most of Peruvian Japan are trained either teachers graduated in the universities or from the nonjunior colleges.

university

education

(Educational Institute for Teachers).

60


There

are

scales

of

different In Peru, there is only teachers' one

salary

salary

though

among they are teaching at

kindergarten,

the

different

school

Economic status elementary school and levels. of Teachers

lower secondary school teachers.

Peruvian

teachers

public have no bonus at all. school teachers in The monthly salary is Japan receive more about 30, 000 yens. kinds of allowance than Peru.

And

While

Japanese receive

the

teachers bonus

three

times a year, and the amount is about five times

of

a

monthly

salary.

Fundamental

The System of

Law

of

Fundamental

Education - Basic Act

Law

on Education (Act. 120

Education

of 2006)

28044

Law

of laws

the

of

education

no. based

on

(July development of the

28th, 2003)

At the prefectural level, At

Each country has its

individual.

prefectural Each

country

school boards mainly level, school boards institutions manage

senior

has that

high manage the schools facilitate

school, and city town and the Institutes of decentralized School and

boards school boards manage Technology the

elementary

and Higher

61

and management

Educational education.

of


decentralization

junior high school.

Public and Private. At

the

local

level,

UGEL manages the elementary

and

secondary school. The

Ministry

of

Education in Peru has tried

to

make

the

educational administration

more

decentralized, but in reality it is still highly centralized. The Municipal Boards In just two years ago, of

Education

which Peru just implements

establish

public a pilot project in which

elementary schools and the lower

municipality

will

secondary cooperate with local

schools

need

cooperate

to educational boards.

with

the

heads of municipalities regarding financing of general

education

because don’t

the

have

boards authority

Currently the UGEL is responsible

for

administering

the

education budget of the schools in each district.

over budgeting. The concrete strategy The

educational

is “Self-check and self- evaluation in Peru is evaluation of school” done by The Peruvian School Evaluation

and

“conditions

results

of

and Institute of evaluation, school SINEACE,

62

the


management need to National be announced.�

System

of

Evaluation,

The external evaluation to be done by

the

Accreditation

and

Certification of Quality.

make self, the They external evaluation school, educational and accreditation of administration, collaboration

of

universities,

and

research laboratories.

every

schools.

In

practice, the schools are

not

being

evaluated

in

their

entirety. There

are

schools

many

throughout

the country that are not yet evaluated by this system. Since

of

the

year

2006, the Ministry of Education Evaluation Teachers

of School

principals

evaluate teachers.

has

implemented

an

National Examination to all teachers, with a stable

work

or

contract

work,

who

work in public schools, but

it

is

only

theoretical test.

63

a


The supervision section Supervisors give

guidance

advice

to

conduct and School Supervision

and specialists

and from

the

schools Ministry of Education

conferences only go to visit some

workshops

for schools in each region

principal and teachers once a year, these and

publish

guides, schools are chosen

manuals or handbooks strategy for teachers.

and

the

results are used as samples. In the case of the DRE and the UGEL

have

the

function of supervising all school districts in the

region

twice

a

year, but supervisors do not give guidance and advice to school.

64


V. CONCLUSION “The education plays a very significant role in the development of the country�. Though Peru and Japan both share some similar features in the education field, they have differences in system as well. The development of education in Japan is impressive and the quality of students they produce is worth imitating, but that is because of the years of effort and dedication. My country has a nascent development in terms of education administration, yet it is true that we are a democratic country and Peruvians continuously seek the development of the individual. However, we do not have the quality of education that other countries have. In my country there are laws and some innovative educational programs, but unfortunately these innovations remain on paper that are yet to be proven realistically. Our problem lies in the inadequate system of communication between agencies who manage the decentralization of education system. Educational administration in Peru is still centralized though the Ministry of Education has tried to make it more decentralized. In Japan, it is more decentralized. There are three levels of educational administration in Japan: national, prefectural and municipal levels. In Peru also have three levels of educational administration, but we have no educational outcomes; there are too many cities, mainly inside the country still have no local school boards. Their own ways and under different conditions, the Japanese and the Peruvian government are now trying the best in dealing with education. Both are carrying out several current education policies for the economic, social and cultural development of the nation. After studying the educational administration in Japan and Peru, I think that both the Japanese and Peruvian can possibly learn either the strong points or the weak points from each other. These examples can be applied for the management of education in the two countries:

Implications for the Educational Administration in Peru: ORGANIZATION 

In Peru, the UGEL (Local board of Education) does not work with the municipalities. In this case, UGEL should cooperate with the heads of municipalities regarding financing of general education, as well as in Japan Local School Boards play an important role in the educational management. The local education administration is 65


one of the administrative objects of the Ministry of Education, and it is in charge of research and planning concerning local education administration; guidance and advice concerning the organization and management of local education administration. It also gives measures to check violations of the provisions of laws and regulation or inadequate management, etc.



Peru has only few UGELs (Local School Boards) around the country who must facilate decentralized management of Educational Administration, but setting up the offices at the region or only some municipal level to serve the central departments in the Ministry of Education does not mean decentralization. This causes lacking of unity in the educational administration at the regional level. It is urgency for the Peruvian government to review and revise some laws concerning education. As well as in Japan, Peru needs Local School Boards to work cooperatively with the municipalities in each city.



The Peruvian government should make the national administration unified as rapidly as possible. Like in Japan, education at every level should be managed solely by the Ministry of Education. Though facing various kinds of problems, the government should try the best on this.

SCHOOL EVALUATION 

School evaluation in Peru must practice self-evaluation as school evaluation in Japan, because until now, there is no formal document or a guide on self-evaluation in schools of Peru. The ministry should promote the view self-evaluation where each school must evaluate itself, and publish the results to the educational community to improve standards of education.



It is necessary for the school evaluation to be done by the collaboration of the school, educational administration, universities, and research laboratories.



The government should emphasize the quality of teacher, not only through a national assessment, but with training and pedagogical guidance. Teachers must be evaluated in carrying out their duties, with specific viewpoints, and principals must be evaluated in their abilities for task-setting, solving problems, and organizational operation as managers and supervisors in situations where they are required to use their abilities.

66


SCHOOL SUPERVISION 

School supervision should be made by experts and specialists in the field of education, however many times when supervisors go to school, only supervise the class of teachers, without providing proper guidance or training to teachers.



As well as in Japan, The supervision section must give guidance and advice to schools, conduct conferences and workshops for principal and teachers and publish guides, manuals or handbooks for teachers, based on the central policy for supervision, and taking into consideration the specific situation of the prefectures concerned. Supervisor must be experienced professional educators with thorough understanding of the curriculum, teaching methods and objectives and other professional matters related to school education. Because in Peru, educational supervisors confuse evaluation with supervision, as they evaluate to the teachers in class, the principal or the school, but they do not offer any kind of guidance.

Implications for Educational Administration in Japan: Though Peruvian education seems to be less interesting and still far behind Japan's, some of its aspects may perhaps be a good example for the Japanese. They are as follows:



Local school boards should have the power to shuffle personnel and they also should have financial authority.



Focusing on juku, though going to juku aims for supplementary instruction, for special assistance for upper secondary school and university entrance examination, and for other purpose, it introduces some inequality to education system. Not all students are able to obtain their services because juku attendance costs money. If going to juku is necessary for all students, I wonder whether the quantity and quality of education provided in ordinary schools are not sufficient for them.

The organization, evaluation and supervision of education in Japan shows clear and concrete examples of proper educational administration that the Peruvian system must learn to handle. Peru needs clear laws and practices about decentralization to achieve educational quality such as making Japan.

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VI BIBLIOGRAPHY Administering Education: International Challenge/edited by Meredydd Hughes. London, Athlone Press, 1975

Educational Administration and management in Japan by The Japanese Association for study of Educational Administration. Japan, Cengage Learning Asia, 1st edition 2008

Educational Administration Glossary / Edward L. Dejnozka-Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press 1983

Educational Organization and Administration: concepts, practices and issues by Edgard L. Morphet, Rue L. Johns and Theodore L. Reller, second edition Englewoods (liff, N.J. Prentice-Hall) 1967

Gestion Educativa en el Peru by Estela Fernandez, Editorial San Marcos 2004

Gestion de la Educacion Administrativa en el Peru Home Page (http://ciberdocencia.gob.pe/)

Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT) Home Page (http://www.mext.go.jp/english/)

Ministry of Education in Peru Home Page (http://www.minedu.gob.pe/)

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ADMINISTRACION DE LA EDUCACION ENTRE PERU Y JAPON