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FL SHB CK R M X MEDI 323 – JOËL KUHN – DOCUMENTATION


CONTENT


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Project

6 6 8 14

Research Videos Books Paintings

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Development Early Stage Intermediate Stage Variations Workflow

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References

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PROJECT ‘FL SHB CK R M X’ is a retrospective glance at my video projects in the last three years at the University of Plymouth. The result is a highly conceptualised minimalistic piece of visual rhythm based on 27 selected video samples out of 9 videos. ‘What you see is what you hear’ is the basic idea of ‘FL SHB CK R M X’. So every visual is connected with its original sound in a heavily abstracted way by reframing a certain part with geometric shapes and by minimalising the sounds to their core. The video refl ects fragments of personal memories passing by in the black space of oblivion mixed together and continually repeated at a racing pace. The video is structured in a systematically linear way. From early projects such as Swissguys got the beat to Linking Interfaces to FF – a website collaboration it takes us from projects in year one to the most recent ones in the fi nal year, looking at them from a completely different angle. Each year has its own shape and colour palette attributed to it, which merge in the mix of each year as well as in the “fi nal university mix”.

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RESEARCH VIDEOS

Fried Daehn – SCORE (2006) ‘SCORE follows a simple rule: you hear what you see or you see what you hear. Every visual is connected with its individual sound. The audio-visual material is structured musically: Pulse, break, dynamics, counterpoint and repetition.’ (Miller 2007, p.35). Comment: Th is piece was particularly inspiring for my fi nal video by dint of its minimalistic style as well as the playful dynamic between sound and image. SOURCE VIDEO: http://www.friedstyle.com/video_e2.shtml

Philipp Geist – Angel Audio/Video RMX (2002) ‘Music and sound are central elements of Philipp Geist’s work. He enters into a dialogue with music in many of his creations, and this influences the speed, the intensity of the effects, the degree of abstraction, the colorfulness, and also the content of his images. In the course of this process, visual confi gurations can emerge that do not necessarily accompany the music, but instead challenge it. The moving image is not given a subordinate role to the music, rather, the two media enjoy equal status. In this way, Geist seeks to overcome the dependency of image on music frequently found in the genre of concert and club visuals.’ (Lund 2009, p.264). Comment: When I fi rst watched this piece I was a bit confused as I hadn’t seen anything like that before. The more I watched it, the more I became delighted by the unusual experimental interaction between sound and image and its visual simplicity. Particularly interesting for me was the way Geist remediates the concert of Ilpo Väisänen and Dirk Dresselhaus which he fi lmed with a handheld camera at the Z2000 exhibition (Berlin) in 2000 and cut up into tiny little frames. By fragmenting and reassembling the live concert, Geist created a completely new interpretation of the original piece and as a result of his radical method he also transcended the traditional conventions of music video. SOURCE VIDEO: http://vimeo.com/3867554

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Oliver Vogel – Herbstlaub (2007) ‘Herbstlaub is a coming-of-age-road-movie of a dot. During my studies, some colleagues and I sometimes met in the afternoon/night to sing, clear our heads from the projects and annoy other students with our voices. It was a short endeavor, but still fun. When I decided to make my own diploma fi lm (in panic – I had 3 weeks left, because my main focus were two other, non-personal projects), I thought it would be a nice idea to gather the “choir” one last time. Two of the singers and I did some initial musical experimentation, then Philipp came along. He did the fi nal score, and even agreed to using our non-professional voices for it. The rest was freestyle 3D animation…’ (Vogel, 2009) SOURCE VIDEO: http://youtu.be/E5L2RL6iS_g

Karlheinz Stockhausen – Gesang der Jünglinge (1956) ‘Gesang der Jünglinge (“Song of the Youths”), a dramatic and otherworldly piece for magnetic tape and fi ve loudspeakers, combines recordings of electronic sounds with recordings of text fragments drawn from the Bible’s Book of Daniel and sung by a boy soprano. Hailed by many as the fi rst masterpiece of electronic music, this thirteen-minutelong composition received its world premiere in the large auditorium of Cologne’s West German Radio on May 30, 1956.’ (Smalley, 2004). SOURCE VIDEO: http://youtu.be/3XfeWp2y1Lk

Norman McLaren – Lines Horizontal (1962) ‘An experiment in pure design by fi lm artists Norman McLaren and Evelyn Lambart. Lines, ruled directly on fi lm, move with precision and grace against a background of changing colors, in response to music specially composed for the fi lms. Lines – Horizontal is accompanied by American folk musician Pete Seeger on wind and string instruments.’ (National Film Board of Canada, 2010) SOURCE VIDEO: http://youtu.be/q JwfeG3Mntk

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RESEARCH BOOKS

During my research process I looked into various books in the field of visual music and VJing. In Audio.Visual: On Visual Music and Related Media I fi nally found a defi nition of Visual Music: According to Lund (2009, p.12) it can be described as ‘[…] audiovisual productions pursuing the basic objective of evenly balanced or equilibrated interplay between visual and acoustic components.’ I wondered what exactly this meant and when I attended a live concert of Kruder & Dorfmeister in October 2010 I understood this defi nition. In their case the music doesn’t work without visuals and vice versa which means that the visuals become an integral part of the concert rather than just being an eye candy for the audience. Audio.Visual: On Visual Music and Related Media by Holger and Cornelia Lund ‘Th is book (published to accompany an exhibition at the Hirshhorn Museum and MOCA Los Angeles) traces the history of an idea that fi ne art should attain the abstract purity of music. Over the past one hundred years some of the most adventurous modern and contemporary artists have explored unorthodox means to invent a kinetic, non-representational art modelled upon pure instrumental music.’ (Tredinnick, 2005) Comment: There are several essays in this book, including one on the German creative collective Pfadfi nderei which tries to break down all possible interfaces between the media of paper, screen and music with an unconventional mixing of graphics and video. Audio. Visual: On Visual Music and Related Media was not only inspiring for me in terms of its content but also in the way it is designed. There are a few pages with abstract shapes such as squares and triangles which were influential for my fi nal video.

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Visual Music: Synaesthesia in Art and Music Since 1900 by Jeremy Strick ‘Music has inspired some of the most progressive art of our time from the abstract painting of Wassily Kandinsky and Frantisek Kupka to the mid-century experimental fi lms of Oskar Pischinger and Harry Smith to contemporary installations by Jennifer Steinkamp and Jim Hodges. While early abstract paintings tended to approach music metonymically, the colour organs, fi lms, light shows and installations from midtwentieth century to the present day engage a range of perceptual faculties to create a plethora of sensations in the viewer. The most complete examination of this phenomenon to date, “Visual Music” features ninety major works of art plus related documentation, focusing on abstract and mixed-media art forms and their connections to musical forms as varied as classical, jazz and electronica.’ SOURCE TEXT: http://www.amazon.com/Visual-Music-Synaesthesia-Since-1900/dp/0500512175

Comment: Th is book provides a wide collection of audiovisual works in the 20th century and the creative ideas behind them. Especially interesting for me were the early colour organ pieces of Mary Hallock-Greenewalt. I found the idea of syncronising coloured lights to records and her systematically defi ned rules for colourising musical notes very fascinating and this fed into my own piece of visual music.

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FL SHB CK R M X VJ – audiovisual art + vj culture by Michael Faulkner ‘The VJ creates and mixes video, live and in sync to music, in venues ranging from clubs and festivals to galleries and stadiums. VJ:Audio-Visual Art+VJ Culture explores this new sensory experience in depth, from the history and development of the scene to its leading fole in current visual culture, through the words of its groundbreaking practitioners. The work of a huge range of VJs is also showcased, with over 120 international artists and industry fi gures interviewed. Full details of the hardware and software available for for VJing are provided, along with illustrations of stage set-ups used by makor VJs and their recommendations on achieving a successful performance. The accompanying DVD features exlusive live work, videos and documentaries that reveal the possibilities of this vibrant new interface between sound and image.’ (Faulkner, 2006 p.194) Comment: My initial idea for MEDI 323 was to create live visuals to electronic music (House, IDM and Electronica), ideally to one of my own soundtracks. In the fi rst term I mainly focused on VJing by doing research in this field. Th is book was a good starting point for me because it explores the history and the development of the VJ culture in its leading role. The book is written by Paul Faulkner, a pioneer in the VJ culture and member of the creative collective D-FUSE. Faulkner’s book gave me an insight into the work of visual artists and also led me to Fritz Fitzke, one of the best European VJs, with whom I later created his new website for my collaboration module.

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FL SHB CK R M X Stockhausen on Music Stockhausen is one of my favourite pioneers in electronic music. I read his book Stockhausen on Music with great interest and was fascinated by his prophetical ideas having moving speakers in 1953. ‘I discussed at length with my studio technicians whether it would be wise to put musicians in chairs and swing them around, for example, and many said they might object. So then we thought it would perhaps be preferable to let them play into microphones and connect the microphones to speakers and then swing the speakers around, and then they would not object, but they objected to that too. They said, oh no, you can’t do that with me, I’m here, and the sound has to come from here’ (Stockhausen, 1989 p.102) Comment: Th is statement had a great impact on my practice as I felt encouraged to create something that would meet resistance from the audience, something that people might be confused about. Stockhausen on his early music (1950s): ‘I tried to avoid any recognizable rhythm; I banned periodicity, because it was to easy to grasp and remember, and dominated all the other aspects: my music was very aperiodic; I tried, like the painters in the abstract or informal period, to avoid any recognizable shape, any melody that you could whistle or sing because it would take over your attention and you would always be listening to fi nd out what was happening to it during the course of the music.’ (Stockhausen, 1989 p.58) Comment: For my fi nal piece I also tried to avoid obvious rhythms in order to keep the viewer wondering what will happen next. However this does not mean that there is no concept in the structure of the rhythm.

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RESEARCH PAINTINGS

WASSILY K ANDINSKY

ANDY WARHOL

MARK ROTHKO

PAUL KLEE

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DEVELOPMENT EARLY STAGE

My initial idea for MEDI 323 was to create visuals to electronic music, ideally to one of my own soundtracks. In the fi rst term I mainly focused on VJing by doing research in this field and contacting one of the best European VJs, Fritz Fitzke with whom I later created his new website for my collaboration module. After meeting him in London in October 2010, where he introduced me to his work, I began to work with ‘MODUL8’, a VJ software for live visuals. Working with MODUL8 and Ableton Live When I started working with MODUL8, I found it quite difficult to get familiar with the workflow. Although it was very easy for me to ‘make something happen’ with it like for example colourising and rotating footage in real time, it became rather complex when I tried to synchronise the visuals with the music. After spending a few weeks on video tutorials I was able to synchronise all the parameters in MODUL8 with the BPM (Beat per minute) in an Ableton Live, the music software in which I composed my own soundtracks. Th is synchronisation allowed me to fade, move, rotate, zoom and colourise the footage in the rhythm of the beat of my soundtracks in real-time.

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Another experiment I conducted was a dance experiment with Nathan Wharton , a performance student, in order to fi nd out how completely different music genres can be visualised corporally.

Based on my experiments and research on visual music, I created three videos with Modul 8. For the fi rst piece I used parts of videos I created in the previous two years at the University of Plymouth, like for example the loop of the bus stop. Additionally I also used some offi cial road signs and a clip of Popeye, which rose copyright questions. Music: Trentemøller – Snowflake Contains footage of: Popeye – The Dance Contest 1934

For the second piece I tried to create some video loops like the turning hand keyed and mirrored and the dancing man, which I quickly animated with the puppet tool in After Effects. Music: Robert Tamascelli – Genius (Original Mix) Contains footage of: Skadloori – Normal Walk Cycle, stereoraadio – Finnish guy teaches how to disco

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The third video was based on my dance experiment with Nathan Wharton. The dance loops and the effects are synced with the music so the visuals become an integral part of my soundtrack. In addition I experimented with live video input, which I manipulated heavily with the software.

Music: KNÄCKEBRÖD (Joël Kuhn) – dnbesser Contains footage of: The dance experiment with Nathan Wharton, live camera input

Until early 2011 I worked towards a live VJ performance in a club named ‘Voodoo Lounge’ in Plymouth by using selected visuals from my own video library. However I became increasingly discouraged when it came to the realisation because visuals are significant in a live situation rather than handed in as a piece of visual music. I also thought that a video documentation of the evening would have been inappropriate to hand in and I decided to discard the idea of live visuals and started focussing on visual music.

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DEVELOPMENT INTERMEDIATE STAGE

Until early 2011 I worked towards a live VJ performance in a club named ‘Voodoo Lounge’ in Plymouth by using selected visuals from my own video archive. However I increasingly became discouraged when it came to the realisation because visuals are significant in a live situation rather than handed in as a piece of visual music. I also thought that a video documentation of the evening would have been inappropriate to hand in and I decided to discard the idea of live visuals and started focussing on visual music. During my second research period on visual music I came across many visual music artists such as the pioneers Hans Richter, Oskar Fischinger, Mary Ellen Bute and Norman McLaren, as well as contemporary practitioners including Fried Daehn, Philipp Geist, Oliver Vogel and the Berlin based creative collective Pfadfi nderei. Particularly interesting and inspiring for me was Fried Daehn’s SCORE (2006) and Philipp Geist’s Angel Audio/Video RMX (2002): both artists visualise music with samples that they manipulate heavily. Even though audio and video are manipulated heavily in Angel Audio/Video RMX, they have not been separated! ‘You hear what you see or you see what you hear’ (Miller 2007, p.35). Inspired by the two artists (Daehn and Geist), I was clear about the fact that I didn’t want to give up the idea of working with archive footage to be sampled to a visual piece of music or visual rhythm. Th is way my own piece would still be related to my VJ work I had done in the fi rst two terms. In the beginning I intended to work with found footage like for example DV tapes that students left in the editing suites of the University. However, I discarded this idea quite soon because it might have given rise to authorship issues. So I came up with the idea to use footage from my own archive, which mainly contains footage of my previous projects for University.

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Considering that this module was the last one for University it seemed appropriate to me to conclude my course with a video that remediates my previous projects in a completely new way. Th is means that I didn’t want to edit a show reel as a visual piece of music but rather revive personal memories by fragmenting the footage into tiny little pieces. In order to get an overview of the last three years, I watched every video again. The second step was to select the projects I wanted to use samples from. Therefore I laid down the following rules: For each year I choose 3 projects and order them according to their date, starting with the fi rst project ending with the last project. From each project I pick 3 video samples. Each project will be introduced in 10 seconds. Each year will fi nish with a mix of the 3 projects in 20 seconds. Finally the video ends with a fi nal University mix using the 27 samples in 60 seconds.

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The projects chosen: YEAR I

1. Swissguys got the beat 2. How would it be 3. The bus of life

YEAR II 1. Night shift on Christmas 2. Linking interfaces 3. Sound Memory YEAR III 1. FF – A website collaboration 2. Curious Toys 3. Nathan’s dance

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Based on the rules I laid down, I composed the rhythms in Ableton Live by using the sounds of the three samples I chose for each project. Th is step required a carefully (mathematically) calculated workflow in order to achieve an exact rhythm. See Workflow Once the rhythm was composed, I imported the soundtrack in Final Cut Pro and matched every single sample to the sound accurate to a single frame on the timeline. Th is required full concentration because being one frame out of rhythm means the visuals would be out of sync.

After the samples were arranged, I started editing the raw sounds in Ableton Live. I decided to use only one fi lter. The 3-band equalizer seemed to me the best choice not only because it is related to the ‘magical’ number 3 which is determent throughout the whole project (3 years, 3 projects per year and 3 samples per project) but also because I would allow me to bring in a dynamic to the sound by changing the EQ curves throughout the whole rhythm.

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First Export / Raw Version Even though I was happy with the sound composition, the fi rst video felt way too overloaded for me and because the audio edit was an intuitive process it was clear to me that the visual part required an intuitive element too. The other problematic aspect at this stage was the fact that audio and video seemed not to interact nicely because the sound was dynamic and the video very linear. In order to solve this problem I had two ideas: Abstracting the visual part Adjusting the video samples according to the EQ curves of the sound Therefore I created 7 variations. See Variations

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DEVELOPMENT VARIATIONS

After I exported the fi rst video, it seemed visually overloaded to me. In addition the audio and video were not interacting nicely because the sound was dynamic and the video very linear. In order to solve this problem I experimented with colours and framing of the video samples and created 7 variations of which I would choose one to carry on. Variation 1 – Colour Shift For the fi rst variation I tried to shift the colours of the samples according to the EQ shift of the soundtrack by applying the EQ curve I did in the music software (Ableton Live) to the colour corrector fi lter in Final Cut Pro. Th is worked technically but visually I was not happy with the result because it made the video even more overloaded than before and the viewer wouldn’t realise that the changing colours are related to the changing sound frequencies. Variation 2 – Static Splic Screen The second idea was to split the screen horizontally into 3 sections. In doing so the centred part would be the video sample, the right part the fi rst frame of the next sample and the left one the last frame of the previous sample. Th is way the samples would pass by from the right to the left side and thereby represent the time (in this case fragmented memory) passing by. Even though this idea would have been more reasonable I wasn’t pleased with it visually. Variation 3 – Motion Split Screen Variation three is similar to variation two but instead of replacing the frames on the sides I animated them in order to intensify the ‘time’ effect.

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Variation 4 – Dynamic Split Screen In variation four I played with the scales of the frames on the side with the intention of giving the video a minimalistic 3D effect. However this did not work mainly because the rhythm is too fast. Variation 5 – Dynamic Reframing

For the fi fth variation I reframed the samples individually. The idea was to expose only a small section of the sample in order to represent fragments of personal memories that are still present in my mind. Even though the criteria of choosing the frame were rather arbitrary, I felt that this idea would be worth continuing not only because it deals with memories but also because it is visually more interesting to watch. The problem in this version was that it didn’t work well with the edited sound because, similarly to the fi rst raw video, this variation was linear again whereas the sound would be dynamic.

Variation 6 – Reframing in Motion

As a result of the problem between sound and image in variation fi ve I tried to solve this issue in variation six by aligning the cropped samples according to a simple grid. Th is way I could play with the dynamic between the image and the edited sound. However, this idea would have been too complicated and time consuming because each sample needed to be placed separately. With approximately 1’500 samples in the whole video this seemed to be impossible and disproportionate.

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Variation 7 – Static Reframing In order to simplify the idea of reframing the samples, I decided not to move the original footage for version seven. Th is way I also could justify the idea of memory-fragments because the actual occurrence would not be changed but the selected sections would expose the remaining remembrance of the occurrence. However, again this idea caused a discrepancy between the dynamic sound edit and the static image, which needed to be solved. Final Version Being clear about reframing the video samples with simple shapes (see workflow), I decided to abstract the samples as much as possible. Th is means instead of leaving the samples in their original visual aesthetic (colour, saturation and luminosity), I wanted to abstract their colour as much as possible in order to intensify the memorable occurrence. So I ended up with fully black and white samples but decided to colourise one sample of each project in order to make the video aesthetically more interesting. As a result of the persistent mismatch between the dynamic sound and the minimalistic image, I decided to discard the idea of adapting the video samples to the dynamic soundtrack and adapted the sound to the image instead. Subsequently I had to rework the whole sound. As the visual part became very abstract and minimalistic it seemed natural to me to abstract the sound too. For that reason I reduced the duration of each sound sample down to the very limit. See Workfow

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Final

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DEVELOPMENT WORKFLOW

Sound composition in Ableton Live After trying out various music programs such as GarageBand and Logic Pro during the last two years, I decided to work with Live to compose the rhythm for my piece. Live is the only music production software offering a ‘Session View’ which makes it very easy to roughly arrange samples before putting them in the timeline. BPM Note values – About the rhythm Before the composing process could start I had to think carefully about the tempo of the composition. I knew that I had to be aware about the frame rate in Final Cut in terms of how I could calculate a BPM (Beats per minute) tempo that would work.

The most important question was: How can I match a 4/4 beat to the frame rate? To solve this question I developed a note system based on the documentation ‘demolition therapy’ by Urs Dubacher and Bernhard Witz, which allowed me to work precisely between Ableton Live and Final Cut Pro. The crucial point in this system is to fi nd a common denominator between the given frame rate and the BPM. By default, when working with digital footage in Final Cut, the frame rate of a sequence is set on 25 frames per second. In my case I had to work with 24 frames per second because an even number enabled me to divide one second into more pieces than if I had 25 frames. In Ableton Live I used to work with note values up to 1/32 (Th irty-second note). Hence it made sense that 1/32 had the shortest possible duration in the timeline of Final Cut Pro, which is one frame. If 1/32 is one frame, a crotchet (quarter note) is 8 frames.

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With this in mind, I had to calculate the matching BPM. The frame rate per minute in fi nal cut which is 24×60 = 1440 FPM The FPM divided with the crotchet, which is 8 frames defi nes the BPM in Ableton Live. 1440/8 = 180 BPM Below the resulting durations for the other notes used:

Based on my note system I started composing the rhythms in Ableton Live. Each project has its own rhythm, which is divided into four loops the fi rst two are introducing the rhythm while the last two become more complex and vivid. At the point where the viewer begins to recognise the rhythm, it gets stuck on one sample, which fades out with an echo. Each University year concludes with a “year mix” which is divided into two parts. The fi rst part briefl y summarises the three projects by repeating their rhythmic structure while in the second part the samples are mashed to a new rhythm. In the end of the video a one-minute fi nal “University mix” brings all the projects together. The fi nal mix is divided into two parts. Similarly to the “year mix” it summarises each project once more but in contrast to the ‘three year mix’ it does not follow the original rhythm. Rather, it chronologically leads us quickly through each project once more. In the second part all 27 samples become mashed. It starts with a comfortably slow pace and suddenly turns into a vivid complex rhythm in the end.

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Initially my intention was to edit the rhythms I composed with an equaliser in order to make them sound more dynamic. In addition the idea was to represent strong memories with highpass sounds and the blurry memories with low-pass sounds. However as the edited audio didn’t interact nicely with the abstract and minimalistic version I chose from my variations I discarded this idea and adapted the audio to the visual part. Th is means I abstracted the sound by reducing the duration of each sound sample to the very limit. Colour allocation I decided to abstract the samples as much as possible. Th is means instead of leaving the samples in their original visual aesthetic (colour, saturation and luminosity) I wanted to abstract their colour as much as possible in order to intensify the more memorable occurrences. So I ended up with fully black and white samples but decided to colourise one sample of each project in order to make the video aesthetically more interesting. When thinking about which colours to use for each project I tried to follow a certain rule. Therefore I looked for a classification system and came across with a colour wheel on a website called Color Buzz. According to this wheel I allocated a specific colour to each project. The idea behind this was to divide the wheel into three parts (one for each year) within this third the colours shift from one main colour to another. Year one: From red to yellow Year two: From blue to green Year three: From violet to blue

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Shape categorisation For the fi nal video I used simple geometric shapes to mask the samples. Below the allocated shapes for each project:

These shapes were adjusted individually to each sample. Th is was an intuitive process in terms of the framing of the samples. The main criterion for me was to fi nd the most attractive part in the sample and test iteratively if the visual composition works within the actual part of the video. Video composition in Final Cut Pro Once the masks were defi ned I overlaid them on their corresponding sample. The following step included the abstraction of the samples and the colourisation. Therefore I used a couple of fi lters in Final Cut Pro. In order to unify the idea of the remarkable abstraction of the audio and the video, I also abstracted the typographic part between the different parts of the video. Th is included removing all vowels of the titles and colourising the titles according to the next colour section allocated to the actual project. The titles are not intended to be readable; rather, they represent a separation between different parts in the video. The fi nal video consists of 27 individual samples arranged together to a whole of 1’500 samples.

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References Buse, Norbert (2009) Karlheinz Stockhausen – Musik für eine neue Welt. Arte TV. Monday 10th August. Faulkner, Michael (2006) VJ – audiovisual art + vj culture. London: Laurence King Publishing Ltd Jang, Robbin (2010) Creating Color Harmony. Available at: http://ecohomeresource.com/2010/10/ creating-color-harmony.html [Accessed: 15. April 2011] Kirn, Peter (2008) Solu – interviewed by peter kirn. Available at: http://vagueterrain.net/ journal09/solu/01 [Accessed: 8. April 2011] Lund, Holger and Lund Cornelia (2009) Audio.Visual: On Visual Music and Related Media. Stuttgart: Arnoldsche Verlagsanstalt Miller, Dennis (2007) Visual Music Marathon. Available at: http://www.artkitchen.com/Images/ InConcert/VMM070428/VMM_ProgramNotes070428.pdf [Accessed: 25. April 2011] National Film Board of Canada (2010) Lines Horizontal/Lignes horizontales. Available at: http:// www.onf-nf b.gc.ca/eng/collection/fi lm/?id=11031 [Accessed: 23. April 2011] Smalley, John (2000) Gesang der Jünglinge: History and Analysis. Available at: http://www.music. columbia.edu/masterpieces/notes/stockhausen/GesangHistoryandAnalysis.pdf [Accessed: 11. April 2011] Stockhausen, Karlheinz (1989) Stockhausen on Music. London: MARION BOYARS PUBLISHERS LTD Stonebraker, Jim (2007) 50 years GESANG DER JÜNGLINGE (SONG OF THE YOUTHS). Available at: http://www.stockhausen.org/50_gesang.html [Accessed: 11. April 2011] Strick, Jeremy (2005) Visual music. In Visual Music – Synaesthesia in Art and Music Since 1900. New York: Th ames & Hudson Tredinnick, Sharon (2005) Bookshop. Available at: http://www.publishedart.com.au/bookshop. html?book_id=1329 [Accessed: 11. April 2011]

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323 Workbook Joël Kuhn