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February 10, 2011

Welcome from President Doug Whitlock of Eastern Kentucky University: Eastern Kentucky University is proud to participate in the 10th annual Posters-at-the-Capitol program because we believe it clearly demonstrates the high quality of our public universities, the tremendous value of public higher education in our Commonwealth and the scholarly and creative achievements of some of our best and brightest students. The projects represented in this exhibit reflect the collaborative efforts of students and dedicated members of our outstanding faculty – men and women who model a passion for excellence and lifelong learning. As they nurture our students to reach deep within themselves and realize their full potential, these faculty mentors bring great honor to themselves, our University and to the teaching profession. Undergraduate research is an integral component of the teaching-learning process at EKU, where students are encouraged to explore their full potential. As a “School of Opportunity,” we are committed to providing all our students with diverse educational opportunities that enhance their classroom experiences and develop their intellectual curiosity. Each year, our students’ exemplary work is displayed in a week-long Undergraduate Presentation Showcase. This discovery and application of new knowledge is exciting for the student participants and uplifting to our entire University community. I applaud all the faculty mentors in the Posters-at-the-Capitol program for providing such quality learning experiences for their students. To all the students, I offer my heartfelt congratulations and this challenge: let this experience mark only the beginning of your educational journey and a life committed to personal excellence. Educator Marva Collins once said, “Success doesn’t come to you – you go to it.” Students, I am pleased to see that already you are living your life by that truth. Congratulations, and keep up the good work!

Welcome from President Michael B. McCall of the Kentucky Community and Technical College System: The Kentucky Community and Technical College System is delighted to take part in this celebration. I applaud the efforts of the Posters-at-the-Capitol Organizing Committee and our university partners in promoting innovative student research and scholarship. Engaging students in substantive research projects stimulates critical thinking and builds a strong foundation for advanced research and professional development after graduation. Undergraduate research opportunities also provide student-scholars the added benefits of faculty expertise and mentorship. Moreover, college students with solid research skills typically achieve greater educational outcomes and are also more likely to pursue postgraduate studies than those without these valuable skills.

President McCall’s Welcome Cont’d. I am extremely pleased that KCTCS students will have the opportunity to showcase their accomplishments in the research arena. KCTCS, where higher education begins for most Kentuckians, is committed to improving the quality of life for Kentuckians and the pursuit of applied research is one of the myriad ways KCTCS students can enhance economic development within the Commonwealth. Congratulations to the Posters-at-the-Capitol scholars. I wish each of you continued success on your journey of scholarly achievement.

Welcome from President Mary Evans Sias of Kentucky State University: It hardly seems as if it could have been 10 years since Posters-at-theCapitol began. Over those 10 years, thousands of students and hundreds of faculty members have gathered from all across the Commonwealth to celebrate the value of doing undergraduate research. Having the opportunity to engage in undergraduate research is an essential part of the educational experience our students receive while attending a university. Kentucky State University is pleased to have the opportunity to showcase some of our very brightest students and faculty and their research. It is through their research that the next generations of students and their families will have a chance for a better tomorrow through the improved economic development of the Commonwealth, our region and our nation. Congratulations to each of you selected to participate in the 2011 Posters-at-the-Capitol competition. The skills you have acquired from your research projects will serve you well throughout your life. Best wishes and continued success to you on your journey.

Welcome from President Wayne Andrews of Morehead State University: I am very pleased that the members of the General Assembly will have the opportunity to meet and interact with our undergraduate students participating in the 10th Annual Posters-at-the-Capitol event. These student projects, completed in collaboration with faculty members outside the traditional classroom setting, provide an excellent example of the personal, value-added educational opportunities available at Morehead State University. I take great pride in the high priority that we have placed on faculty-mentored student-engagement activities in basic and applied research, artistic and other creative endeavors, and community and regional stewardship. In an age of declining budgets, larger classes, and an increasing emphasis on less personal forms of instruction through the Internet, it is critical that we continue to recognize the importance of one-on-one faculty-student mentoring relationships in the educational process. The involvement of undergraduate students with faculty in research, scholarship, and other creative endeavors provides the type of rich academic environment necessary for the development of leaders with

President Andrews’ Welcome Cont’d. the intellectual skills and vision to guide the future social and economic development of our Commonwealth and the Nation. Morehead State University is committed to the continued expansion of these scholarly opportunities for students in all academic programs through initiatives such as our unique Undergraduate Research Fellows program and our Celebration of Student Scholarship Week. The 10th Anniversary of the Posters-at-the-Capital student showcase clearly demonstrates the commitment of Morehead State University and Kentucky’s other public institutions of higher education to faculty-mentored undergraduate research and the pursuit of academic excellence. I offer my sincere thanks to the faculty mentors who go the extra mile to meaningfully involve students in their scholarship, and my hearty congratulations to these student scholars for their outstanding research and creative accomplishments.

Welcome from President Randy J. Dunn of Murray State University: This year marks the tenth anniversary of Posters-at-the-Capitol. Murray State’s involvement in this worthy event is both a testament to our students, who are seeking out these kinds of learning opportunities in growing numbers, and to our University as we all work to provide a greater number of high quality, research-based teaching and learning opportunities for MSU students. Murray State University places a high premium on programs that promote one-on-one interaction between our faculty and students. Through our Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity office and our system of Residential Colleges, Murray State continuously supports faculty-student interaction. By providing our students with these kinds of learning opportunities, Murray State is meeting the objectives of the Council on Postsecondary Education and the Legislature by ensuring that our graduates are well prepared for life and work. I join the Posters-at-the-Capitol Organizing Committee in inviting all of our Commonwealth’s citizens to visit and review the work of Kentucky’s most gifted students. These undergraduates are contributing ideas that are impacting communities and changing lives. Congratulations to all those students and faculty whose hard work has made Posters-at-the-Capitol possible.

Welcome from President James Votruba of Northern Kentucky University: Two of the Strategic Goals of Northern Kentucky University are to "Strengthen our commitment to 'up close and personal' as a defining quality of the NKU experience," and to "Expand student participation in undergraduate research and other forms of creative activity as a defining characteristic of NKU." These goals point to the very important role that undergraduate research plays in the fabric of our university life. Direct interaction between faculty and students in undergraduate research and creative activities results in development by the students of critical thinking and analytic skills as well as oral and written communication skills needed to present their work. These interactions also foster the deep intellectual bond between faculty member and student that is a defining characteristic of our students' education. We are proud and pleased to present our students' work at this, the tenth Posters-at-the-Capitol. We have observed the growth of this event and conclude that the quality of work has increased each year. These posters and presentations are the culmination of much effort by our students and their faculty mentors and exemplify the high quality work by undergraduate researchers at Northern Kentucky University. We know that the students displaying their work here are future leaders in the development of the intellectual infrastructure of the Commonwealth and are therefore confident of Kentucky's future.

Welcome from President Lee T. Todd, Jr. of the University of Kentucky: “Research is a powerful engine that helps drive the economic and educational missions of the Commonwealth. I believe that exposure to and participation in the research process is important for every college student’s academic career. The experience opens the mind to new ideas and new possibilities. Now in its 10th year, Posters-at-the-Capitol is a welcome opportunity to recognize undergraduate research as an essential part of the educational experience; one that benefits students, faculty, and ultimately, the Commonwealth. For students, undergraduate research affords an opportunity to work collaboratively with faculty and peers, to participate directly in the creative process and the generation of knowledge, to experience the rewards of inquiry-based learning, and to expand upon the lessons learned in the classroom. Through undergraduate research, students experience personally the intellectual passion that is the foundation of scholarship at the University of Kentucky. For faculty, there is no more rewarding teaching opportunity than to serve as a mentor for an eager young mind. The goals that inspire faculty and establish teaching as one of the truly noble professions include opportunities to excite imagination, foster curiosity, and celebrate the values of academic scholarship. Supervision of undergraduate research and creativity projects maximizes those kinds of teaching opportunities.�

Welcome from President James Ramsey of the University of Louisville: The Legislative mandate given to the University of Louisville is to be the “premier metropolitan research university” in Kentucky. Research universities are critical to the success of the Commonwealth as they conduct the high-powered research and development that lead to economic development. One of the important ways that undergraduate students at the University of Louisville may gain “real world” experience is by participating in research. The UofL is proud of the many outstanding faculty researchers and scholars who mentor undergraduate students in their laboratories and classrooms. The commitment to our students’ educational experience begins with enrollment, and their exposure to research comes early in their academic life. Through the Posters-at-the Capitol program, our undergraduate students exchange their ideas and discoveries with the Commonwealth’s elected leaders. Instilling a passion for creativity and new knowledge among undergraduate students is vital to economic development and quality of life success. The Posters-at-the-Capitol program introduces undergraduate students to the importance of reporting scientific investigation and supporting crucial public investment in research and development. This collaborative event among Kentucky’s public universities allows talented undergraduates to demonstrate their academic achievement and the effectiveness of Kentucky’s higher education system. The University of Louisville is proud of this program and its participants. We hope you will share our enthusiasm for the opportunities offered and visit with our students.

Welcome from President Gary Ransdell of Western Kentucky University: Western Kentucky University takes great pride in the fact that highly credentialed faculty from a wide array of academic disciplines involve undergraduate students in meaningful research activities. The comprehensive university in America has as its primary responsibility, the applied use of its intellectual capacity to identify and solve problems that exist in its region. At WKU, scholarly collaborations utilize the concepts learned in classrooms and laboratories to prepare students for the workforce and graduate/professional schools. WKU research projects also address issues important to constituents outside the University, thereby impacting the social and economic development of our community, counties, state, and nation. As in previous years, it is gratifying to see the number and diversity of student scholars, along with their faculty mentors participating in this tenth annual Posters-at-the-Capitol project. It is vitally important that our legislators meet these students and witness the tangible benefits accruing from ongoing student research at our universities and its potential impact on an improved quality of life for all Kentuckians. WKU is proud to participate in the Posters-at-theCapitol project.

Welcome from the Posters-at-the-Capitol Organizing Committee

John Mateja Jody Cofer

Rose Perrine

George Antonious

Bruce Mattingly

Dan Curtin

Diane Snow Evie Russell

Pamela Feldhoff

Blaine Ferrell

Mary Janssen

The Posters-at-the-Capitol Organizing Committee asks all participants to work with our photographer to ensure we capture a diverse record of our 2011 program. A photo album will be posted on the program’s website shortly following the event.

Schedule of Activities 9:00 a.m. to 11:00 a.m. …………………………………………...……………… Poster Setup

9:00 a.m. to 1:30 p.m. …………………………………………..………….. Legislative Visits

10:15 a.m. .….…………………………………...….….. Group Photograph (Senate Staircase)

11:00 a.m. …………………………………..……….……......Welcoming Remarks (Rotunda)

11:00 a.m. to 3:30 p.m. …………...………………………….General Poster Session Viewing

1:30 p.m. to 3:00 p.m. …………………………………..... Reception (Senate-side Mezzanine)

3:30 p.m. …………………………………………….………………...……...…… Conclusion

All times listed are Eastern Standard Time.


MAP PAGE To be inserted during printing.


Eastern Kentucky University Poster No. Student 3 Antoine


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Armstrong Blair Burton Burns Cecil Engle Hager Janos Kidd

Jennifer Bailey Kelly Deanna Corey Kathryn Joshua Gregg Bryan




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Montavon Phifer Posey

Alexander William Katie

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Preston Radford Rapier

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Sharits Stillwell Stinson Thacker Triplet Toombs Westerfield Wieliczko Yeiser

Andrew Kelsey Lauren Matthew Benica Brittany Landon Marika John

Poster No. 11 14 16 16 63 36 16 11 16 11 11 63 14 14 36 16

Student Beck Bell Blagg Clayton Crabtree Dutton Gage Harris Henry Herndon Hoffman Howard Pedley Shouse Stutler Whitworth

Faculty Mentor(s) Adam Lawson Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, & Laurel Morton Marianne Ramsey Richard Osbaldiston & Dustin Wygant Joyce Hall Wolfe Alice Jones Joyce Hall Wolfe Richard Osbaldiston & Dustin Wygant David Brown Marianne Ramsey Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, & Laurel Morton Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, & Laurel Morton Jonathan Gore Jon McChesney Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, & Laurel Morton Rose Perrine Richard Osbaldiston & Dustin Wygant Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, & Laurel Morton Marianne Ramsey Marianne Ramsey John Bowes & Carolyn Dupont David May Jon McChesney Joyce Hall Wolfe Nathan Tice & Darren Smith Stephen Richter & Alice Jones

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Kentucky Community and Technical College System Gordon Savannah Kyle Caleb Halee Brian Kelsey Devin Matthew Reid Leah Brittany Donna Angela Tim Kelsey

Faculty Mentor(s) Felix Akojie Timothy Dick Ehab Marji Ehab Marji Mary Janssen Jake Hildebrant Ehab Marji Felix Akojie Ehab Marji Felix Akojie Felix Akojie Mary Janssen Timothy Dick Timothy Dick Jake Hildebrant Ehab Marji

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Kentucky State University Poster No. Student 6 9

Banda Bayo

Yankuba Haddijatou






Faculty Mentor(s) Narayanan Rajendran & Williard Mazhawidza Charles Bennett Kirk Pomper, Sheri Crabtree, & Jeremy Lowe Changzheng Wang, Lingyu Huang, & Cecil Butler John Sedlacek, Karen Friley, Kirk Pomper, & Jeremy Lowe

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John Sedlacek & Karen Friley George Antonious, Eric Turley, & Tejinder Kochhar Shawn Coyle, Leigh Anne Bright, & James Tidwell George Antonious,Tejinder Kochhar, & Regina Hill George Antonious,Tejinder Kochhar, & Regina Hill John Sedlacek, Karen Friley, Kirk Pomper, & Jeremy Lowe



Avinash Tope

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Morehead State University Poster No. Student 5 Arnold 21 Burchett

Megan Kristin

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Burba Campbell Campbell Cline Drake Eksell Fife

Tyler Brittany Jade Jonathan Tonya Emma Destiny










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Goble Hager Hatfield Huffaker Hollenkamp Howell Johnson Jones Kline Lyons Maynard

James James Kyle Clifton Blake Kelli Cecil Brittany Jessica Tyler Kelly Laura

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Molton Mora

Brandon Stephanie

Faculty Mentor(s) Joy Gritton & Jesse Wells Michelle McClave Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Joey Fernandez & Sara Lindsey Michelle McClave Steve Chen & William Salazar Michelle McClave Steve Chen & Ann Andarolo Michelle McClave Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Kristina DuRocher Steve Chen & Ann Andarolo June Grice Sara Lindsey & Joey Fernandez Joy Gritton & Jesse Wells Michelle McClave Michelle McClave Deborah Eastwood Michelle McClave Deanna Mascle Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Lori Baruth

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Morehead State University Cont'd. Poster No. Student 37 Morris Ashley 21 Parker Beth 90 Potter Caleb 5 Ratliff Jessica 94 37 113 35 114 35 21

Rose Sapcut Weckenbrock Wells Wells Wells Yearsley

Tyler Stephanie Amie Bethany Jennifer Jessica Lisa

Faculty Mentor(s) Steve Chen & Ann Andarolo Michelle McClave Joy Gritton Joy Gritton & Jesse Wells Benjamin Malphrus, Kevin Brown, & Bob Twiggs Steve Chen & Ann Andarolo Kimberlee Sharp Michelle McClave Janet Ratliff Michelle McClave Michelle McClave

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Murray State University Poster No. Student 1 Adams 15 Benningfield

Alexa Dylan

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Camp Cassidy

Susan Brianna

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Coleman Creed Elsayed Erwin Francisco Hall Hogan Holland Huckaba Jones Kelly Keeney Loganathan Mosby Moss-Crisp Mueller

Scott Michael Mahamoud Samantha Laura Matthew Kathryn Robin Aron Karen Amber Erin Sudan Samantha Sarah Kelsa

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Murdock Orr Osban

Trent Brandon Richard




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Paschall Peel

Ben Dominique



John Michael

Faculty Mentor(s) Kelley Wezner Bommanna Loganathan David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani Bommanna Loganathan David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani Alexey Arkov Alexey Arkov Maeve McCarthy & Kate He Todd Levine & David White David Pizzo William Dewees Everett Weber Maeve McCarthy & Kate He David Eaton Alexey Arkov Terry Derting Alexey Arkov Rachel Allenbaugh David Eaton Todd Levine & David White David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani Rachel Allenbaugh David Pizzo David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani William Dewees David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani

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Murray State University Cont'd. Poster No. Student

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Stuard Tinch Verive

Robert Kristen Sarah

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Vowell Waniel Werfel Wilson

Kalie Vincent Thomas Callie




Faculty Mentor(s) David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani Meagan Musselman Kala Chakradhar David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani Michael Bowman Halim Ayan Terry Derting David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gustav Helmers, & Iin Handayani

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Northern Kentucky University Poster No. 19 20 61 29 31 19 46 52 56 57 61 56 72 69 72 74 61 81 56 20 97 69 102

Student Brown Brown Buttacavoli Colston Crawford Fey Fuehner Gutowska Henges Henry Hospelhorn Howard Johnson Kaiser Knue Labate Lynch Morgan Morley Murray Sams Shelley Theobald

Austin Justin Matthew Gregory Emily Aubrey Michael Sylwia Amy Marilyn Aleshia Meagan Stevi Samantha Emilee Sheryn Emrys Justin Chelsea John Meryl Virgina Keshia

Faculty Mentor(s) Kereen Monteyne James Walden Judy Voelker Joseph Nolan & David Agard Yi Hu Kereen Monteyne Wayne Bresser & Chari Ramkumar Douglas Krull Cecile Marczinski Heather Bullen Judy Voelker Cecile Marczinski Isabelle Lagadic Hazel Barton & Marcelo Kramer Isabelle Lagadic Andrea Watkins Judy Voelker Hetal Jasani Cecile Marczinski James Walden Kim Dinsey-Read Hazel Barton & Marcelo Kramer Shauna Reilly

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House No. Senate No. 67 24 60 11 67 23 67 24 68 24 67 24 61 11 67 24 65 23 64 17 67 23 70 18 60 11 51 11 65 23 67 24 67 23 69 23 61 11 68 24 65 23 68 24 69 23

University of Kentucky Poster No. 2 2 2 2 2 2 18 2 27 2 2 2 60 62 2 2 75 2 2 77 85 2 91 2 96 2 2 105 116

Student Allen An Bluhm Boeing Bogan Brake Bricken Chauhan Chaney Clark Harr Harvey Holsapple Houtz Kwiatkowski Lambert Lloyd Long Marcum McNamara Patel Polinedrio Price Riggins

Julie Eun Young Katie Meaghan Jess Jessica Michael Vinanti Elizabeth Amy Elizabeth Betty Christiana Philip Caitlyn Robin Taylor Melissa Carrie Katelyn Mittul Veronica Raven Carrie

Ruble Russo Rutherford Todd Westmont

Sara Beth Angela Abby Greg Camille

Faculty Mentor(s) Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Luke Bradley Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Jeffrey Bewley Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Anna Manley Bruce Webb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb A. Bruce Downie Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Jonathan Lifshitz Qingjun Wang Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Jeffrey Osborn Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Kristin Ashford, Andrea McCubbin, & Susan Westneat Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Joe Rey-Barreau & Terry Rothgeb Jeffrey Osborn Gwynn Henderson & David Pollack

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University of Louisville Poster No. 30 33 40 44 48 55 49 51 83 79 83 93 99 100 118

Student Cook Davis Feil France Fugate Hendrix Graves Guardiola-Bright Litchfield Mitchell Oliver Rodeffer Sokhadze States Wilkins

Tim Megan Marilyn Michael Milicent Ryan Whitney John Lacey Joshua Laura Don Colleen Guela Vanessa Joseph

Factulty Mentor(s) Hunter Moseley Diane Orr Chlebowy J. Christopher States Susanna Remold J. Christopher States & Steven Ellis Micah Worley Diane Chlewbowy Matt Cave & Cam Faulkner Carolyn Klinge Hunter Moseley Carolyn Klinge Diane Orr Chlewbowy Ayman El-Baz & Lonnie Sears J. Christopher States Benjamin MacCall

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Western Kentucky University Poster No. Student 78 Ayers








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Batra Bell Bean Esch

Sumit Aaron Steven Clarice

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Evans Ferguson Fox Frost Fugate Hughes Kramer

Jesse John Derek Adam Elizabeth Wally Curtlyn




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Mikulcik Missik Phillips

Kristen Justine Michael

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Sahi Schieber Schrader

Nilesh Natalie Sarah

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Shockley Thomas

Heather Jennifer

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Turner Waldrop Ward

Camille Krysta Sarah

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Willis Zierten

Chad Rachel

Faculty Mentor(s) Albert Meier & Bruce Kessler Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Steven Gibson James Navalta Martin Stone Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Hemali Rathnayake Jeffrey Ward Lance Hahn & Pitt Derryberry Matthew Nee Mac Mckerral Lance Hahn & Pitt Derryberry Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Albert Meier & Bruce Kessler Edward Kintzel Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Matthew Nee Rodney King Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Dana Bradley Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi Matthew Nee Jeremy Maddox Rajalingham Dakshinamurthy & Shivendra Sahi James Navalta

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1. Alexa Adams Murray State University Mentor: Kelley Wezner To Remain a Spinster Was a Luxury the Poor Could Not Afford: Marriage in Jane Austen's Emma Emma Woodhouse, the protagonist of Jane Austen’s Emma, flaunts the fact that she does not want or need to get married. She does this until the point she realizes the extent of Mr. Knightley’s affection toward her. She has the option to stay single because, with the exception of Mr. Knightley, any man in Highbury that she might marry would result in a drop in both her wealth and social status. However, Austen’s secondary heroines, Jane Fairfax and Harriet Smith, do not have the option of refusing proposals. They have status, but no money. Their options are to marry well, or to hope for a decent job, such as a governess or companion. All three women marry or are set to be married by the end of the novel. Emma has married the one man who improves her wealth, and both Jane and Harriet have married above their class and secured their futures through the unions to Frank Churchill and Robert Martin, respectively. In this essay, I explore the different reasons and motivations that the women in Jane Austen’s novels faced when it came to marriage, and why they settled on the aberrant choices that they did. I will discuss why Emma chose to marry Knightley and the influence that this had on Jane and Harriet.

2. Julie Allen, Katie Bluhm, Meaghan Boeing, Jess Bogan, Jessica Brake, Vinati Chauhan, Amy Clark, Elizabeth Harr, Betty Harvey, Caitlyn Kwiatkowski, Robin Lambert, Melissa Long, Carrie Marcum, Veronica Polinedrio, Carrie Riggins, Angela Russo, Abby Rutherford, and Eun Young An University of Kentucky Mentor(s): Joe Rey-Barreau and Terry Rothgeb Design of a Sustainable Housing Relief Unit The UKID Students for Design Innovation & Sustainable Environments is a group of upper level interior design students at the University of Kentucky. The group was presented with the challenge of designing housing units for housing relief in areas throughout the world that have experienced natural disasters. The research objectives included the design of structures that could be prefabricated; would use over 95% recycled materials; and could be shipped in flat packs for assembly at the location where needed. The units also are designed to withstand local environmental conditions, and the conditions resulting from earthquakes, hurricanes and flooding. As a result of the research, the group chose to design the housing units using a material whose trade name is Homasote. Homasote is an environmentally-intelligent building and industrial packaging material made of 98% post-consumer recycled paper. In this project the research has shown that this material has the necessary strength to function as wall studs and joists, along with sheathing panels for roofing, walls, and floors. Other characteristics include moisture and mold resistance, integral protection against termites and fungi, and fire protection. All of the components of the housing units will be made from Homasote sheets measuring 8 feet x 4 feet x ½”. The project also is intended to create awareness about the sustainable nature of Homasote as a building material. The student group will soon be contacting disaster relief agencies around the world to find partners in the building and shipment of these environmentally-friendly and affordable housing units. 17

3. Kayla Antoine Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Adam Lawson Sensation Seeking Influences on Memory: A Psychophysiological Approach Sensation seeking is a personality trait that has received considerable interest from applied researchers because it can identify people who are more likely to engage in high risk behaviors including illegal drug use. The use of highly arousing content in antidrug campaigns has been shown to increase attention and recall for high sensation seekers, resulting in lowered drug use. One type of memory that may be enhanced by arousal is source memory, that reflects strong memories that include contextual details like when and where the memory was formed. In this study, we examined high and low sensation seekers’ source memory of images that were high and low in arousal. Forty undergraduate participants from EKU completed a questionnaire measuring sensation seeking. Participants then performed a study task during which they rated the pleasantness of forty images with positive valance (20 high arousal and 20 low arousal). Participants then completed a memory task including 40 studied and 40 new images while Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) was being measured. For each image reported as studied, participants were asked to recall the lighting condition of the room (source memory) and respond to how confident they felt in that answer. We hypothesized that high and low sensation seekers’ would differ in their source memory. Our results confirmed our hypothesis by showing sensation seeking group differences to both high arousal and low arousal images. These results support the continued use of materials tailored for high sensation seekers to enhance memory in antidrug campaigns.


4. Jennifer Armstrong, Andrew Preston, Michael Mazzotta, Andrew Sharits, and Alexander Montavon Eastern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Nathan Tice, Darren Smith, Buchang Shi, and Laurel Morton Advances in Biofuels and Renewable Feedstocks Technologies in Eastern Kentucky Study 1: (Armstrong and Preston) Furan Derivatives: Utilization of Biomass Byproducts as Renewable Building Blocks With the increasing demand of petroleum continuing to negatively influence the United States economy and security, transitioning to renewable fuels and high value chemicals has become a high priority in the sciences. While Biofuels have been given a large amount of attention, replacement of petroleum-based resins, polymers, and feedstocks is just as critical. Recent advances in carbohydrate research have shown that furans represent a truly renewable building block for novel conducting polymers. These so-called “biopolymers� have the potential to be incorporated into next generation electronics (e.g., field-effect transistors (FETs), organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), and organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells) all at a fraction of the price of traditional inorganic materials. Our focus has been to develop novel organic and organometallic compounds from furans derived from carbohydrates. Thus, this project focuses on the downstream development of high value chemicals in the Biorefinery sector. Specially, by starting with a common saccharification co-product, furfural, we have been able to form a 5,6-fused ring pyridazine, 1,2C5H3(CC4H3ONH)(CC4H3ON), in modest yield (41%) from a 1,2-difuroyl cyclopentadiene (fulvene), 1,2-C5H3(COC4H3O)(COHC4H3O). In addition, several manganese and ruthenium tricarbonyl complexes have been formed utilizing this furoyl fulvene. This was accomplished by transmetallating with its thallium salt and Mn(CO)5Br or Re(CO)5Br and was done so in good yields (61 and 66%). Subsequent ring closure with hydrazine hydrate afforded their pyridazyl complexes (76%). This poster will discuss the application of organic conducting materials in electronics, the role of furans in alternative energy applications, and the synthesis and characterization of various fused-ring furan derivatives.

Study 2: (Mazzotta) Quantitative Sugar Analysis of Pretreatment Solutions by High Performance Liquid Chromatography for Biofuels Production With the need for the United States to become more energy dependent and environmentally conscientious, the possibility of manufacturing biofuels domestically is very appealing. Native Kentucky plant sources, such as switchgrass, make this possibility tangible as these plant materials can be broken down into sugars that can then be consumed by high oil content algae to produce biodiesel. While a multitude of physical and chemical pretreatment procedures have been employed on switchgrass, additional pretreatments have been developed. A comparison of the sugar content from all of these procedures has yet to be performed. To ascertain and assess the success and efficiency of such pretreatment methods, analytical instrumentation is required. The use of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with refractive index (RI) detector can effectively separate specific sugars from each other in a complex matrix that can then be detected and measured to provide quantitative results. The goals of this research include the development and validation of the HPLC system to separate and quantitate the sugars (and other products) found in switchgrass samples after pretreatment methods. The amount of sugars determined can then be compared for the given pretreatment methods and those methods can be altered to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness employed on the switchgrass samples. With an optimized pretreatment system developed from these results obtained by HPLC analysis, effective use of time and materials can lead to successful biofuel production that can be implemented in an industrial setting, assisting the US in becoming independent of foreign oil sources.


Study 3: (Montavon) Biofuel Synthesis Through Thermolysis of Biomass Though the worldwide petroleum reserve continues to decline, liquid fuel continues to be the dominate source of energy for transportation in the foreseeable future. The synthesis of liquid fuel from biomass and coal will become more and more significant due to the lack of petroleum sources, especially in Kentucky. In this research, we conducted the solvent thermolysis of lignin at 300, 350, and 400oC under one atmosphere in the absence of air. The reactions were conducted for 30 minutes. Two types of lignin were used: one is the lignin made from wood (Kraft pine lignin provided by MeadWestvaco); the other is the lignin made from switch grass (provided by General Atomic). The solvents tested are: acetone, nbutanol, water, water/phenol, and water/NaOH. Under these conditions, about 30-60% of lignin was converted to pyridine-soluble products. This product can be used as raw materials to produce liquid fuel or fuel additives. We also found that water is as successful of a solvent as other organic solvents during the conversion of lignin to these soluble products. The fact that water can be used as the thermolysis solvent suggests that during thermolysis of lignin (or biomass) the dryness of the lignin is not critical.

Study 4: (Sharits) Novel Catalysts and Solvents for Biomass Processing Recently there has been a significant push for the use of biofuels over traditional fossil fuels in hopes of developing a dependable and environmentally friendly energy source. Ionic liquids have shown promise as solvents for the dissolution of cellulose and lignin and therefore have the potential to assist catalysts as they breakdown these biomass components. Combining the ability of ionic liquid solvents to dissolve lignin with the reactivity of metalloporphyrins could overcome many challenges in the full utilization of biomass to biofuels and valuable commodity chemicals. To this end, we have studied the use of metalloporphyrins in ionic liquids for the dissolution and oxidation of lignin. In this study lignin model compounds were oxidized via metalloporphyrins, specifically Fe(III)meso-tetra(4sulfonatophenyl)porphine chloride and Fe(III)meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphine chloride, and were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a UV-Visible detector and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS).

5. Megan Arnold, Jessica Ratliff, and Cecily Howell Morehead State University Mentor(s): Joy Gritton and Jesse Wells Current Technologies and Oral History Research: Providing Access to Eastern Kentucky Arts The Eastern Kentucky Arts Project (EKAP) has expanded access to Eastern Kentucky art and music history by applying current technologies to oral history research. The EKAP website (, which features posted oral histories collected by Morehead State University students along with interviews with Eastern Kentucky women artists working for social change (research sponsored by the Kentucky Foundation for Women), collaborated with the Kentucky Center for Traditional Music (KCTM) to catalog and share their 10,000 hours of music recordings dating back to the 1920s (including Molly O'day, Keith Whitley, and John Harrod). The research involved the mining the databases of the Kentucky Folk Art Center, Kentucky Oral History Commission and other regional and national repositories to identify oral history collections relevant to the arts in Eastern Kentucky. This research project, staffed by art and history students, has made these important collections more readily known and available to educators, students, artists, and community members working to strengthen Eastern Kentucky communities through the arts.


6. Yankuba Banda Kentucky State University Mentor(s): Narayanan Rajendran and Williard Mazhawidza Revealing the Aldo-Keto Reductase and the Phylogenetic Relationship of Arthrobacter nicotianae Strain PR As a self-defensive mechanism that nature encodes in all living things, bacteria display a variety of dispositions to survive in adverse environmental conditions. Those dispositions include unique catabolic and anabolic reactions pertain to the individual species such as detoxification of xenobiotics and/or biosynthesis of specific chemicals or nutrients de novo. In this present study, a newly isolated bacterium, Arthrobacter nicotianae strain PR was subjected to unlock such a metabolic genetic makeup and attempted to find the possible relationship it may have with other associated bacteria. Similar to that of our earlier study, we used specific degenerate primers to probe the strain PR to amplify the DNA using our standardized PCR technique. Followed by the cloning and sequencing of the amplified DNA, the MEGA 4 software was used to analyze the sequence. A match of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) was found by using BLAST search at the NCBI-linked protein databases. AKR is found to be the building block for the survival of the bacterium in harsh environmental conditions. Multiple sequence alignments revealed the conserved amino acid residues in the protein databases. The phylogenetic analysis showed a distant relationship between our strains of A. nicotianae vs. A. aurescens with respect to this protein.

7. Jane J. Bartonojo, Vivek D. Badwaik, Jesse W. Evans, and Chad Willis Western Kentucky University Mentor(s): Shivendra V. Sahi and Rajalingam Dakshinamurthy One-Step Synthesis of Highly Monodispersed, Spherical Gold Nanoparticles of 10-120 nm and Applications in Chemistry and Biology In recent years there are significant studies going on understanding the toxicity and rational design of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) for biomedical applications. Such efforts warrant reliable and viable green synthetic methodology for GNPs with homogenous sizes and shapes, particularly sizes above 30 nm which is currently challenging. In the present study, an environmentally benign green, one-step, one-phase and efficient synthetic approach was introduced for the synthesis of catalytically effective and surface modifiable GNPs. In this approach GNPs were synthesized by using dextrose as a reducing agent and also a stabilizing agent in aqueous medium, by maintaining the nucleation and growth without the additional need of seeding process. The resulting GNPs were highly monodispersed with spherical shape in the size range of 10-120 nm. Due to the added advantages of the biologically friendly reaction medium employed in this new synthetic scheme, GNPs in the size range of 5-50 nm were simultaneously synthesized and integrated into the bacteria.


8. Sumit Batra, Zachary Laux (Gatton Student), Kristen Mikulcik, Nilesh Sahi, Heather Shockley, and Camille Turner (Gatton Student) Western Kentucky University Mentor(s): Eric Conte and Rajalingam Dakshinamurthy Novel Purification Protocol for Heparin Binding Proteins - Relevance in Biopharmaceuticals Heparin binding proteins including fibroblast growth factors (FGF’s) and its receptors mediate a wide range of important cellular processes, which makes this class of proteins biomedically important. These proteins also play a significant role in various stages of development, morphogenesis, angiogenesis, and wound healing processes. Engineering heparin binding proteins can bring many advantages, but it requires cost effective and efficient purification methodologies compared to the currently available methods. In this context, in the present study, we report an efficient off-column purification of FGF-1 from soluble fractions as well as purification of protein which expresses as insoluble inclusion bodies like D2 domain of FGFR using a weak amberlite cation (IRC) exchanger. This approach is an alternative to conventional affinity column chromatography, which has several disadvantages and resulted in higher cost for production of recombinant proteins. Human FGF-1 and the D2 domain have been expressed in Escherichia coli in high yields. The proteins were purified to homogeneity (~98% purity) using IRC resin. Results of the heparin binding affinity chromatography and steady state fluorescence experiments showed that the recombinant FGF-1 and the D2 were in a native and biologically active conformation. The findings of the present study not only pave the way for an in depth structural-functional investigation of this class of proteins but also provide avenues for efficient and inexpensive purification of other biopharmaceutically important biological macromolecules.

9. Haddijatou Bayo Kentucky State University Mentor: Charles Bennett Effects of Polychlorinated Biphenyl-77 on AngII-Induced Atherosclerosis and Aortic Abdominal Aneurysms in Apolipoprotein E and LDLr Deficient Mice Angiotensin II (AngII) is a peptide of the Renin Angiotensin System (RAS) that has been demonstrated in previous studies to promote atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) formation in mice. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated that co-planar polychlorinated biphenyl 77 (PCB77) administration to apolipoprotein E (ApoE) deficient mice increased atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to determine if PCB77 influences AngII-induced vascular diseases. We used two mouse models of atherosclerosis, ApoE-/- and low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficient mice, for these studies. The timing of administration of PCB 77 was also taken into consideration. PCB77 primarily promoted more severe AAAs, with increased aortic rupture in both mouse models. These effects of PCB77 were more pronounced when administered during AngII infusions. Results suggested that the timing of PCB77 administration, in addition to dietary interactions, influence PCB77 augmentation of AngII-induced vascular diseases.


10. Steven Bean and Rachel Zierten Western Kentucky University Mentor: James Navalta Immune System Response to High Intensity Exercise Study 1: (Bean) High Intensity Exercise Increases Cell Death of B-Lymphocytes (CD19) in Anaerobically Trained Individuals This study was developed to determine the B-lymphocyte response in terms of migration or apoptosis (cell death) with intense bouts of exercise. Anaerobically trained individuals (n=5) performed 5-minute treadmill runs using 48%, 74%, 96% of their VO2 max, with 5-minute rest bouts in between each run. Finally a run utilizing intensity at 110% of VO2 max was conducted to exhaustion. Blood samples for immune parameters were collected pre-testing, immediate post, 1-hour post exercise, and 24-hour post exercise. Samples were incubated with antibody markers for the B-cell subfraction (CD19), apoptosis (annexin V), and migration (CX3CR1). Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA. Supramaximal exercise increased cell death of Bcells compared to resting values (P=0.021). Annexin V positive cells were then significantly decreased at 1-hour post (P=0.004) and remained depressed at 24-hour post (P=0.003). No significant changes were noted for CD19 count (P=0.24) or percent migration (P=0.36). Recent studies have failed to observe increases in the cell death of overall lymphocytes, however the results of this investigation indicate that the B-cell subset is more susceptible compared to other lymphocyte subfractions. This finding may have transient implications for antibody production and humoral immunity following exercise. Study 2: (Zierten) Helper T Cell Response to Supramaximal Exercise in Untrained Individuals Exercise has been shown to modulate lymphocytes. Recently, the ability of exercise to induce cell death (apoptosis) in lymphocytes has been questioned. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of supramaximal exercise on apoptosis and cell migration in helper T cells. Subjects (N=4) completed treadmill runs at 66%, 84%, and 97% of VO2max with 5-min rest periods. After the final rest period, a run to exhaustion was completed at 110% of aerobic capacity. Blood was sampled before, immediately following, 1-hour, and 24-hour following and used for the determination of helper T count (CD4+), cell death (annexin V), and cell migration (CX3CR1). Data were evaluated as the percent difference compared to rest. Exercise resulted in a 160% increase in CD4+ cell volume compared to the baseline value, but returned to near resting values by 1-hour-post and were not different when measured at 24-hour post. CX3CR1 on CD4+ increased 260% with exercise but returned to baseline within 1-hour following exercise. Annexin V increased with exercise similar to cell volume, but remained elevated 1hour post (212%). The CD4+ cell count response to exercise was similar to what has been reported with overall lymphocytes. The novel finding was the decrease in cell volume following exercise. Findings indicated that volume changes immediately following exercise were due primarily to helper T cell migration out of the circulation back into the lymphoid pools. However, a prolonged effect of exercise appeared to persist as cell death in this subfraction was noted at 1-hour post.


11. Gordon Beck, Devin Harris, Reid Herndon, and Leah Hoffman West Kentucky Community and Technical College Mentor: Felix Akojie Comparative Studies on Catalase Enzyme Activity from Liver and Muscle Tissue Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms that are exposed to oxygen. The reactions it catalyses are crucial to life. It functions to catalyze the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. This study was carried out to compare the activity of the enzyme catalase present in liver and muscle tissue. The effects of the following factors on the catalase enzyme activity were studied: temperature, pH, inhibitors, and enzyme concentration. This preliminary study will open other avenues for studying this enzyme.

12. Aaron Bell Western Kentucky University Mentor: Steven Gibson Seeing the Spiral from the Arms: Modeling the Interstellar Medium of the Milky Way Our home galaxy, the Milky Way, has been a focus of astrophysical research since before we knew there were other galaxies in the universe, but in a number of ways it remains mysterious. The exact size and spiral arm structure of the Milky Way are still poorly understood. Observations have been instrumental in uncovering what we do know about our galaxy, but theoretical models interpreting these results are also crucial. Our model tests possible relationships between different kinds of interstellar gas observed with radio telescopes. We have run a series of models with cold atomic gas and colder molecules in different parts of the spiral arms embedded in a warmer atomic medium. Our goal is to determine how gas that is compressed and cooled upon entering spiral arms – precondition for star formation -- would appear in radio surveys. We have also created progressively higher resolution models that reproduce sections of the galaxy in greater detail to examine individual interstellar clouds. We have assembled ``cubes'' from stacked individual model images to allow enhanced visualization and analysis of the model predictions. Ultimately these model results relate to larger issues of galactic structure and stellar evolution in the Milky Way and galaxies like it.


13. Branden Bell Kentucky State University Mentor(s): Kirk Pomper, Jeremiah Lowe, and Sheri Crabtree Evaluation of Annonaceous Acetogenin Activity in Ripe Fruit Pulp of Advanced Selections of Pawpaw Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal] is a native tree fruit in eastern North America. Annonaceous acetogenins have been identified in pawpaw fruit and vegetative tissues which display antitumor, pesticidal, antiviral, and antimicrobial activity, with many potentially useful applications. Kentucky State University (KSU) is the site of the USDA Repository for pawpaw species and germplasm evaluation and collection. The objective of this study was to identify KSU advanced selections with high fruit acetogenin activity to serve as new sources of biomass for acetogenin extract. About 10 grams of thawed ripe fruit pulp from KSU advanced selections G6-120 and G4-25, and cultivars ‘Susquehanna’ and ‘Sunflower’ were extracted with 95% ethanol. The brine shrimp test (BST) was employed to assess acetogenin activity in pulp extracts. Concentrated extract was transferred to vials to correspond to 0, 1, 5, 10, and 100 ppm concentrations with three replicate vials per concentration. Ten brine shrimp larvae, taken 48 h after initiation of hatching in artificial sea water were added to each vial, and the final volume of each vial was adjusted to 5 ml using artificial sea water. After 24 h, survivors were counted. Brine shrimp mortality was low (3%) in 0, 1, 5, and 10 ppm concentrations. However, at 100 ppm ‘Susquehanna’ (80%) showed high brine shrimp mortality and ‘Sunflower’ (55%) low mortality, while G6-120 and G4-25 both displayed high mortality (100%). These KSU advanced selections showed high potential acetogenin activity and could serve as new sources of biomass for acetogenin extract.

14. Savannah V. Bell, Donna J. Pedley, and Angela M. Shouse Owensboro Community and Technical College Mentor: Timothy T. Dick A Survey Research Instrument to Measure the Effect of Dietary, Environmental, Medical, and Lifestyle Influences on the Progression of PKD: A “Pilot” Study of Fictitious Survey Results Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an autosomal dominant genetic disease which results from a mutation in the PKD 1 gene on chromosome 16. The PKD 1 gene codes for a 4302-amino acid residue transmembrane protein which may be involved in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. Mutations in the PKD 1 gene cause cysts to form in the nephron and eventually lead to kidney failure. However, studies of the relationship between mutation and phenotype have been inconclusive. In fact, family members with the same mutation show considerable disease variability. This variability is likely due to lifestyle and environmental influences. A previous study conducted a literature review for lifestyle and environmental factors thought to influence PKD progression, from which a survey instrument was designed to relate these factors to age of first dialysis. The current study asked 100 volunteers to pretend that they had PKD and to complete the survey with appropriate fictitious responses. Changes made to the original research instrument and the statistical methods of analysis are presented.


15. Dylan Benningfield and Brianna Cassidy Murray State University Mentor: Bommanna Loganathan Bisphenol A and Triclosan: Emerging Environmental Pollutants in Western Kentucky Watershed Study 1: (Benningfield) Triclosan Concentrations in Western Kentucky Watershed Triclosan (2,4,4’-trichloro-2’-hydroxyphenyl ether) is considered as one of the emerging new pollutants in the environment. In this study, triclosan contamination levels were measured in water samples collected from Murray Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP), Bee Creek, Clarks River and Kentucky Lake. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to determine triclosan concentrations in the samples. The results revealed that detectable concentrations of triclosan were found in all samples analyzed. The concentrations of triclosan exhibited the following trend: Influent > Effluent > Downstream Bee Creek > Upstream Bee Creek ≥ Clarks River > Kentucky Lake (Hancock Biological Station site). Removal efficiency calculations revealed that about 40% of triclosan enter the receiving waters (Bee Creek). Clarks River and Kentucky Lake water samples contained relatively lower levels of triclosan than WWTP samples. For comparison, water samples from Mayfield Creek and Red Duck Creek were analyzed for triclosan concentrations. Study 2: (Cassidy) Bisphenol-A in Drinking Water: A Possible Source of Human Exposure Bisphenol A is a man-made chemical used in industry and consumer products all over the world. BPA is used in plastic beverage bottles, compact disks, canned food linings and many other products. Human exposure to this chemical comes through leaching from plastics into food and liquids. Exposure to BPA is reported to cause major complications in the endocrine systems of many animal species and human populations. Knowledge on contamination levels of BPA is essential in order to prevent future contamination and protect wildlife and humans from negative health effects. Very limited information is available on the BPA levels in various brands of bottled drinking water, fountain water, river water and lake water. In this study, BPA concentrations were measured in several brands of bottled waters and in water samples from Bee Creek, Clarks River and Kentucky Lake. For comparative purposes, water samples were also analyzed from Red Duck Creek and Mayfield Creek. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method was used to determine BPA levels in these samples. Results revealed that detectable levels of BPA were found in all samples analyzed. The results were compared with published reports and evaluated the potential exposure of BPA to human populations in this region.


16. Kyle Blagg, Matthew Henry, Kelsey Gage, Kelsey Whitworth, and Caleb Clayton West Kentucky Community and Technical College Mentor: Ehab Marji The Wave Theory and the Quantum Theory of Light Through the history of the theory of light from the time of Newton to Thomas Young, one can see the application of the scientific method, where the theory evolves to match new observations. The double slit experiment of Young was performed; the results support the wave nature of light. Max Plank’s historical experiment that started the quantum theory was also replicated. The relation between maximum kinetic energy and photoelectron production was investigated. The maximum kinetic energy was found to depend linearly on the frequency of the incident light. The Plank constant h was calculated.

17. Bailey Blair, Bryan Kidd, Kelsey Stillwell, and Lauren Stinson Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Marianne Ramsey Designing for Special Populations We are interior design students at Eastern Kentucky University who are aware of the importance of continuing education beyond graduation. Because of this, we would like to educate the consumer of the design considerations for special populations. As students we have been learning about universal design concepts, and its importance, which is a topic we have become passionate about. Universal design is creating spaces in which all types of people can function easily within. We chose to approach universal design by addressing the needs of special populations - groups whose needs may not always be addressed. For example, special populations typically do not feel they could safely use the resources offered in disaster preparedness, relief and recovery. Specifically, we are representing those with hearing impairments, visual impairments and mobility limitations. In order to fully inform ourselves on these issues we conducted extensive research regarding these specific areas; the uses of lighting, furniture arrangement, acoustical properties and architectural elements. Our efforts are so that designers may be aware of the importance of these issues and the impact a successful environment can have on its everyday user.


18. Michael Bricken University of Kentucky Mentor: Luke Bradley An Investigation into the Relationship Between Calmodulin Protein Conformation and Binding Specificity A multitude of cellular processes, ranging from cell survival to neuronal excitability, are regulated by proteins that bind to a large number of diverse and physiologically vital binding partners. For nearly 30 years, calmodulin (CaM), the central calcium signaling transducer, has been a model system to study pervasive binding specificity. However, after numerous structural and biochemical studies, the molecular basis of this binding activity remains unclear. Given that CaM binding affinity arises from a combination of amino acid contacts, protein combinatorial libraries offer an attractive approach towards investigating CaM binding specificity by identifying members with altered binding specificity for downstream biochemical structure/function studies. To maximize this search, productive regions of protein sequence space (i.e. folded and soluble) must be sampled. Here we present the first application of the binary patterning approach of combinatorial protein library design to the CaM central linker region. This high-quality approach translates very well to the CaM protein scaffold: All library members over-express and are functionally diverse, having a range of conformations in the presence and absence of calcium as determined by circular dichroism spectroscopy. In addition, ANS-binding data showed that each of these possesses significant diversity in binding specificity. Collectively, this data support that the binary patterning approach, when applied to the highly conserved CaM protein, can yield large collections of folded, soluble and highlyexpressible proteins, which will facilitate the investigation of selected proteins with altered CaM binding specificity. Furthermore, this research introduces a new platform biotechnology for downstream use in the state’s agricultural, pharmaceutical, and biotech industries.

19. Austin Brown and Aubrey Fey Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Kereen Monteyne Student Ability to Connect Symbolic, Particulate, and Macroscopic Representations in the General Chemistry Laboratory The purpose of this research is to determine the extent to which student make meaningful connections between the different types of representations used to convey chemical concepts in a general chemistry laboratory. In this study, students completed a lab activity in which patterns in macroscopic data was used to support proposed symbolic chemical equations and particulate representations of physical and chemical change processes. Several empirical studies have shown that student understanding of particulate-level models is limited as most instruction focuses on symbolic representations of chemical concepts (e.g., formulas, equations). Student responses to questions posed in lab reports and embedded in course assessments was analyzed to develop a profile of student ability to connect knowledge of a chemical concept among different representations. The results from this study will be discussed.


20. Justin Brown and John Murray Northern Kentucky University Mentor: James Walden Open Source PHP Security Review We present work on evaluating the security of open source PHP projects. We are analyzing four years of data for 10+ projects gathering measures of security (vulnerability rate) and standard quality metrics (cyclomatic complexity, SLOC and nesting). This project also includes the development of automated processes, requiring the creation of Ruby scripts, for data collection and metric computations.

21. Kristin Burchett, Jade Campbell, Beth Parker, and Lisa Yearsley Morehead State University Mentor: Michelle McClave Development of an Evidence-based Practice Protocol for Prevention of Injury Related to Anticoagulation Therapies To achieve optimal patient outcomes, this group investigated best practice literature regarding reduction of patient harm associated with the use of anticoagulation therapy. A variety of literature was reviewed, along with current practices utilized in three clinical facilities located in Northeastern Kentucky. With the use of these findings, an evidence-based practice protocol was developed for use in the Morehead State University Department of Nursing STAT Nursing Center. This practice protocol will assist nursing and other students in meeting the JCAHO National Patient Safety Goal regarding reduction of patient harm during clinical laboratory and simulation activities.


22. Deanna Burns, Kathryn Engle, and Landon Westerfield Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Joyce Hall Wolfe From Kantatas to Lieder to Bluegrass – The Power of Text and Music Study 1: (Burns) The Incarnations of Mailied Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832) can be hailed as not only one of the leading literary figures of his time but also a scientist, financial manager, and director of many civil offices in Weimar. His poetry and dramas have inspired many composers of vocal and instrumental works alike. Although many of his poems have been set by master composers, this study focused on the single poem Mailied from 1771. The singer of Mailied first considers the poem as a piece of literature apart from the music. Next musical settings of the poem are identified and considered. Renowned composers spanning one hundred fifty years including Ludwig von Beethoven, Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel, Hans Pfitzner, Bela Bartok, and Mary Howe have set Mailied. This study concentrated on the settings by Beethoven, Hensel, and Pfitzner. Each examination included melodic and harmonic characteristics, tessitura, presence or absence of text painting, tempo, vocal and accompaniment requirements, setting of poetic phrase structure, and form. After each setting was explored as an individual song, the three settings were compared and significant observations recorded. The composers’ differing interpretations of the poem, the manifestations of those differences in music, and the informed journey of the singer to expressive and creative performances of each lied are presented in this poster.

Study 2: (Engle) Hazel Dickens Paddling Upstream: Inciting Social Change through Music Hazel Dickens, through her career as a singer, songwriter, and activist, has gone against the flow of traditional currents in American life. Her songs about workers’ rights and unionization in the Appalachian coalfields have roused people to consider working class issues. Her songs about labor relations, mine disasters, and the realities of coal mining shed light on the plight of Appalachian workers. Her pioneering career as a female bluegrass musician paved the way for women in the genre. As one of the first female musicians in a male-dominated genre, Dickens was able to expand the definition of bluegrass music and contribute to its growth and dissemination. She has used the medium of music to inspire and educate people, while bringing increased awareness to important issues. Dickens used a traditional style of music to promote change that gave a voice to many underprivileged and exploited people. She has helped set the course for bluegrass, folk music, and labor music and has been instrumental in changing attitudes about workers and women, diverging from traditional social norms and fighting for rights and change.

Study 3: (Westerfield) Got High Notes? J.S. Bach and Kantatas for Soprano Johann Sebastian Bach was one of the most prolific composers of all time. He composed over twelve hundred works, which include two hundred and fifty kantatas. While kantatas by J.S. Bach are generally for mixed chorus of soprano, alto, tenor, and bass parts, Bach also composed works for solo voice. This poster presenter analyzed and compared three kantatas written by Bach for solo soprano: Kantata 51 (Jauchzet Gott in Allen Landen), Kantata 82 (Ich habe Genung), and Kantata 199 (Mein Herze Schwimmt im Bult). The examination of the kantatas included comparison of the text of each kantata, especially as to how it related to the liturgical church year. Other considerations included the type of sopranos needed to perform each work, the orchestration of the accompaniment, treatment of melodic material including the vocal line, harmonic structure, complexity of contrapuntal style, and form. These characteristics all join to express the emotion, movement, and text painting that is the Baroque. The insights gained in this exploration serve to contribute to the understanding and accessibility of Baroque repertoire, repertoire by J.S. Bach, and repertoire for the soprano voice.


23. Kelly Burton, Joshua Hager, and Jesica Rapier Eastern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Richard Osbaldiston and Dustin Wygant Recent Scale Development and Validation in the Field of Psychology Study 1: (Burton and Hager) The Persuasion Susceptibility Inventory Past research has investigated the concept persuasibility, or the susceptibility to social influence regardless of their knowledge or what the source advocates. The only measure to quantify this construct was published more than 50 years ago. Thus, there is considerable need for a more contemporary scale. The purpose of this study was to assess construct validity and test-retest reliability of the Persuasion Susceptibility Inventory, which measures a person’s underlying susceptibility to being persuaded as a personality trait. A pretest was given to all participants containing the PSI and a measure of initial opinions regarding ten relevant issues (e.g., student parking, printing, health care). This study then utilized a within-subjects design where participants attended two separate laboratory sessions. Within the first session, participants were given a questionnaire containing a pro or con argument for the ten issues in the pretest. Following the arguments, they were instructed to note their opinions and then complete the PSI. During the second session, participants were given a questionnaire similar to the first session, except each argument took a diametrically opposite stance from the argument in the first session. Additionally, they were given the PSI to complete before leaving the session. The results will be discussed. This measure has potential in the persuasion and personality literature, marketing research, and consumer behavior applications. Study 2: (Rapier) Association of the MMPI-2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) Validity Scales with Structured Malingering Criteria The Restructured Form of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2-RF) is a broadband self-report measure of personality and psychopathology, which is widely utilized in disability and forensic evaluations. The test has several "validity" scales that are designed to detect when the test taker is exaggerating or malingering various symptoms of mental illness. Past research has found that MMPI-2-RF validity scales can capture symptom exaggeration associated with malingering. The current study examined the ability of several MMPI-2-RF validity scales to detect malingering among in a sample of 251 disability and personal injury claimants that were classified into malingering groups determined by structured criteria designed to capture malingered neurocognitive dysfunction and malingered pain-related disability. An Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was conducted to examine the MMPI-2-RF validity scales across the malingering classifications. The results revealed the Response Bias Scale (RBS) and Infrequent Responses (F-r) validity scales were best at detecting malingering and distinguishing between the malingering classifications. Both of these scales also showed utility in classifying malingering utilizing classification analysis statistics. In general, this study supports the clinical utility of the MMPI-2-RF over-reporting validity indicators in establishing the probability of malingering. Implications and directions for future research will be discussed.


24. Susan Camp, Justin Parrish, Tanner Wyatt, Scott Coleman, John Michael Puckett, Trent Murdock, Ben Paschall, Robert Stuard, and Kalie Vowell Murray State University Mentor(s): David Ferguson, Bobby Hill, Andy Bailey, Chris Rodgers, Gutav Helmers, and Iin Handayani 2010 Evaluation of Dark Tobacco at Murray State University Study 1: (Camp, Parrish, and Wyatt) Evaluation of Different Rates and Combinations of Sulfentrazone and Clomazone in Dark-fired Tobacco In the herbicide trial, the objective is to determine the best rate combinations of sulfentrazone (Spartan 4F) and clomazone (Command 3ME) either incorporated or applied to the soil surface and not incorporated prior to transplanting. There were fifteen different herbicide treatments in the experiment. Treatments 1-7 were incorporated after spraying, treatments 8-14 were sprayed, but not incorporated, and treatment 15 was a control with no herbicides applied. Treatments 1 and 8 had sulfentrazone applied at a rate of 0.25 lb ai/A. Treatments 2 and 9 had clomazone applied at a rate of 0.75 lb ai/A. Treatments 3 and 10 had sulfentrazone applied at a rate of 0.33lb ai/A. Treatments 4 and 11 had clomazone applied at a rate of 1.0 lb ai/A. Treatments 5 and 12 were a mixture of sulfentrazone at a rate of 0.17 lb ai/A and clomazone at 0.5 lb ai/A. Treatments 6 and 13 were a mixture of sulfentrazone at a rate of 0.25 lb ai/A and clomazone at 0.75 lb ai/A. Treatments 7 and 14 were a mixture of sulfentrazone at a rate of 0.33lb ai/A and clomazone at 1.0 lb ai/A. Throughout the growing season, the control of six different weeds were observed in the plots. The weeds were yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus L.), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), morning glories species (Ipomoea sp.), johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L.), prickly sida (Sida spinosa L.) and ragweed (Ambrosia sp.). Study 2: (Coleman, Puckett, and Murdock) The Effect of Increased Potassium Levels on Tobacco Crop Yield This field trial assesses the effectiveness of increased rates of potassium on a tobacco crop. This is done to determine the effect of additional potassium on the overall yield of the plant. The soil test taken from the Murray State University farm indicates potassium levels in a lower than adequate range to produce a crop of tobacco. This suggests an application of a total of 220 pounds K2O following the prescribed fertilizer recommendations given by the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service to achieve the adequate amount required for the production of tobacco. The experimental setup consists of four different application rates of potassium, these levels represent 220 (the initial recommendation), 293 (133% of recommended level), 365 (166% of recommended level), and 440 (200% of recommended level) pounds K2O per acre. The base rate of 220 pounds of K2O per acre was applied pre-plant to the entire field. The application of the additional differing rates of potassium is obtained by using the banded side-dress application method in the first week after transplanting of the crop. All other nutrient fertilizer amounts were met according to the recommendations allocated by the University of Kentucky Cooperative Extension Service. The 16 trial plots are arranged in a randomized plot plan to limit the possibility of variation that may arise due to preexisting field conditions. Results will become available at the end of the season.


Study 3: (Paschall, Stuard, and Vowell) The Impact of Various Side-dress Nitrogen Sources on Dark-fired Tobacco Growth and Yield Nitrogen (N) is the primary nutrient for tobacco growth and production. To improve the N fertilizer efficiency, side-dress applications have to be used during the vegetative growing season. This method will yield better return on investment compared to one time N application. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different side-dress N sources on the growth and yield of dark-fired tobacco after transplanting. The variety used was PD7318 dark-fired tobacco. The tobacco was transplanted on June 15, 2010. There were seven treatments used in the experiment with all treatments receiving 150lbs N/acre of side-dress nitrogen. All treatments received 150 lbs N/acre from urea + DAP prior to transplanting. Phosphorus and K fertilizers were applied prior to transplanting based on soil recommendations. The side-dress N sources were: control (no N side-dress application), Sulfur N-26, 50:50 blend of N-26+urea, NH4NO3, UAN, UCAN-21 and KNO3. All the N sources were applied on July 9, 2010, except for UAN that was applied on July 13, 2010. Each treatment had four replications and the plot was four rows wide. The tobacco was harvested September 22 to October 6, 2010.

25. Brittany Campbell & Kelli Hollencamp Morehead State University Mentor(s): Jody Fernandez and Sara Lindsey Expanding Reading Horizons: Reading Interventions from the Land of the Long White Cloud to the Mountains of Eastern Kentucky Reading is one of the most important practices in our lives. Some children are able to pick up reading quickly, while others struggle with the task. It is an educator’s job to find programs that help students learn how to read. Research indicates that New Zealand has a very robust system of reading interventions (PISA 2005, PIRLS 2005/6, TIMMS). This study looked into literacy interventions used in Auckland, New Zealand, and compared them to the ones used in Eastern Kentucky. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect, examine, and compare reading interventions used in both Kentucky and New Zealand in order to ascertain which internationally pedagogically sound teaching practices could be incorporated into Kentucky’s curriculum. The researchers, through Internet, personal interviews, and observations, collected information regarding the reading intervention methods used in select Eastern Kentucky and Auckland, New Zealand P-8 schools. Through features analysis and narrative, they have described and compared the methods used with a view to augmenting their findings with personal on-site observations and interviews in Auckland, New Zealand during the Spring of 2011.


26. Cory Cecil Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Alice Jones Mapping Water Quality in Coal Country: The GIS Watershed Delineation Project Since 2006, the Eastern Kentucky Environmental Research Institute has conducted a widespread water sampling project throughout the three major watersheds that drain Kentucky’s Appalachian coalfields: The Kentucky, the Big Sandy, and the Upper Cumberland. Over the course of four summers, more than 60 trained students and volunteers tested 648 water sites for water temperature, pH, alkalinity, hardness, nitrites, nitrates, iron, and dissolved oxygen. Flow and turbulence observations were also made. Each site was also geolocated with a GPS unit. In the summer of 2010, a GIS analysis was initiated. Using the Arc Hydro program within ArcMap the land area from each individual water sample point was mapped. These delineations show the area of land that water from a specific point runs off and drains into. Because sampling sites did not necessarily correspond with watershed outflow points, the drainage of each site had to be delineated one at a time for all 1,648 sites. The result is a detailed map identifying each sampling point and the land area upstream that it drains—including any sites that are “nested” or within the drainage area of another site. The presentation will include a detailed overview of the delineation methodology, and the resulting map. In the future, the delineated watersheds will be used to relate the water quality observations of each site with the composition of the upstream land use (e.g., mined, reclaimed, residential forested; agriculture) to determine the degree to which certain water parameters are affected by land use throughout Appalachian Kentucky.

27. Elizabeth Chaney University of Kentucky Mentor: Jeffrey Bewley A Survey of Dairy Value-Added Processors With changing dairy market conditions, many dairy producers are looking for a more reliable, less cyclical income stream. Across Kentucky and throughout the country, more producers are considering on-farm processing to add value to the milk produced on their farms. Like any other business venture, proper planning is imperative to establishing a successful business. However, resource materials for those individuals interested in starting an on-farm processing facility are limited. An effort to fill this void with a comprehensive resource guide is under way. Hopefully, this resource guide will prove useful to dairy farmers across the state. As part of this larger effort, an electronic survey was distributed to over 120 on-farm processing businesses across the United States. Questions focused on cash flow, financing, sources of information used to start a business, and advice given to prospective business owners. When asked to describe the most difficult part of starting the business, the most frequently cited challenge was dealing with regulations (26%) followed by product marketing (19%), manufacturing technicalities (19%), and securing funding (16%). The majority of respondents indicated they were either extremely satisfied (52%) or satisfied (44%) with their decision to start on-farm processing while 3% of respondents were neutral. The most frequently used sources of information used in developing the business were existing processors (87%), books (65%), and the internet (58%). Results of this survey will be used to provide guidance to other producers considering on-farm processing of dairy products.


28. Jonathan Cline Morehead State University Mentor(s): Steve Chen and William Salazar Investing on Young Stallions: Why Drafting High School Prospects Make Sense in the NBA? A lot of controversies and discussions had been generated centering the National Basketball Association’s (NBA’s) age restriction on its drafting eligibility rules. Issues related to this age restriction rule included that it violated ones’ employment rights, produced a group of so called “one-and-done” college athletes, and hampered the competition level and academic integrity of college basketball. To evaluate the rationale for drafting the young high school graduated players, the researchers examined the performance of past 45 high school draftees who were selected in the NBA Draft from 1962-2005. A performance analysis, covering eight statistical categories in areas such as minutes played per game, various types of offense statistics, team success, and career longevity, was done to determine whether these picks quailed as quality players (investments). To be considered as a worthy draft pick, the player’s performance needed to exceed at least four sets of minimum standards (> 50%) among those eight categories. The results indicated every two out of three formal high school draftees taken were considered as quality picks and proven productive players. From a business standpoint, the finding of this study (66% of success rate on investment) seems to imply that the NBA’s age restriction rule is not rational, when past statistics illustrate high school prospects can have a good chance of being successful in the league.

29. Gregory Colston Northern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Joseph Nolan and David Agard The Best Baseball Season Ever? A Triple Crown Perspective There is a long standing tradition of “ranking” the best (and worst) teams and player performances in sports. This is perhaps most evident in major league baseball where lists are created on a daily basis ranking players according to a multitude of variables. Most such rankings are based within one particular season, and very few of them involve solid statistical backing. We believe that any knowledgeable follower of baseball would agree that any hitter who wins the “Triple-Crown” (most homeruns, most runs-batted-in, and highest batting average) was the best hitter during that particular season. This feat has been achieved only 15 times in the long history of the game – most recently in 1967 by Carl Yastrzemski. Our approach to ranking hitters uses statistical methods to identify the best single hitter-seasons as well as the best careers with respect to the three Triple-Crown categories. We consider several typical measures of “closeness” to the Triple-Crown – including sums of ranks, z-scores, and Euclidean distances. We also develop a new metric that measures the improvement in performance necessary to carry a player to a triple crown. Lastly, we develop a scoring function that measures performance over each player’s career to identify the greatest players of all time from the Triple-Crown perspective.


30. Tim Cook University of Louisville Mentor: Hunter Moseley Understanding Zinc’s Functional Role in Metalloproteins via Categorization of Zinc Coordination Metal binding proteins or metalloproteins chelate a metal ion cofactor such as iron, zinc, or copper and play key roles in human cellular metabolism and signaling. In particular, upwards of 10% of human proteins are predicted to bind zinc. These various proteins use zinc in a variety of structural, catalytic, and signal transduction functions. Zinc also appears in all six classes of enzymes. Despite the importance of zinc binding proteins, the functional role of zinc in many of these proteins is still unknown. Clues as to the functional use of zinc in zinc binding proteins can be obtained through analysis of the worldwide Protein Data Bank (PDB) and other databases. The PDB is a rapidly growing database of 3-D structures of various biomacromolecules, with the vast majority being proteins. We have identified and analyzed 5965 proteins bound to zinc in the PDB. Our analysis classified the coordination geometry of each zinc site as either tetrahedral, trigonal bipyramidal, or octahedral. This analysis also classified sites based on the number of residues that contribute ligands to the site, by the specific residue combination that ligates the zinc, and their involvement in zinc clusters. The Enzyme Commission (EC) numbers, which describe the enzymatic activity of the protein or chain, are then obtained for each zinc site. By analyzing the prevalence of each EC number in each category, we observed the propensities of certain categories to exhibit specific types of enzymatic activity or the lack of enzymatic activity.

31. Emily Crawford Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Yi Hu Creating a Security Application to be Exploited for Educational Hacking As our dependency on technology continues to increase, so does the need for computer security. College courses focusing on computer security offer students insight on various techniques used by hackers to exploit computer systems and applications. An important aspect in learning about the various attacks and how to prevent them not only lies in the knowledge of the various attacks, but also in the practice. Students can gain a deeper understanding of how attacks work and how to prevent them by becoming the “hacker.” To address this need, I am building an application that mimics a fully functional online bookstore, but is purposefully designed to allow for exploitation that yields desirable results that would be sought after by a real “hacker.” Through the use of this application, students are provided with an isolated environment to practice carrying out the various attacks that they are learning in class. Students will have various goals to work towards, and will be awarded points based on the number of goals they are able to achieve. We argue that many existing mini security exercises, each of which targets at a different application scenario, cannot provide the same experience and are not effective for learning security concerns intertwined in an application. The purpose of this research application is to give students a holistic experience on exploiting different vulnerabilities in a single application and let students learn security concerns and impacts of security vulnerabilities in a real world scenario.


32. Michael Creed, Mahmoud Elsayed, Amber Kelly, and Sudan Loganathan Murray State University Mentor: Alexey Arkov Characterizing Germline Stem Cell Development Using Drosophila melanogaster Stem-cell research is an exciting and growing field of biology with numerous possible applications in medicine. Using the fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster) as a model system, we are studying germline stem cells so that their development may be better understood. Germline stem cells have been called the ultimate stem cells because of their ability to differentiate into any type of cell. By using various genetic and biochemical approaches we are able to classify and characterize protein interactions, localization, and enzymatic activity during oogenesis. Our research revolves around the Tudor protein. This is a large protein that contains eleven individual domains that are responsible for Tudor’s various roles during germ cell development. Tudor has been shown to be vital for the formation of the germ cells in Drosophila embryos. By studying Tudor, and its effects on germline development, we hope to build a more advanced understanding of stem cells.

33. Megan Davis University of Louisville Mentor: Diana Orr Chlebowy The Personal Experience of Completing a Motivational Interviewing Intervention in African Americans with Diabetes: Preliminary Findings African Americans are disproportionately impacted by diabetes compared to their non-Hispanic white counterparts. Motivational interviewing (MI) has recently been used as a behavior counseling strategy among African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) to improve diabetes self-management practices. The purpose of this qualitative study is to address the personal experience of developing and implementing a self-management plan among African Americans with T2DM, who completed an MI intervention. One participant, randomly selected, participated in an initial interview and a validation interview. Preliminary findings indicated that the participant viewed MI as a valuable means of support and reported an increase in confidence related to diabetes self-management practices after completing the MI intervention. Additionally, it was found that support systems, especially from medical personnel, were important in helping African Americans with T2DM to make necessary behavior changes. Additional interviews and content analyses will be conducted in order to better understand the personal experience and effectiveness of the MI intervention.


34. Ramona Douglas Kentucky State University Mentor(s): Changzheng Wang, Lingyu Huang and Cecil Butler Early Experiences with Vegetable Consumption and Current Body Weight Status of Kentucky Adults Low consumption of vegetables may be one of the major reasons for the obesity epidemic in the United States. The objective of this project was to determine how experiences with vegetable consumption in early life may affect vegetable consumption and body weight status of adults. Visitors to the 2010 Kentucky State Fair were recruited to fill out a questionnaire before they were given a free analysis of their body composition (body fat %) with a Tanita TBF -521 body composition analyzer. Among the 200 participants, 69% were female and 31% were male; 88% were Caucasian and 9% African Americans. Majority of the participants had positive views of milk and vegetables. Among the people surveyed, over 90% of them prefer fresh vegetables. When they were young, 44% of them were allowed to eat whatever they liked, 41% were given a fixed amount of vegetables to eat, 17% of them were forced to eat vegetables, but nearly 10% had no vegetables. Those who ate whatever they liked during early life had significantly higher proportion of people classified as overweight or obese, compared to those who were given a fixed amount of vegetables during early life. Vegetables introduced during early life may have serious consequences for the body weight status of people in their adult life.

35. Tonya Drake, Jessica Jones, Bethany Wells, and Jessica Wells Morehead State University Mentor: Michelle McClave Development of an Evidence-based Practice Protocol for Preventing Medication Errors using Medication Labeling This project investigated best practices regarding the safety of administering medications in a clinical facility. A variety of evidence-based literature was reviewed, as well as practice protocols currently used in local clinical facilities. One particular focus was placed upon labeling of medications taken out of their original container. Subsequently, an evidence-based practice protocol on the labeling of medications as a risk reduction activity was developed for Morehead State University’s Department of Nursing STAT Medical Center. This protocol will provide guidelines for students to meet the JCAHO National Patient Safety Goal designed to focus on the safe practice of medication management.


36. Brian Dutton and Tim Stutler Madisonville Community College Mentor: Jake Hildebrant A Mechatronic Bicycle A challenge facing today’s engineers is to create a viable solution for alternative energy. One of the simplest alternatives for vehicles that use oil to create energy is the bicycle. However, many people do not ride bicycles because of the physical strain. Research is described that is directed towards a solution. A Trek© model Lime bicycle was purchased to create a mechatronic bicycle. The term, “mechatronic,” is an engineering expression that defines a system that integrates principles in electricity, mechanics, fluid power, and computer programming. The Trek© bicycle has a computer that automatically shifts the bicycle for the rider, and mechanical gears that transmit the power from the pedals to the drive wheel. An electrical sensor was added to display the speed of the bicycle. A pneumatic system will be installed that will assist the rider up hills by reducing the physical strain. Research is described that determines the criteria, based on factors such as magnitude of pressure varying with incline, for the proper motor to be installed.

37. Emma Eksell, Clifton Hatfield, Ashley Morris, and Stephanie Sapcut Morehead State University Mentor(s): Steve Chen and Ann Andarolo A Glance on Gender Equity in Today’s Sports—Beyond the Scope of Title IX Since 1972, Title IX has been considered as the most powerful legislation to fight for the female athletes’ participatory opportunities and equal rights in intercollegiate and interscholastic sports. However, Title IX’s impact on fighting against gender discrimination in professional and international sports is very limited. In this presentation, the presenters introduced three specific case studies that illustrated the unfavorable treatment and discrimination toward the female athletes in today’s sports. These three cases revolved around the themes such as: (1) gender testing on certain female athletes, (2) reduction in financial resources and TV time for women’s bass fishing tournament, and (3) social pressure and discrimination experienced by the Muslim ladies who participated in sports. These cases remind the audiences that gender equity in today’s sports has not completely achieved yet. Female athletes are still confronted by the notion that their sports are not competitive, popular, and revenue-generating. Media also often trivializes the female sports by over emphasizing that notion. In conclusion, the presenters further discuss suggestions and concerns for promoting gender equity in a male-dominant profit-driven sport culture.


38. Samantha Erwin and Aron Huckaba Murray State University Mentor(s): Maeve McCarthy and Kate He Using Matrix Analysis to Model the Spread of an Invasive Plant, Alternanthera philoxeroides Alternanthera philoxeroides, more commonly known as alligator weed is an invasive species indigenous to South America. With its rapid invasion of south east United States water ways, understanding the invasiveness of this plant species is both important and imperative. Utilizing experimental growth data obtained over the summer of 2010, matrix analysis is used to model the growth of alligator weed. These matrices are population projection models whose eigenvalues represent the growth rate of alligator weed in its different stages of the life cycle. A high growth rate is a key feature of successful invaders. Residuals were calculated and sensitivity analysis was performed to test the accuracy and importance of the models. The result of this study indicates that in competitive aquatic conditions, which are the most realistic environment for alligator weed to reside in, the earlier life stage plants are the most sensitive to control measures.

39. Clarice Esch Western Kentucky University Mentor: Martin Stone Is Collema sp., a Gelatinous Lichen, a Sustainable Source of Nitrogen for Greenhouse and Nursery Crop Production? Fixation of atmospheric nitrogen is vital to plant life. Many cyanobacteria fix nitrogen and can associate with fungi to form lichen. The gelatinous lichen, Collema sp., is native to Warren County, Kentucky and inhabits bare soil. During periods of sufficient soil moisture, it fixes nitrogen, photosynthesizes, and its appearance is altered from a dry, hard flake to hydrated, swollen, and jelly-like. When applied to the soil surface of a planted pot, Collema can act as a nitrogen fertilizer supplement through the release of the nitrogen fixed by the cyanobacteria symbiont into the soil. Four preliminary studies were conducted to examine Collema’s rate of growth, rate of hydration, anatomy and the effect of nitrogen produced on plant growth. The results suggested that Collema is a very promising specimen for future use as a natural nitrogen fertilizer supplement. Further studies are being conducted to examine this lichen’s capabilities in greater detail.


40. Marilyn Feil University of Louisville Mentor: J. Christopher States Effects of In Utero Exposure to Arsenic on Expression of Hsp70 in Livers of ApoE-/- Mice at Various Stages of Development Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of about 50% of all deaths, is a vascular disease that affects arteries and is characterized by an accumulation of lipids and inflammation. Atherosclerosis often leads to heart attacks and strokes. Exposure to arsenic via drinking water accelerates development of atherosclerosis. However, the mechanisms are unknown. High arsenic exposure causes cellular stress, which induces heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) expression. We hypothesize that in utero exposure to arsenic in drinking water has long-term effects on expression of Hsp70 in livers of ApoE-/- mice at all stages of development. To test this hypothesis, both control and arsenic-exposed ApoE-/- mice were sacrificed at gestational day 18 (GD18) and 3, 10 and 24 wks. Liver protein extracts were prepared for western blot analysis. Results were quantified and normalized with a loading control (GAPDH). As expected, levels of Hsc70 (constitutive form) were unchanged during the course of development in arsenic exposed mice. Arsenic exposure caused an insignificant increase in levels of Hsp70 (stress-induced form) at GD18. Hsp70 levels increased significantly at 3 weeks and were even greater at 10 weeks in arsenic exposed mice. By 24 weeks, Hsp70 levels return to the levels in unexposed livers. This result supports our hypothesis and shows that arsenic exposure produces a long lasting but not permanent state of stress in livers which can predispose mice to developing atherosclerosis. Supported by NIH Grants # R21ES015812-02S3 (American Reinvestment and Recovery Act Public Service Grant) and P30ES01443.

41. John Ferguson Western Kentucky University Mentor: Hemali Rathnayake Flourescein Isothiocyanate Functionalized Bridged-polysiloxane Nanoparticles for Imaging Applications Nanoscale particles derived from silicon, such as silica and siloxane are important examples of nanomaterials that can be applied in materials, electronics or biological context. As the surface of silica or siloxane core structure can be easily functionalized with various organic functional groups, there has been a great effort to use them as biological carriers and fluorescent markers, including the fluorescent siloxane nanoparticles described here. Two types of fluoresceinisothiocyanate derivative and amine functionalized bridged-polysiloxane nanoparticles were prepared by base catalyzed hydrolysis and condensation of their respective silane precursors. Particle size and dispersity were controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of organotrialkoxy silane, base, and TEOS concentration. These resulting fluorescent nanoparticles with reactive amine groups were found to be more advantageous over fluorescent core-shell silica or organically modified silica nanoparticles due to the higher load of covalently attached dye and the high solubility in a wide range of organic and aqueous solvents. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of these nanoparticles will be studied in vivo for potential applicability for bioimaging applications.


42. Destiny Fife, Brittany Johnson, and Kelly Lyons Morehead State University Mentor: Michelle McClave Development of an Evidence-based Practice Protocol for Timely Reporting of Critical Lab Values The objective of this project was to investigate evidence-based practice mechanisms that can be utilized in the reporting of critical test and diagnostic procedure results. In order to gather best practices, a variety of literature was reviewed, as well as current clinical protocols from three clinical facilities in the Morehead State University service area. Following review of these practices, an evidence-based practice protocol to meet the requirements of the JCAHO National Patient Safety Goal addressing the improvement of effectiveness of communication among caregivers was developed. This protocol will be implemented in the Morehead State University’s Department of Nursing STAT Nursing Center.

43. Derek Fox Western Kentucky University Mentor: Jeffrey Ward On the Development of a Faster Algorithm for Evaluating the Cost Effectiveness of Electrical Utility Demand Response Programs Electrical utility companies define a demand response program as one in which a consumer may opt-in to shed load at peak hours in order to curtail high demand. This program allows electrical utilities to avoid constructing new power plants, allows transmission lines to assure system reliability, and compensates the consumer for their efforts. As demand response begins to see more attention from electrical utilities, the need for developing faster algorithms to calculate the value of participation and the resulting reductions in loss of load probability (LOLP) arises. In this study, a few well-known algorithmic paradigms are used, each containing their own set of enhancements. In the end, a unique algorithm, which links together dynamic programming and a greedy search, rises above the rest in terms of speed (0.095s) and near optimality (3.9 - 0.0%). The increase in speed and minimal optimality gap allows energy executives to explore demand response opportunities in an efficient manner. Further explorations of pre-processed searches have the potential to provide an even greater optimality.


44. Michael France University of Louisville Mentor: Susanna Remold Where do the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Populations that Infect the Cystic Fibrosis Lungs Come From? As researchers delve deeper into the biogeography of microorganisms, they are finding similarities in the biogeographical patterns of macroorganisms. This is a study of the household biogeography of the genus Pseudomonas with the goal of identifying what effects dispersion and selection have on Pseudomonas populations. Of particular interest are the biogeographical patterns of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often the cause of fatal infections in cystic fibrosis patients. To-date, twelve houses have participated in this ongoing study. Each house has approximately 100 niches located throughout and was sampled 8 times over the course of 2 years. The samples from drains and humans were selected as previous data suggests these contain the most P. aeruginosa. Portions of the 16s rDNA were amplified from each sample using Pseudomonas and P. aeruginosa specific primers.


45. Laura Francisco and Kelsa Mueller Murray State University Mentor(s): Todd Levine and David White Aquatic Ecology at Hancock Biological Station Study 1: (Francisco) Comparing Two Zooplankton Sampling Methods in Long-term Community and Population Monitoring Zooplankton are a very important part of ecosystems and are the trophic link between primary producers and upper-level consumers in aquatic food webs. Because changes in zooplankton populations could have a negative impact on other organisms, long-term monitoring of zooplankton populations is important to understanding aquatic ecosystems. We used data from an on-going, long-term monitoring program on Kentucky Lake to compare two methods of monitoring zooplankton at two sites, a channel and an embayment site, throughout 2008. We compared Schindler traps that capture zooplankton in a 15-liter volume of water at a single point in the water column and vertical tows using Wisconsin nets that capture zooplankton throughout the water column from near the bottom to the surface. Thus far identifications and counts from 22 samples from each site have been completed. Preliminary results show that species richness is similar between the two collection methods but different between the two sites (p = 0.03), and the number zooplankton is higher in vertical tows (p < 0.001) but not between sites. This could indicate that there is a high enough abundance of most species to allow both methods to be an accurate measure of richness. Future work should include a comparison of taxa by abundance by date between the two methods to better understand their effectiveness on studies of seasonal and areal abundance. Study 2: (Mueller) Mussel Habitat Affinities in the Clarks River, Kentucky Mussels are a critical part of aquatic ecosystems and provide valuable ecosystem and economic services. The Clarks River is a north flowing, 5th-order tributary of the Tennessee River in Western Kentucky in a region of high mussel diversity. We surveyed 12 sites and collected habitat data from them. All sites selected were based on access and were at least 500 m apart. We searched for mussels and recorded habitat information within a 50 meter reach at each site. Two person hours were spent searching for mussels at each site. Habitat data were taken every ten meters using a 1 x 1 meter quadrat was placed at a randomly determined distance from shore, and depth, percent cover, and particle size of the substratum were recorded. A chain width was taken at zero and fifty meters, which when compared with the surface width providing an index of river bed unevenness. A YSI sonde was used to measure pH, turbidity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation-reduction potential. We have located 164 mussels of 14 species in the sites. Based on our preliminary data thus far, there was a significant positive relationship between latitude and total mussel numbers (r2=0.44, p=0.02) and a significant decrease in mussel numbers with increasing particle size (r2=0.33, p=0.05). These data will help us to understand habitat use in mussels and better predict where to find them.


46. Michael Fuehner Northern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Wayne J. Bresser and Chari Ramkumar Structural and Magnetic Studies of Ferrite Materials for Potential Pressure Sensor Applications Structural and magnetic analysis was carried out on the following ferrite systems: Fe-Co, FeMg, Fe-Ni, Fe-Mg-Zn, and Fe-Ni-Cu-Zn for the purpose of creating a magnetic material capable of use with a magnetoelastic pressure sensor. The compositions of each system were varied stoichiometrically and pressed into toroids. The atomic phase of each system was verified by Xray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy was applied to each ferrite in order to study their respective vibrational energy levels. Mossbauer spectroscopy was also used in order to identify the iron sites in the sample and describe the nuclear environment of the iron atoms. Each ferrite was calcined at a material specific temperature between 650° C and 700° C for one hour and then sintered at 850° C for one hour. Particle size was determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and was found to be ranging from <1 micron to 10 microns in diameter. Each ferrite powder was pressed into a toroid using a polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) solution as to examine each material’s inductance change in relation to the external pressure applied. Processing parameters of toroid production were varied in order to determine optimal amounts of binder and other constituents.

47. Elizabeth Fugate, Natalie Schieber, and Krysta Waldrop Western Kentucky University Mentor: Matthew Nee A Study of Cationic Effects, Hydrogen Peroxide, and Photolysis on Nitrate Through Raman Spectroscopy Evaluating the interaction of hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals in the photolysis of nitrate is essential for understanding the photolysis of nitrate in snowpack, which is heavily influenced by chemicals released due to UV radiation. Using Raman spectroscopy, the interactions of hydrogen peroxide with nitrate during photolysis were studied. Samples of nitrate and hydrogen peroxide were photolyzed and Raman spectra were collected over the course of three hours for each sample. Samples were tested in which only the hydrogen peroxide or the potassium nitrate was photolyzed in addition to samples where both species were photolyzed. In another study the effect of the counter ion was tested by using samples of ammonium nitrate, calcium nitrate, and sodium nitrate. This was done to analyze how the Raman spectra of each sample changed as a function of time. There was a distinct difference in the Raman spectra of the samples in which only the potassium nitrate or the hydrogen peroxide changed as a function of time. The change in the Raman spectra was believed to result from the hydroxyl radical generated from the hydrogen peroxide. The data collected enhances our understanding of the hydroxyl radical and its influence on the photolysis of nitrate.


48. Milicent Fugate University of Louisville Mentor(s): J. Christopher States and Steven Ellis Arsenic Exposure Induces Aneuploidy and Slows Growth in Yeast Arsenic, a poisonous metallic element, affects millions of people worldwide. The US EPA sets the MCL for arsenic at 10 ppb, yet countless individuals are exposed to drinking water levels well exceeding this safety standard. Chronic arsenic exposure has been shown to induce bladder, lung, liver and kidney cancer. Arsenic acts as a carcinogen by inducing aneuploidy in cells. It has been proposed that one manner in which arsenic induces aneuploidy is by inhibiting correct mitotic division in the spindle checkpoint. It is hypothesized that arsenic interferes with this checkpoint through interaction with APC11. APC11 is a zinc RING finger protein that acts as a catalyst subunit of the APC/C. Arsenic is believed to interact with APC11 by binding to two cysteine residues on the surface of the protein. These residues are important in the binding of a zinc atom in the zinc RING finger structure. In human cells, arsenic is known to slow growth and induce aneuploidy. Experimentation yielded identical results in the YNN541 yeast strain-a yeast strain used as a model to study aneuploidy. Thus, this strain can be used as a model system for human cells due to the similar effects produced by arsenic exposure.

49. Whitney Graves University of Louisville Mentor: Diane Orr Chlebowy The Effects of Motivational Interviewing on Type 2 Diabetes Management in African American Adults: Preliminary Findings Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a silent killer that affects 17% of African Americans residing in Kentucky compared to 11% of European American residents (USDHHS, 2008). Not only do African Americans have a higher incidence of T2DM, they also have a higher occurrence of diabetes-related complications. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of a motivational interviewing (MI) intervention on adherence to prescribed treatment regimens, diabetes markers, and number of unscheduled health care visits among African Americans with T2DM. Twelve participants, 4 control and 8 intervention, were recruited at the University of Louisville Ambulatory Internal Medicine Clinic. The intervention participants attended 8 motivational interviewing (MI) sessions over 6 months. Anthropometric measurements, diabetes markers, and self-report measures were obtained at baseline and at 3-12 months following baseline. Preliminary findings suggested that the MI sessions may assist African Americans with T2DM in adhering to diabetes regimens thus contributing to lower random glucose levels and decreased abdominal and thigh averages. Due to small sample size, additional analyses are necessary to determine effect of intervention on study outcomes.


50. Marquita Grayson-Holt, Rachel Hayden, and Christopher M. Wales Kentucky State University Mentor(s): John D. Sedlacek, Karen L. Friley, Kirk Pomper, and Jeremy Lowe Stink Bug Species Associated with Organic Blackberry Production in Central Kentucky Stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are insect pests of organic blackberries in Kentucky. Brown, one spotted, green, and other species of stink bugs cause damage directly by feeding on blackberry drupelets, discoloring fruit and imparting foul odors. Populations of these insects and organic management tactics have not been studied in Kentucky blackberry crops. Strategies to delay primocane growth, such as spring mowing of primocanes, on primocane fruiting blackberry varieties could delay fruit set and avoid stink bug attack. Three meter plots either of ‘Prime-Jim®’ or ‘Prime-Jan®’ were initially mowed to ground level on March 30 - 31, 2010. Three replicate plots of each variety were then either mowed once on May 24 or mowed on May 24 and then again on July 6. Stink bugs were sampled weekly by hand picking from blackberry bushes and with 15 cm × 15 cm yellow sticky traps. Species caught during the study period were the brown stink bug, Euschistus servus; one spotted stink bug, E. variolarius; green stink bug, Acrosternum hilare; twice stabbed, Cosmopepla lintneriana; rice, Oebalus pugnax; and the red shouldered stink bug, Thyanta custator. Brown stink bug was the most abundant species caught followed by one spotted and twice stabbed with 38%, 14% and 14%, respectively, of the total number captured. Yellow sticky traps were not a satisfactory method of sampling stink bugs in blackberries. Results will be discussed within the context of primocane mowing regime.

51. John Bright-Guardiola University of Louisville Mentor(s): Matt Cave and Cam Faulkner Therapeutic Interventions in Toxicant-Associated Steatohepatitis Toxicant-Associated Steatohepatitis (TASH) is a non-alcoholic fatty liver disease observed with greater than 80% incidence in heavily exposed vinyl chloride (VC) workers. VC toxicity requires CYP2E1dependent metabolism to chloroethylene oxide, which rapidly breaks down to chloroacetaldehyde (ClAc). ClAc is a thiol reactive aldehyde that adducts cellular proteins. ClAc disrupts mitochondrial function leading to depleted ATP levels with consequent necrotic cell death. Our hypothesis is that therapy that increases glutathione concentration and ClAc detoxication will protect against protein adduction and mitochondrial dysfunction. We propose to utilize two model nrf-2-dependent gene transcription inducers, sulforaphane and oltipraz in a HepG2 cell based system. Treatment with either sulforaphane or oltipraz increased glutathione levels, NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase activity, and nrf-2 response element containing reporter activity. The LD50 for ChlAc (100.368 ± 1.217 µM) was increased by pretreatment with either sulforaphane (136.128 ± 2.070 µM) or oltipraz (113.430 ± 2.036 µM). Both ATP and glutathione levels in all groups are decreased following ClAc treatment; however cells pretreated with either sulforaphane or oltipraz had higher levels of ATP and glutathione at 1–h and 4-h, respectively. Both sulforaphane and oltipraz protected cells against ClAc-dependent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration measured using a Seahorse XF24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer. Sulforaphane and oltipraz reduced the ability of ClAc to inhibit oxygen consumption and oxidative reserve capacity. In conclusion, nrf-2 inducers are an effective mechanism based therapy for ClAc toxicity and potentially VC-induced TASH. Supported by NIH grants P20RR024489, 5P30ES014443, 1P01AA017103, and RC2AA019385.


52. Sylwia Gutowska Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Douglas Krull Effects of Religion on Life The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between religion and various factors of life, which include life satisfaction, optimism, pessimism, self-esteem, neuroticism, openness to experience, family support, and altruism. Participants include students from Northern Kentucky University as well as samples from different churches. The hypothesis of this study is that religion will be positively related to some factors (e.g., life satisfaction) and negatively related to others (e.g., openness to experience).

53. James Kyle Hager Morehead State University Mentor: Kristina DuRocher “It’s Bigger than Hip-Hop”: The Effectiveness of Rap/Hip-hop as a Discourse for Social and Political Change Contemporary critiques of rap/hip-hop make it difficult for the genre to get a foothold as a legitimate form of music, much less as a producer of receptive protest songs. However, rap/hiphop has undoubtedly become an integral part of our conceptions of popular music and as such is a crucial form of cultural history. This qualifies rap/hip-hop to serve as a lens through which we can view a larger cultural and political phenomenon, one that has the potential to call for positive social and political change. Yet it has failed to embrace this potential effectively at the popular level, where its influence is greatest, due to its problems with race, gender, and sexuality. In its current popular incarnation, rap/hip-hop falls short of a constructive message, leaving only time to tell if this style of music will bring about a greater positive movement. As Dead Prez's anthemic chorus proclaims, “It's bigger than hip-hop.”


54. Rachel Hayden, Marquita Grayson-Holt, and Christopher M. Wales Kentucky State University Mentor(s): John D. Sedlacek and Karen L. Friley Beneficial Insects Associated with Late Planted Conventionally Grown Sweet Corn Baited with Methyl Salicylate Based Lures Sweet corn, Zea mays ‘Garrison®’, was grown in 30 m long x 12 m wide replicated plots on the University of Kentucky’s Horticultural Research Farm. Yellow sticky traps 15 cm x 15 cm were used to capture insects and examine efficacy of PredaLure® attractancy stations within the plots. Six lures were deployed in each plot on August 24 and stapled to a tobacco stick at crop canopy height. Two lures were deployed in the center of each plot and one in the center of each quadrant of each plot. One sticky trap was deployed at the same location as each lure and stapled to the tobacco stick at ear height. Traps were changed weekly through anthesis. Sticky traps were placed individually in ziplock plastic bags, labeled, and transported to the laboratory for insect identification and enumeration. Pink lady beetles, Coleomegilla maculata; Asian lady beetles, Harmonia axyridis; spotless lady beetle, Cycloneda munda; seven-spotted lady beetle, Coccinella septempunctata; big eyed bug, Geocoris punctipes; minute pirate bug, Orius insidiosus; and green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea, were the predatory insects collected on the traps. Pink lady beetle was the most abundant predator caught and was twice as abundant in non baited plots. All other predators were not abundant. Results will be discussed within the context of lure deployment.

55. Ryan Hendrix University of Louisville Mentor: Micah Worley Salmonella Pathogenesis: A Human Genetics Approach Salmonella typhi invades host macrophages upon infection, and can effectively evade detection within a host. Infection is thus a major public health problem with Salmonella causing more than one billion new human infections each year that lead to more than three million deaths. The central question our lab is working to answer is, what host genes does Salmonella use to colonize and exploit its host, and what effectors does Salmonella employ to exploit those host genes. It is our hypothesis that genes regulating autophagy, or self-induced cell death, are required for successful Salmonella infection. To test this hypothesis, we selectively knockdowned the expression of each host gene individually, and then analyzed the resulting effects on the ability of Salmonella to grow within a host. To achieve this, we introduced complementary sequences of small hairpin RNA (shRNA) directly into the nucleus through transfection with the HEK 293T cell line, thus forming a lentiviral particle which is an effective gene delivery vector. Upon binding of the lentiviral particle to the host cell membrane, the RNA interference (RNAi) process will proceed, which results in rapid degradation of the target mRNA, and therefore, decreased protein expression or inhibition of the autophagy pathway. Twenty-four hours post infection, Salmonella colony counts determined if the reduced expression of that specific gene had an impact on growth. In addition, Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR was used to validate results, and ensure that we removed the specific transcript of the autophagy gene.


56. Chelsea Morley, Meagan Howard, and Amy Henges Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Cecile Marczinski Acute Effects of a Glucose Energy Drink on the Attentional Blink There has been a dramatic rise is the consumption of energy drinks (e.g., Red Bull) in the past decade, particularly among college students. However, there has been little laboratory research to examine the acute effects of energy drinks on cognitive performance. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a glucose energy drink on an attentional blink task and on subjective measures of mental fatigue and stimulation. Attentional blink is a phenomenon observed in rapid serial visual presentation. When a subject is presented with a sequence of visual stimuli in rapid succession at the same spatial location on a computer screen, a participant will often fail to detect a second salient target occurring in succession if it is presented between 200â&#x20AC;&#x201C;500 ms after the first one. In this study, participants were randomly assigned to one of six dose conditions (energy drink doses of 1.8 ml/kg, 3.6 ml/kg, 5.4 ml/kg, and 7.2 ml/kg, a decaffeinated placebo beverage and a no drink condition). Participants completed the cognitive task and subjective measures both at baseline and at 30 min. after dose administration. The results indicated that the energy drink increased feelings of stimulation and decreased feelings of mental fatigue in a dose-dependent fashion. By contrast, only the lower doses of energy drink improved accuracy on the attentional blink task. The results are consistent with findings of other stimulant drugs that improvements in cognitive performance are not linear but instead look like an inverted-U shaped function.

57. Marilyn Henry Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Heather A. Bullen Synthesis and Characterization of Antimicrobial Dental Composites Containing Silver Nanoparticles Dental composites often act as the barrier between the inner surface of an imperfect tooth and the bacteria found within the human mouth. The bacteria can lead to cavities and other infections in the gums if the dental composite is not completely sealed to a tooth, which is frequently the case. This research is aimed at evaluating if dental composites containing silver nanoparticles could decrease the risk of infection due to the antimicrobial effects of silver. Several different sizes and shapes of silver nanoparticles were combined with dental composites in order to synthesize a composite that is both antimicrobial and the color of human teeth. The effects of particle size and surface area on the antimicrobial response to Pseudomonas aeruginosa were evaluated with contact angle analysis and atomic force microscopy. A significant antimicrobial response with the addition of silver nanoparticles was found. In addition, the synthesis of new silver nanoparticles which may enhance antimicrobial activity is presented.


58. Kathryn Hogan and Dominique Peel Murray State University Mentor: William Dewees Incidence of Canine Distemper Virus and Parainfluenza Virus in Western Kentucky Shelter Dogs Study 1: (Hogan) Incidence of Canine Distemper in Western Kentucky Animal Shelters Canine distemper, also known as “hardpad disease,” is a canine viral disease that is caused by a paramyxovirus. This virus primarily attacks the lymphatic tissues of the respiratory system, and symptoms include fever, nasal and ocular discharge, encephalomyelitis, hyperkeratosis of the footpads, and neurological signs including spasms, paralysis, and convulsions. Because this disease is sensitive to disinfectants and is a key part of the core DHPP (distemper, hepatitis, parvo disease, and para-influenza) vaccine given annually to dogs in most small animal practices, it has not been prevalent for many years. However, recent feedback from veterinary professionals and laboratories (such as Breathitt Veterinary Center in Hopkinsville, KY) suggests that there has been a reoccurrence of infectious Canine Distemper, especially in shelter dogs. In this study, performed in conjunction with Dominique Peel’s study on Canine Influenza, a randomly selected group of dogs from western Kentucky animal shelters were tested for canine distemper using conjunctival swabs, which were then sent to Breathitt Veterinary Center for diagnostics using a fluorescent antibody test. A group of animals was surveyed from two shelters, and a separate group was surveyed from the same shelters after a time span of two months. The results have important implications for veterinary professionals and local animal shelters, and will allow us to implement a detailed control and prevention plan for the disease. Additionally, a literature study of Canine Distemper and observation at Breathitt Veterinary Center was performed and results were compared to previous studies regarding Infectious Canine Distemper. Study 2: (Peel) Prevalence of Canine Influenza Virus Subtype H3N8 in Western Kentucky Canine influenza virus subtype H3N8 is a highly infectious respiratory disease in dogs. This virus is an Influenza A virus and was first discovered as a canine disease in 2004 after an outbreak of respiratory disease in racing greyhounds. While first identified in greyhounds, serologic evidence indicates all dog breeds are susceptible to this disease. Since 2004, the disease has continued to spread across the United States. Cornell University’s Animal Health Diagnostic Center has reported a total of three positive samples of the canine influenza virus in Kentucky. However, since this is an emerging disease, the prevalence in which it occurs throughout canine populations is not well documented in most areas. Furthermore, shelter animals are more likely to be exposed to this virus and may serve as the best indication of the prevalence of this virus in canine populations in a given location. This study, in combination with Kathryn Hogan’s study on Canine Distemper, comprised of a random selection of dogs from two western Kentucky animal shelters in which dogs were tested for canine influenza using nasal swabs. Samples were collected from forty animals from two animal shelters. Additional samples were collected after a time span of two months from the same animal shelters. Samples were sent to Breathitt Veterinary Center in which they were analyzed using a florescent antibody test. The results demonstrate the prevalence of canine influenza in western Kentucky as well as indicate the importance of this disease to veterinary professionals, animal shelters, and public health officials.


59. Robin Holland Murray State University Mentor: Everett Weber Pedigree Analysis to Determine the Mode of Inheritance of White Markings in the Norwegian Fjord Horse Many breeds of horses have common white markings on their head or lower legs. Such areas of depigmentation are predisposing factors for ailments, including squamous cell carcinoma, equine pastern dermatitis, and photosensitization. Previous studies concluded white markings have a multifactorial mode of inheritance; however, the studies were conducted on breeds that permit crossbreeding. Our study used a breed that strictly prohibits crossbreeding, the Norwegian Fjord Horse. The Fjord is a breed in which white markings are highly discouraged, resulting in underreporting and selection against horses with white markings. The Fjord Horse community also believes that white markings are a recessive trait, affecting breeding decisions. Through pedigree analysis of survey data, we have eliminated the possibility of simple dominance as a mode of inheritance. In addition, preliminary data suggest that the inheritance is not simple recessive either. We do not currently have enough data to negate or support the multifactorial or incomplete penetrance inheritance patterns. Our pedigree analysis also indicates that breeders select against white markings in stallions but not mares. Combined with the variable expression of this trait, this form of selection is not likely to successfully remove the white marking trait from the Fjord Horse population. Further research includes expanding our database to include tests for the KIT gene, which has been shown in other horse breeds to be responsible for white markings. Horse breeders can use our research on the mode of inheritance to make informed breeding decisions and thereby remove this potentially harmful trait from the Fjord Horse population.

60. Christiana Holsapple University of Kentucky Mentor: Anna Manley Kentucky: An International Role Model The African country, Liberia, and the American state, Kentucky, have had noteworthy connections throughout history and continue to maintain significant links today. While many are cognizant of Kentucky’s sister city relations throughout the world, few know of the even stronger bond between Kentucky and Liberia. Liberia was first colonized in the 1820’s by former American slaves (Wiley). As a result, there exists an array of cultural aspects within Liberia that mirror our own practices in the United States. Most communities are named after places in America, including the Liberian region Kentucky – complete with a Clay-Ashland town and a Henry Clay High School (Fallah). Residents of Kentucky, Liberia eat collard greens and sweet potato pie at their dinner tables and sing Methodist and Baptist hymns in their churches; these people even have their own version of Stephen Foster’s “My Old Kentucky Home” (KET). Kentucky played a role in both the founding of Liberia and in Liberia’s current status. Today, monetary remittances from emigrated Liberians in America, including Kentucky, are a key driving force in Liberia’s capacity to resist relapse into civil war (Fallah). The purpose of this research was threefold: (1) Kentucky serves as a paradigm for democratic systems in Liberia; (2) Kentucky traditions and customs are worthy of international emulation, as shown in Liberian society; and (3) Liberian refugees currently relocated in Kentucky have an enormous influence in rebuilding Liberia’s war-torn economy. To sum up, this research conveyed Kentucky’s long-standing impact on a global scale through the example of Kentucky in Liberia.


61. Aleshia Hospelhorn, Matthew Buttacavoli, and Emrys Lynch Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Judy Voelker Mining Archaeology and Production: Examining Stone Tools from the Prehistoric Copper Mining Complex of Phu Lon, Thailand The Thailand Archaeometallurgy Project (TAP) has excavated the mining complex of Phu Lon along the Mekong River in northeast Thailand in efforts to better understand the origins of mining and metallurgy in Southeast Asia in prehistory. At Phu Lon evidence of metallurgy from the local procurement and processing of copper ores is visible. This poster presents preliminary observations on stone tools used at the site in prehistory.

62. Phillip Houtz University of Kentucky Mentor: Bruce Webb The Characterization of a Novel Cypovirus in a Parasitoid-host Relationship Although viruses are generally thought of as destructive to their hosts, some are beneficial, and even vital, to their host species. Parasitoid wasps are known to employ Polydnaviruses (PDVs) in order to subdue the immune systems of their hosts. Recently, I co-discovered a second virus in the parasitoid-host relationship between Campoletis sonorensis wasps and their lepidopteran host, Heliothis virescens. I identified this virus as a cypovirus of the Reoviridae family. This virus was present in both the caterpillar and the wasp and may play a role in preventing successful parasitization of the caterpillar by the wasp. There also appeared to be at least two variants of this cypovirus. The activity of this cypovirus in the PDV lifecycle is of great importance in providing a chance to study the unique, complex relationship that exists between these viruses and their development as biological weapons in their respective, primary hosts. Cypoviruses have yet to be studied in the context of parasitoid-host networks, and this particular system provides an ideal opportunity to study the characteristics of these viruses in a system with a sequenced PDV genome.

63. Brittany Howard and Halee Crabtree Madisonville Community College Mentor: Mary Janssen Beginning Studies in Phototaxic Behavior of Invertebrates in the Field Behavior of phototaxic invertebrates in the field was recorded by setting out wood tiles and after a period of time removing them and recording with a video camera their responses to the sudden presence of light beneath a superimposed grid of half-inch wire mesh. Data on movement along a path were obtained by manually recording the direction of the animals on graph paper, using the wire mesh grid to derive coordinates. An explanation of how neurons function in response to a stimulus was given, and an existing neural model of a phototaxic response was described.


64. Blake Huffaker Morehead State University Mentor: June Grice New Applications of Kodaly, Dalcroze, and Orff for the Music Classroom Kodaly, Orff, and Dalcroze have provided many different theories involving the music education of young students. These theories have formed the core of the elementary music curriculum. Their methodologies have been successful for many years. However, the ways in which their activities are presented in the classroom have become outdated. Therefore, it is vital for educators to create new materials or adapt old ones to make them more relevant in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s world. New activities and compositions increase student motivation and allow them to more easily understand concepts. This study examines the history of current music methodologies used in public schools and updates them by composing songs, making new Orff-style arrangements, and creating activities that emphasize the principles and concepts of these teaching methods. The created materials were incorporated into lessons and tested in the classroom to determine their success. After the materials were completed and tested, selected teachers were provided the updated materials to use freely in the classroom. Dissemination includes publication of the materials in music journals for teachers in Kentucky and throughout the U.S. to use in their music programs.

65. Wally Hughes Western Kentucky University Mentor: Mac Mckerral Citizen Journalism: Historical Roots and Contemporary Challenges I am working on this project for my Honor's senior thesis at WKU. I recently presented my research at the Kentucky Honors Roundtable, an event in which WKU collaborated with other honors programs from around the state. My research focuses on the impact citizen journalism is having on ethics in journalism. In order to provide background on the topic, the research starts with the historical roots of citizen journalism, explaining how it is not a new concept. It then shifts to today's society, examining the concerns that arise from citizen journalism such as objectivity, fairness and accuracy, and how these are affecting the journalism field as a whole. One particular aspect of my research that especially relates to legislation is the part about shield laws, and the controversy over who should be considered a journalist. I think it is an intriguing topic because it deals with current events.


66. Gregg Janos Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: David Brown Wintering Eastern Bluebirds Adjust Habitat Use, Diet, and Social Behavior During Cold Weather Events The population size of Eastern Bluebirds (Sialia sialis) in the Bluegrass Region of Kentucky has declined in recent years. To better understand the cause of this decline, I studied the winter ecology of bluebirds at the Bluegrass Army Depot (BGAD). Specifically, I collected data on home range size, group size, foraging behavior and diet, and tested for difference in habitat use based on periods of winter weather. I used mist nets and vocal playbacks to capture birds from different groups. Each bird was color-banded, and a subset of birds (N=9) were tagged with a small radio-transmitter. I also collected fecal samples from each captured bird. Several times each week I marked bird locations, recorded group size, and noted foraging behaviors. Weather data was collected from the Lexington National Weather Service Station. Using ArcGIS analysis, I determined the average group home range size (95% utilization distribution) to be 33 hectares with a much smaller average core home range of 3 hectares. Land cover analysis indicated that group home ranges consisted of 50% forested habitat and 50% open habitat. During relatively warm weather, small groups of bluebirds (2-13 individuals) maintained territories in open fields and foraged near the ground for insects. However, during cold weather events, and when the ground was snow covered, bluebirds tended to leave their core home range to join larger flocks (N= 50-100 individuals) and forage on fruit in forested habitat. This shift in habitat use has important implication for conservation of wintering bluebird populations.

67. Mckenzie Johnson Kentucky State University Mentor(s): George Antonious, Tejinder Kochhar, and Eric Turley Screening Hot Pepper Genotypes for Antioxidants Content Seeds of several accessions (genotypes) of hot pepper (Capsicum chinense) were collected from Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Puerto Rico, and United States. Seeds were field grown in a silty-loam soil. Mature fruits of hot pepper were analyzed for capsaicin, ascorbic acid, β-carotene and phenol contents, which are important antioxidants of a number of benefits for human health. The main objective of this investigation was to select candidate accessions of hot pepper having high concentrations of these phytochemicals for use as parents in breeding for these antioxidant compounds. Fruits of C. chinense accessions PI-640900 (USA) contained the greatest concentration (P< 0.05) of capsaicin (1.52 mg g-1 fresh fruit) and dihydrocapsaicin (1.16 mg g-1 fresh fruit), while total major capsaicinoids (capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin) in the fruits of PI-438648 (Mexico) averaged 2 mg g-1 fresh fruit. PI-152452 (Brazil) and PI-360726 (Ecuador) contained the greatest concentrations of ascorbic acid (1.2 and 1.1 mg g-1 fresh fruit, respectively), while PI-438648 (Mexico) contained the greatest concentration of total phenols content (349 ¾g g-1 fresh fruit) among the other 63 accessions tested. These selected accessions were identified as potential candidates for use in hot pepper breeding programs and for mass production of fruits with value-added traits.


68. Karen Jones and Sarah Moss-Crisp Murray State University Mentor: David Eaton Studies in Economic Behavior Study 1: (Jones) Buy Local: Who Shops at Farmers Markets? Bleak economic news and minimal changes to the job market pose two important questions to Kentuckians – ‘When will things return to normal? Can I do something to affect that outcome?’ Kentucky consumers work hard to save money by shopping hard for the lowest price. Discount chains and non-U.S. suppliers of goods most often provide the lowest prices to consumers. Are consumers ready to reconsider low price as the only criterion for buying decisions? Farmers Markets (FMs) sell primarily locally grown/produced goods in urban, suburban, and rural locations. Previous research indicates customers purchase goods at FMs for different reasons. Some customers like to purchase home grown vegetables (traditional road-side stand customers). Other customers are shopping for specific products such as organically grown or heirloom varieties typically found at FMs. A third type of customer is looking for ‘Made in Kentucky’ products or is practicing a ‘Buy Local’ strategy. While there are a number of successful sellers participating at FMs, aggregately these markets obtain only a fraction of local market share. There may be perceptions that FMs are inconvenient and prices are higher than typical chaingrocery stores. The purpose of this research is to focus on the perceptions of Farmers Market customers and potential/non-customers in order to identify attitudes where education (advertising) may increase the perceived value of shopping at Farmers Markets. Through education, could a change in perception increase ‘Buy Local’ behavior that will benefit local sellers as well as consumers who will enjoy a stronger local economy? Study 2: (Moss-Crisp) Are You Ready for an Upgrade? Recently, there seems to be a new cell phone launched almost every month with one of the major wireless carriers. For example, take the new Blackberry Torch that recently launched with AT&T. Despite a good advertising campaign, demand has been lackluster as it is competing with the Apple iPhone among other phones that AT&T carries. Do phones cause substitution between wireless carriers or is there more substitution between phones within the same carrier? Would this phone have been better off launching with another carrier like Verizon and competing with the new Android phones? Was making the Blackberry to be more like the iPhone the correct strategy or would Rim be better off maintaining the Blackberry's unique niche? Finally, how does technological change and user contracts impact the life span of the cell phone?


69. Samantha Kaiser and Virginia Shelley Northern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Hazel Barton and Marcelo Kramer White Nose Syndrome in Bats Study 1: (Kaiser) Commensal Fungi Found on Bats from Cumberland Gap Caverns White Nose Syndrome (WNS) has been responsible for the death of more than 1,000,000 bats since 2006, when the first confirmed case was documented in New York. WNS is caused by a previously unrecognized fungus, Geomyces destructans which grows on the muzzle, ears, and wing membrane of bats. With the continued spread of WNS, little is known about the fungi that naturally occur on bats, so the aim of this research is to identify the natural commensal fungi of bats. To do this, ten bats were sampled from three different species Myotis lucifugus, Myotis sodalis, Myotis pipistrelle, in two different cave environments. By understanding the normal fungal populations of bats, we maybe be able to understand which bats are at greater risk from this pathogen and whether protective commensal species can be identified. Study 2: (Shelley) Inhibition of White Nose Syndrome in Hibernating Bat Colonies: Identification of Antifungal Agents Since it first appeared in 2006, White-Nose Syndrome (WNS) has been devastating bat populations in caves across Northeastern US. Caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans, WNS has spread into caves as far west as Oklahoma and as far north as Canada, with over 115 cave hibernacula are now affected. To reduce the spread of this pathogen and protect endangered bat species, we are looking for compounds that can be used to treat bats in situ. We have focused on testing natural organic compounds that are able to prevent the growth and further transmittance of G. destructans, without harming bats or the native cave ecology. Various compounds have been tested to prevent the growth of the closely related Geomyces pannorum using two different competition assays: 1) a disk diffusion assay; and 2) a direct application of the chemical solution. In order to specifically target Geomyces species, the same tests were also performed using the unrelated fungi Penicillium pinophiolium and Aspergillus brasiliensis. Our results suggest that a number of compounds have the potential to prevent the spread of WNS and are currently being tested on the pathogen G. destructans and on healthy bat populations.


70. Erin Keeney and Callie Wilson Murray State University Mentor: Terry Derting Is Immunity Energetically Costly? The immune system is critical to survival and subsequent reproductive success of organisms. Many researchers have suggested that some components of the immune system, especially adaptive immunity, are energetically expensive. Our goal was to quantify the cost of the immune system to determine whether trade-offs in energy use occur between branches of the immune system and between the immune system and other physiological processes during an immune response. We tested the null hypothesis that an ongoing humoral immune response has no effect on the development of a cell-mediated immune response. Using adult male old-field mice, Peromyscus polionotus, cell-mediated responses were induced in cell-mediated/humoral (CH; n=10) and cell-mediated (Cm; n=10) adult male mice using dinitrofluorobenzene. A humoral response was induced using sheep red blood cells. Results were compared with a control group (Ct; n=10). We measured the energetic cost and strength of the immune responses through analysis of daily metabolic rate, resting metabolic rate, red and white blood cell counts, pinnae measurements, and hemagglutination assays. Metabolic rates of the CH and Cm mice did not differ significantly from those of Ct mice, despite significantly smaller masses of immune and vital organs in the latter group. There was an unexpected significant increase of innate activity in the CH mice as compared to the Ct mice. In addition, we failed to find any significant difference between the Cm and CH groups in any measured parameter. Thus, our work showed no significant trade-offs between the humoral and cell-mediated immune systems or between the adaptive and innate immune systems. Importantly, our results also did not support the widelyused assumption of a high energetic cost of adaptive immunity.

71. Tyler Kline Morehead State University Mentor: Deborah Eastwood Exploring the Creative Process in Musical Composition through "The Artist's Way" The creative impulse to compose music can at times be elusive. Commissioned composers are required to create original music under the pressure of firm deadlines. As with literary writers, this type of pressure may lead to decreased creativity and even creative blocks. The Artists's Way by Julia Cameron is a 12-week program that she describes as "a spiritual path to higher creativity." This project utilized daily creative writing and compositional exercises designed to stimulate increased compositional productivity. In order to emulate the â&#x20AC;&#x153;artist under pressure,â&#x20AC;? specified deadlines were set and enforced. In addition to achieving the compositional outcomes of the project, a blog was kept for tracking progress and ideas. Compositions were rehearsed and performed, yielding composer-performer interaction. A selected number of original compositions were performed at the MSU Department of Music, Theatre, and Dance Student Recital.


72. Emilee Knue and Stevi Johnson Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Isabelle Lagadic Effects of the Material Functionalization and the Ionic Composition of the Release Medium on the Loading and the Release of the Chemotherapeutic Agent Doxorubicin onto and from Functionalized Mesoporous Silicates When administered in high systemic doses, chemotherapeutic drugs can cause severe toxicity to the healthy tissue cells, resulting in hair loss, nausea and anemia. Drug encapsulation into delivery particulates is a way to reduce this toxicity, while allowing a high concentration of the drug to be delivered directly at the tumor site. Our ongoing research has focused on mesoporous inorganic-based silica particles as possible carriers for the anticancer agent, Doxorubicin (Dox). We already showed that mesoporous silicates functionalized with sulfonate (SO3-Na+) groups were capable of loading up to 200 mg of Dox per gram of solid and that a sustained and complete Dox release was obtained from these Dox-loaded materials. In this project, mesoporous silicates functionalized with various amounts of both sulfonate and phenyl groups were investigated for their Dox loading capacity. The incorporation of phenyl groups significantly lower the Dox loading capacity of the materials. The release profiles of Doxorubicin from Doxloaded sulfonate-functionalized material in release media of various CaCl2 concentrations (0.08 wt%, 0.17 wt%, and 0.25 wt%) were monitored by UV-Vis at 37째C. The presence of significant amounts of Ca2+ ions in the release medium seems to increase the release rate of Dox, which may be explained as two molecules of Dox in their ionic form are released for every Ca2+ ion.

73. Curtlyn Kramer and Adam Frost (Gatton Student) Western Kentucky University Mentor(s): Lance Hahn and Pitt Derryberry The Effect of Sexual Context on Moral Decision Making in Men and Women There is little evidence for a gender difference in morality. However, men and women do possess distinct strategies in handling sexual situations. This leads to two competing hypotheses about moral decisions within a sexual context. Either morality within a sexual context is the same for both genders, or morality within a sexual context is altered by that context in ways that are consistent with gender-specific sexual strategies. To test these hypotheses, we presented sexual and non-sexual moral dilemmas to participants, and asked them to resolve each dilemma. Next, they described how they reached their solution to the dilemma by ranking them in terms of importance. Many of the questions fell into three different categories: Personal Interest, Maintaining Norms, and Post-Conventional. Each of these categories is associated with a specific stage of moral development. Our results will reveal how men and women make moral decisions and whether the genders differ in how they approach a moral dilemma concerning sex. The sexual context varied in terms of sexual orientation, whether the sexual activities were legal or illegal, and whether the characters were male or female. This study will give us a greater insight into how men and women make moral decisions within sexual contexts. With that insight we can develop a more complete understanding of the complications sexuality creates in complex social environments.


74. Sheryn Labate Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Andrea Watkins The Genius of Frederick McKinley Jones: Kentucky’s African-American Inventor The poster relates the life history of Frederick McKinley Jones, the first African-American given the National Medal of Technology by the President of the United States. Jones, born in Covington, Kentucky in 1893, had an African-American mother and an Irish-American father. His mother died when he was still a toddler and after a few years of trying to provide a stable home for Jones, his father left the boy in the care of a local priest.But Fred Jones had a gift – he had the mind of a mechanical genius. From his first experiences of taking apart his father’s watch to his first job in an automobile garage, Jones practiced and increased his knowledge of mechanical engineering. After facing a harsh job market created by both economic hard times and outright racism, Jones made his way to Minneapolis, Minnesota where he partnered with Joseph Numero to form the ThermoKing Corporation. With Numero’s business expertise and Jones’ mechanical know-how, the company introduced the first refrigeration unit for transport trucks and forever changed how Americans think about and eat food.Fred Jones life stands as a testament to the American dream and opportunities for those with a pioneer spirit of hard work and inspiration. He is a Kentuckian worthy of honor and remembrance, who met the challenges of the world he lived in, but he rose above them to the benefit of many.

75. Taylor Lloyd University of Kentucky Mentor: A. Bruce Downie Seed Maturation Protein My project was a continuation on previous work by my Principal Investigator, Dr. A. Bruce Downie, UK Horticulture. It had previously been discovered that the gene At3g12960 product, Seed Maturation Protein (SMP), was susceptible to aging damage as isoaspartate accumulation. Also, the aging damage was found to be targeted by the enzyme, PIMT, which repaired the damage. Further interest into why the seed found this protein to be significant for repair spurred my project. My project was to identify the phenotype for the SMP gene through work with a mutant, smp1-3. In addition to the identifying the phenotype, my work encompassed confirming the cause for the phenotype to be the gene of interest through sequencing and confirmation of the “knocked-down” expression of the protein. The gene was found to control the seeds behavior following temperature shock. When the Wild Type (WT) was compared to the smp1-3 knockdown, it was seen that the mutant lacked the self-preservation technique of waiting several days following temperature shock. Instead of waiting to ensure the temperature was not going to change again, the mutant germinated several days earlier. Empirically, I proved that it was the SMP gene, which controlled this behavior by testing the location of the transposon (Maize Ac). The transposon prevented the functional protein responsible for the seeds behavior to be made. It was shown that no other inserted transposons caused the mutation and provided us with a clear understanding of the role of this gene in the germination process.


76. Laura Maynard Morehead State University Mentor: Deanna Mascle Fostering Writing Self-Efficacy in Teachers The focus of this research study is on fostering rhetorical agency and writing self-efficacy in teachers. Working with the National Writing Project site at Morehead State University, we collected quantitative and qualitative data about the writing apprehension and writing selfefficacy of a teachers participating in the 2009 and 2010 Morehead Writing Project Summer Institute. We used the quantitative data to study the impact of the immersion experience on the writers in the short- and long-term. We used the qualitative data to add to our understanding of the sources of writing self-efficacy so we can better foster rhetorical agency and writing selfefficacy. Because the writing self-efficacy of the teacher has an impact on his or her students, the results of this study are important for teachers of writing as well as future teachers of writing.

77. Katelyn Calvert McNamara University of Kentucky Mentor: Jonathan Lifshitz The Whisker Nuisance Task Identifies a Late Onset, Persistent Sensory Sensitivity in Diffuse Brain-Injured Rats Post-traumatic morbidity reduces the quality of life for traumatic brain injury (TBI) survivors by altering neuropsychological function. After midline fluid percussion brain injury (FPI), diffuse pathology in the ventral posterior thalamus suggests that somatosensory whisker function may be impaired post-injury. The goals of the present study were (1) to design and validate a task to detect injury-induced behavioral morbidity and (2) to evaluate preliminary neurorehabilitative interventions to alleviate the morbidity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to moderate FPI (~1.9 atm) or sham injury. Post-injury, the whiskers on both mystacial pads were stimulated (15 min) with an applicator stick in an open field. Behavioral responses were recorded using objective criteria (max score = 16). Sham animals were ambivalent or soothed by whisker stimulation (4.0 ±0.8), whereas brain-injured rats showed aggravated responses at 7 days (6.7 ±0.9), which became significant at 28 days (9.5 ±0.5) and 56 days (8.4 ±1.1) compared to sham, indicating chronic injury-induced sensory sensitivity. To implement the Whisker Nuisance Task, additional rats were subjected to mild injury, shaved whiskers, forced whisker stimulation, or tactile exploration of an enriched environment over 28 days post-injury. The Whisker Nuisance Task has the sensitivity to detect mild brain injury, but morbidity is not mitigated by the massed neurorehabilitative interventions. Following diffuse brain injury, the Whisker Nuisance Task is a promising tool to detect post-traumatic morbidity and the efficacy of therapeutic interventions which may translate to restoring discrete circuit function in brain-injured patients.


78. Justine Missik and Kati Ayers (Graduate Student) Western Kentucky University Mentor(s): Albert Meier and Bruce Kessler Influences of Microbial Networks on Food Webs Food webs are used to depict predator and prey interactions among species in ecosystems. However, in a realistic food web the pathways are so numerous that they are untraceable. Once the web is mapped into an adjacency matrix, it becomes possible to analyze it using the techniques of linear algebra. We added microbial loops or the matrix transpose to published food webs. We then analyzed all of the matrices using their eigenvalues and eigenvectors. Our manipulations to the matrices vastly increased pathway proliferation as measured by eigenvalues, and emphasized the often ignored but dominant role of bacteria in connecting food webs.

79. Joshua Mitchell University of Louisville Mentor: Hunter Moseley Developing Computational Tools for Metabolite Molecular Comparison and Search Metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that occur in living systems that make life possible [1]. The majority of these chemical reactions are catalyzed by protein enzymes which interconvert a vast network of organic molecules into forms needed for cells to live and grow. To better understand the underlying complexity of living systems, we must understand the complex network of chemical reactions that comprise cellular metabolism. Studying these complex metabolic networks requires databases that can represent this level of complexity and computational tools that can analyze the thousands of metabolites present in these networks. For human metabolism, the Human Metabolome Database (HMDB) contains entries for over 7900 small molecule metabolites found in human cells [2]. Included in the database entries are the structure of each metabolite and 2-D coordinates for each atom of each molecule. We are developing an algorithm that can compare a query molecule to the HMDB to detect similar molecules via a comparison of molecular substructure. Such a tool can generate hypotheses for where newly discovered metabolites fit within the complicated human metabolic network, aiding in filling out our incomplete picture of human metabolism.


80. Stephanie Michelle Mora Morehead State University Mentor: Lori Baruth Jazzing It Up: Evolution of the Clarinet's Role within Early Jazz to Modern Jazz-Inspired Classical Works Very few people realize how important the role of the clarinet played in the early stages of jazz music. The blending of European instruments and African rhythmic syncopation and tonal style laid the foundation for Ragtime and Dixieland in the Southern American states. The clarinet was at the forefront of these early jazz styles, embellishing harmonies, connecting the sounds of the trumpet and trombone, and producing melodic lines in early Dixieland bands. The function and role of the clarinet in the jazz idiom has changed drastically through the past hundred years. It evolved from being commonly used by early Jazz genres (Ragtime, Dixieland, Blues, and later Big Band Swing) to taking a secondary role to the saxophone as primary melody carrier. It was not until 20th century composers George Gershwin, Artie Shaw, and Aaron Copland began recreating a jazz sound in their works that the clarinet re-emerged into the jazz scene once again. When Gershwin wrote his opening to "Rhapsody in Blue," not only did it create a virtuosic solo for clarinet repertoire, but it featured the clarinet in a setting that had not been done before--jazz clarinet in the orchestra. This ground breaking technique spurred other composers during the era to follow suite and create their own jazz-inspired classical works with clarinet highlight.

81. Justin Morgan Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Hetal Jasani Quality of Service Performance Evaluation of WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) using OPNET Mobile WiMAX was officially drafted by the International Technological University (ITU) in late 2007. Much advancement has been made to improve the quality and performance of this OFDM-based technology. Officially, the IEEE 802.16e revisions promote standards for broadband wireless access systems and currently focus on performance through the PHY and MAC layers. This work evaluates the design and layout of a WiMAX deployment in terms of the physical layer's QoS (Quality of Service) variables; such as digital modulation and coding and forward error-correcting protocols. Among altering the framework and structure of the network, this work further delves into the performance evaluation through enhancing the uplink (UL) and downlink (DL) states to use OFDM oriented frequency-selective modulation schemes in an OPNET based project.


82. Samantha Mosby and Brandon Orr Murray State University Mentor: Rachel Allenbaugh Analyses of Stilbene and Bipyridine Derivatives for Liquid Crystalline Phase Formation and Structure of the Resulting Mesophases Liquid crystalline materials have become common in the daily lives of many individuals as components in televisions, computer screens, and digital displays. The careful design of these materials at a molecular level determines structure and allows for control of macroscale properties, like how effectively the material acts in a television display. This project is part of a larger effort to determine how metal centers can be utilized to direct formation of specific liquid crystalline architectures. Preliminarily, this research focuses on a series of stilbene and bipyridine derivatives functionalized with long alkyl chains. The syntheses and purification, as well as 1H NMR and IR analyses of compounds, will be discussed. The molecules are extremely similar in overall size and shape, differing mainly by the linkage between the two long, symmetrical halves. The stilbene derivatives have central double bonds, making them much more rigid in comparison to the central single bond of the bipyridine derivatives. Analyses of these two types of species via polarized optical microscopy (POM), and thermal methods will be presented. POM is a highly effective method of structural characterization that utilizes the interaction of polarized light with liquid crystalline materials to produce distinguishable patterns. These colorful patterns are a characteristic result of the structure of the liquid crystalline phase. This research will be vital to future preparation of more complex liquid crystalline architectures from these basic building blocks.

83. Laura Don Oliver and Lacey Litchfield (Graduate Student) University of Louisville Mentor: Carolyn Klinge The Effect of COUP-TFII-nucleolin Interaction on RARβ2 Expression in Human Breast Cancer Cells Tamoxifen resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of breast cancer patients. COUP-TFII, an orphan nuclear receptor, expression is reduced in tamoxifen-resistant human breast cancer cells. The mechanism of the involvement of COUP-TFII in tamoxifen resistance is currently not well understood. Nucleolin is a protein that interacts with COUP-TFII in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. The goal of the current study was to examine COUP-TFII-nucleolin interaction in two human breast cancer cell lines: MCF-7 and T47D, and to determine how this interaction regulates retinoic acid receptor β2 (RARβ2) expression. Interaction of COUP-TFII with nucleolin was confirmed in the nuclear extract of both cell lines by coimmunoprecipitation. To examine how nucleolin impacts COUP-TFII-regulated RARβ2 expression, MCF-7 cells were transiently transfected with a luciferase reporter bearing the RARβ2 gene promoter and increasing amounts of COUP-TFII and/or nucleolin. COUP-TFII increased RARβ2-luc promoter activity and nucleolin inhibited COUP-TFII induced luciferase activity. However, nucleolin inhibited both Renilla and firefly luciferase activities, suggesting that nucleolin inhibits transcription factor-promoter interactions. Next, we optimized siRNA knockdown of nucleolin in MCF-7 cells and confirmed nucleolin knockdown at the mRNA and protein levels 48 h after siNucleolin transfection. The results showed a 70% and 20% reduction in nucleolin mRNA and protein. Future experiments will determine the effect of nucleolin knockdown on COUP-TFII regulated RARβ2 expression in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells. We anticipate that experiments with siNucleolin will elucidate the role of COUP-TFII-nucleolin interaction in regulating expression of the tumor suppressor RARβ2 in breast cancer cells.


84. Richard Osban and Matthew Hall Murray State University Mentor: David Pizzo Resistance and Violence in Europe, 1936-1946 Study 1: (Osban) Bandit Hunters in the Reich: Partisan Warfare and Counterinsurgency in the Greater German Empire For this project, I gathered information relating to the German occupation of Bulgaria, Serbia, and Greece during World War II. With the information which was gathered during the research process, I compiled case studies of the treatment of partisans in these occupied countries and related them not only to German colonialism in Africa, but also to modern counterinsurgency in Iraq and Afghanistan. Through an examination of these countries, I gained a better understanding of how the ideas of imperialism and racial policy shaped the behavior of Nazi occupation forces, and also how it has shaped even contemporary occupation forces. Study 2: (Hall) In the Fight for Freedom: German Anarchists in the Spanish Revolution The outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in July 1936 sparked a widespread social revolution in Spain, particularly in the northeastern provinces of Catalonia and Aragon. Here, the Spanish anarchists began to build a society based on their anarcho-communist and anarcho-syndicalist principles, and to fight a revolutionary war against the forces of the "Right". Both the revolutionary society created in Spain and the war against what was broadly termed "fascism" attracted a wide variety of leftists from all over Europe. One of these groups, the German anarchists who lived in Spain when the war started, came to play a pivotal role in the progression of the revolution and the war. Simultaneously, they came to frame their own struggle in very German terms, often portraying the Nazis, who backed the Spanish Nationalists, as the enemy, rather than the Nationalists themselves. Both the narrative of the German anarchists' experience in Spain and this interplay between their German ethnicity and anarchist internationalism form the basis for my research.


85. Mittul Patel University of Kentucky Mentor: Qingjun Wang Finding the Missing Link Between Autophagy and Cell Growth Control - a Novel Target for Treating Cancer? One of the most life-threatening diseases that plagues human beings today is cancer. Autophagy is a cellular degradation pathway that is essential for the removal and degradation of unnecessary and damaged organelles along with proteins in time of stress and starvation. Autophagy impairment can lead to unregulated cell division and unrestrained cell growth characteristics of cancer. Beclin 1 is a critical regulator of autophagy. Partial deletion of Beclin1 leads to increased incidence of tumors, and total deletion of Beclin1 leads to death in mice at the embryonic stage. This study examined the role of a novel Beclin 1-interacting protein, p40, in cell division and proliferation. We showed that transient knockdown of p40 increases cell proliferation. We have also shown that p40 co-localizes with the key cell division protein γ-tubulin on centrosome, suggesting that p40 is involved in cell division. We hypothesized that autophagy may directly regulate cell division via p40 at the centrosome. We further hypothesized that alteration of p40Beclin1 or p40-γ-tubulin interaction can lead to increased cell proliferation. We have generated a series of DNA constructs encoding either full length or truncated p40. Using these constructs and a variety of protein-protein interaction and cell growth assays, we characterized the protein domain(s) of p40 that interact with Beclin1 and colocalize with γ-tubulin. Furthermore, we also studied whether disrupting these protein-protein interaction domains in p40 leads to impaired starvation-induced cell proliferation inhibition. This study has shed light on our understanding of cancer and our adventure towards effective cancer treatment.

86. William Phifer Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Jonathan Gore The Association Between Children’s Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior with Cancellation and No-Show Rates in a Community Mental Health Clinic This study investigates the association between children’s symptomology, as determined by BASC-2 PRS scores, and cancellations by parents using data collected on 88 children in a Community Mental Health Clinic. It was hypothesized that internalizing behaviors are positively correlated with no-show and cancellation rates, and that externalizing behaviors are negatively correlated with no-show and cancellation rates. A bivariate analysis was run across all variables and it was determined that internalizing behaviors are positively correlated with cancellation rates (r=.229, p<.05), sessions (r=.440, p<.01), and phone calls (r=.21, p<.05). Given a higher likelihood of cancellation for child clients with internalizing behaviors, an increase in reminder calls and education for the parents of those child clients may result in fewer cancellation issues.


87. Michael Phillips Western Kentucky University Mentor: Edward Kintzel Modeling of Thermal Time Evolution and Gradients on Extended Samples A finite difference approximation method has been used to model the thermal time evolution and gradients across extended samples. To facilitate our model, a simplified experimental sample geometry consisting of flat rectangular aluminum and copper strips were utilized. Cooling of each sample in-situ from 400K over a specified time frame produced results consistent with experiment. Examinations of the thermal gradients along the long axis of the sample were considered at 50, 150, and 400K in the presence of a helium exchange gas. The modeled gradients were again consistent with experiment. These results will assist the sample environment group at the Spallation Neutron Source better serve the general user community. Future experiments will consider additional materials and sample geometries.

88. Luciane Pires Kentucky State University Mentor(s): Shawn Coyle, Leigh Anne Bright, and James Tidwell Evaluation of a New High Protein Distillers Grains with Solubles for Inclusion in Diets for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) remains the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s largest aquaculture industry. However, high feed prices have negatively impacted profitability. Increased demand for corn for ethanol has increased grain prices. Ethanol companies have developed modified processes to enhance ethanol yield. These modified processes also increase the crude protein content of distillerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s grains (DDGS). However, the lysine content is not increased in this product. This new protein product should be evaluated for its suitability in catfish diets. Twenty-five full-sibling channel catfish (7 g) were randomly stocked into twelve 260-liter polyethylene tanks. There were three replicate tanks per diet. The Control diet was similar to a commercial formulation. Experimental diets contained either 20% DDGS, 40% DDGS, or 40% DDGS with added lysine. Fish were fed to apparent satiation twice daily for 9 weeks. Average harvest weights for fish fed the 40% DDGS diet without lysine supplementation (57.0 g) were significantly (P<0.05) smaller than the Control diet (77.7 g). Average harvest weights were significantly higher (P<0.05) for fish fed 20% DDGS (86.8 g) than for fish fed either 40% DDGS (57.0 g) or 40% DDGS+Lys (73.7 g). There were no significant differences (P>0.05) in feed conversion ratios or survivals between treatments which overall averaged 1.1 and 99%, respectively. These data indicate a 10% growth improvement by addition of 20% DDGS over the Control diet. Since added lysine restored performance to Control level, the 40% DDGS diet was likely limiting in lysine.


89. Katie Posey and Brittany Toombs Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Jon McChesney Out of Control Youth Sports: Helping Families to find a Leisure Balance Youth sports have become fraught with problems. A recent youth sports study indicated that injuries to children are on the rise, the economic pressure on families has increased, and problems associated with adult and parent behavior to include even criminal behavior have been reported (Riepenhoff, 2010). The Center for Kids First in Sports reported that instances of parental rage and misconduct are well documented and have become commonplace in youth sports activities. Further, the time demands of youth sports have significantly increased. Family time has become a commodity that has to be penciled into schedule books and deliberately planned (Bianchi, 2007; Shellenbarger, 2002). This qualitative study involved interviews with parents and leisure professionals to elucidate the issue of youth sports and finding time balance for the family unit. One parent said, “Our family has had to be deliberate with our planning for our child’s sports. Last year we were seemingly always on the run going from this practice to that game, and all of this running was during the school year. Grades suffered but so did our family; we just didn’t have time for the important things. You could tell it took a toll on (our child).” Recommendations to create better leisure balance include limiting youth sports practices and games, reducing the length of the season, creating after-school intramural programs, and protecting time for family dinners given a University of Michigan study that indicated family meal time was the most significant predictor of school performance and reducing behavioral problems.

90. Caleb Potter Morehead State University Mentor: Joy Gritton Appalachian Studies Programs: Best Practices for Healthy and Effective Social Change This study examines the diverse array of interdisciplinary Appalachian Studies programs, at both public and private institutions, with an eye toward identifying structures and practices that have yielded positive results in terms of (1) contributions to the well being of the region, (2) ability to successfully mentor the region's next generation of leaders, and (3) health of the programs themselves. The study investigates outreach to community (including service learning); relationships with programs/centers similar to Morehead State University's Center for Regional Engagement, Kentucky Center for Traditional Music and/or Kentucky Folk Art Center; curriculum; position within institutional structure, and recruitment of faculty and students. The data and understanding derived from this research provides an essential resource for a self-study of MSU's Appalachian Studies program, now poised to grow in its capacity for service to the region.


91. Raven Price University of Kentucky Mentor: Jeffrey Osborn Effects of Ouabain on Intestinal Sodium Reabsorption in Procambarus clarkii Procambarus clarkii, or swamp crayfish, experience daily fluctuations in salinity, and are known to both osmoregulate, as well as osmoconform. In a previous experiment, I found that the lower gut of the decapod P.clarkii will reabsorb normal crayfish solution (~200mM NaCl) at an average of 28.78ul/min. I hypothesized that saturating the outside of the GI track with ouabain will decrease reabsorption rate. Ouabain binds to and inhibits Na+/K+ ATPase. The inhibition of the Na+/K+ pumps will stop the transfer of Na+ out of the intestinal lumen, in turn stopping reabsorption. Since Na+/K+ ATPase are mostly located on the basolateral membrane, ouabain is administered on the outside to effectively block the Na+ pumps. Large P.clarkii (25-30g) were obtained from Atchafalay Biological and allowed to acclimate for 2 weeks. Crayfish were sedated in an ice water bath prior to experiment. Polyethelyne tubing was inserted into the anterior opening of the GI tract for perfusion, as well as the anus for collection of perfusate. Five different concentrations of ouabain saturated the outside of the GI track for 20 minutes: [10] ^(9) M, [10] ^(-7) M, [10] ^(-5) M,and [10]^(-3) M. Simultaneously a constant flow of normal crayfish solution was perfused through the GI track and the perfusate was collected. Results did not show a uniform decrease or increase of the reabsorption rates. I concluded that the potential osmoregulatory function of the intestine of the freshwater crayfish P.clarkii is not regulated by Na+/K+ ATPase. Future experiments will be carried out to investigate a potential role for osmoregulation in the intestine of P.clarkii.

92. Alyssa Radford Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: Rose Perrine Smiley Face Symbols: Students’ Reactions as a Function of a Professor’s Request to Meet The college years are a period during which students transition from a parent-oriented environment to one in which they take greater responsibility for their personal and social development. Nonetheless, parents remain a lasting influence on children during these years. Attachment theorists have examined the degree to which attachment history with parents influences ones later interpersonal relationships and perceptions of others. For example, college students’ attachment styles influence how they interpret a professor’s request to meet (Perrine & King, 2004). In the present research, I examined how securely and insecurely attached students differ in their reactions to a professor’s written request to meet when a smiley-face symbol is included in the request. Students imagined that they had received a poor exam grade in Dr. Smith’s math class. They viewed a picture of the first page of the exam with either the note “Please see me” or “Please see me ☺” in red ink. Results showed that students who saw the note with the smiley face reported more positive cognitions (Dr. Smith wants to help me, cares about my grade in this class, etc.), than students who saw the note without the smiley face, and securely attached students had more positive cognitions about the note than insecurely attached students. These results suggest that college professors can influence how offers of help are interpreted by different students, and can relatively easily encourage more students to seek help with the simple addition of a smiley face.


93. Colleen Rodeffer University of Louisville Mentor: Diane Orr Chlebowy The Effects of Culture on Diabetes Self-Management in African American Adults: A Literature Review Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) imposes a major burden for American Americans. African Americans are disproportionately affected by T2DM and experience higher rates of diabetes-related complications compared to Caucasians. Recent studies have examined the impact of culture on self-management of chronic illnesses such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), congestive heart failure (CHF), and asthma. The purpose of this literature review was to examine the influence of culture on diabetes selfmanagement in African American adults. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL) were searched for reports addressing the influence of culture on diabetes self-management in African Americans. The search was limited to studies published in English. A systematic review of the studies was conducted. Key findings included utilizing religion and prayer as a primary coping mechanism, emphasizing the importance of a network of supportive family and friends who understand T2DM, expressing frustration in deviating from traditional African American foods in order to follow dietary recommendations, and demonstrating little to no use of home or herbal remedies for alternative diabetes management. These findings have implications for health care providers who care for African American adults with T2DM. Additionally, these findings suggest that further studies are needed to examine the influence of these variables on diabetes self-management in African Americans with T2DM.

94. Tyler Rose, Nathan Fite, Daniel Graves, Tyler Burba, Brandon Molton, Johnathan Fitzpatrick, and James Goble Morehead State University Mentor(s): Benjamin K. Malphrus, Kevin Brown, and Bob Twiggs The EduSat Space Mission: Design and Development of a FemtoSatellite, Orbital Deployer (FOD) and Microsatellite for Research and Education EduSat is an innovative Microsatellite (12 kg) that will be launched on Dec. 16, 2010 from Yasny Russia on a Dnepr Launch Vehicle. After 10 days on orbit, EduSat will release four femto-class satellites (mass of < 1 kg), two of which were developed by Morehead State University students and faculty. The mission is an educational and research space mission involving the University of Rome Sapienza (that designed and constructed EduSat), Kentucky Space and Morehead State University. The project has two main activities: designing, building, and launching a student-built satellite and testing prototype technologies including extremely small space systems in the space environment. Students had the responsibility of designing the satelliteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s mechanical systems, electronics systems, software systems, and will operate the satellites on orbit. Students of the Space Science Center (SSC) at Morehead State University have developed two of the femtosatellites (Eagle-1 and Eagle-2) and the Morehead-Rome FemtoSat Orbital Deployers (FOD) designed to deploy the femtosats from Edusat (the mother ship). Eagle-1 and 2 will test deployable de-orbit systems and establish flight heritage for femtosat systems including power systems and transceivers. The primary payloads on EduSat are environmental sensors dedicated to secondary education research. The EduSat-FOD missionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s successful launch and operation will usher in a new frontier in micro-miniaturization of technologies for the small satellite industry.


95. Kyla Ross Kentucky State University Mentor(s): George Antonious, Tejinder Kochhar, and Regina Hill Residues of Endosulfan Isomers on Pepper and Melon Endosulfan, a mixture of α- and β-isomers, is a broad-spectrum insecticide and is one of the remaining organochlorine insecticides used for control of insect pests on fruits and vegetables. Endosulfan was sprayed on field-grown pepper and melon plants at the recommended rate of 0.44 kg a.i. acre-1. At harvest, pepper and melon fruits and leaves were collected from treated plants and untreated controls and analyzed for endosulfan α- and β-isomers. Plant tissue samples were blended with methylene chloride + acetone (6+1, v/v) to extract endosulfan. Residues were confirmed using gas chromatography-mass selective detection (GC/MSD). The results indicated the formation of endosulfan sulfate as the major metabolite of endosulfan and the relatively higher persistence of the β-isomers as compared to the α-isomer. The initial total residues (α- and β-isomers plus endosulfan sulfate) were higher on leaves than on fruits. On pepper fruits, the αisomer, which is more toxic to mammals, dissipated faster than the less toxic β-isomer. Our results revealed the greater initial residues of endosulfan isomers on pepper leaves as compared to melon leaves. The longer persistence of the total residues on pepper should be considered of great importance for timing the safe entry of pepper harvesters due to the high mammalian toxicity of endosulfan sulfate. Pepper is a perishable crop which must be harvested frequently and regularly. The use of endosulfan on pepper under a wide range of production systems and multiple sprays should be kept to a minimum due to the long persistence of its β-isomer and the high mammalian toxicity of endosulfan sulfate.

96. Sara Beth Ruble University of Kentucky Mentor(s): Kristin Ashford, Andrea McCubbin, and Susan Westneat An Examination of Expired Carbon Monoxide Levels and Prenatal Smoking Quit Rates in Appalachia Introduction: Kentucky ranks second highest in the nation (26.3% vs. 10.7%) in prenatal smoking rates, some Appalachia counties ranging from 31.1% to 53.4%. Biomarker validation is recommended to confirm prenatal smoking. Expired carbon monoxide (CO) levels are often used to confirm smoking status. Smoking behavior of the woman’s partner has been cited as a strong predictor of smoking relapse (CDC, 2006). The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of expired maternal CO levels on prenatal smoking quit rates in rural KY and examine how partner support affects quit rates. Method(s): Giving Infants and Families Tobacco Free Starts (GIFTS) was initiated in nine counties of Appalachia. In 2009, participants in Whitley County (n= 116) were provided motivational interviewing, individualized counseling, screen for social support, partner smoking, depression, domestic violence and SHS exposure; and biomarker feedback on maternal expired CO level in their health departments. CO levels were measured using the smokerlyzer + piCO monitor. Data analysis included descriptive statistics and T-tests using SAS software.Results: Prenatal CO levels ranged from 1-47 ppm with a mean level of 10.71 ppm. Eighty-two percent of women set quits dates with nearly a 25% quit rate. Seventy percent of partners smoked and women who had partners who did not smoke were significantly more likely to quit (p=.041). There was no significant difference between CO levels and quit rates, however, fewer women quit when CO levels were >9ppm. Discussion & Conclusions: The GIFTS Program and having smoke free partners increased quit rate successes and attempts. 71

97. Meryl Sams Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Kim Dinsey-Read Home at Head Start: Caregivers' Perceptions and Communication Relationships An area of focus for Healthy People 2020 is to increase the proportion of children who are ready for school, increase positive parenting and communication with health care providers. The quality of family-provider relationships has been identified as the foundation for successful interventions and improved health outcomes for children (Kalmanson & Seligman, 1992). An assessment was completed for a government funded agency, providing school readiness for vulnerable, impoverished, 3-5 year olds. A Federal audit estimated that 20 out of 50 child health profiles were incomplete as a result of incomplete health enrollment forms. As a result, the agency is being fined $200 per child for incomplete or missing forms and is subject to additional budget and resource reductions. This ultimately reduces the agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to impact on the health outcomes and school readiness of the children they serve. Caregivers are in a position to advocate and communicate with providers to ensure the completion of these forms. A survey of caregivers was conducted to collect their perceptions of their childâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s providers the agency staff and their ability to communicate with them, and the medical enrollment process. Results indicated that caregivers were not aware of the significance of this issue and that they lacked the ability to effectively read, comprehend, and review health forms to verify completion. An educational offering was developed to help caregivers identify incomplete health forms and effectively communicate with the provider to impact not only on the agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s enrollment requirements but to improve family-provider relationships and the health outcomes of their children.

98. Sarah Schrader Western Kentucky University Mentor: Rodney King Genomic Characterization of Mycobacteriophage TiroTheta9 Bacteriophages are the most abundant biological entities on earth, and yet very few types have been characterized. It is imperative that we analyze as many types as possible to gain important insights into molecular biology, genetics, evolution, and even pharmaceutics as researchers begin to recognize the potential of phage as a replacement for antibiotics. The objective of this project was to isolate and characterize a novel bacteriophage from the environment. Mycobacterium smegmatis, a harmless bacterium commonly found in soil, served as the host and facilitated the enrichment and recovery of mycobacteriophages. A single phage type was purified to homogeneity and was designated TiroTheta9. The morphology of the purified TiroTheta9 phage particles was visualized by electron microscopy. TiroTheta9 genomic DNA was isolated and analyzed using DNA restriction enzymes and gel electrophoresis before being sequenced. The sequenced genome was annotated and compared to the genomes of other mycobacteriophages. This analysis revealed that TT9 shares significant sequence similarity to mycobacteriophage Peaches. Based on these data, it was concluded that TiroTheta9 is a unique mycobacteriophage with close similarity to Peaches and other mycobacteriophages of the A4 subcluster. The genomic information gathered on TT9 will add to the growing database of annotated phage genomes and serve to augment our understanding of bacteriophages in general. 72

99. Guela Sokhadze University of Louisville Mentor(s): Ayman El-Baz and Lonnie Sears Electrocortical Study of Emotional Prosody Recognition Deficits in Autism and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Disturbances of affective reactivity and inability to perceive and respond to the social signals in a typical and appropriate manner are the hallmark deficits of autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are characterized not only by deficits in attentional functions, but also by emotional reactivity abnormalities. We propose that both ASD and ADHD are characterized by emotion recognition difficulties, so called â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;theory-ofmindâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; deficits. This term has been applied to the capacity to attribute mental states to others in order to understand and predict their behavior. It is possible that the inability of mentalizing about emotional prosody may explain the social and communication impairments in ASD and ADHD. Prior studies identified a cortical network that is active during mentalizing and links prefrontal regions with posterior temporal cortex. The abnormality that results in mentalizing failure in ASD and ADHD may involve weak connections between components of this system. Our study was designed as an event-related potential (ERP) investigation of behavioral and electrocortical responses during a task requiring recognition of emotional faces. Facial expressions represent an important means of non-verbal social communication. The results of our preliminary study suggest that impaired categorical perception of facial expressions and difficulties in understanding emotional prosody in facial expressions can found not only in children with autism but also in children with ADHD. Both autistic (N=8) and ADHD (N=8) subjects showed deficits in correct categorization of emotional expressions on faces presented during the tests and demonstrated significant differences as compared to 8 age-matched neurotypical controls. Emotional reactivity deficits, both in ASD and ADHD, may negatively affect social functioning and more research is needed to understand neural mechanisms of observed deficits.


100. Vanessa States University of Louisville Mentor: J. Christopher States Arsenic Alters the Expression of DNA Repair Proteins and Platinum Accumulation in Vivo After Murine Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC) Ovarian cancer (OC) is the leading cause of gynecologic cancer death in the USA. Recurrence rates are high after front-line therapy and most patients eventually die with platinum-resistant disease. Adding hyperthermia to chemotherapy agents delivered intraperitoneally (HIPEC) may help to improve outcome. We developed a murine HIPEC model to test a combination of cisplatin (CP), sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) and hyperthermia (43°C). We established metastatic OC xenograft tumors in nude mice using CP-resistant human OC (A2780/CP70) cells. Tumorbearing mice were perfused for 1 h with 2 µM CP±40 µM NaAsO2 at 37 or 43°C. Cells expressing low levels of ERCC1, XPA and XPC, and high levels of MSH2 are known to be cisplatin sensitive. We analyzed expression of these proteins and p53 in tumors by Western blot. Both hyperthermia and arsenic, alone or in combination decreased CP-induced XPC levels 24 h after treatment. Arsenite blocked cisplatin suppression of MSH2. Our data indicate that arsenic is decreasing the levels of XPC and maintaining higher levels of MSH2, suggesting a mechanism of sensitization to cisplatin. Platinum and arsenic significantly accumulated in tumors during treatment (0 h). Platinum decreased by 24 h after treatment in the presence of arsenic. Systemic platinum accumulation during treatment with CP alone or the combination chemotherapy was in the order: kidney > liver = spleen > heart > brain. Tissue arsenic immediately after treatment was in the order: liver > kidney = spleen > heart > brain. Arsenic levels decreased significantly in all systemic tissues within 24h after treatment. Supported in part by NIH grants P30ES014443 and R01ES011314; and NSF-EPSCoR grant EPS-0447479.

101. Matthew Thacker Eastern Kentucky University Mentor(s): John Bowes and Carolyn Dupont Catholicism and the Cold War: Fulton J. Sheen's Integration of Catholicism as an American Religion The early years of the Cold War set in motion events that would bring Catholicism forth as a nationally recognized "American" religion. The enormously popular Bishop Fulton J. Sheen led this movement with his strict anti-communist message. Bishop Sheen was one of the most prominent and important Catholics during this period of the Cold War. However, in recent decades, Sheen's name has been replaced with names such as John. F. Kennedy, Mother Teresa, and Pope John Paul II as the most influential Catholics in the 20th century, though Sheen laid the foundation for the acceptance of Catholicism that allowed John F. Kennedy to be elected to the Presidency. Through an analysis of documents written by Sheen and others, Fulton J. Sheen's anti-communist rhetoric and his presentation of Catholicism as an American-friendly religion will be examined. Bishop Fulton J. Sheen's extensive contributions to integrating Catholicism into American culture can be chiefly attributed to his religious conversions of key members of the Communist party in America, his extensive publications and sermons on the Catholic view of communism, and his ability to work cooperatively with the members of various other denominations to create a united religious stand against communism.


102. Keshia Theobald Northern Kentucky University Mentor: Shauna Reilly Petitioner Study: Examining Happiness Levels amongst Petitioners of Direct Democracy With the recent rise in public support for initiatives, as well as increasingly high numbers of proposed initiatives within the United States, it is important to understand the effects of this process. As shown through previous research the initiative process can have significant effects on several aspects of both legislation, and more directly upon the citizens involved with its processes, such as with increased political efficacy. Though, the effects of direct democracy within the United States are not limited to these areas, as is demonstrated through the findings of this study.By examining 91 petitioners' of direct democracy from across the United States, selfreported subjective well-being amongst several other variables, including the ability to maintain a high quality of life, increased sense of community through working on ballot propositions, having access to financial and moral support systems, being actively involved citizens outside of the direct democracy process, the length of time that petitioners have been involved within the direct democracy process, and the levels of satisfaction obtained with the proposed ballot measure, I find that petitioners experience consistently high levels of happiness.These findings suggest that petitioners of direct democracy do generally experience high levels of happiness, as well as high quality of life, a greater sense of community, and have access to group support. I demonstrate that there are consistently high levels of happiness among petitioners.

103. Jennifer Thomas Western Kentucky University Mentor: Dana Bradley Healthy Aging Kentucky --- Policies for Unbridled Aging People are living longer and the older adult population is increasing. With almost 1 in 20 residents of Kentucky expected to be over 60 by 2020, aging in the Commonwealth has taken on a new urgency. “Kentucky’s Policies for Unbridled Aging, a project funded through the National Association of Chronic Disease Directors (NACDD), focuses on developing a grassroots policy model to support policies that promote healthy aging in KY. This poster describes the planning model that was based on the statewide infrastructure of the Partnership for a Fit KY. A diverse planning committee with participation across both policy expertise and regions met between 2009-2010 to identify relevant policy categories. Using outcome indicators specified through the Healthy Aging 2010 (Centers for Disease Control) landmark study, the planning committee developed a “Healthy Aging Policies” survey around the areas of “Health Status,” “Health Behaviors, “Preventive Care and Screening,” and “Injury.” Results from this survey (n = 1200) were used by the committee to develop a policy portfolio outlining best practice policies of healthy aging. Findings formed the basis for a “Healthy Aging” Plan for the Commonwealth. This poster concludes with recommendations aimed at increasing the likelihood of Kentucky older residents meeting nationally recognized physical and mental outcomes.


104. Kristen Tinch Murray State University Mentor: Meagan Musselman Accessible Literacy: Graphic Novels for Remedial and Reluctant High School Readers In 2005, the Kentucky Department of Education (KDE) released a statement detailing the process for improving adolescent literacy throughout the state. This document defines literacy as “reading, writing, and the creative and analytical acts involved in producing and comprehending text.” The practical value of reading and writing remains clear in students’ abilities to perform successfully in school and beyond. However, the KDE cites that at least 70% of Kentucky high school students are not college-ready because they cannot read or understand higher level materials. Recent studies in literacy have redefined literacy to have five other components: functional, cultural, progressive, critical, and finally, visual. With these changes in the definition of literacy in mind, many teachers are turning to a relatively new literary genre known as “graphic novels,” or, in layman's terms, “extended comic books.” The first phase of my research culminated in spring 2010 as I recorded the demographics of teachers using graphic novels in Kentucky. From this preliminary survey, I concluded that teachers in Kentucky are using graphic novels to spark the interest of reluctant or remedial readers. My current study examines the specific use of graphic novels within classrooms around the state and how these teachers are using them as tools to improve visual literacy in Kentucky’s high schools.

105. Greg Todd University of Kentucky Mentor: Jeffrey Osborn Hypertension in SHRxBN Rats Angiotensin II and salt intake play substantial roles in the regulation of arterial pressure, and are therefore major targets for the investigation and treatment of hypertension. This study examined the relationship between long term high sodium chloride (NaCl) intake and the density of angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1r) in hypothalamic, forebrain, and renal tissues from a unique model of hypertension. A hypertensive female Spontaneously Hypertensive rat (SHR) and a normotensive Brown Norway male (BN) were crossed. Hypertensive F1 offspring were sib/sib crossed, yielding hypertensive experimental offspring. From weaning, experimental rats were raised on either a normal (0.8%; NS) or high (4%; HS) NaCl diet. Previous studies show that HS rats have a greater salt appetite, averaging 3.46 + 0.899 mmol NaCl/day, compared to 1.54 + 0.856 mmol NaCl/day ingested by NS rats. Using antibodies specific for At1r (Santa-Cruz; Primary 1:200; Secondary 1:2,000), western blot analysis indicates that hypothalamic AT1 receptor density is significantly reduced in HS rats. These data suggested that F1 sib/sib rats raised on HS decreased ability to regulate their sodium balance, due in part to decreased expression of hypothalamic AT1 receptors. To further elucidate the actions of AT1r in this model of hypertension, I am currently examining the density of AT1r in forebrain and renal tissues. This study determined the relationship between elevated lifetime sodium chloride intake and AT1r, which will further explore the impaired handling of sodium chloride in HS rats.


106. Benica Triplet Eastern Kentucky University Mentor: David May Obscuring the Fourth Amendment: A Review of Judicial Decisions on Strip Searches in the United States Over the past 40 years, courts in the United States have been presented with numerous cases involving strip searching at various levels throughout the criminal justice system. There has been a wide diversity of judicial opinions regarding inmates’ rights concerning strip searches and cavity searches. In this paper, I will examine judicial opinions (both the majority and the dissenting opinions, when available) at various levels in the United States that ruled on this issue. Preliminary evidence suggests that lower court rulings have generally supported public opinion while Supreme Court rulings have generally eroded inmates’ privacy protections by ruling with the criminal justice system, particularly in cases where defendants are facing long-term incarceration in prison. I anticipate that the findings from this paper will illuminate the fact that there is wide disparity in court rulings around this issue, and there appears to be a disjunction between the opinions of the United States Supreme court and lower courts at both the state and federal levels.

107. Fred Turner Kentucky State University Mentor(s): George Antonious, Regina Hill, and Tejinder Kochhar Impact of Soil Amendments and Fruit Color on Concentrations of Capsaicin and Dihydrocapsaicin in Pepper At the present time, 90% of U.S. chili pepper production occurs in New Mexico, eastern Arizona, and western Texas. Pungent chili varieties are grown for their food value, healthpromoting properties, and also as a source of capsaicinoids that have variety of medicinal uses. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin exhibited considerable antioxygenic activity. Hot pepper seeds of Capsicum annuum (PI 438649) were grown under four soil management practices (sewage sludge, chicken manure, yard waste, and no-mulch control treatment) to monitor and quantify capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin content in pepper fruits at different stages of maturity (green, yellow, orange, and red). Fresh fruits were collected, extracted with methanol, and analyzed for capsaicin (trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide), dihydrocapsaicin (8-methyl-Nvanillylnonanamide), and nordihydrocapsaicin. Mass spectrometry of the fruit crude extracts indicated that the molecular ions at m/z 305, m/z 307, and 293 which correspond to capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin, and nordihydrocapsaicin, respectively have a common benzyl cation fragment at m/z 137 that can be used for monitoring capsaicinoids in hot pepper extracts. Capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were the dominant capsaicinoids detected in Capsicum species. Red fruits contained the highest concentrations of capsaicinoids. Fruits of plants grown in yard waste compost had the greatest concentrations of capsaicin (120 µg g-1 fresh fruit) and dihydrocapsaicin content (27.4 µg g-1 fresh fruit). Variability in these traits might be utilized via plant breeding approaches for their value-added health-promoting characteristics.


108. Sarah Verive Murray State University Mentor: Kala Chakradhar Court Appointed Special Advocates: Special Volunteers CASA, which stands for Court Appointed Special Advocates, is a national organization composed mainly of volunteers, who work together to help children whose parents are in court because of neglect or abuse charges. Volunteers, who are appointed by the court and trained, work with the children to help them understand what is happening and to assess all information to help decide what is best for the child. They also work with parents to help educate them and get them the services they need to be a better parent. The focus of this research is on the CASA volunteers and their experiences within the program. The study surveyed volunteers on their training experience, work with various agencies in coordinating help to benefit children, and studied attachment issues within the program. The project also covered, through voluntary follow up interviews, in-depth problems within the program and emotional attachment problems, workplace problems, and problems deemed important by the volunteer. The poster presentation will highlight the background of CASA, the survey and interview processes, tools used, such as email or internet surveys, and the importance of participatory research.

109. Christopher Wales, Marquita Grayson-Holt, and Rachel Hayden Kentucky State University Mentor(s): John D. Sedlacek, Karen L. Friley, Kirk Pomper, and Jeremy Lowe Timing of Primocane Mowing Influences Flowering and Ripening Time in Primocane Fruiting Blackberry Selections in Central Kentucky Primocane fruiting blackberries, such as ‘Prime-Jim®’ and ‘Prime-Jan®’, have the potential to produce a niche-market crop for kentucky growers from late summer until frost. However, fruit size and quality of ‘Prime-Jim®’ and ‘Prime-Jan®’ are affected by the environment. Summer temperatures above 85oF can greatly reduce fruit set, size and quality on primocanes. Strategies to delay primocane growth, such as spring mowing of primocanes, could delay flowering and fruit harvest until fall when cooler temperatures could enhance fruit set and quality. Three meter plots either of ‘Prime-Jim®’ or ‘Prime-Jan®’ were initially mown to ground level on March 3031, 2010. Three replicate plots of each variety were then either mown once on May 24 or mown on May 24 and then again on July 6. Percent flowering canes and number of ripe fruit per plot were determined weekly. Mowing in May delayed flowering by approximately 3 weeks in both ‘Prime-Jim®’ and ‘Prime-Jan®’ plants. When primocanes were mown in March in either variety, ripe fruit production peaked between 10-15 weeks after mowing. When primocanes were mown in May in either variety, ripe fruit production peaked between 13-18 weeks after mowing. Mowing primocanes in July for either variety delayed growth and primocanes did not flower. Extremely hot summer and fall temperatures coupled with drought conditions starting in August and extending into the fall likely negatively impacted all treatments, especially plots that were mown in May and July.


110. Jacqueline Walker Kentucky State University Mentor: Avinash M. Tope Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) in Young African Amewrican Population: A College Study There are ethnic disparities in the prevalence of obesity in the US population. African Americans (AA) continue to report higher rates for obesity than any other ethnic group. Overweight and obesity are linked to greater risk for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), a frank indicator of risk of chronic and cardiovascular diseases. It is a cluster of conditions that include a high body mass index (BMI), diabetes, hypertension and lipid imbalance. There are limited data on prevalence of MetS in young AA adults (18-24years). With an objective to screen the student population for the risk of MetS and to offer early intervention, SHAPE UP KSU, an integrated project involving freshmen students, which comprise more than 60% of young AA at KSU was launched. In the fall of 2010, freshmen students (n=110) have participated. Anthropometric evaluations included measurement of waist and hip circumference, BMI and total body fat composition, while the clinical evaluations included fasting lipid and glucose profile. Using thence definition of MetS, approximately 17% (n=17) of the participants were found to have MetS, which is significantly higher than the national average in that age group (12%). Those identified with MetS will be offered nutrition and life style related counseling and will be followed through by professional health care experts. These partnerships with local and national resources will work as a â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;modelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; for many other institutions of higher education, especially for other Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCU).

111. Vincent Waniel Murray State University Mentor: Michael Bowman Online Privacy: Is Internet Usage on a Public Terminal Private, Safe, and Secure? Due to the popularity of the Internet, various organizations such as universities and libraries have started providing public terminals for Internet access. But are these terminals private, safe, and secure? This research project focused on understanding if personal information could be recovered from a public terminal given differing levels of access to the system - standard users, administrators, and forensic analyst. Collected data were analyzed and cataloged to determine what kinds of information statistically appeared most often and what kind of impact that information had on users' privacy. Data was de-personalized immediately after it was cataloged to protect the users' privacy. Based upon the results, we determined the best practices for system administrators and end users to follow to maximize privacy on a public terminal.


112. Sarah Ward Western Kentucky University Mentor: Jeremy Maddox Predicting Heterogeneously Broadened Line-Shapes for Conjugated Oligomers This research explored the relationship between the optical properties of conjugated chromophores and their molecular configuration. We used electronic structure calculations to determine the ground and excited state energies of a family of conjugated chromophores as a function of their nuclear geometries. Monte Carlo sampling techniques were used to model the heterogeneous distribution of electronic transition frequencies and oscillator strengths that determine the line-shape of the UV/vis absorption spectra of these chromophores. One goal of this research was to develop a well-defined set of computational procedures for predicting how the optical properties of a conjugated chromophore can be controlled by he incorporation of different chemical substituents; we envisioned that this information could be useful to synthetic chemists in the design of novel chromophores with specific optical properties.

113. Amie Weckenbrock Morehead State University Mentor: Kimberlee Sharp Personnel Policies Regarding the Teaching of Controversial Issues: A Central Appalachian Perspective The purpose of this study was to examine a sample of Central Appalachian (Appal. KY, Appal. OH, Appal. TN, Appal. VA, and WV, school districts' personnel policies regarding controversial issues instruction and the protocols teachers must follow when teaching them. Specifically, the study examined the language used in the policies in order to: (a) illumine school districts' expectations of teachers as controversial issues arise during their teaching; (b) illumine the degree to which school districts may limit, restrict, prohibit, or give free reign to teachers to discuss controversial issues; and (c) illumine the kinds and/ or nature of controversial issues that school districts may limit, restrict, and/or prohibit. A corollary purpose of this study was to discuss implications of these policies on classroom practice and Central Appalachian students' access to this dimension of citizenship education.


114. Jennifer Wells Morehead State University Mentor: Janet Ratliff The Impact of Student-led Philanthropy Courses on Student Learning Outcomes The purpose of this research study was to explore the impact of student-led philanthropy courses on student learning outcomes related to students' sense of civic engagement and philanthropic giving. The study looked at effective institutional and course practices around student philanthropy. In addition, it looked at future trends in regard to service and volunteerism, philanthropic giving, alumni participation, and community involvement as a result of participation in the "Pay it Forward: Student-Led Philanthropy Initiative." The overall aim of this study was to assess service, volunteerism and philanthropy-related outcomes (skills, knowledge, competencies, and future trends) through gaining an awareness of the impact of philanthropy and service-infused courses on the student experience. The study employed quantitative research methods, specifically survey design. A student philanthropy course student survey questionnaire was designed and tested specifically for this research in collaboration with the Sillerman Center for the Advancement of Philanthropy at Brandeis University and the National Campus Compact Office. Descriptive statistics and inferential statistics were the analyses used to evaluate and assess the student surveys and learning outcomes.

115. Thomas Werfel Murray State University Mentor: Halim Ayan Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Living Tissue Sterilization For some period of time, the use of plasma in medicine has been limited to thermal discharges for cauterization and dissection. The effects of thermal plasma on tissue are entirely related to local heating. Non-thermal plasma, on the other hand, can have many different modes of interaction with tissue. It has recently been demonstrated that direct treatment of smooth surfaces by non-thermal Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) in air is highly effective in killing pathogens. In this study DBD has been investigated mainly for bacteria inactivation. Optical emission spectroscopy measurements reveal that DBD is at room temperature (313.5 Âą 7.5 K rotational (gas) temperature). Thus, it is demonstrated that DBD does not heat the gas but provides strong excitation of the gas due to the high energy of the electrons (3360 Âą 50 K vibrational temperature). DBD is safe to use on living tissue without elevated temperatures as the lethal effect of DBD on bacteria is proven not to be thermal. Distinct DBDs are compared with charge patterns (Lichtenberg figures) on photo-films. As evident from the Lichtenberg figures, DBD becomes much more uniform as the voltage rise time decreases. Additionally, sterilization effectiveness of DBD has been investigated by applying the plasma on bacteria culture. It was found that DBD treatment can inactivate E.Coli bacteria within a few seconds. Moreover, DBD can create different sub-lethal and selective effects. These results hold significant promise for medical applications such as the sterilization of wound surfaces.


116. Camille Westmont University of Kentucky Mentor(s): A. Gwynn Henderson and David Pollack Round, Ground, and Stone: Identifying Morphological and Functional Variation Within Fort Ancient Groundstone Discoidals Fort Ancient is an archaeological culture in the middle Ohio Valley. These prehistoric peoples were village farmers who lived, worked, and thrived in the flatlands, rolling hills, and Appalachian foothills of Kentucky and Ohio. Among the bone tools, pottery sherds, arrowheads, and other remains archaeologists have recovered at former Fort Ancient village sites are stone discoidals. These round worked stone objects were made in a variety of shapes, sizes, and thicknesses. Some are decorated with engraved geometric design, and others have drilledthrough central holes. Archaeologists have hypothesized they were used as everything from netsinkers to "poker" chips. However, their age, function, and stylistic variability are unknown. This poster presents the results of an analysis of discoidals collected from several Kentucky Fort Ancient sites. Morphological differences observed in the artifacts are explained with reference to use, age, or regional manufacturing style. Regional variation in particular can denote important differences between communities/regions based on how the inhabitants were used their discoidals. Identifying, understanding, and accounting for the morphological differences in discoidals, with their widespread distribution and mysterious origins, allows researchers and archaeologists to better explain some of the habits and life-ways of these native Kentuckians.

117. Marika Wieliczko Eastern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Nathan Tice and Darren Smith Synthetic Developments Towards Ergovaline Ergovaline is one of several ergot alkaloids categorized as an ergopeptine, consisting of a lysergic acid moiety linked to a tripeptide. These biologically active ergot alkaloids are secondary metabolites of endophytic fungi that infect plants, including tall fescue, a rugged grass native to Kentucky that serves as an ideal source of feed for horses and livestock. Even in minute amounts, consumption of ergovaline from infected grass has been known to result in devastating effects in these animals. Although several efficient synthetic pathways have been developed for lysergic acid, a complete synthesis of ergovaline has yet to be reported. By developing an efficient and cost-effective synthesis for ergovaline, this compound can be made available for further toxicological studies that extend to biochemistry, pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and other related fields. Our proposed synthesis of the ergovaline tripeptide involves a condensation of commercially available amino acids, followed by derivatization with pyruvic acid, and a ring closure step using a lysergic acid model and a Lewis acid catalyst. Analytical methods such as GC-MS are used to confirm stepwise preparation. Herein are described the synthetic methodologies and analytical techniques being used towards the formation of this important ergot alkaloid.


118. Joseph Wilkins University of Louisville Mentor: Benjamin MacCall Exploring Isothermal Layers in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer Simulating the stable atmospheric boundary-layer presents a significant challenge to numerical models due to the interactions of several processes with widely varying scales. The goal of this project is to more clearly define the cause of isothermal layers observed during the Meteorological Experiment in Arizona's Meteor Crater and to test the National Taiwan University/Purdue University (NTU/P) model in stable environments with complex terrain. The NTU/P model is able to utilize the actual terrain data with minimal smoothing for stability. We have found that isothermal profiles can be generated by the standing wave that develops due to weak wind flowing over the crater. However, the horizontal heterogeneity is greater than observed. Continued effort will explore enhancing horizontal mixing due to turbulence and radioactive transfer.

119. John Yeiser Eastern Kentucky University Mentor(s): Stephen Richter and Alice Jones Salamanders are Useful Bioindicators of Water Quality and Watershed Health in Eastern Kentucky In the Appalachian region, coal mining and other land-use practices by humans are threats to headwater streams and entire watersheds. Here we investigated the usefulness of Desmognathus (Dusky) Salamanders as bioindicators in streams with different mining histories in Letcher County, Kentucky. We captured and measured Desmognathus salamanders in three streams, each with different mining histories. The three streams included one with no mining that served as the control in this study, a recently mined watershed with final reclamation ending nine months prior to the study; and a third that was mined in the 1970s before the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act of 1977. In the third pre-SMCRA watershed, a large sediment pond was left at the head of the stream but no reclamation efforts were performed and the land has reforested on its own. Water quality data was collected and habitat was assessed at each site using the EPAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high-gradient Rapid Habitat Assessment protocol. The δ15N signature of the sediment in each stream was determined as well. Salamander abundance results revealed a decline in salamanders from downstream to upstream in headwaters affected by mining practices. More importantly, Desmognathus abundance was significantly and positively correlated with habitat scores, which is similar to a previous study of macroinvertebrate abundance.


The Posters-at-the-Capitol Organizing Committee would like to thank the following individuals and organizations for their contributions to this yearâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s event: Mr. Robert L. King, President Council on Postsecondary Education Ms. Lee Nimocks, Chief of Staff Council on Postsecondary Education Ms. Jean Burgin, House Clerk Kentucky House of Representatives Mr. Bruce Phillips, Assistant Public Information Officer Legislative Research Commission Ms. Paula Weglarz, Event Coordinator Kentucky Division of Historic Properties Ms. Courtney Ferry & Ms. Kathryn Reinhardt, Graduate & Student Assistants Murray State University Ms. Cindi Cripps, Ms. Sally Mateja & Ms. Sachiko Brown, Program Volunteers Murray State University All the Way Shoppe, Caterer Bagdad, Kentucky Copy Plus, Printer Murray, KY The News, Photographer Murray, KY

Posters-at-the-Capitol 2011  

Undergraduate Research Day

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