Joseph Griffin LOGBOOK CONS10003 STUDIO 10AM-1PM FRI Students were given the task of building a tower out of small wooden blocks, as tall as possible and with an entrance large enough to fit a toy dinosaur through. Prior to commencing building many components of the task were considered and planned: Brick laying techniques: By interlaying the bricks between one another the structure was visibly a lot more stable. It is vital that corners are interconnected or the two separate walls are more likely to fall over. In addition, rounded edges allow for materials to be used more efficiently.
By interconnecting the walls they support each other. As such, a rounded structure made form the blocks would likely be very stable as it would be self supporting; a dome. We planned to build a dome similar to the one sketched:
Efficient use of
In considering the size of the individual blocks (35mmx25mm12mm), the most efficient use of the materials was found to be by resting the blocks on upright (25mmx12mm base area), rather than lying them flat or on their side. However, after analysing three different ways of lying the blocks, it was found the two most efficient were also the most unstable and it was decided the blocks would be laid flat to stack. This decision was mainly
attributed to both the small nature of the blocks and sheer amount needed to create our structure; we could not stack them accurately enough to be stable when stacked upright on top of one another.
Initial building: In practice, a half circle like structure was decided to be build instead of a dome. This was decided upon after the group came to the conclusion building a dome/igloo like structure is too much of a timely process for our the time period we had. We were informed by out tutor for future reference that it is easier to remove the bricks to create an entrance once the structure is built rather than make an entrance whilst making the structure. The compressive load comes downwards and holds the bricks together. In building a door or arc framework is used (wood ect) to hold the structure together until enough compressive weight is on it and you can thus remove the framework.
Building base of structure and entrance. Building on top of the entrance.
Building on top of the entrance.
Entrance now able to hold weight above itself.
Changes in construction techniques and concepts to overcome problems as building progressed: Changing our building structure occurred after we found a dome roof is extremely hard to build without any support system as every block on top of another creates compression and a downward force on the ones below. This saw our attempt at a domed roof continuously fall in upon itself. In this situation a static load was being applied to the structure. Ching (2008) explains a static load as a load applied slowly to a structure until it reaches its peak. The domeâ€™s roof static load was considered to be a static dead load- loads acting vertically downwards on the structure occurring from self weight, weight of fixtures etc (Ching, 2008).
In addition to this, the time period we had been granted was diminishing. We decided against creating a roof and instead building two towers (as tall as possible) on top of what we had built.
Deconstruction: We built up a corner of two by two bricks however it would not stay straight and became built nearly half over itself ( see fig 1.0). As we continued to build the critical collapse occurred, and the reason can be attributed to the structure lacking support and brick non alignment causing the tower to be constructed on an angle. Here, the load path could not be evenly distributed, and as the load path takes the easiest route to the ground, the tower collapsed.
Comparison to other groups work: Students in another group built a tower in a completely circular shape, with only one continuous corned. This structure proved to be extremely stable as the load of the structure was distributed consistently throughout the whole structure. Their structure proved grow must more stable and higher than ours, however took more precision and time.
Fig 1.0) Note the tower leaning to the left of the sketch.
Mindmap 1: Grose (2014), Newton (2014a), Newton (2014e), Newton (2014f), Newton (2014g),
Mindmap 2: Ching (2008),
Studio session 2:
Activity 2: Description and analysis of construction systems employed: Tasked to use a single piece of balsa wood cut into approximately 40 pieces we had to create a tower tall enough to reach to ceiling of the room. Cutting the balsa wood into 40 pieces, we measured the length of each piece to be 60cm. We decided 4 lengths would be needed in height to reach the ceiling (240cm). For this task, we decided to make 4 rectangular prisms and stack them amongst each other. We used a frame structure due to the materials given and its efficiency of transferring loads to the ground. We intended to use the 10 spare pieces from the initial skeletal frame to use as bracing to assist the structure in transferring the static load and compressive force of itself downwards. We used fixed joints in attaching the columns, beams and bracing. Caution was considered here as bending in materials can occur if loads are placed on one part of the structure and transferred.
Efficiency of material: This task allowed us to understand how efficiently materials can be used in construction. From one piece of balsa wood we could create up to 40 pieces which equals 40 times the length of
the original piece. Sketches of deformation and stability during different processes of the construction: Balsa wood is a very flexible wood and as a result, constructing the tower saw many pieces deform when low loads such as the weight of our finger being placed on pieces. Our structure would of probably been quite stable once complete, however it would not of been able to take much, if any form of load being placed on it. Due to our glue failing to dry in the time period we were granted, we could not erect our tower.
Many groups in our studio faced this issue.
Mindmap 3: Ching (2008), Newton (2014a), Newton (2014b), Newton (2014c), Selenitsch (2014)
Week 3: Footings and foundations Tour of Melbourne University, studying and analysing buildings within it. Lot 6 CafĂŠ Lot 6 CafĂŠ is made of a hybrid structure consisting primarily of a frame system constructed out of concrete and glass windows. A major structural element here is the corner strut (column). This is taking part of the load from the beams it is connected to above, to the ground. The primary material used for this structure is reinforced concrete. In addition, glass windows in steel frames have also been used to enclose the structure. The structure is expressed: its frame is still bare and represents the exterior/appearance of the structure as well. As such, grade A concrete has been used. This ensures that it remains aesthetically pleasing. Watermarks can be noted where the concrete has been stained over time from water, as over time it can become porous. It is interesting to note that this extension from the building behind it, is clearly defined to be a newer structure and not an attempt to replicate the pre existing one.
Underground carpark/South lawn.
The underground carpark and south lawn are together, an extremely interesting structural system. The car park has been concealed underneath South Lawn, however the two are interconnected systems .The wide columns pictured on the bottom left image are big enough that drainage and soil can sit in and flow through them. This is necessary as the car park directly below south lawn. The treeâ€™s roots are aligned with the columns in order to allow them to grow downwards (see right). These columns were made with formwork which can still be noted on the concrete through timber/plywood outline marks on it. We learnt that the white marking on the concrete is due to calcification occurring: the concrete is leaking water. This structure system used is a solid system made of concrete poured in-situ. The top right image shows the roof of the road entrance to the car park. Here a waffle slab has been used. A waffle slab has a thin top slab with narrow ribs spanning in both directions connecting the columns, which creates the waffle pattern. This may have been used due to its cost effectiveness. (Ching, 2008).
Stairs on west end of Union House
’ The stairs and supporting network in the images above are a hybrid structure. The stairs make a frame system, and additionally, the stairs appear to be held up by cantilevers and cables through tensile system. This is however, an illusion and the tensile system is for aesthetic purposes only, to appear to hold up the ‘floating’ staircase through tensile forces. The illusion can be noted through the image on the left. The column and beam system supporting the stair case would not be needed if the cantilevers were actually holding up the staircase. Further, if it were only the cables holding up the staircase, it would sway with use. In this scenario the stair case would need to be anchored to the ground, which would detract from the purpose of using a tensile floating system in the first place. This structure is made primarily of steel beams and some columns to lead it to the ground. Part of the structures actual supports have been concealed and incorporated into the masonry brickwork on the walls and ground. The cable barriers on the staircase have been fixed through cable anchor joints. Here the cable can rotate, and can also be easily, and effectively installed whilst remaining aesthetically pleasing. (Ching, 2008) Beaurepaire Centre Pool
(McCorkell, 2005) http://www.mccorkell.net.a u/projects_recreation.html) The housing around the pool represents an interesting structure with brick ends and large windows in metal frames on each long side of the pool. This is a fixed frame structure. The structure is supported through a system of integrated columns and beams running across and
over the swimming pool. As such, putting brick work on the side would act as a screen/wall only and would not support the structure. Here, the windows allow light and outdoor scenic views into the structure. The columns and beams are exposed and have not been concealed, except for the cornered ones which have slight been concealed into the brickwork. Oval Pavilion
Whilst we could not go very close to the construction site at the Oval Pavilion, it could still be compared to the drawing plans. The structure system used here is a unique frame system, with a large cantilever roof over the front of the pavilion. Columns support the roof. Timber and steel have primarily been used to support the structure with a concrete foundation in place. Comparing the Oval Pavilion architectural drawings set to the actual structure, 1:20 and 1:10 scales could be understood and grasped. New Melbourne School of Design (under construction):
The new MSD is a hybrid structure of solid and frame systems. The building has primarily been created with concrete and steel. The (bottom) image above shows an above ground section of the building, which is a cantilever. As the building is still being constructed, some interesting things, which were not seen at other buildings, were noted here. Specifically, the different material types employed and finish on them. Some steel was galvanized which indicates this being the likely finish. Contrastingly, non-galvanized steel, which has been exposed and rusted slightly on the outside, will be coated. Only slightly visible in the (bottom) image above, the asymmetrical bracings can be seen underneath the cantilever, with more bracing underneath on the right side than the left. This is likely due to the increased wind load coming from the East. The steel beams have been either welded or bolted together. We were informed that the welding normally occurs offsite and the holes for bolts are laser cut offsite through a computerized process. This enables for quick, accurate and safe installations. The top image shows side of the building mad up of concrete slabs. This material is made through mixing others, and as such each batch is different in colour, meaning matching shades can be difficult. Here, the concrete may either be accepted for what it is, or it could be rendered
North Court, Union House
North Court is covered by a membrane structure. This membrane is constructed out of a relatively thin material, stretched between posts and grounded at its center though cable anchor joints. This structure is a tensile one as the membrane has been stretched as in tension. The image (above, right) shows a supporting post that the membrane is connected to which allows it to stay erected. The cable seen extending to the right of the image is a guy cable and transfers the force to the ground. The cable can be tightened as it wears to ensure it stays stretched and secured, and can be loosened if need be. The pole is angled outwards to reduce force in the guy cables. (Ching, 2008) The main materials used here are steel poles, steel cables and the canopy, and is an exposed structure which takes advantage of its form by acting as a landmark.
(Ching, 2008) 1
Mindmap 4: Ching (2008), Newton (2014h), Newton (2014i), Newton (2014j), Newton (2014k), Newton (2014l), Newton (2014m), Newton (2014n)
Week 4: Floor systems & horizontal elements Scale is a vital to building and construction projects. Scale allows architects and builders to plan projects and buildings on a convenient size, before they are built in full size. Planning allows potential hazards, problems and issues to be foreseen and as many rectified as possible prior to physical building commences. Drawing building plans at the same size as the building is to be built is inconvenient, difficult to read and also hard to understand/view all at once. As such, building plans may be drawn at different, smaller sizes sometimes 10 times smaller than the actual building itself, and when being built the planâ€™s measurements are increased via the correct scale to build the structure as planned. The preferred working units for building projects can comprise both the metric and the imperial systems, including (but not limited to) millimeters, centimeters, meters and inches and feet respectively. Whilst millimeters, centimeters and inches are common in drawing plans, such units of measurement are just as commonly used in physical building projects, whereas meters and feet are less likely to be used in drawing plans, but instead represented on a scaled down version through millimeters, centimeters and inches. Other units used for building projects can include squared (x2 )or cubed (x)3 millimeters, centimeters, meters, inches and feet. The ranges of scales appropriate to use for construction documentation include: The ranges of scales appropriate to use for construction documentation can include (as found on a common architectâ€™s scale ruler): 1:1/1:10, 1:5/1:50, 1:10:/1:100. Construction Documentation Tour Questionnaire 1. Title block: List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. Oval Pavilion-redevelopment: Ground floor plan: A21-02: Consultants, key (or plan), client, project, drawing title, Geographical context (where North is pointing), drawing number. Why might this information be important? Provides context and a primary insight to what the plans represent. 2.Drawing content- Plans What type of information is shown in this floor plan? Redevelopment plans: A physical overview and floor plan to provide context of the planned development and its surroundings. Material types, descriptions of changes to be made and symbols (indicate page reference for cross section/blow up of area) are all present.
Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions? Kiosk (20.4m2) Metres squared are used for the dimensions. Is there a grid? What system is sued for identifying the grid lines? A grid is present and represented through dotted lines across the floor plan which join to rows (alphabetically labeled) and columns (numbered) to allow areas to be easily identified. What is the purpose of the legend? To provide an understanding of what the symbols and lines represent without having to specifically write this material name next to every line/symbol throughout the drawing. Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. Some areas to be redeveloped are annotated to signify this redevelopment e.g.:
Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? If you line the symbols up with a drawing you will see what the page by the symbols will represent a different perspective of the drawing section, blow up).
How are windows and doors identified? Provide an example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings?
The doors are identified through this symbol:
The windows are identified through this symbol: The doors and windows are tagged with the relevant room number on them that they will be installed in. Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? The clouded areas of the drawing represent where trees will grow. 3 Drawing Content-elevations What type of information is shown in this elevation? How does it differ form the information shown on the plan? South Elevation A21:01. The elevation shows a different perspective form the information shown in the plan, which showed the building from a birds eye view. Here, the perspective is as though seen at ground level, as though the viewer is looking at the building from far away. Are the dimensions shown? If so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? Provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation. The dimensions here show the height of the building, whereas the dimensions on the plan showed Scanned by CamScanner the different width and length of buildings and rooms.
For example, the clock tower at its highest point will be 6250mm above ground level. Is there a grid? If so, how/where is it shown? A grid is shown through lines crossing the plans vertically, represented through a numerical system. What types of information on the expressed using words? Illustrate how this
elevations are is done.
Some small details, which may not be through drawings, have been expressed such as a picture of a glass box labeled Glass Time keepers roomâ€?.
easily identified using words, â€œFrameless
Illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations. Illustrations of doors and windows on the elevations vary depending on the types of doors and windows, but can include:
Scanned by CamScanner
4 Drawing content-sections What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ form the information shown on the plan and elevation? The section shows a horizontal view of the building, cut through the middle. It is a cross section of the elevated drawings. Here you can see the inside of the building from a horizontal perspective. You can see what materials are to be used, from the outside inwards, as well as the physical inside layout of the building (somewhat). Illustrate how the section drawing differentiates between building elements that are cut through and those that are shown in elevation (beyond). The drawing uses different line thicknesses and shades, as exemplified below:
By using these shades, perspectives can be perceived. The left shows a cross section of cement blocks. The right shows the brick work in elevation. (Please excuse the low saturation on the right image). Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections.
Find where this section is located on the plans. 5 Drawing content-details. What sort of things are detailed? Close up parts of the building such as stairs, hand rails, door knobs.
Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale. The image to the right represents a brass tube foot rail fixed which is then fixed to a CFC substrate, which is tiled. This was my representation of the Detail from J-01 Detail 02
to a bard, Detail drawing (A65-02, 5).
It was very insightful comparing the drawing set to the upon visiting the site last week. When comparing the two, can be noted. Primarily, the scale. The scale of the actual much larger than the drawing plans.
actual site, many things building is
The drawing plans scale varies depending on the drawings, ranging from 1:100, 1:50, 1:10 to 1:5 (for details). These scales can be understood when you compare the overview elevation drawings to the actual building when standing on the across the oval from it. Further, when close up, the 1:5 details of things such as hand railing can be understood through physical comparison to the actual railing installed.
Visiting the site, many perspectives could be taken. The depth of the site is much more quickly understood when physically viewing it compared to the drawings. For example, the shape of the roof as pictured above compare does the drawing below. The unique shapes and curves mean it is hard to grasp a sense of how it would look built from, from drawings. Further, the lines and edges on the drawings are not necessarily as easily grasped form a visual perspective of the site (above), compared to the right:
The structural drawings take a practical approach in representing things, which the builder must take note and consider when physically building the structure. In comparison, the architectural drawings primarily focus on representing the aesthetics of the building and the final product. These drawings may be more useful to show when looking for approval to change heritage-protected fixtures, for example.
Mindmap 5: Ching (2008), Newton (2014o), Newton (2014p), Newton (2014q), Newton (2014r)
Week 5 The task of week 5 was to build a 3D model representing the structural system of a specific part of Oval Pavilion at a 1:20 scale. The chosen materials for this task were tubular wooden sticks and sticky tape. However, sticky tape proved to be a difficult material to fix columns and beams together. Future model making would be approached with more practical materials. The first step in the model making process was identifying what part of the structure we were to make and how we could plan to take the drawings and turn them into a 3 dimensional structure. We also had to convert drawing sizes due to the differing ratios of drawings from different parts of the plans so ensure they were all 1:20 in size.
Wood & Grieve Engineers (2013) Scanned by CamScanner
Above is a scan from the Oval Pavilion Redevelopment drawings which was our designated part of the Pavilion to create a model of. The drawings depict the structural elements of the canopy which acts as a roof for spectators standing outside the building. This structure is a skeletal/frame system which is very efficient in transferring loads to the ground.
This load diagram represents the efficiency of the skeletal frame in taking the weight of the canopy to the ground.
This skeletal Scanned by CamScanner
frame is a effective measure, and can be quickly built. Further, it efficiently uses materials compared to a solid system. However, the frame will need to be covered and protected from the elements to ensure it remains stable. The frame has been made from steel columns and beams. This is a strong material, which can handle the compressive forces being applied from the canopy/roof. Bracing has been fitted to this skeletal frame as the length of these columns and beams carrying the compressive load to the ground means that they may be susceptible to buckling. As noted in the Oval Pavilion Redevelopment drawing (above), the steel structure will be fitted in place by being fixed into the concrete ground it will stand on.
Scanned by CamScanner
After identifying the part of the structure to be built, we analyzed the engineerâ€™s drawings (supplied in the tutorial) to sketch a plan to build our model, including measurements.
This sketch represents a view from above the structure, showing the triangular beams extending Scanned by CamScanner from the primary structure, which will take the load of the roof which will then be transferred to the primary column, to the ground. These beams extend to the greater area of the roof to allow all of its weight to be supported.
We then followed our sketched plans and cut the wood accordingly.
Here the triangular sub structures, which act like beams in supporting the roof, have each been placed upon the initial planned sketches of them.
Our completed structure. It could not support itself as it was made as part of the larger structural system which it could not be attached to as other groups failed to finish their parts that is was meant to be attached to. Note that the sticky tape fails to act as an effective fixing element. It does not fix elements together in place and fails to permanently fix them to one another. Whilst we could not compare our structure to other’s in our tutorial as many did not finish theirs, another tutorial’s structure was excellently built.
As seen above, the model’s main material; balsa wood, is easily cut and is a square shape not rounded. This means ‘T’ fixtures where columns and beams meet, can easily be fixed to one another. Further, this model appears to have been the work of a few sub groups in the tutorial who have then combined their structures into the one larger structure.
Mindmap 6: Ching (2008), Newton (2014d), Newton (2014s), Newton (2014t), Newton (2014u),
Mindmap 7: Notes and analysis of peers presentations.
Mindmap 8: Ching (2008), Lewis (2014), Newton (2014v), Newton (2014w), Newton (2014x), Newton (2014y)
Mindmap 9: Ching (2008), Newton (2014z), Newton (2014a2), Newton (2014b2), Newton (2014c2), Newton (2014d2)
Week 8 logbook The part of the building being drawn could not be seen from standing height. Gaining access to a 3rd story balcony opposite the building in Ormond College, allowed us to visually locate the roofing area being drawn.
The area being drawn is the right angled roofing area where the exterior wall meets the 2nd highest roof. Actual drawings A closer look at the area being drawn. Viewing this roof from other perspectives would of helped to gain an understanding of the concept being drawn, however this was not possible. Although not obvious at first in real life, upon closer inspection the gap between the flashing and the exterior timber panel can be seen: Note the gap of about 5cm between the flashing and the wall panel. This is the drop point to allow the water flowing down the wall to break its friction and drop onto the flashing. This ensures that the water does not flow into potential openings on the roof, into the building.
The above sketch depicts how the exterior wall, flashing, roofing and guttering system works to ensure the structure is waterproof.
Scan of original sketch
Annotated sketch explaining what material each element is made from.
Annotated sketch explaining the purpose of some of the major elements of the building.
Mindmap 10: Newton (2014e2), Newton (2014f2).
Week 9: Detailing strategies. ‘Off site visit’ + Sketches and photos of the building under construction. The site visit was to International House, Parkville, a residential building being constructed to house students from the University of Melbourne. The building consists of individual dormitories with personal bathrooms, as well as social and learning areas. The building is over half way in terms of completion. The main structure has been built and the internal rooms are being created, however some necessities such as staircases, have not been finished. The building is not in ‘lock up stage’, and still needs windows fitted. The main material used in this project is concrete. The finish of the roof is to be ‘A Class’ concrete, this is the highest quality finish concrete can have. Due to the concrete roof in rooms, services such as lighting will come from the walls only. When installing such concrete, the formwork must be clean to ensure it does not leave marks on the concrete as it sets. Many different trades were on site working in collaboration to complete this project including electricians, plumbers, engineers as well as builders. (Right) For this site, and many commercial sites, equipment and materials are transported to higher levels by being loaded into a tray which is then craned up and temporarily fixed to the side of that level. To the right, formwork used to lay the concrete, is ready to be loaded onto the tray and craned down, to be used on the next site.
(left) The holes in the concrete have not been drilled, but instead, when the concrete is being laid, polystyrene is placed where the hole is to be and the concrete is laid around it. This hole is to allow plumbing pipes to fit through.
In the image on the right, a set down in the concrete floor can be noted. This set down is in the bathroom of the rooms, and is in place to allow the tiling to be fitted, and once in place, will be level with the floor. Tiling requires more space to allow for grouting to fix the tiles in place.
This set down (to the left) was at a different height to the set down for the tiles, and here is in place to allow for timber to be laid.
To the right, materials on the 3rd floor are placed but have not been used yet. These materials are extremely heavy and put extra load on the buildingâ€™s structure. As such, props on the levels below are in place to assist in taking this extra load to the ground. Because no extra load is on the level above the 3rd, these props are not needed on level 3.
(Left) The walls between residential rooms are to be double studded. This is to ensure acoustic separation between rooms. In addition, services (including lighting) can be run in between the two.
(Right) This was the most intriguing part of the construction site. The set downs for tiling in bathrooms (as explained above), were created on the roof of the building. The client is unsure if they wish to put another level of rooms on the roof level. As such, so the construction can keep going and as to avoid delays of creating the set downs in the future if the client does wish to add a level, the set downs were simply created just in case. This is a detailing strategy which considers future use of the building and would be of small cost compared to having to create the set downs in the future.
Mindmap 11: Ching (2008), Newton (2014g2), Newton (2014h2)
Week 10 When things go wrong Waterproofing elements: (right) The exterior timber here has been cut at an angle, which creates a drip edge. This ensures that water will not run along the cut part of the timber and into the building. Instead a friction point has been created which makes the timber drip down onto the next piece of timber, where it will drip off the bottom drip edge onto the flashing and into the roof and gutter system. The form drip edge is another waterproofing element, which transfers the water onto the flashings. Flashings are used to waterproof joints and angles on roofs. Where the exterior wall meets the roof, flashing has protected this join. The metal has been bent at a 90 degree angle (Ching, 2008) The flashing is angles slightly which makes the water roll onto the roof. Here, the roof is also slightly angled towards the ground, which will force the water to move to gutters, into down pipes and into further plumbing on the ground or into the garden beds bellow. The use of black paint means that the structure will not easily fade despite being in direct sun light. However, the black shade will draw sunlight and thus heat into the building, which could cause heat management issues. Workmanship such as cutting timber at 45 degree angles at joints, although more time consuming, is an economic decision which is costly but considers the future management and preservation of the building. Further, the timber could have been left in its original tone and not painted. However, the timber would fade over time, something that the client may not of wanted to occur. As such, painting the timber is costly but meets the aesthetic requirements of the client. Further, it also controls the weathering of the timber as it will less obviously fade from sunlight and other natural forces.
Finished 3D detail
Finished 3D detail, annotated
Mindmap 12: Ashford (2014),Ching (2008), Hes (2014)
Task: Construct a structure that spans 1000mm. The structure will then be placed in a testing cradle, to see how much the structure can hold.
Our group decided to go for a relatively straight forward design. Many other groups inserted a lot of bracing and trusses between their pieces of timber, similar to many real life bridges. We decided to utilize our given materials and simply fix the three pieces of timber together and fix the widest and thinnest piece one side to act as a brace and prevent buckling.
Sketches of planned structure. The left shows the 3pieces and nail placement, with the wide piece of timber to be attached after. The right shows how the wide piece of timber will sit on the 3 pieces.
Consideration had to be taken in terms of fixing the pieces of timber to one and other. Here, the nails were too long to be nailed in opposite each other from either side. They therefore had be arranged so they did not hit each other.
We drilled holes slightly smaller than the diameter of the nails, where the nails were to be hammered in. This was a practice employed to avoid splitting the wood from the force of hammering the nail directly into it. Such fixtures create weakness in the timberâ€™s structure.
Close up of how the timber was fixed to the other pieces. Set of three nails: One nail into each piece. This was done at either end and one set in the center (9 nails in total)
Fixing the final piece of timber to the structure, with nails.
Another group’s structure took an unconventional approach, fixing as many pieces of bracing as possible. Their structure built in a rush.
This group’s structure however, when tested with an applied load, did not hold very much weight considering its size. The structure buckled and critically fractured when just under 12kg’s of force had been applied. This was probably mainly attributed to the lack of columns supporting the beams. The bracing went across the whole pieces of timber, however columns in-between the two long pieces of timber may of helped carry the load through it.
The image to the right shows our team’s structure being tested.
This sketch depicts how the load would be transferred into the ground if the whole structure was directly built on the earth.
However, in this scenario the structure is imitating a bridge of sorts. The structure is tested with its ends placed on two pieced of wood and the rest of the structure suspended. This means it is more susceptible to breaking as the bottom of the structure is not fully supported Our structure managed to take a load just under 733kilograms!
The image above shows where the structure failed. The bottom piece of wood that carried the most load (as the top two transferred their load down into this piece) snapped around halfway into the piece. Whilst our structure held the largest load in the workshop group, it did not utilize the materials efficiently. It required a lot of timber and would not be practical to apply to a life size scale. In reality, steel or another metal would be used to construct most bridges at it is a material which is less likely to fail in this scenario compared to timber. Further, it does not rot like timber does. This model could not be made in real life also do to the inefficient use of materials. If this structure were to be suspended over a gap (as a bridge), it would be too heavy, would bend in the center and would not be able to be suspended and supported from the end fixtures to land. Creating scaled down models of structure is a lot faster and easier to do than creating numerous actual life size tests. However care must be taken to ensure that the models made are realistic representations of a planned structure.
Glossary: Alloy: a mixture of two or more metals. Axial Load: Load applied parallel to the axis of the object. (Ching, 2008) Beam: Beams are horizontal materials, which accept and transfer loads, often into columns. (Ching, 2008). Bending: When something (normally straight) is curved due to an applied force. Braced Frame: frame (made from timber or steel) braced with diagonal members. (Ching, 2008) Bracing: System which supports structure. Buckling: The failure of a structure results in it buckling. (Ching, 2008). Cantilever: A beam which is not supported at both ends (only one). (Ching, 2008) Column: an erected pillar which supports another structure and transfers loads. (Ching, 2008) Composite Beam: A beam made from steel and concrete. The concrete sits above the steel. (Ching, 2008) Compression: Compression occurs when an external load pushes on materials and thus pushing particles closer to one another. Causes shortening of material being compressed. (Ching, 2008) Concrete Plank: A plank such as a beam made from concrete. Cornice: “Moulded projection that crowns a wall or divides it horizontally for compositional purposes. It may be formed with simply a crown molding or be built up with a number of moulds” (Ching, 2008, p.10.26) Corrosion: deterioration that occurs to metal or stone. Chemical reaction. E.g. rust. (Ching, 2008) Cladding: layering / covering on material. (Ching, 2008). Defect: imperfection Deflection: “Perpendicular distance a spanning member deviates from a true course under transverse loading, increasing with load and span and decreasing with an increase in the moment of inertia of the section or modulus of elasticity of the material” (Ching, 2008, p.2.14) Door Furniture: accessories of a door: fixtures such as handles, locks, eyeholes. Downpipe: Part of plumbing system which carries water from roof to ground level. Eave: edge of roof that joins to walls/overhangs walls (Ching, 2008) Fascia: covers and disguises the end of fittings. (Ching, 2008) Flashing: Flashings are used to waterproof joints and angles on roofs. Where the exterior wall meets the roof, flashing has protected this join from water entering the roof. (Ching, 2008) Footing: the foundation in which the building will be built from (Ching, 2008) Force: is any influence which produces a change in the shape or movement of a body. Foundation: Are the substructure of building-function to safely transfer loads from the building structure to the ground. (Ching, 2008) Frame: Two or more columns supporting a beam with joints capable of resisting forces. (Ching, 2008) Girder: Horizontal (beam) supports to structure. (Ching, 2008) Gutter: Metal trough which is fixed to edges of roof. Insulation: materials placed in walls and ceiling which insulate the building. Joint: where two parts of a structure meet/join. Joist: parallel pieces of timber or steel which support floor or ceiling. (Ching, 2008). Lifecycle: The duration of which a material will last until it cannot serve its purpose. Lintel: Above door or window, extends across it. Is not necessarily load bearing. (Ching, 2008). Load path: The load takes the most direct route to the ground. At the ground load the applied loads have a reaction (means the whole structure is stable) equal and opposite to the applied loads. This equal and opposite reaction concept is a fundamental one in regard to structures. (Ching, 2008). Masonry: A form of construction through stonework.
Moment of Inertia: “Moment of inertia is defined with respect to a specific rotation axis. The moment of inertia of a point mass with respect to an axis is defined as the product of the mass times the distance from the axis squared.” (Hyperphysics, 2014) Nogging: Filling inbetween timber frame with brickwork. (Ching, 2008). Parapet: low wall from the edge of roof/balcony etc. (Ching, 2008). Point Load: A load which is applied to a specific point on a structure. (Ching, 2008). Portal frame: two upright members connected and supported by a horizontal member. Basic frame. (Ching, 2008) Purlin: Beam in roofing system which rafters sit on. (Ching, 2008) Rafter: Sloped beam which meets the wall plate (Ching, 2008). Reaction: Response, every action has an equal and opposite action applied. Retaining Wall: A wall which is built to barricade against earth or water. Sandwich Panel: Aluminum composite panel bonded to non-aluminum center. (Ching, 2008). (e.g. foam roof panel). Sealant: seal against the passage of water and air, with cohesive and adhesive strength. (Ching, 2008 p.7.50). Seasoned Timber: Timber that has been dried to remove its moisture content at a level considered stable. (Ching. 2008). Shadow line Joint: Shear Force: Forces pushing object in opposite directions, however unaligned (compressive forces are aligned). (Ching, 2008). Shear wall: “A wood, concrete, or masonry wall capable of resisting changes in shape and transferring lateral loads to the ground foundation.” (Ching, 2008 p.2.22) Skirting: protective board (normally wood) running along base of wall. Protects form scuff marks etc. (Ching, 2008). Slab on grade: “Concrete slabs on grade supported directly by earth and thickened to carry wall and column loads form an economical foundation and floor system for one and two story structures.” (Ching, 2008, p.3.04) Soffit: Underside of element such as underside of balcony or arch. (Ching, 2008). Soft Story: “Lateral stiffness or strength significantly less than that of the stories above” (Ching, 2008 p.2.23). Stability: A system firmly constructed and unlikely to give way. Stress: tension occurring on material. Strip footing: “Continuous spread footings of foundation walls” (Ching, 2008, p.3.09). Structural joint: connect beams and columns, exist in the form of pin joints (can transfer load in two directions), fixed joints and roller joints (transfer load in one direction) (Ching, 2008). Strut: a compression element, a column for example, or element within a truss (Ching, 2008). Stud: Forms part of wall in structure. Walls exterior is fixed to stud-plasterboard etc. (Ching, 2008). Substructure: component which supports the larger structure. Tension: Force pulling on an object which stretches its particles outwards. Tie: a tension element, something that is being pulled apart. (e.g. cable tie on bridge) (Ching, 2008). Top Chord: The top beam in the truss explained below. (Ching, 2008). Truss: is a structure comprising five or more triangular units. (e.g. part of bridge) (Ching, 2008). Vapour barrier: material used to prevent moisture from entering building. May be plastic or foil which can be seen in roofs. (Ching, 2008). Window Sash: Framework which holds panes of glass into window frame itself. (Ching, 2008).
Reference list: Clair Newton. (2014a). Constructing systems. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8zTarEeGXOo&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 12 March 2014]. Clair Newton. (2014b). ESD and selecting materials. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=luxirHHxjIY&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 12 March 2014]. Clair Newton. (2014c). Structural Joints. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kxRdY0jSoJo&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 12 March 2014]. Clare Newton. (2014d). W05_m1 From Wood to Timber [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJL0vCwM0zg&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 4 2014] Clare Newton. (2014e). W01 c1 Construction Overview. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 08 March 2014]. Clare Newton. (2014f). W01 m1 Introduction to Materials. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 08 March 2014]. Clare Newton. (2014g). W01 s1 Load Path Diagrams. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 07 March 2014]. Clare Newton. (2014h). W03_c1 FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAcuwrecIz8&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014i). W03_m1 INTRODUCTION TO MASS CONSTRUCTION [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Au2upE9JN8&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014j). W03_m2 INTRODUCTION TO MASONRY [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC8Hv8AKQ8A&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014k). W03_m3 BRICKS [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lYlQhkMYmE&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014l). W03_m4 STONE [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vn5_dk4RtQ&feature=youtu.be . [Accessed: 20 March 2014]
Clare Newton. (2014m). W03_m5 CONCRETE BLOCK [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=geJv5wZQtRQ&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014n). W03_s1 STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQIa1O6fp98&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 20 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014o). W04_c1 FLOOR SYSTEMS [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otKffehOWaw&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 28 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014p). W04_m1 CONCRETE [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 28 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014q). W04_m2 IN SITU CONCRETE [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3zW_TBGjfE&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 28 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014r). W04_m3 PRE CAST CONCRETE [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scYY-MMezI0&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 28 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014s). W05_c1 WALLS, GRIDS AND COLUMNS [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq41q6gUIjI&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: April 4 2014] Clare Newton. (2014t). W05_m2 Timber Properties and Considerations [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul0r9OGkA9c&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 4 2014] Clare Newton. (2014u). W05_m3 Engineered Timber Products [Online Video]. Available fromhttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: 28 March 2014] Clare Newton. (2014v). W06_c1 Roof systems [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5ms8vmhs50&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 11 2014] Clare Newton. (2014w). W06_m1 Introduction to Metals [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RttS_wgXGbI&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 11 2014] Clare Newton. (2014x). W06_m2 Ferrous Metals [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQy3IyJy-is&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 11 2014] Clare Newton. (2014y). W06_m3 Non Ferrous Metals [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDtxb7Pgcrw&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 11 2014] Clare Newton. (2014z). W07_c1 Detailing for Heat and Moisture [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lhwm8m5R_Co&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 19 2014] Clare Newton. (2014a2). W07_c1 Detailing for Heat and Moisture [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lhwm8m5R_Co&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 19 2014] Clare Newton. (2014b2). W07_m1 Rubber [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 19 2014]
Clare Newton. (2014c2). W07_m2 Plastics [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 19 2014] Clare Newton. (2014d2). W07_m3 Paints [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrydR4LA5e0&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: April 19 2014] Clare Newton. (2014e2). W08_c1 OPENINGS: DOORS AND WINDOWS [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7QQIue58xY&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 2 2014] Clare Newton. (2014f2). W08_m1 GLASS [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I0Jqcrfcyk&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 2 2014] Clare Newton. (2014g2). W09_c1 Construction Detailing [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqVwAV7yJCI&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 9 2014] Clare Newton. (2014h2). W09_m1 Composite Materials [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 9 2014] Dr Alex Selenitsch 'Column and wall Point and plane'. (2014). Framework for analysing form. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KJ97Whk1kGU&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 12 March 2014]. Dr Dominique Hes. (2014). W10_m1 Heroes and Culprits, When things Go Wrong. [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhdfwGNp_6g&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 16 2014] Dr Margaret Grose. (2014). Walking the constructed city. [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y__V15j3IX4&feature=youtu.be. [Accessed: 08 March 2014] Francis D. K. Ching .(2008). Building Construction Illustrated. 4th Edition. Wiley. HyperPhysics. (2014). Moment of Inertia. [Website] Available at http://hyperphysics.phyastr.gsu.edu/hbase/hph.html. [Accessed on: 22 March 2014]. Cox Architecture, Wood & Grieve Engineers (2013). Oval Pavilion Construction Drawings. Peter Ashford. (2014). W10_c1 Collapses and Failures. [Online Video]. Available from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNEl-fYRi_I&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: May 16 2014] Professor Miles Lewis . (2014). Spanning Spaces [Online Video]. Available from: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zx4tM-uSaO8&feature=youtu.be [Accessed: April 11 2014] Note: All images and sketches taken and drawn by Joseph Griffin, unless otherwise referenced.