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On this page you need to: 1. Identify the staple foods that are grown in different areas. 2. Draw a box around the 1st and 2nd world areas. BM 12 3. Draw a circle around the developing nations

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BM 13 Commentary for Power Point Presentation Climate and Food availability. 1. People everywhere love to eat. The need to eat is a common thread between all human beings. Whenever humans have travelled to other parts of the earth they have brought their familiar foods with them if possible. They have also tried the foods of the new country and often times have developed their own unique cuisines from the blend. 2. What people eat – in all places – and through all ages – depends on six primary factors. a. Food Availability b. Seasons and Climate c. Technology d. Religion e. Socio – Economic Class f. Politics 3. Menus were prepared according to ingredient availability. These were affected by: Droughts – shortages of water – Famines - - shortages of food - - Seasons – changes in temperature and Floods - - overflowing rivers. 4. Climate is probably the main factor in determining which types of foods will be available where. There are 8 different types of climates. 5. In the Polar climates it is always cold and harsh winds blow regularly. There is very little rain or snow so it is very dry; the frozen soil is covered with ice. Very little will grow there so the available food is limited to animal life. 6. The tops of high mountains have very little vegetation and animal life but, as you go lower down the mountain, the temperature warms and rainfall increases and vegetation begins to grow and animal life gathers. 7. In Temperate climates the weather has definite seasons. Trees drop their leaves to guard against the winter. These trees are called deciduous trees and they are the kinds that grow stone fruits like plums, peaches and cherries. Several varieties of nuts also grow in temperate climates. 8. The Mediterranean climate, as its name implies, is around the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea. It typically has hot dry summers and mild moist winters. Olive, figs, oranges, lemons and vines grow well here. 9. Dry grasslands are protected from the oceans by mountains or by the distance they lie from the ocean. These are the traditional lands of cattle and maize. 10. In the Hot Desert the daytime temperatures are over 38C and annual rainfall is less than 25 cm. Only a few plants, such as cactus, and very few animals can survive this hot dry climate. 11. Subtropical areas have high temperatures throughout the year. The rainfall varies with the seasons. Some areas have seasons of heavy rain called monsoons. Long grasses and rice grow well in these areas. 12. Tropical areas have high temperatures and heavy rainfall throughout the year. There are huge evergreen rainforests that harbour abundant plant and animal life. 13. Food Availability depends on three factors a. Imports b. Indigenous Animals c. Indigenous Plants


14. These days it is relatively easy to ship food all over the world. In days gone by, though, it was much harder to import foods. People would have to wait many months or even years for a. ships to sail around Africa b. or adventurers to return from distant lands to bring new foods to them. Most people had to be content to eat the foods that were already in the area. The indigenous foods. 15. Different parts of the world had different animals that were plentiful in those areas. Wild Boars roamed freely throughout Europe. Turkeys were plentiful in the Central America. Goats were scattered throughout the Middle East. Kangaroos are indigenous to Australia. And North America and Europe are home to the deer. 16. Just as animals are native to specific areas, so too are plants. Apples in Europe, Bamboo in China, Wattle in Australia, Tomatoes and Maize in the Americas. 17. Staple foods are basic foods that a population eats regularly and in large quantities. They tend to be cheap and easily obtained, making them the basis of the diet. Many countries grow staple foods that are best suited to their climatic conditions. a. Wheat is grown throughout the world. It is the most popular cereal grain produced. Different types of wheat are grown depending on the climate, the seed used and the end-product desired. For example, soft wheat is best for biscuits and cakes as it makes fine flour, while hard wheat is more suitable for bread and pasta. In developed countries, wheat-growing is highly technological, with the grain being harvested by machine. In developing countries, wheat is harvested by hand using tools called sickles, and processed further by hand. Wheat is not used as a grain food in seed form, but is ground into flour. It can be used to make porridge or couscous; leavened or risen products such as bread; unleavened products such as tortillas or pitta bread; pasta or noodles. b. Rice is primarily grown in Asia, although other countries such as Australia have an expanding rice growing industry. Growing rice requires lots of water – it may be grown in swamps known as rice paddies or on dry land that is flooded with water during the growing stage. Harvesting trends are similar to that of wheat – highly technological in developed areas and highly labour intensive in less developed areas. Rice may be eaten as a grain, ground into flour, or made into rice noodles. c. Maize is grown either as sweet corn, which we know as corn on the cob, or as field corn that is harvested to be ground into flour. This second type of maize may be processed or milled by crushing the grain using a mortar and pestle. The by-products of this milling process may be fed to animals. Maize is used to make polenta, corn tortillas and cornflakes. Maize is native to Central and North America. d. Millet is a hardy crop that will tolerate extreme weather conditions such as poor rainfall and soil of an inferior quality. The grain is ground and used to make a porridge (called gruel) or breads. Millet may also be used to make straw-like brooms or brushes. Millet is native to Northern China. e. Cassava is a staple food that is not a grain but a tuber, harvested from under the soil much like a potato. It is grown in the poorest parts of Africa as it is reliable in all sorts of climatic conditions. f. Sago or tapioca is a food product made from the sago palm. The spongy centre of the plant stem (known as the pith) is removed and shaped into small pellets. This plant is grown in tropical areas such as South Pacific Islands.


18. Now let’s take a look at how Technology affects what people eat. Some areas have limited technology and cook over open fires. Other areas have more modern appliances. 19. Some people have technology that enables them to store foods for long periods of time while others simply have containers to store the food. 20. Science has reached most areas of the western world and has modernized many things, but age – old methods of cooking are still used in parts of the world. 21. In some places bread is still made individually by hand. Sometimes, only a few kilometers away, huge factories are mass-producing bread by the thousands. 22. Religious customs such as a. Special foods for Holiday meals determine what people eat. b. Some religions have certain rituals in which certain foods must be eaten or certain times that food must be eaten. c. Most religions have a taboo about certain foods, some only during special times. 23. The socio – economic class of people, that means the amount of money they have, also affects what people eat. a. Nobles are the very rich. They could always afford the best foods. b. Merchants, or traders, very often got the first choice of the foods. c. Laborers – hard working people, didn’t have a lot of money and usually ate simple foods. d. Peasants – the poor – often miss meals and eat what others don’t want. They rely on charity. e. Slaves – Eat whatever their “owners” give them. 24. Finally, Politics can influence what we eat by a. Foreign influence such as boycotts or economic sanctions. b. Whenever immigrants come into a country, they always bring familiar from that country with them. c. Different regulations such as which flavourings, colourings or other additives are permitted in the food, or international regulations such as the ban on whaling can affect people’s food choices. d. And rationing – restricting the amounts people are allowed often happen in times of war, famine or drought.


Fill in the major features of each type of climate.

BM 13b

___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Polar ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Mountain ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Temperate


BM 13b ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Mediterranean ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Dry Grassland ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Dry Dessert


BM 13b ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Subtropical ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________

Tropical /1 BM 14

Staple Food

Where grown

Climate

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BM 15 Listen as the teacher explains, and take notes on, how each area can influence food availability or distribution in the world. Technology

Type

Natural Disasters

Influences on Food Availability or Distribution

Example

Religion

Religion

Influence

Special holiday foods Halal Kosher Beef Pork Lent Ramadan

Socio – Economic Class

Politics

Boycotts, Economic Sanctions Multinationals Where do the immigrants come from? Refugees Additives, International regulations (whaling) Times of war, famine or drought

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