Volume 6 â€“ 2010
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Letter from the President
urray State University values the dramatic impact undergraduate research and scholarly activity has on our students and the University as a whole. Collaborations between students and faculty enhance undergraduate education by creating opportunities to explore undiscovered regions of theory and practice and helps Murray State achieve the educational goals set by our University Community, as well as the Kentucky Council on Postsecondary Education and the Legislature. Ultimately, increased participation by undergraduate students in faculty-mentored research and scholarly activity strengthens those engaged in research-based learning and society as a whole.
The world today requires complex decision making for issues which have confounded society for decades. Students involved in the discovery of new knowledge are better prepared to address those challenges in a responsible manner and be alert to new issues that will inevitably develop over time. As part of an effort to highlight and encourage greater undergraduate student development through academic research, we are pleased to announce Volume Six of Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research. I am confident you will find the selected articles both interesting and intellectually stimulating. The work of our undergraduate students published in this Journal shines a light on new ideas in the sciences and adds context to human experience. Both can and will change our lives for the better. I extend my sincere support to the faculty mentors who donated their time and expertise to mentor the students published in this year’s Journal. You continue to make an extremely meaningful contribution to the education of Murray State students. I am pleased to be part of Volume Six of Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research and look forward to bringing future faculty-mentored experiences to the attention of an even wider audience. Randy J. Dunn President Murray State University
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Letter from the Editors
eologisms like “information pollution” and “information fatigue syndrome” seem to capture a uniquely modern problem: the saturation of information in the electronic “hive” that almost all of us now inhabit can dull the senses, enervate the spirit, and diminish our humanity. Jaron Lanier, a polymath and observer of the habits of information-age living, is only the most recent commentator to warn against this hive mentality and admonish us to breach our collective, passive consumption of information. In his latest book, he actually worries that in prostrating ourselves to an ever-increasing, digitally-enabled flow of information, people will become obsolete. If so, then what should you make of this compendium of student research? Is it just another dollop of honey for the hive? If variety suits your taste, then you will certainly find our journal to be quite palatable. In this volume you will find an economic analysis of American Christians’ denominational proclivities juxtaposed with an investigation of reactive characteristics of super-oxide radicals, and research on adaptive immunity in old-field mice next to a production of mathematical models of the harmonics of Indian drums. We admit that the sometimes curious angles of intersection between some selections – say, the thematic connections between an assessment of possible consequences of agricultural development on local biodiversity, a study of the synthetic chemical bisphenol A in our local wastewater, a report on exploitation of community resources by global conglomerates in indigenous Peru, and an examination of Eleanor Roosevelt’s role in drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – are as captivating as they are informative. As pleasing to the senses as such diversity can be, however, it is not our reason for being. Our journal is, above all, a showcase for the quality work of our student contributors and their faculty mentors. Their commitment to articulating new understandings and to engaging with our university community in serious scholarly discourse is, fundamentally, an assertion of humanity. These scholars have, Lanier might say, raised their voices above the droning buzz of the hive. This volume of our journal is made possible by the efforts of others as well. Once again, we thank President Randy J. Dunn and Provost Gary Brockway for their encouragement and support. We recognize the work of the MSU Publications and Printing Services staff in handling production and printing. Our managing editor Jody Cofer has again ably guided papers from submission to publication. We hope you enjoy the current issue of Chrysalis and will join us next year as readers and advocates, and, very importantly, as contributors. Think of it as a very human thing to do.
Kevin Binfield Department of English and Philosophy
Rob Donnelly Department of Mathematics and Statistics
John Mateja Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
CONTENTS Letter from the President................................................................................................................................................... i
Randy J. Dunn
Letter from the Editors...................................................................................................................................................... ii
Kevin Binfield, Rob Donnelly, and John Mateja
Impact of Agriculture on Amphibian Diversity in Western Kentucky and Tennessee.........................................................1 Glenna Buford and Amanda Main Faculty Mentor: Christopher Mecklin Conflicting Interests in Peru (Printed in English and Spanish)..........................................................................................8 Heather Ferguson Faculty Mentor: Leon Bodevin Computational Characterization of the Ground Electronic State of the Superoxide Radical.........................................17 Kathryn Hogan and Bedri Burak Duraksoy Faculty Mentor: Wafaa Fawzy Moral Attraction: Does Socio-Economic Status Impact the Choice of Protestant Denomination?................................22 Gretchen Kilby Faculty Mentor: David Eaton Energy Costs and Trade-Offs of the Adaptive Immune System in Old-Field Mice (Peromyscus polionotus).................29 Renee Levesque and Sarah Hargis Faculty Mentor: Terry Derting The Foundation of Human Rights for All: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights...........37 Sarah Norris Faculty Mentor: Stephanie Carpenter The Mathematics of Indian Drums..................................................................................................................................43 Brooke Phillips and Lauren Schmidt Faculty Mentor: Maeve McCarthy Bisphenol A Concentrations in Sewage Sludge Samples from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant..................49 Megan Rhodes Faculty Mentor: Bommanna Loganathan Cover photo by Cindi Cripps
Volume 6 â€“ 2010
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Achieve Your Potential
The URSA Program Can Help Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity What are URSA Grants? The USRA Grants program encourages collaborative scholarly, research, and creative work between undergraduate students and faculty. Student participants may become engaged in the scholarly pursuits of MSU faculty or carry out a project of their own under the supervision of a faculty mentor. This competitive program provides undergraduates with financial support of up to $500 for supplies, equipment, operating expenses and travel. Full-time undergraduates enrolled at Murray State University are eligible to apply. Similarly, all university faculty, whatever their college, rank or nature of appointment, may serve as URSA Grant mentors. Students may work with faculty from their own colleges or from another of MSU’s five colleges or the School of Agriculture.
Opportunities provided through undergraduate research and scholarly activity: • Posters-at-the-Capitol Participants present their work to legislators at the State Capitol Building in Frankfort, Ky. • Scholars Week Includes the oral and poster sessions, exhibits, and performance opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students. • Get Published Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research provides an avenue for undergraduates to publish their research. • Research Scholar Fellowships Undergraduates receive support in the form of stipends paid throughout the year, a supply budget and a faculty support stipend for the purpose of conducting a scholarly project.
Call 270-809-3192 for more information about Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Call for Articles Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research is published annually by the Office of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity with support from the Office of the President and the Office of the Provost. The purpose of Chrysalis is to celebrate the research, scholarly, and creative accomplishments of our undergraduates and their faculty mentors. Undergraduates in all academic disciplines may submit articles to Chrysalis. Articles must be submitted electronically. Photographs, illustrations and diagrams should be submitted separately in high resolution jpg format. Authors should follow the guidelines of the professionally accepted style for their discipline. Articles may be posted on the Office of Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity website at Murray State University.
http://campus.murraystate.edu/services/URSA If you have questions regarding Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research please call 270-809-3192 or contact us electronically at email@example.com.
Murray State University is an institutional member of the
Council on Undergraduate Research Learning Through Research v
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Glenna Buford Class: Senior Major: Applied Mathematics I am very interested in applications of mathematics and am continuing to do research in the mathematical biology field. Doing this research has allowed me to learn more about myself and has also opened up many new opportunities for me.
Amanda Main Class: Senior Major: Wildlife Biology and Music I began my research career working on anaerobic digesters in a summer REU program at Clarkson University. I am currently finishing up a project on treefrog population dynamics at Murphyâ€™s Pond, Ky. I enjoy sustainability and ecological problems and interactions within ecosystems. I hope to gain my doctorate in desert ecology and continue a career in research after I graduate.
ABSTRACT Impact of Agriculture on Amphibian Diversity in Western Kentucky and Tennessee Amphibians are good bioindicators for ecosystem health due to their susceptibility to slight changes in the ecosystem because of their biphasic lifecycle, thin skin and site fidelity. Numerous studies have concluded that pond size and temperature had a greater impact on the species found than the proximity of the pond to agricultural crops and grazing; however, much research has been done on the negative impacts of agricultural chemicals and livestock disturbance on amphibian diversity. We compared 19 ponds in western Kentucky and Tennessee to observe any difference in amphibian diversity between agricultural and natural-wooded ponds. Thirteen species were observed, but no significant difference in diversity was found between pond types. Using ordination methods, Ambystoma species were found to be related to small, wooded ponds, while Rana species were found more in agricultural or larger ponds. Bufo species were found among almost all ponds sampled. Pond size and presence of trees related closer to diversity than water quality.
Key Terms: biodiversity, statistical ecology, amphibian diversity
FACULTY MENTOR Christopher Mecklin is an associate professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics. He received his M.S. and Ph.D. in applied statistics from the University of Northern Colorado. His research interests include goodness-of-fit tests, statistical ecology, and statistical education. He also does statistical consulting with undergraduates, graduate students, and faculty members from a wide variety of disciplines.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Impact of Agriculture on Amphibian Diversity in Western Kentucky and Tennessee
gricultural impact has been considered to be the top cause for declines in diversity of local fauna (Benton et al., 2003; Gagne & Fahrig, 2006). Amphibians are good bioindicators of the overall health of ecosystems due to their biphasic life histories, specific habitat requirements, longevity, and strong site fidelity. These characteristics make amphibians especially sensitive to slight environmental change or imbalances (Wilbur 1980, Blaustein et al., 1994, Welsh and Droege 2001, Nowakowski & Maerz 2009). Herbicides and fertilizers used by farmers have been shown to have lethal or mutative effects on amphibian populations within their aquatic stages (Lefcort et al., 1997, Relyea, 2005). Many amphibian populations around the world are declining, and numerous species are now threatened with extinction (Bailey et al., 2004). The causes for these declines cannot be attributed to a single factor, but the largest human impact on amphibian diversity arises from the direct loss and alteration of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (Global Amphibian Assessment 2004). Farm ponds created for draining purposes or livestock use are commonly used by amphibians that are in agriculturally-dominated landscapes (Knutson et al., 2004, Burton et al., 2007). Not only introduced chemicals, but also construction and alteration of natural water cycles can transform habitats so that the ponds can no longer support invertebrate prey sources or breeding locations for native wildlife (Muenz et al., 2008). Agriculture can cause an extreme increase in dissolved oxygen (DO), pH and temperature (Schultz et al., 1995). Pillsbury (2008) found that urbanization also alters the water quality and landscape, which resulted in habitat fragmentation and loss of connectivity for breeding in anuran populations in Iowa. There are, however, many papers that conclude agricultural activities alone do not have a strong enough influence to dramatically decrease an areaâ€™s diversity (Guerry & Hunter, 2002; Knutson et al., 2000; Peltzer et al., 2007). These studies found that pond size and temperature had a greater impact on the species found than proximity of the pond to active agricultural crops and grazing. Gagne and Fahrig (2006) and Knutson et al. (1999) found that amphibian diversity decreased in urban areas more
than agriculture or wooded. Hecnar and Mâ€™Closkey (1998) and Beebee (1985) found anuran species richness to be more strongly related to the presence of surrounding landscape variables (forest cover) than pond characteristics or water chemistry. Knutson et al. (1999, 2000) even found that species richness and relative abundance were positively associated with agricultural land use in Wisconsin. Still, there is a strong assumption that the change in hydrology and run-off of agricultural chemicals will result in lower amphibian diversity. Knutson et al. (2004) concluded that livestock disturbance in ponds lowers reproductive success and overall amphibian diversity, and Rouse et al. (1999) found 20 percent of the river ways tested in the United States have above lethal levels of nitrogen for amphibians. The question remains whether agricultural activity alone has a negative impact on amphibian diversity and reproductive success. We assessed the presence and diversity of amphibians in western Kentucky and Tennessee by sampling them during their larval stages to determine whether there is a significant difference in the biodiversity of larval amphibians between ponds located in agricultural areas with heavy human impact and ponds located in wooded areas with reduced human impact. We hypothesized that agriculture and urbanization have negatively affected amphibian diversity and abundance and, therefore, they have impacted ecosystem and environmental health. Thus we predicted that amphibian diversity will be lower in agriculturally disturbed ponds and higher diversity and abundance will be observed in the wooded ponds.
Methods We used the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) to locate ponds within and bordering Calloway County, Ky. Agricultural ponds were characterized to have agricultural activity bordering at least one side of the pond. Agricultural activity included soybean, corn, and wheat crops as well as goat and horse pastures. Ponds were selected that appeared
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research to be permanent without fish. Fish were observed at two ponds later in the season, but they did not seem to affect the diversity or abundance of larvae observed. Wooded ponds were selected mainly within the Land Between the Lakes National Recreational Area. Two ponds were located in rural areas surrounded by woods within Calloway County, Ky. Wooded ponds were characterized by having undisturbed natural habitat, either trees or grasses, for 100 meters surrounding the pond. We sampled nine agricultural ponds and 10 wooded ponds. Each pond was sampled once a month starting in late April through early August 2009 using dip nets and a drop box. A drop box of known circumference was dropped in 10 random locations along the shoreline at each pond. The bottom was secured to the pond substrate and all amphibian species were removed and counted using a dip net. Different depths were sampled to remove bias and area of water sampled was calculated for each sample. Water quality measurements of nitrate, phosphorus, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen were taken each time the pond was sampled. Unknown species were transported back to the lab for identification. We measured biodiversity by calculating the Shannon’s Index for each pond over the sampling period. The Shannon’s index is calculated using:
All statistical analysis was done with the R statistical language, including the vegan package. A level of significance of a=.05 was used for all hypothesis tests.
where s is the number of species and pi is the abundance of the ith species. To compare the biodiversities of the ponds between months, we used repeated measures ANOVA (RMANOVA). In addition to estimation of diversity, we analyzed the relationship between species abundance, sampling location, and a variety of environmental variables using ordination techniques. Ordination is a multivariate statistical technique that seeks to construct a “roadmap” to summarize complex relationships between many variables into a small number of dimensions, usually two, that can be graphed (Kruskal & Wish, 1978; Legendre & Legendre, 1998). We constructed an ordination program using nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) methods for each month and for the overall dataset. In NMDS, we have both an abundance
each random permutation. The lengths of the permutated vectors were compared to the length of the actual vector. The length of the environmental vector will be longer when that variable is strongly associated with specific sites and/or species. If the actual vector is longer than most of the random vectors (p < .05), that variable is deemed 'statistically significant.'
S p 1np
H' = –
matrix and an environmental variable matrix. The abundance matrix is an n x p matrix of counts with n rows representing sites and p columns representing species. The environmental matrix is an n x m matrix, with m columns representing measurements of environmental variables, such as water chemistry. Two canonical variables, which are linear combinations of the m environmental variables, are computed. The vectors in the diagram represent the coefficients of the environmental variables on the canonical variables. The points for ponds and species are “site scores” and “species scores” showing what sites and species are similar to each other and which environmental variables they are closely associated with. On the NMDS ordination models, we used a permutation test, which takes a large number (we used 1000) of permutations of the environmental variables and fits the environmental vectors for
Thirteen species were found overall between both pond treatments (Table 1).
Table 1 Species Legend Scientific
Upland Chorus Frog
Southern Leopard Frog
Cope’s Grey Tree Frog
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Figure 1: Total animals caught by month of sampling. Presence of species varied by month. More individuals were caught around the time and location of egg masses hatching. Less were caught when water temperatures were high during the warmer summer months (Figure 1). We found no statistical difference between the Shannon diversity index of amphibians in agricultural versus wooded ponds (p=0.1368, Figure 2). The exponential of Shannon’s index was used because a zero diversity statistic could have been obtained in one
species was caught. When looking at the overall NMSD ordination map (Figure 3), Bufo and bullfrogs were most related to pond size. The circumference of ponds was negatively related to the wooded location. Ponds 11, 13, and 15 (all wooded ponds) had the highest diversity overall due to their close proximity with the ‘biodiv’ vector in Figure 4. The Ambystoma species and newts were typically found among those ponds classified as ‘wooded’ and smaller in size. Water quality variables are mapped out in Figure 3.
of two ways: by sampling and catching no animals, or by sampling and catching only one species (Jost, 2006). By using exponential of Shannon’s index, we eliminate a zero statistic when only one
Figure 2: Mean of Shannon diversity indices for all ponds within each treatment by month. 4
Figure 3: NMDS map of April data. Significant vectors indicate statistical significance by permutation test.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Discussion The results of the RMANOVA and diversity indexes support previous studies that found no difference in diversity between agricultural and natural breeding ponds. Certain species, such as those in Rana have been observed to thrive in open ponds while other amphibian species such as the Ambystoma and Hyla species prefer ponds with woods in close proximity (Guerry et al., 2002). From the April ordination figure shown (Figure 4), the negative relationship between most species and levels of nitrate also support previous research that found diversity to be significantly lower in areas high in nitrate (Knutson et al., 2004). The horse pasture pond
was Pond 5, and only two species were observed at that location. The goat pond, however (Pond 1) had a high level of diversity, which could be a result of the small size of the goats and how infrequently they entered the water to drink or cool off. Speciesâ€™ breeding pond preference could also explain the variation among variables that were significant throughout the breeding season. In April, Ambystoma, Pesudachris, and Acris species, which all prefer small temporary ponds, were the predominant species observed. This small pond preference in early breeding species would result in the significance of pond circumference in March and April compared to the rest of the sample periods. Temperature
Figure 4: NMDS map of overall data. Significant vectors indicate statistical significance by permutation test.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research became significant once the air temperature grew hot in June and July. Tadpoles cannot survive above certain temperatures (Muenz, 2008) and during the hot summer months might have moved into deeper water away from the shoreline. Amphibian sampling is dependent upon the productivity and efficiency of sampling techniques. Research assumes that species caught in a sample provide an accurate representation of the diversity, abundance, and presence/absence of all individuals within a habitat. This assumption is difficult to fulfill with field sampling (Barr and Bennett, 2001; Mazerolle et al., 2007). Due to their agility and coloration, it is difficult to detect a representative presence of all species in a habitat. A non-detection could mean one of two things: there were no species in the pond at the time, or they were not in the small area sampled. Since data collection methods are not completely accurate, not all species present will be detected at each sampling opportunity. Some recent work in the analysis of abundance and biodiversity has introduced the use of zero-inflated probability distributions (Royle, Nichols & Kery, 2005; Wenger & Freeman, 2008). In the future, we hope that by using a zero-inflated negative binomial distribution to estimate the presence and abundance of species will in turn provide a more accurate estimate of diversity. Agriculture is an integral part of western Kentucky and Tennesseeâ€™s economy. Amphibians play a crucial role in insect control and are a vital food source for many other wetland species. With further sampling, ordination combined with the zero-inflated binomial statistic should help landowners and wildlife managers to understand what environmental variables determine the presence or absence of each amphibian species. With ordination maps, we can draw more conclusions out of the data than with standard diversity statistics. In this short study, we found that tree cover, shallowness of pond, and presence of pond vegetation will help maintain the highest levels of diversity overall. Amphibian abundance and diversity are both tools that can be used to assess the success of land management around water sources and the health of those systems.
Acknowledgements This research was supported by the Murray State University BioMAPS (Biology and Mathematics in Population Studies), which is funded by the National Science Foundation (DMS # 0531865). We would like to thank Dr. Chris Mecklin, Dr. Howard Whiteman,
Hancock Biological Station, and the landowners for involvement in this research.
References Bailey, L. L., T. R. Simons and K. H. Pollock. 2004. Estimating site occupancy and species detection probability parameters for terrestrial salamanders. Ecological Applications 14: 692702. Barr G.E., and K.J. Babbit, 2001. A comparison of two techniques to sample larval stream salamanders. Wildlife Society Bulletin 29:1238-1242. Beebee, T.J.C. 1985. Geographic variations in breeding activity patterns of the natterjack toad Bufocalamilla in Britain. Journal of Zoology (London) 285:1-8. Benton, T.G., J.A. Vickery, and J.D. Wilson. 2003. Farmland biodiversity: is habitat heterogeneity the key? TRENDS in Ecology and Evolution 14: 182-188. Blaustein, A.R., D.B. Wake, and W.P. Sousa. 1994. Amphibian declines; judging stability, persistence, and susceptibility of populations to local arid global extinctions. Conservation Biology 8:60-71. Burton, E.C. 2007. Influences of cattle on postmetamorphic amphibians on the Cumberland Plateau. Thesis, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, USA. Carey, C., and C. J. Bryant. 2005. Possible interrelations among environmental toxicants, amphibian development, and decline of amphibian populations.Â Environmental Health PerspectivesÂ 103: 13-17. Gagne S.A. and L. Fahrig. 2006. Effect of landscape context on anuran communities in breeding ponds in the National Capital Region, Canada. Landscape Ecology 22: 205-215. Global Amphibian Assessment [GAA]. 2004. Summary of key findings. http://www.globalamphibians.org/>. Accessed 20 November 2009.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Guerry, A.D., M.L. Hunter Jr. 2002. Amphibian distributions in a landscape of forests and agriculture: an examination of landscape composition and configuration. Conservation Biology 16: 745-754.
Muenz, T.K., S.W. Golladay, L.L. Smith, and G. Vellidis. 2008. Diet and abundance of Southern Two-lined Salamander larvae (Euryceacirrigera) in streams within an agricultural landscape, southwest Georgia. Southeastern Naturalist 7:691-704.
Hecnar, S.J., and R.T. M’Closkey. 1998. Species richness patterns of amphibians in southwestern Ontario ponds. Journal of Biogeography 25: 763-772.
Nowakowski, A.J. and J.C. Maerz. 2009. Estimation of larval stream salamander densities in three procimate streams in the Georgia Piedmont. Journal of Herpetology 43:503-509.
Jost, L. 2006. Entropy and diversity. Oikos 113: 364-375.
Peltzer, P.M. and R.C. Lajmanovich. 2007. The middle Parana river: Limnology of a subtropical wetland. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 327-340.
Knutson, M.G., J.R. Sauer, D.A. Olsen, M.J. Mossman, L.M. Hemesath, and M.J. Lannoo. 1999. Effects of landscape composition and wetland fragmentation on frog and toad abundance and species richness in Iowa and Wisconsin, USA. Conservation Biology 13:1437-1446. Knutson, M.G., J.R. Sauer, D.O. Olsen, M.J. Mossman, L.H. Hemesath, and M.J. Lannoo. 2000. Landscape associations of frog and toad species in Iowa and Wisconsin, USA. Journal of the Iowa Academy of Sciences 107:134-145. Knutson, M.G., W.B. Richardson, D.M. Reineke, B.R. Gray, J.R. Paramellee, S.E. Weick 2004. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations. Ecological Applications 14: 669684. Kruskal, J.B., and M. Wish. Multidimensional Scaling. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publishing, 1978. Print. Lefcort, H., R.A. Meguire, L.H. Wilson, and W.F. Ettinger. 1997. Heavy metals alter the survival, growth, metamorphosis, and antipredatory behavior of Columbia spotted frog (Ranaluteiventris) tadpoles. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 35:447-456. Legendre, P. and L. Legendre. 1998. Numerical Ecology (2nd ed.). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Mazerolle M.J., L.L Bailey, W.L. Kendall, J.A. Royle, S.J. Converse, and J.D. Nichols. 2007. Making great leaps forward: accounting for detectability in herpetological field studies. Journal of Herpetology 4:672-689.
Pillsbury, F.C., J.R. Miller. 2008. Habitat and landscape characteristics of underlying anuran community structure along an urban-rural gradient. Ecological Applications 18: 1107-1118. Relyea, R.A. and J.T. Hoverman. 2005. The lethal impact of Roundup on aquatic and terrestrial amphibians. Ecological Applications 15:1118-1124. Rouse, J. 1999. Understanding scientific practices. In Biagioli 1999:442-456. Schultz, R.C., J.P. Colletti, T.M. Isenhart, W.W. Simpkinds, C.W. Mize, and M.L. Thompson. 1995. Design and placement of a multi-species riparian buffer strip system. Agroforestry Systems 29:201-226. Royle, J.A., J.D. Nichols, and M. Kerry. 2005. Modeling occurrence and abundance of species when detection is imperfect. Oikos 353:353-359. Welsh, H.H. Jr. and S. Droege. 2001. A case for using plethodontid salamanders for monitoring biodiversity and ecosystem integrity of North American forests. Conservation Biology 15:558-569. Wenger, S.J, and M.C. Freeman. 2008. Estimating species occurrence, abundance, and detection probability using zeroinflated distributions. Ecology 89:2953-2959. Wilburr, H.M., 1980. Complex life cycles. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 11:67-93.
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ABSTRACT Conflicting Interests in Peru Heather Ferguson Class: Senior Major: Engineering Physics and Spanish In pursuing a double major in Spanish, I have been given opportunities to travel abroad during my time at Murray State University. My trip to Ecuador was the catalyst for my research of indigenous people in the Andean countries and an introduction to international affairs, which sparked my interest in the relationships between governments, multinational companies and people. My goals now include pursuing an advanced education in engineering as well as continuing to travel and learn about people.
The question of multinational companies’ role in the mining sector of Peru has been very controversial. The government of Alan Garcia has given them land and financial concessions. Some indigenous groups, the people who are most affected by these decisions, have begun protesting. This eventually led to a physical conflict near the town of Bagua. The information presented in this study suggests that the government of Alan Garcia is not acting in the best interest of the people.
Key Terms: multinational companies, mining, Peru, Alan Garcia
La versión en español comienza en página 13.
El asunto del papel que las multinacionales juegan en el sector de la minería de Perú ha sido muy controvertido. El gobierno de Alan García les dio concesiones territoriales y fiscales. Algunos grupos indígenas, quienes han sido los más afectados por esas acciones, tomaron acciones para protestar. Eventualmente resultó en violencia física cerca del pueblo de Bagua. La información presentada en este estudio indica que el gobierno de Alan García no está interesado en lo que es mejor para el pueblo.
Palabras Clave: empresas multinacionales, minería, Perú, Bagua, Alan García
FACULTY MENTOR Leon Bodevin is an associate professor of Spanish as well as the faculty head of Richmond College. Though a native of Chile, Bodevin completed his undergraduate education at the University of Texas in San Antonio and received his Ph.D. from Texas Tech University. The focus of his research is 19th century Peninsular Literature and his work is published in many publications including: Hispania, Revista de critica literaria del Peru, Revista de Letras de Brazil, and Horizontes, which is a publication of the Catholic University of Ponce, Puerto Rico.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Conflicting Interests in Peru
uring the summer of 2009, the culmination of tensions between the government of Peru and indigenous Amazonian groups was a violent conflict near the city of Bagua. The president of Peru, Alan Garcia, accused the Amazonian people of being “terrorists” who were intent on stifling the development of Peru’s resources (Zibechi). These accusations are very strong and imply that the indigenous groups are intent on hindering the country’s economic growth and that they have been acting illegally, using terror to undermine the will of the people; however, the indigenous peoples claim that they have simply taken note of the dangers that foreign direct investment (FDI) presents to their land, economy, and government. As a result, they have been protesting the implementation of the United States-Peru Free Trade Agreement (FTA) and other policies which threaten to expose their country to multinational companies (MNCs). The effects of MNCs’ actions in Peru as well as the actions of indigenous groups and the government will be presented as a means to evaluate who is truly acting on behalf of the country. The purpose of this study is to present and judge the recent international economic policies of the Peruvian government. This evaluation will show whether or not the government is, as it claims, acting to reduce poverty and create better opportunities through international agreements such as the United States FTA. In order to limit the bulk of information, the mining sector has been chosen to function as a case study. The mining sector was chosen as a focus because it draws the most FDI as a result of Peru’s mineral rich land. Also, mining endeavors necessitate large land concessions, which have created controversies between the government, indigenous groups and environmentalists. First, the actions of the government will be presented and then the reaction of the people. Foreign direct investment is a vital component of today’s global economy, usually invested by multinational companies. MNCs control and develop most of the mines in Peru. The first reason for this is the large initial investment required to open a mine. The initial investment in the mine Yanacocha was $41 million (Chatterjee). The process requires heavy machinery and harsh chemicals to
extract the minerals. Secondly, while the people may own the land, under the Peruvian constitution the government actually claims rights to the natural resources below the earth. While funding is key, just having enough money to buy the land and extract the resources is not sufficient. Multinationals have the connections in government to get the necessary land concessions. The fact that the Peruvian government is seeking to attract MNCs is not surprising. The exchange between governments and MNCs can be beneficial. For this to be true there is a balance of power that must exist between the MNCs and the government. Multinationals have access to advanced technology, international markets, and the transmission of international information. The government has control of raw materials, the right of expropriation, and the ability to negotiate between MNCs (Grosse, 44). It is very common for governments to give concessions in order to attract MNCs. In return the companies promise to create jobs, stimulate the economy, and bring in new technology. However there is concern that this balance has been tipped in favor of the MNCs when it appears that most of these “benefits” are not materializing. Yanacocha, the largest gold mine in South America, must employ many workers, but they are not coming from the surrounding indigenous communities. The mine is in the Amazon region surrounded by two indigenous communities with a combined population of 6,736. Only ten people from these communities were employed in 1997. They were paid $5.60 for a day of work (Chatterjee). It would seem that these few jobs are not sufficient to change the situation of the indigenous people who are traditionally among the poorest in the country. Also, the lack of newly created jobs stifles the circulation of new technology, which is supposed to be one of the major “benefits” of MNCs. The idea of technology spillover is that MNCs will bring in “technology” to their operations which is not commonly used in the host country, such as a computer. The people who work there are then exposed to it, and some of them are trained to use it. Ideally, there is a growing group of people who are knowledgeable 9
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research about the use of this “new technology,” and other businesses may see that they can use this technology to improve their company; however, this process cannot function if people are not being hired for the initial jobs. Other accounts reveal that not only has the mining industry not offered the people jobs, but it has also taken away their original and sole source of income. For centuries the indigenous people have lived off their land; however, now MNCs and the government are forcing them to sell their lands, usually for an extremely low price. Sometimes this is the result of intimidation or of MNC's taking advantage of people who are not educated about their rights. In theory, it is the personal decision of each landowner and regional community; however in practice the MNCs are using a process called “appeasement” in order to take the lands. The government reserves the right to overrule the owner’s rights and expropriate the land if it is deemed to be for the general good. In Yanacocha one farmer sold his land for $540 a hectare (approximately 2.47 acres). He sold 42 hectares. Four years before that, his neighbor in the next village had sold 332 hectares for $42 each (Chatterjee). In total, the community sold 20,000 hectares for the price of $25 a hectare, which was a fourth of market price (Glennie et al., 7). These prices are often so low because the company will pressure the people into selling by threatening appeasement. They accept because they believe that they will not be able to hold on to their lands either way and that if they sell before the government gets involved they will get a better price. In Tintaya Marquin, BHP Billiton applied for the process of appeasement before even negotiating with the landowners. Legally MNCs must first negotiate with the people, but the government chose to ignore this (Glennie et al., 17). In addition to these abuses, the pollution and destruction of the land is severe. The documentation of this is extensive, and different groups are concerned for different reasons: some organizations want to preserve the biodiversity, others are more concerned with not polluting the environment, and others are worried about the health of the people from a humanitarian stance. This study, however, will not focus on any of the many ideological and humanist reasons for protecting this land; instead it will focus only on information which pertains to direct economic effects. Information about the effects on the environment is reported in “Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity and Indigenous Peoples,” a study released by Duke University. Also, 10
Christian Aid, a non-governmental organization (NGO) working in Peru has published a testimony, “Unearthing the Truth: Mining in Peru,” which includes accounts from the indigenous groups of adverse health effects due to the mining and pollution. These health concerns are related to the economic situation. Some of the people are unable to work and others will experience a shorter life span. A more direct effect on the economy is the sicknesses that have been spread throughout the people’s livestock and the rivers in which they fish. In general, FDI is not inherently damaging. Most FDI is concentrated in developed economies such as the United States and Western European nations and is vital to their economies; however, it is a mistake to assume that FDI alone must lead to economic development. In the cases presented, the microeconomic effects or regional economic stimulation from FDI was limited or nonexistent. Past economic research seemed to indicate that FDI was irrevocably linked to stimulated macroeconomic growth. This is a dangerous misconception in that it seems to promote pursuing FDI even if it has negative effects at the regional level because they will be counterbalanced by the overall growth of the economy. In 2002, Carkovic and Levine ran a study of 70 countries, including developed countries and underdeveloped countries which utilized improved computing algorithms to eliminate biases. Their thesis, which was supported by their findings, stated that after biases had been removed, FDI did not independently accelerate macroeconomic growth. It would seem logical that the central government of Peru is granting land concessions and encouraging mining by MNCs because of the large taxes they could then glean from the companies; however, in order to entice multinationals to come to Peru the government offers them substantial tax breaks and tax stability for up to 15 years. The companies are allowed to write off their investments as tax breaks. In 2005, $9.6 billion was exported from Peru in mined natural resources while the government only received $879 million in taxes from the mining sector (Taking on Big Mining). The reality is that the government is only receiving a portion of what is being gained from mining the land, and the cities where the mining is taking place are receiving even less. The map below shows the different zones which have been part of mining land concessions. This gives a visual representation to the fact that 72 percent of the Amazon jungle has been given as a land concession. Also 58 of the 64 zones are lands traditionally owned
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research by indigenous people. It is important to note that “indigenous peoples” does not refer to an obscure minority of the population. In fact, 45 percent of Peruvians are considered indigenous. The government is being very aggressive about giving out concessions in order to attract MNCs and their FDI, despite the fact that these deals are not improving their economy. Only eight of these blocks were conceded before 2003 (Finer). These deals are failures in the sense that they are not helping the indigenous people living in poverty and at the same time are poisoning the land off which they live. In essence, when the government continues to pursue these agreements they are not helping their economy; they are crippling it.
was the first time that a town had used a referendum like this in Peru, a country not accustomed to a democratic system actually representing the will of the people (Wilson). This is an example of how the indigenous people have been using democratic principles to effect change. There have been incidents in which indigenous groups have resorted to violence. In Tambogrande someone burned the new houses which the multinational company had built as an incentive to get people to sell. Just the same, these incidents of violence by a few indigenous people do not negate the non-violent attempts of many groups to use the power of consensus among the people to demand change or rights. The National Organization of the Amazon Indigenous people of Peru (AIDESEP, as abbreviated in Spanish) is another example of indigenous people trying to come together as a group in order to express their opinion. The organization was created in 1980 and has been very vocal against the government's granting mining concessions. This group has used international publicity, forums, and strikes to demonstrate their discontent. The largest demonstration that has been organized was in response to 99 norms that Garcia set forth, under the Peru-United States Free Trade Agreement. The most controversial norms were those which lowered the number of votes necessary to take community land. Protests had begun in April of 2007 and had been going on for more than six weeks, mustering the support of nearly 30,000 indigenous Amazonians. The indigenous protesters blockaded roads and other routes of transportation used by the oil industry. The aggressive response of the government to the protestors on June 5, 2009, has come to be titled by the media “The Massacre at Bagua.” Garcia has portrayed this as a savage attack on innocent policemen as there were police among the casualties; however, eye witness accounts from the people and NGOs claim that it was the police who came with automatic weapons and helicopters to open fire on the unarmed protestors.
(Finer) However, the village of Tambogrande is one example of how through general consensus and the help of NGOs, one indigenous town was able to keep their land despite pressure put on them by a company to sell. An unofficial referendum was taken in which 90 percent of voters agreed that they did not want the mine. This
Even eight months after the event, there is not a consensus about how many lives were lost. Death tolls continue to be only estimates because the police allegedly dumped numerous bodies into nearby lakes and burned others. The government claims that only nine or 10 protesters were killed; however, the people and NGOs claim anywhere from 30 to 100 dead and missing. 11
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research In light of these facts, it is ironic that Garcia has called the indigenous groups terrorists. It would seem more appropriate to say that Garcia has “hijacked” the government by taking excessive control. In the book, Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment, Cohen states that when “incoming FDI becomes excessive, it crosses a line at which point it begins inflicting an unhealthy loss of economic autonomy on the host and begins handing foreign investors an unhealthy degree of influence over the country’s economic future. The excessive power accruing to the big multinationals inevitably comes at the expense of the public good and democratic principles” (332). This quote explains the illogical actions of Garcia’s government. He seems to be giving away the wealth of the people to MNCs. The sovereignty of the state has been compromised and as Cohen predicted, the price is the economic and democratic well-being of the country. Garcia should be more cautious when he publicly accuses his fellow countrymen of being against the democracy and economic development of Peru. The FTA is not inherently bad; it could stimulate the economy of Peru if the people were truly free to trade. They could then trade at a price which would benefit them and the companies. Ironically, Garcia is using the Free Trade Agreement and others like it, to force trade. An evaluation of the actions of the government with respect to their international economic policies regarding FDI and mining reveals that Garcia and his predecessors are the true enemies of economic development. His actions, in response to views which do not align with his political policies, mock democracy and the people he is supposed to represent. His accusations are moot due to the fact that his actions reflect the malice and ignorance he claims the indigenous groups act on. His government does not reflect the rights or interests of the people.
References Carkovic, Maria V and Levin, Ross. “Does Foreign Direct Investment Accelerate Economic Growth?” Does Foreign Direct Investment Promote Development? Ed. Theodore H. Moran, Edward M. Graham and Magnus Blomstrom. Danvers, MA: Institute for International Economics, 2005. 195-220. Cohen, Stephen. Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment: Avoiding Simplicity, Embracing Complexity. New York: Oxford UP, 2007. Chatterjee, Pratap “Conquering Peru.” Multinational Monitor 18.4 (1997): 19. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Oct. 2009. Finer, Matt et al. “Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples.” Plos One 3.8 (2008): 1-9 Glennie, Jonathan. “Unearthing the Truth.” Christian Aid. 2005. United Kingdom. 10 Oct. 2009 http://www.christianaid.org. uk/Images/unearthing_the_truth.pdf Taking on big mining.” Economist 378.8472 (2006): 39-40. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Oct. 2009. Wilson. Scott. “A Life Worth More Than Gold.” The Washington Post 9 June 2002. “Whose jungle is it?.” Economist 390.8623 (2009): 41. Academic Search Premier. EBSCO. Web. 12 Oct. 2009. Zibechi, Raul “Masacre en la Amazonia: La Guerra por los Bienes Comunes.” Programa de las Americas Reporte Especial. 2009. 10 Oct. 2009 http://www.ircamericas.org/esp/6181
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Intereses conflictos en Perú
Durante verano, la culminación de tensiones entre el gobierno del Perú y grupos indígenas amazónicos hubo un conflicto violento cerca de Bagua. El presidente del Perú, Alan García, los acusó de “terroristas” que deseaban “detener el desarrollo del Perú” (Zibechi). Los indígenas se dan cuenta de los peligros de la inversión extranjera en su tierra, su situación económica, y su gobierno. A la vez, ellos están luchando contra el Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC) entre Perú y el Estados Unidos, por las mismas razones. Ellos han usado vías democráticas para manifestar sus opiniones y preocupaciones. Intento indagar los efectos de las multinacionales por la economía del Perú y evaluar las acciones del los indígenas y Alan García para determinar quien realmente esta actuado por la beneficio del país. El propósito de este estudio es presentar y evaluar políticos económicas internacionales del gobierno peruano en los últimos años. Sin embargo, hay demasiada información para esta obra. Por esta razón, los casos presentados serán limitados a los que conciernen la inversión extranjera en la minería. Estos casos fueron elegidos porque muchos de los políticas están enfocados en el sector minero, a cause de la necesidad de mucho tierra por esta empresa. Además Perú es un país con una abundancia de recursos naturales. Las concesiones de terrenos han sido el centro de conflicto entre el gobierno, los grupos indígenas y las organizaciones que trabajan por la preservación del medio ambiente. Primero, las acciones del gobierno serán presentadas con sus motivos y luego la reacción de la gente. La inversión extranjera es un componente vital para la economía global de hoy en día. Usualmente se refiera a la inversión de una empresa multinacional. Las multinacionales han estado involucradas en la extracción de recursos naturales en Perú. Hay dos razones para esto. Primero, se necesita mucho capital inicial para empezar una operación mineral. La inversión inicial de la mina Yanacocha fue $41 millón (Chatterjee). El proceso requiere gran calidad de equipo, trabajadores, y químicos para extraer los minerales. Además, se necesita el terreno y este no es un proceso fácil sin conexiones. La gente son dueños de la tierra, pero el
gobierno posee los derechos a los recursos naturales debajo de la superficie. Aunque el dinero para comprar la tierra y el equipo es esencial, eso solo no es suficiente. Los multinacionales tienen los contactos en el gobierno para recibir concesiones mineras. Nadie está sorprendido que el gobierno desee usar los recursos naturales para desarrolla la situación económica del país, sin embargo el gobierno del Perú ha concedido demasiado, hasta los beneficios a la economía del Perú son anulados. Hay un equilibrio entre el poder de las multinacionales y los gobiernos. Las multinacionales tienen acceso a tecnología, mercados internacionales, y la transmisión internacional de información. El gobierno tiene el control de las materiales primas, el derecho de expropiación, y la habilidad de negociar entre las multinacionales por los beneficios máximos (Grosse, 44). Es muy común que los gobiernos den concesiones o deducciones fiscales a las multinacionales para animarlos. El retorno es el hecho que la compañía va a crear trabajos, estimular la economía y traer tecnología que pudiere influir otros negocios nacionales. La realidad es que la mayoría de estos “beneficios” no son realizados. Yanacocha, la mina del oro más grande de Sud América seguramente empleo mucha gente, pero no de las comunidades indígenas peruanos. La mina está en la región amazónica y entre dos comunidades a su alrededor, con una población total de 6,736, sólo diez serían empleados por la mina en 1997. Estos trabajos sólo pagaban $5.60 por un día del trabajo (Chatterjee). Obviamente estos trabajos no son suficientes para cambiar las situación económica del las indígenas. Además, el hecho que hay tan pocos trabajadores indígenas impide la circulación de tecnología nueva. La idea de spillovers de tecnología es que cuando las multinacionales vienen a un país no desarrollo, lleguen tecnología y prácticas avanzadas que no son comunes en el país, por ejemplo, un ordenador. La gente que trabajan en la compañía ya han visto un ordenador y algunos van a aprender como usarlo. Lo ideal sería que el número de personas quien puede usar un ordenador creciera. Eventualmente otras compañías nativas quisieran usar un ordenador también y 13
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research las mejorara. Pero el proceso no puede funcionar si la gente no tiene los trabajos.
la causa de enfermedades en los animales y ganados cual es un efecto directo y negativo para la economía.
Otros hechos revelan que en vez de una mejor situación económica, las minas destruir sus únicas fuentes de ingresos. Por siglos los indígenas han sobrevivido por sus terrenos. Pero ahora las multinacionales y indirectamente el gobierno, obligan a los indígenas a vender sus terrenos, usualmente por un precio bajísimo. A veces esto es el resultado de intimidación, o el campesino no está educado sobre sus derechos. En teoría, es la decisión de la persona y la decisión de la comunidad regional. Sin embargo, las multinacionales usan un sistema llamado “servidumbres” para tomar los terrenos. Si la compañía le pregunta, el gobierno reserva el poder a anular este derecho de la gente y expropiar sus terrenos si es por la utilidad general. En Yanacocha un agricultor vendió su terreno por $540 la hectárea; poseyó 42 hectáreas. Su vecino en el siguiente pueblo vendió, 332 hectáreas por $42 la hectárea, cuatro años anteriores (Chatterjee). En total, la comunidad vendieron 20,000 hectáreas por el precio de $25 por cada hectárea. Este fue un cuarto del precio del mercado (Glennie et al., 7). Con frecuencia, estos precios son tan bajos porque la compañía amenace los indígenas con el proceso de servidumbres y ellos aceptan la oferta. En Tintaya Marquin, BHP Billiton pidió aplicar el procedimiento servidumbres antes de negociaciar con la gente. Esto es una acción ilegal pero el gobierno ignoró su legalidad (Glennie et al., 17).
En general, la inversión extranjera no es algo dañino, de hecho, inversiones extranjeras son usadas cada año en las naciones desarrollados como EEUU y las naciones de la Europa occidental. Sin embargo la idea equivocada es que la presencia de inversiones extranjeras la sola razón para causar el desarrollo de la economía. En los casos presentados, los efectos microeconómicos, beneficios regionales, eran limitados o no existente. En el pasado, la mayoría de estudios macroeconómicos han relacionado la inversión extranjera y el crecimiento de la economía. En 2002, Carkovic y Levine, llevaron a cabo un estudio que indica que esta relación no existe independiente de otros factores. La tesis es que los estudios en el pasado no fueron suficientes porque no pudieron percibió los perjuicios entre los países. Carkovic y Levine usaron un nuevo método estadística y datos de 70 naciones, que incluyen países desarrollados y países menos desarrollados.
En adición a estos abusos, la polución y destrucción a la tierra es severa. La documentación es extensa y grupos son interesadas en eso problema por varias razones que incluyen: la protección de biodiversidad, la protección del medio ambiente, y la protección de la gente nativos. Aunque, esa estudia no es enfocada en esas razones ideológicas o humanistas, sólo en los que pertenecen a la economía. Se puede encontrar más información sobre los efectos del medio ambiente por el reporte “Oil and Gas Projects in the Western Amazon: Threats to Wilderness, Biodiversity, and Indigenous Peoples” un estudio publicó por la Universidad de Duke. Además, Christian Aid, ha publicado un informe, “Unearthing the Truth: Mining in Perú,” que incluye los relatos de los indígenas sobre los efectos adversos para la salud. Sin embargo los efectos contrarios a la salud se relacionan con la situación económica. La gente que sufre no puede trabajar y a veces tiene una vida de corta duración. También, la polución es
El efecto macroeconómico que le interesa al gobierno, que es lo más obvio, es el beneficio de los impuestos. Pero el gobierno da reducciones de impuestos específicamente a las multinacionales. Las compañías pueden usar todas sus inversiones como exenciones de impuestos. Y el gobierno les promete la estabilidad de impuestos por 15 años. En 2005, las exportaciones mineros fueron $9.6 billón en exportas de minería. Pero en total el gobierno sólo recebó $879 millón en impuestos de las compañías mineran (Taking on Big Mining). La realidad es que el gobierno recebe un pequeño parte de las ganancias, y el pueblo prácticamente nada. Se puede ver en el mapa abajo, las zonas de concesiones mineras que cubren 72% de la selva amazónica del Perú y 58 de 64 secciones son terrenos indígenas. Sólo ocho de estés bloques fueron concedidos antes de 2003 (Finer). Obviamente el gobierno está ignorando el hecho que los proyectos con las multinacionales de minería son fracasos. Fracasos en el sentido que no funciona para crecer la economía o ayudar la situación de pobreza para los indígenas. Además hay efectos negativos para la gente que vive alrededor de la mina. En este sentido, cuando se continúa a dar acceso a las multinacionales, sus acciones son dañinas para la salud y el crecimiento de la economía.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research esto no puede cancelar los intentos democráticos. Además, en comparación al número de acciones democráticas del gobierno, las indígenas han tenido mucho éxito. La Asociación Interétnica de Desarrollo de la Selva Peruana (AIDESEP) es otro ejemplo con el cual los indígenas está buscando vías democráticas para expresar sus inquietudes sobre las acciones del gobierno y las multinacionales. La organización fue creada en 1980 y tiene experiencia en la lucha. La organización es un cuerpo que conecta a los grupos individuales de indígenas. Usa el poder de la publicidad internacional, foros y la organización de huelgas. La AIDESEP ha participado activamente en una lucha nueva de los últimos años, el movimiento contra el Tratado de Libre Comercio (TLC). Una parte de este tratado pide que una mayor cantidad de minas sean asignadas a multinacionales. Existen leyes en la constitución para proteger a los indígenas y sus terrenos. Se puede ver que ya no funcionan de una manera efectiva, y las nuevas normas les negaran muchas de estas leyes protectoras. A pesar de las objeciones, Alan García continuó sus negaciones con EEUU por el TLC.
(Finer) Aunque estos informes tienen un sentido de desesperanza, un pueblo que se llama Tambogrande tuvo éxito en su lucha contra una compañía de minería. En una reunión no oficial, 9 en 10 votantes estaban de acuerdo que no querían la mina en sus terrenos. Este fue el primer referéndum de este tipo en Perú, un país con pocas experiencias con una sistema democrático que funcione (Wilson). Con la ayuda de algunas organizaciones internacionales los planes por la mina fueron cancelados. Este es un ejemplo en el cual los indígenas usaron las vías democráticas para contrarrestar una acción que les perjudican. Nadie puede decir que no hay episodios en los cuales los indígenas hayan usado la violencia, para influir una situación, en lugar de usar la fuerza del acuerdo. En Tambogrande alguien quemó las casas nuevas que la multinacional había construido para los indígenas que habían vendido sus terrenos. Pero,
El pináculo del conflicto fue el 5 de Junio 2009. En la región amazónica de Perú hubo demonstraciones de parte de la gente indígena. Ellos bloquearon las vías de transportación a una mina, parte de los huelgas de AIDESEP. Hacía seis semanas que ellos se reunían para protestar y se da cuenta de trienta mil manifestantes. Todo estallaba por la madruga del 5 de junio. Según se reportó que alrededor de una curva que se llama “la Curva del Diablo” la policía recurrió a la violencia para desalojar a los manifestantes. Los informes cuentan que habían helicópteros y francotiradores. Cinco meses después del conflicto ya no hay números concretos de indígenas muertos y heridos. La misma es cierto de las estadísticas sobre la policía que fueron muertos. El estado dice nueve o diez indígenas, otro dicen cien muertos. La mayoría de los informes confirman un número en el medio. Probablemente nunca se sabrá los números exactamente y algunos creen que el gobierno sabe pero no quiere revelarlos. Pero las noticias se llaman este evento una masacre. Lo más importante es para discutir la razón que ellos estaban dispuestos a morir. Evidentemente otro vez este muestra la meta de García. Un mensaje de su poder absoluto y su indiferencia hasta las demandas del pueblo. 15
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Ya que es obvio que las multinacionales no están ayudando a la situación económica de las regiones ni al país en general la cuestión es ¿cuál es la razón por la cual García continúa con este tipo de negocios?; especialmente el caso de las concesiones mineras. Cohen en su libro, Multinational Corporations and Foreign Direct Investment, dice que cuando, “incoming FDI becomes excessive- it crosses a line at which point it begins inflicting an unhealthy loss of economic autonomy on the host and begins handing foreign investors an unhealthy degree of influence over the country’s economic future. The excessive power accruing to the big multinationals inevitably comes at the expense of the public good and democratic principles” (322). Sólo este puede explicar las acciones ilógicas del gobierno. La soberanía del estado ha fracasado y como dice Cohen, el precio es el bienestar del país y la democracia.
Evidentemente García debería ser más precavido cuando acusa alguien de acciones contra la democracia y contra la estabilidad económica del país. Una evaluación de las acciones del gobierno peruano con respecto a sus políticas económicas internacionales revela que García y sus predecesores son los verdaderos enemigos de la democracia y el desarrollo de la economía. Sus acusaciones son irrelevantes a cause de sus acciones cuales son los mismos de sus acusaciones. Su gobierno no representa los derechos o intereses del pueblo. Por lo tanto él no se le puede consideran como el máximo representante del Perú.
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ABSTRACT Kathryn Hogan Class: Sophomore Major: Biology/Pre-Veterinary I am originally from Frankfort, Kentucky, where I attended Franklin County High School. After graduation from Murray State University in 2012, I hope to attend Veterinary School so that I may become a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine.
Bedri Burak Duraksoy Class: Senior Major: Molecular Biology I am a foreign student from Ankara, Turkey. I have completed my high school degree with an IB (International Baccalaureate) from the International School of Brussels in Belgium, with an emphasis on Biology. At the moment I attend Murray State University focusing on Molecular Biology. I plan on continuing my academic career by completing a master’s degree in Immunogenetics.
Computational Characterization of the Ground Electronic State of the Superoxide Radical Results of calculations using the correlated CCSD(T) level of theory and four different basis sets (aug-cc-pVXZ, X = 2, 3, 4, and 5) provide new, accurate molecular parameters that are in excellent agreement with the known experimental values (Table 1). The best calculated values for the bond distance (re), the vibrational frequency ( ), and the dissociation energy [Do( )] are: 1.34705A, 1133.7 cm-1, and 392.2 kJ/mol, respectively. Furthermore, this work provides new, accurate computational results for the electron affinities of the oxygen atom [EA(O)] and the oxygen molecule [EAo(O2)] as well as the dissociation energy of the oxygen molecule [Do(O2)]. These values are: EA(O) = 137.6 kJ/mol, EAo(O2) = 38.5 kJ/mol, and Do(O2) = 488.6 kJ/ mol. The excellent agreement between the calculated Do( ) (392.2 kJ/mol) value and the corresponding experimental value (395.9 kJ/mol) demonstrates that our theoretical approach should be successful for calculating the dissociation energy of the other ions for which experimental data are not available.
Key terms: superoxide radical, computational analysis, theoretical approach, coupled cluster method
FACULTY MENTOR Wafaa Fawzy obtained her Ph.D. from Michigan State University. She did postdoctoral research at Emory University, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). Her research interests are in the areas of computational and theoretical chemistry as well as high resolution molecular spectroscopy. She has been working at MSU as an assistant professor in the Department of Chemistry since 2008.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Computational Characterization of the Ground Electronic State of the Superoxide Radical
hough oxygen is the molecule of life, it has been shown that it is also a major source for formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as the superoxide radical ( ) and the hydroxye radical (OH). The superoxide radical is produced by several means in nature, such as photochemical processes in the atmosphere and electron transfer in biological systems. The role of the superoxide radical in chemistry and in modifying the solar radiation budget in the atmosphere is yet to be explored. In biological systems, it is known that the superoxide radical causes aging1 and inflammation2; however, the reaction mechanisms for these processes are not yet understood. A molecular-based level of understanding of chemical reactions between the superoxide radical and other molecules in the atmosphere is of great interest in atmospheric chemistry and environmental research. The superoxide radical is highly reactive and is expected to react rapidly with almost all atmospheric molecular species, such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). Complexation of the superoxide radical with stable atmospheric gases is expected to alter the physical and chemical properties of the monomers (a molecule that can combine with others to form a larger molecule). Our research question asks how these changes will contribute to greenhouse forcing of climate change and chemical reactions of the reactive radical and how the charge distribution of the superoxide radical would affect the nature of bonding upon formation of negatively charged clusters. These questions are of great interest to understanding of molecular association, electron transfer, and solvation of negatively-charged ions. Characterization of superoxide clusters is crucial for making progress toward a better understanding of these important processes.
Since neither the outcomes nor the mechanisms of these chemical reactions have been studied, it is difficult to predict how these reactions may affect the atmospheric and the oceanic environment. Because of the reactivity of the superoxide radical, experimental detection of the superoxide radical and its complexes that are formed during chemical reactions presents a very difficult task. On the other hand, with the aid of the currently available supercomputing facilities and powerful computational software (MOLPRO and 18
GAUSSIAN), high-level theories can be employed to provide molecular-based knowledge about chemical reactions. Furthermore, the computational predictions would help experimentalists to develop the proper techniques for exploring the problem. On the other hand, accuracy of calculations depends significantly on the level of calculation and on the size of the basis set. It was demonstrated3, 4 that the coupled-cluster theory with singlet and doublet excitation as well as perturbation treatment of the triple excitation [CCSD(T)]5, 6 in combination with the Dunningâ€™s augcc-pVTZ basis set7, 8 provides very accurate results for chemically bonded molecular systems; however, the accuracy of calculations depends on the size of the basis set. This is particularly the case for weakly bonded radical complexes and charged molecular systems, where effects of electron correlations become very important9-11. A previous computational study12 of the superoxide radical showed that the (X P) state is the only stable electronic state. In that study12, though the CCSD(T) method was employed as a highlevel correlated quantum mechanical theory, effects of the size of the basis set on accuracy of results were not examined. In this paper, careful examination of effects of the size of the basis set on accuracy of the calculated potential energy curve, minimum energy structure, and the vibrational frequencies of the superoxide radical are presented.
Method It was shown that the Coupled Cluster method5,6 (CCSD(T)) provides results that are close to those obtained by full CI calculations for chemically bound systems7,8. In this work, calculations were carried out using the CCSD(T) level of theory with correlation-consistent Dunningâ€™s basis sets7, 8 aug-cc-pVXZ, where XZ = DZ, TZ , QZ, and 5Z. All results presented in this paper were performed using the MOLPRO 2006 software. The aug-cc-pVXZ basis sets of MOLPRO 2006 were used without modifications.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research The calculated values and their comparison to the experimental results are given in Table 1.
Results and discussion Full geometry optimization and frequency calculations Geometry optimization calculations were performed using the CCSD(T) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVTZ, aug-cc-pVQZ, and aug-cc-pV5Z basis sets. These calculations provided the bond distance for the minimum energy structure of the superoxide radical. The vibrational frequency of the superoxide radical was calculated using the optimized bond distances as obtained from geometry optimization calculations. Results of calculations and their comparison to the experimental values are shown in Table 1.
Dissociation energy, vibrational frequencies, and electron affinity Calculation of the dissociation energy of diatomic ions presents a computational problem. This is mainly because these ions dissociate into a neutral atom and an atomic ion. Consequently, the dissociation energy has to be calculated using a multistep procedure that involves the electron affinity as: O2
O+O De O2 = 2Ee(O) - Ee(O2)
Potential energy curves Single point energy calculations were performed at different intermolecular bond distances. The potential energy curves were generated by plotting the calculated energies as a function of the bond distance. These curves provide refined values for the bond distance of the minimum energy structure and qualitative theoretical information about stability of the superoxide radical.
Concluding Remarks Our calculations demonstrate dependence of the calculation results on the size of the basis set. Both Table 1 and Figure 1 show that the aug-cc-pV5z and the aug-cc-pVQZ basis sets reach the convergence limit. This is clear from results shown in Table 1 and Figure 1, where calculations with the aug-cc-pV5Z basis set provide molecular parameters that are in excellent agreement with the experimental values13-17. This agreement encourages us to carry out more studies on other ionic species in the near future.
EAe(O2) = Ee(O2) - Ee(
-EA(O) = - [E(O) - E( )] - E( ) - E(O)
This research was carried out at Murray State University and supported by Kentucky NSF EPSCoR (Grant No. RSF-0-40-08).
References Addition of equations 1-3 yields an expression for calculating the dissociation energy of the anion as,
) = De (O2) + EAe(O2) - EA(O)
Calculation of the experimental dissociation energy (Do) requires knowledge of the zero-point vibrational energy. Therefore, we calculated the vibrational frequency of the superoxide radical and calculated the Do value using the following relation: Do(
) = Do (O2) + EAo(O2) – EA(O) = De(O2) –
+ EAe(O2 ) +
 (O2) - ( ) 2
1. Schöneich, C., Reactive oxygen species and biological aging: a mechanistic approach. Exp. Gerontol 1999, 34 (1), 19-34. 2. Salvemini, D.; Wang, Z.-Q.; Zweier, J. L.; Samouilov, A.; Macarthur, H.; Misko, T. P.; Currie, M. G.; Cuzzocrea, S.; Sikorski, J. A.; Riley, D. P., “A Nonpeptidyl Mimic of Superoxide Dismutase with Therapeutic Activity in Rats”. Science 1999, 286, 304. 3. Dunning, Thom H. , Jr., A Road Map for the Calculation of Molecular Binding Energies. Journal of Physical Chemistry 2000, 104, 9062-9080.
– EA(O) 19
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research 4. Patterson, K. A.; Thom H. Dunning, J., Benchmark calculations with correlated molecular wave functions.VII. Binding energy and structure of the HF dimer. Journal of Chemical Physics 1995, 102 (5), 2032-2041. 5. Knowles, P. J.; Hampel, C.; Werner, H.-J., Erratum: “Coupled cluster theory for high spin open shell reference wave functions.” [J. Chem. Phys. 99, 5219 (1993)]. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112 (6), 3106-3107. 6. Knowles, P. J.; Hampel, C.; Werner, H.-J., Coupled cluster theory for high spin, open shell reference wave functions. Journal of Chemical Physics 1993, 99 (7), 5219-5227. 7. Dunning, T. H., Jr., “Electron affinities of the first-row atoms revisited. Systematic basis sets and wave functions.” J. Chem. Phys. 1992, 96 (9), 6796-6806. 8. Dunning, T. H., Jr., “Gaussian basis sets for use in correlated molecular calculations. I. The atoms boron through neon and hydrogen.” J. Chem. Phys. 1989, 90 (2), 1007-1023. 9. Fawzy, W. M., “The intermolecular potential energy surface of the ground electronic state of the O2-H2 complex.” The Journal
12. Ervin, K. M.; Anusiewicz, I.; Skurski, P.; Simons, J.; Lineberger, W. C., The Only Stable State of O2- Is the X 2Πg Ground State and It (Still!) Has an Adiabatic Electron Detachment Energy of 0.45 eV. Journal of Physical Chemistry 2003, 107, 85218529. 13. Neumark, D. M.; Lykke, K. R.; Andersen, T.; Lineberger, W. C., Laser photodetachment measurement of the electron affinity of atomic oxygen. Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 1985, 32 (3), 1890-2. 14. Andersen, T.; Haugen, H. K.; Hotop, H., Binding energies in atomic negative ions. III. Journal of Physical and Chemical Reference Data 1999, 28 (6), 1511-1533. 15. Blondel, C., Recent experimental achievements with negative ions. Physica Scripta, T 1995, T58 (Proceedings of the EGAS Conference of the European Group for Atomic Spectroscopy), 31-42. 16. Valli, C.; Blondel, C.; Delsart, C., Measuring electron affinities with the photodetachment microscope. Physical Review A: Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics 1999, 59 (5), 38093815.
of Chemical Physics 2009, 131, 044318-7. 10. Fawzy, W. M.; Heaven, M. C., “Ab initio investigation of the NH(X)-N2 van der Waals complex.” The Journal of Chemical Physics 2007, 126, 154311-6. 11. Fawzy, W. M., “Correlated ab initio study of the ground electronic state of the O 2-HF complex.” The Journal of Chemical Physics 2006, 124, 164303-7.
17. Cosby, P. C.; Huestis, D. L., On the dissociation energy of molecular oxygen and the energy of the dioxygenyl ion O2+ b 4Sigma g state. Journal of Chemical Physics 1992, 97 (9), 6108-12.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 1 Comparison between results of calculations and the experimental values cm
Do(O2-) ` kJ.mol-1
498.682 + 0.014c
395.9 + 0.6a
1.348 + 0.008a 1108 + 0.20a 43.2 + 0.6a
Figure 1. Two-dimensional potential energy curves of the superoxide radical as were calculated using the CCSD(T) level of theory with the aug-cc-pVDZ, aug-cc-pVTZ, aug-cc-pVQZ, and pV5Z basis sets.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Gretchen Noel Kilby Class: Senior Major: Economics I am a graduating senior from Hartford, Ky. receiving a bachelor of science in economics with a minor in art. After graduation, I plan on pursuing an entrepreneurial MBA in hopes of starting my own business. This experience with research in the field of behavioral economics has significantly helped me in developing skills important for future opportunities.
Moral Attraction: Does Socio-Economic Status Impact the Choice of Protestant Denomination? Economic methods are not often integrated with nonmarket activities leaving economists limited to market activities, until recently. Studying the relationship between religion, a nonmarket activity, and economics is a fairly new aspect of economic research. This research is primarily concerned with understanding the socio-economic characteristics of various Protestant denominations to determine if different denominations attract adherents of different socio-economic status. For the research I used family incomes across the United States and various geographic regions comparing them nationally to find the relationship between socio-economic status and denomination. Six denominations were used for the model primarily based on their relevancy geographically. Tying basic economic principles to basic religious principles of these denominations, I set up a model to find who was attracted to these denominations.
Key terms: denominations, socio-economic status, nonmarket behavior
FACULTY MENTOR David Eaton is a professor in the department of economics and finance.Â Eaton earned the Ph.D. from the University of Michigan and also has an M.Div. from Midwestern Baptist Theological Seminary.Â He teaches a full range of courses in the economics program including the senior research class.Â He has published in a variety of journals including Public Finance Review and the Journal of the American Taxation Association and in a number of areas including taxation and reputation effects in online auctions.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Moral Attraction: Does Socio-Economic Status Impact the Choice of Protestant Denomination?
conomic methods are not often integrated with nonmarket activities, leaving economists limited to market activities, until recently. Religion is one nonmarket activity that is often overlooked by economics research. Economics and religion may seem to have nothing in common, but as economics research expands it reaches areas that were once vastly unexplored. There is an immense body of data that has been collected over the years that poses new questions about our perception of how individuals choose their religion and more specifically their denomination. As religions continue to expand, different trends show up across the nation. Some trends raise important questions about the relationship between economics and religion. The basic question resting as the foundation of this research is simple: Do certain denominations attract people of different socio-economic status?
Literature in this area of research begins with Azzi and Ehrenberg’s 1975 article and develops that into a plethora of research. Their paper, Household Allocation of Time and Church Attendance, has a production model of religiosity, which found that individual’s allocation of time and religious goods is structured to maximize lifetime and “afterlife” utility. Gruber adds to this research by discussing money spent on afterlife consumption which lowers lifetime consumption in Pay or Pray: the Impact of Charitable Subsidies on Religion Attendance. He tested the impact of charitable subsidies on a measure of religious participation through attendance at religious services. Gruber believes that religious participation and religious giving can be substitutes or complements. If in fact they are substitutes, the participation will take the place of giving or vice versa. If they are complements, both would need to be performed to receive the end result. (Gruber, 2004). Religious participation and religious giving have strong evidence of being substitutes rather than complements as he finds through his empirical evidence. Then again past literature found a positive association between attendance and contributions (Dahl & Ransom, 1999). This seems to compare the two as being complements, but it is difficult to interpret because the authors define those who are “more religious” as placing a greater value
on the afterlife, so these people give more and go more. These assumptions are not always true in other models due to issues of heterogeneity. The logical reasoning behind Gruber’s argument is the basic economic principle of substitutability and the fact of the upward slope of the individual’s utility curve. He uses a large collection of data from the Consumer Expenditure Survey and the General Social Survey. In his model, he inputs information about the taxpayer and placing taxpayers into certain categories based on their subsidy level. His evidence is not exact, because he generalizes over a large portion of subsidies due to the nature of subsidies changing across state lines and over the years. Due to this small glitch he controls for the differences in a regression model. His results confirm the assumptions made by other literature on charitable giving. He found that overall charitable giving is sensitive to subsidies, and religious giving ranks high as well, but not as much as charitable giving. Added to his results were the demographics of giving that consisted of racial groups' charitable giving, and the relationship between education and income, both having a strong positive impact on giving. For attendance his model found that there is a large negative coefficient on charitable subsidy, implying that attendance and giving are substitutes. His results show attendance fell by .023 units for each one percentage point subsidy to charitable giving. This analysis is new to economics because of past literature’s inability to control for heterogeneity. Gruber is able to do this by the information on tax subsidies. One problem that arises from his conclusions is the lack of reasons explaining the decline in religiosity. Posing several questions in her paper on the husband’s religious role in a marriage, Evelyn Lehrer, a professor of economics at the University of Illinois at Chicago, asks if the husband’s religion matters in Role of Religion in Marriage. This study is trying to find how religious affiliation plays a role in marital decision making, such as female employment, fertility, and the stability of 23
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research the marriage. Two types of marriages are defined, interfaith and intrafaith, the former being between two different religious groups and the latter having the same religious affiliation. She found that religion affects many activities the husband and wife perform: It affects the upbringing of the children and the allocation of time and money, which could possibly affect the amount of time spent in conflict. In other literature that she reviewed, she found they only focus on the wife’s religious affiliation. Her focus then turned to the husband and his role in religious ideology in the household. She concluded that a husband’s religion is an extremely important factor in the marriage and in determining the outcomes of economic decisions.
In regression results for Christian respondents he looks at church attendance, religious contributions, and different sects of denominations and dummy variables that indicate respondent’s marital status. The results show that income has little effect on church attendance, but a positive effect on giving. Race, gender, and sect influenced attendance. He also found that economic consequences were seen to be impacted by religion. He found that teens raised in religious homes are less likely to engage in criminal activity, use drugs/alcohol, and engage in premarital sex. From another study he mentioned higher rates of female employment and lower rates of intended fertility were found in intermarriage relationships.
On the subject of female employment levels, she adds that Jewish women tend to have low levels of employment during their children’s youth. This seems to reflect their investment in the success of their children and consequently results in the decrease in the supply of the labor force. In past literature, authors seem only to analyze Jewish women due mostly to the low levels of employment of Protestant and Catholic women in the labor market, but Lehrer adds their effect to the labor supply and updates past literature (Ehrenberg, 1977).
The principle assertion of the study is that religion cannot be excluded from any social science, especially economics. This topic has had few pioneers but one of the first, Adam Smith, briefly mentions religion and economics in The Wealth of Nations, but popularity of the two fields of study combining picked up in the 1970s. Iannaccone’s work takes a big step into this frontier. This paper takes into account “nonmarket” activity, and gives it a value (Iannaccone, 1998). There have been many accounts of economists and sociologists estimating models of education and income. Education is a weak but positive indicator of religious giving but not of church activity. He went further to find different varieties of people and professions that are attracted to religion.
As she continues, she defines the marital stability effect. This effect is the investment of women in human capital (Lehrer, 1996). In the case of an interfaith union she determines there is a higher risk of divorce: In this case, the woman has a greater incentive to invest in the labor market in the event that the marriage does fail. She goes on to claim that women marrying outside their religion always increase the labor supply. The data for the marital stability effect is from a survey of the U.S. population age 19 and older. The survey was designed at the Center for Demography and Ecology at the University of WisconsinMadison. The results are compiled in a regression analysis. The outcome finds that fertility behavior among interfaith marriages varies relative to their intrafaith counter parts. In her sample 20 percent of Catholic women married outside of Catholicism. Among those 20 percent their fertility rates were much lower than their Catholic counterparts who married within their religion. In Iannaccone’s Introduction to the Economics of Religion he tries to explain patterns of religious behavior among individuals, groups and cultures. He wants to review economic consequences, and to evaluate economic policies from a religious perspective. 24
The first argument that he begins to look at is religious behavior as a rational choice not an “exception to the rule.” His theoretical argument assesses “nonmarket” behavior such as religious choice and how it impacts behavior in “market” activities. Iannaccone’s results found many generalizations to be true. The generalization that family income has little effect on church attendance but strong effect on overall giving was found to be true. He found and was statistically able to support, women go to church more than men, blacks attend church more than whites, and older people are more religious. The regression analysis results found that Catholics attend church substantially more and give considerably less. The assumption that religious activities have goals of an “afterlife” as to allocate time and goods among religious activity and nonreligious activity was a primary assumption of religious behavior. There is also the assumption that there is more “free riding,” and less giving in larger congregations. James Montgomery decided to rework the problem of approaching religion with economic tools in his paper Contemplations on
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research the Economic Approach to Religious Behavior. He begins by questioning previous work and raising the matter on whether or not rational models could account for religious beliefs. One model that he bases his research from establishes that in religion, just as anything else, one tries to maximize utility. In his model he uses the most simplified actions an individual could choose in order to maximize religious utility. The actions include believing or not believing in God and from there choosing to attend church or not (Montgomery, 1996). If the individual chooses the combination of actions that will provide them with the most utility it is possible that religious decisions could be rational. A second model that contributes to his reasoning consists of the “consumption-capital” framework. Current participation in religious activities increases the individual’s “stock” in religious activities (Iannaccone, 1998). This model could predict the switching behavior of individuals in their adult years. An individual who has invested a lot of time and work over the years in a certain religion or denomination may not have much of an incentive to switch because of their large stock of religious capital already obtained over the years. The assumptions made in Montgomery’s paper are large and primarily dictate the methods that are used. The consumptioncapital framework assumes that utility has already been experienced from past participation. This depends on the individual and from there one cannot judge the individual’s utility function as either rational or irrational. His argument rests on the idea that economists should clarify their assumptions. The process by which utilities and beliefs are derived from is unclear and needs more distinction. This research does not seem to build on previous research but to pick it apart and examine the details. Economically there is not much ground to stand on in his argument and it lacks empirical data for support. The questions raised about the assumptions made by economists in previous papers are quite helpful. Many aspects of economics depend on assumptions but if the assumptions cannot be justified, the resulting models and theories will not be practical. In his attempt to provide evidence that religious decisions are irrational he omits an important aspect of religious behavior and decision making, and that is the belief of an afterlife.
Economic Theory The main hypothesis of my paper is questioning whether certain denominations attract people of different socio-economic status.
The main assumptions underlying the theory are that socioeconomic status can cause consumers to use a different rationale than other consumers. If a consumer can choose between two identical products varying only slightly, the product chosen by the consumer can give the seller an insight on the buyer’s utility curve. In the model on the attraction of denominations, I am comparing products with only slight differences, monopolistically competitive products. Each denomination is rooted in Christianity but each varying in their teachings and doctrines. This basic economic theory of market structure will be used throughout my data analysis. To understand more about the adherents, who could also be referred to as the consumer, I had to understand their behavior. There are three main theories behind the motives of church attendance (Azzi & Ehrenberg, 1975). Azzi and Ehrenberg define these three motives, first being the salvation motive is the motivation to attend church specially to impact your afterlife consumption. The adherent is trading off consumption today to contribute to their afterlife consumption. The consumption motive is related to the satisfaction received from church activities. Those who enjoy activities such as worship, sermons and social activities are more motivated by the successful enjoyment they receive from those activities. Lastly the social pressure motive, which is seen more commonly in small rural communities rather than urban, is basically the pressure the community gives to the adherent to attend church. This is seen more in smaller churches, where in the case of large churches and even more so in the mega churches this motive may be non-existent. Two other main assumptions were at the basis of my research. In Gruber’s Pay or Pray I use his principle of complements and substitutes, modifying it slightly. He states that religious participation can be a substitute or a complement of the level of charitable giving. If religious participation and giving are complements then giving would only be implemented while participating. Gruber defines this as the “warm glow effect” where the giver wants to see their contribution and see how they are impacting the congregation. If the level of charitable giving is a substitute for participation an individual will trade off the costs of religious devotion against the gains of being more devoted. Adherents view cash giving as a substitute for time spent on religious endeavors. His analysis resulted in giving and participation as substitutes. If this assumption is the case, higher income areas will have lower participation and attendance but higher giving. Of course there are outliers who skew the data. An outlier in this instance might be mega 25
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research churches with 12,000 or more members. These churches do not fit the model of substitutes as well as more typical churches. Six denominations were used in the model. The denominations chosen were primarily based on their relevancy across the United States. Each can be found across the United States, some more than others but for the most part, everywhere. The six denominations included Episcopal, Assemblies of God, Southern Baptist, United Church of Christ, Lutheran and Methodist. A brief history on the denominations is important because it gives an insight on the adherents. How the church views their adherents directly reflects who their adherents are. The oldest protestant denomination is Lutheran. Lutheranism began by a German monk, Martin Luther, who protested against the Catholic Church. The teachings of Martin Luther have heavily influenced many aspects of Protestant denominations. He rejected the traditions of Catholicism calling them â€œnot only unnecessary, but a stumbling block to salvation" (Senn, 2008). It is the largest protestant denomination in the world found more commonly in Europe and is the second largest denomination in the United States (Senn, 2008). Lutherans do ordain women into the ministry. From a meeting in Hot Springs Ark., in 1914 the Assemblies of God originated. This Pentecostal denomination has high disregard for denominations in general but decided that it was in their best interest to work together. After the move to Springfield, Mo., the Assemblies of God was able to spread out on a multi-million dollar complex there and has become one of the larger evangelical denominations. Although they opposed the formation of a denomination they became official after they adopted a constitution in 1927 (Blankman & Augustine, 2004). In the 1970s the Assemblies of God was receiving a lot of recognition as being one of the fastest growing denominations in the country. They are well known for the supernatural experiences they seek such as speaking in tongues and in their more distant past, snake handling. The Southern Baptist Convention split from the Baptist in 1845 over the primary issue of slavery. They do not believe in the ordination of women stating that the role of pastor is reserved for men only. They do not believe in infant baptism which is important to consider when deciphering through the data and comparing the denominations based on the number of adherents (Shurden & Varnadoe, 2001).
A predominantly American denomination is the Church of Christ which, after the second great awakening had its beginning in the south. In a meeting in Cane Ridge, Ky., with about 20,000 attendees, this denomination was created (Blankman & Augustine, 2004). They eventually split in 1906 over the issue of musical instruments in worship. The Church of Christ is considered to be the more conservative of the two other churches that broke off and were formed in 1906. The Episcopal denomination considers itself to be midway between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism (Blankman & Augustine, 2004). They are thought to be the most liberal of denominations, calling for full equality of gay and lesbians. They have men and women ordained ministers. There has been a large controversy over the ordination of some gay and lesbian ministers that has caused some recent political tension in the church (Djupe, Olson, & Gilbert, 2006). Lastly, the United Methodist Church was used in the data. This denomination actually received its name from the methods its founders John and Charles Wesley were using to teach those who wanted a more in-depth study of the Bible. They were encouraging logic and reason in their study of Biblical concepts. They were not trying to create another denomination but because of the increasing number of followers, they did (Campbell, 1991).
Data The data collected was from the 2000 census data bank. All the data was collected by state and each state was placed into a region. There were nine regions that divided the United States. For each denomination, the number of adherents was found along with six socio-economic variables. The definition of socio-economic status was based on family income, education level and occupation. This was used as the way of predicting the behavior of the adherents. The specific socio-economic variables were top and bottom 25 percent above median income, percent with high school education or less, percentage with a bachelorâ€™s or more, and lastly for occupation percentage of white collar workers and blue collar workers. The data used classified occupation in large groups and each were separated into blue collar or white collar based on the common perception of the people.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 1 Highest correlations for each denomination and region Denomination
Region with highest correlation
Assemblies of God
Pacific and Pacific Alaska
Church of Christ
Pacific Alaska and Central Plains
Mid-Atlantic and Northeast
Central Plains and Great lakes
Simple regressions were run for each denominationâ€™s market share across all religions. For each denomination almost all the socio-economic variables had very large p-values. Only the Episcopal Church had one socio-economic variable that was almost statistically significant. That variable was the bottom 25 percent below median income and was .0059. It is not very high but one of the largest of the socio-economic variables to hint at being significant. The data did reveal that each denomination could almost claim their own region. Some of this was expected, however some was surprising showing that there have been some migrations since the creation of the denominations. Table 1 shows the highest correlated regions for each denomination. Some denominations had more than one region that had a high correlation. Those were so close that either could represent a strong population in that area. Some of the anticipated regions for the denominations were Southern Baptist in the southeast, primarily because of its creation in that region but the actual statistics found that all regions for Southern Baptist were strongly negative. Even though the Southern Baptists comprise the largest denomination in the United States they are found mostly in the southeast, which is interesting because the southeast is not as densely populated compared to some of the other regions. It was also surprising to find that the Assemblies of God denomination, which had its crucial beginning in the Great Lakes region, was more commonly found in the Pacific and Pacific Alaska regions. This means that there is some spillover from the two
regions. The Church of Christ which also originated in the United States, more specifically in the southeast, now mostly inhabits the northeastern states. Other denominations that were not surprising to find in some regions were the Episcopal, which is the most liberal denomination and was found in the most liberal regions. Since each denomination regression analysis had very high R2 and very small p-values, F-tests were used to determine if the socioeconomic variables were significant and were simply overshadowed by the significance of the correlation in the regions. After each F-test still none of the variables were significant.
Conclusions After all the data was collected and the simple regressions were run I concluded that socio-economic status does not impact the choice of denomination. Even though my hypothesis was rejected I cannot leave out the fact that there is a strong correlation between denomination and region. This has a significant impact on the data that I found, especially regarding the fact that almost each denomination could almost claim a region. Rejecting the hypothesis basically gives the conclusion that even with socio-economic status in place around the country adherents do not choose their denomination based on these factors. The factors used in the process of choosing a denomination might be heavily influenced by the adherentâ€™s geographic location. Further study in this area could be done on the switching of denominations. If geographic location heavily influences the choice of denomination, what happens when an adherent moves to 27
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research a different region? Does the extent of their stay influence a switch in denomination or does that move have no effect on the adherent? Is it merely the stock of capital that the person has put into over the years in their particular denomination? Further work could be done to expand on this research.
References Azzi, C., & Ehrenberg, R. (1975). Household Allocation of Time and Church Attendance. Journal of Political Economy, 2756.
Ehrenberg, R. (1977). Household Allocation of Time and Religiosity: Replication and Extension. Journal of Political Economy, 415-423. Gruber, J. (2004). Pay or Pray? The impact of Chartiable subsidies on Religious Attendance. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2-40. Iannaccone, L. (1998). Introduction to the Economics of Religion. Journal of economic Literature, 1465-1495.
Blankman, D., & Augustine, T. (2004). North American Denominations. Downers Grove: Intervarsity Press.
Lehrer, E. (1996). The Role of the Husbandâ€™s Religious Affiliation in the Economic and Demographic Behavior of Families. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 145-155.
Campbell, T. (1991). The Wesleyâ€™s New Denomination. Christianity Today, 31.
Montgomery, J. (1996). Contemplations on the Economic Approach to Religious Behavior. American Economic Review, 81-110.
Dahl, G., & Ransom, M. (1999). Does Where You Stand Depend on Where You Sit? Tithing Donations and Self-Serving Beliefs. American Economic Review , 703-727.
Senn, F. (2008). Lutheran Identity: A Classical Understanding Evanston: Augsburg Fortress.
Djupe, P., Olson, L., & Gilbert, C. (2006). Whether to Adopt Statements on Homosexuality in Two Denominations: A Research Note. Journal of Scientific Study of Religion , 609621.
Shurden, W., & Varnadoe, L. (2001). The Origins of the Southern Baptist Convention: A Historiographical Study. Baptist History and Heritage, 2-16.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Renee Levesque Class: Senior Major: Biology/Pre-Med I am currently in my third year of undergraduate studies at Murray State University. I am fascinated by the underlying physiological processes of diseases and the immune system. I will be attending medical school after graduating from MSU.
Sarah Hargis Class: Sophomore Major: Biology/Pre-Med Because of my previous research in neurobiology and mathematics, I d eve l o p e d a n i n t e r e s t i n t h e biomathematics program at Murray State. I plan to pursue a career in pediatric oncology as well as continue research on the immune system and cancer.
Energy Costs and Trade-Offs of the Adaptive Immune System in Old-Field Mice (Peromyscus polionotus) A high energetic cost of adaptive immune defenses is assumed in theoretical discussions of immune responses in animals. Little quantitative data are available to test the assumption, however, especially for mammalian species. We tested the null hypotheses that 1) there is no difference between energy expenditure of challenged and passive cell-mediated and humoral immune systems and 2) there is no change in the cost and magnitude of a humoral immune response when a cellmediated immune response is introduced. To test these hypotheses, we used humoral and cell-mediated immune-challenges as the independent variables. Using adult male old-field mice (Peromyscus polionotus), we measured antibody production, inflammation, metabolic rates, and organ masses to assess the energetic cost and energy trade-offs of cell-mediated and humoral immune responses, and interactions between them. Our results supported the assumption of a significant energetic cost of cell-mediated, but not humoral immune defense. More studies are needed to further evaluate the costs of adaptive immunity in mammals. Key terms: immunity, cell-mediated, humoral, trade-offs, Peromyscus
FACULTY MENTOR Terry Derting, Ph.D., professor of biological sciences, focuses her research on mammalian physiological ecology, especially energetic and health of small mammals, and improving undergraduate education. She has combined these interests through her work as a mentor of undergraduate research students. She has found mentoring of undergraduate researchers to be one of her most rewarding activities, as it is through research experiences that students truly understand and become participants in the process of science. Derting is currently a mentor in the Biology and Mathematics in Population Studies program at MSU.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Energy Costs and Trade-Offs of the Adaptive Immune System in Old-Field Mice (Peromyscus polionotus)
any emerging infectious diseases require small animals as vectors in order to infect humans. Such diseases include Lyme disease, Avian influenza, and West Nile virus. The immune system of an organism serves as a defense against these pathogens, although it does not always completely eradicate the foreign body (Eraud 2005). Increased environmental stress, especially from human activities, can have negative effects on the immune system of small mammals (Goldberg et al., 2008). As a result, the rate of transmission of infectious diseases among wild animals as well as humans is increased (Glaser and Kleicolt-Glaser 2005). It is imperative, therefore, to have a better understanding of the immune system as it is an important aspect of an organismâ€™s overall health and survival (Norris and Evans 2000; Eraud et al., 2008). The immune system is a variable system with different components that are affected by numerous factors. The vertebrate immune system has two types of responses, innate and adaptive. The innate system is a nonspecific response while the adaptive is a pathogenspecific response. The adaptive response includes the humoral response through which antibodies are produced, and the T-cell mediated response which regulates inflammation. The responses from the innate and adaptive branches work together to form the overall immune defense of a vertebrate (Martin et al., 2008). A variety of studies indicate that immunocompetence is limited by the energy resources available to an animal. The immune system, especially the adaptive branch, is considered to require significant nutritional and energetic resources to function properly and ensure an adequate response (Norris and Evans 2000). Innate immunity is considered to be lower in cost of development for the same effectiveness as the branches of adaptive immunity (Martin et al., 2008). Trade-offs in energy allocation among immune functions, and between immune functions and other physiological processes, also provide evidence suggesting that adaptive immune responses are energetically expensive (Lochmiller and Deerenberg 2000; Martin 2005). In female white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), for example, an ongoing T-cell mediated immune response had a negative effect on a second T-cell mediated immune response
(Martin et al., 2006). Likewise, when energetically-expensive processes of reproduction are ongoing, immune responses are typically weaker, presumably because of limitations on energy availability for immune functions (Martin et al., 2008). Although much evidence suggests a high energetic cost of innate immune responses, other results indicate negligible costs for at least some types of innate immune responses. Most studies report indirect evidence for costs of adaptive immune responses, while few researchers have attempted to quantify actual energy costs. In addition, much of the published literature on costs of immunocompetence focuses on avian species and much less so on mammalian species. To address these deficiencies, we tested the assumption of a high energetic cost for adaptive immune responses using direct and indirect assessments of energy cost and using a small mammal species as our experimental subject. We tested the null hypotheses that 1) there is no difference between energy expenditure of challenged and passive T-cell mediated and humoral immune systems and 2) there is no change in the cost and magnitude of a humoral immune response when a T-cell mediated immune response is introduced. Our alternative hypothesis was that when either or both systems are challenged there is a difference in energy use and allocation compared with when neither or only one system is challenged. In order to test our hypotheses, we conducted our experiments on old-field mice, Peromyscus polionotus, and compared the responses and energy costs of the humoral immune system when challenged singly, concurrentlywith T-cell mediated challenges, and with no challenge.
Methods We studied adult male old-field mice obtained from the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (Columbia, S.C.). Upon arrival, the mice were housed individually in opaque propylene cages (28x18x12 cm) with wood shavings as bedding in the college of science animal care facility at Murray State University. Purina Rat Chow 5001 and water were provided ad libitum. The ambient temperature was maintained at 21 Âą 1Âş C with a 14L:10D photoperiod. All animals were treated
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research in accordance with requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Murray State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (Protocol #2005-003). We randomly assigned each mouse to one of four groups. Immune challenges were given as follows: group I (CH) received both a T-cell mediated and a humoral immune challenge, group II (Cm) received only the T-cell mediated challenge, group III (H) received only the humoral challenge, and group IV (Ct) was the control group in which neither challenge was administered. The T-cell mediated and humoral challenges were our independent variables. The humoral immune-challenge was started on day four of the 33-day experimental period. The T-cell mediated challenge was administered on day 29.
T-cell mediated Immune Challenge Animals receiving the T-cell mediated challenge (Cm and CH) were treated with 2, 4-dinitro-1-fluorobenzene (DNFB) to trigger a local inflammation. The mice were first sensitized to DNFB on days 22 and 23 by applying the solution to a small shaved patch on the animal’s rump (Martin et al., 2006; Martin et al., 2007). Six days later (day 29) we applied a DNFB challenge to the ear pinnae. After measuring the initial thickness of the pinnae, we applied 20μL of DNFB solution to one pinna and 20μL of solution without DNFB (vehicle) to the opposite pinna. The Ct and H groups received vehicle each time instead of the DNFB sensitization and challenge. The pinnae were measured every 24 hours for four consecutive days post-challenge (days 30-33) using a pressure sensitive micrometer.
Humoral Immune Challenge Energy Measurements We assessed the energy cost of both a primary and secondary humoral immune response. To stimulate an antibody response, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.2mL of 10 percent washed sheep red blood cells (SRBC) on days four and 24. The first injection elicited a primary response, during which antibodies (IgM) specific to SRBC were produced after a lag time of a few days. The second injection 20 days later caused a secondary response, which involved a much faster and larger production of antibodies (IgG) to SRBC. Control mice received injections of 0.2mL of sterile phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) on the same days. To measure the strength of the humoral immune response, hemagglutination assays were conducted. A blood sample was collected from each animal on days 11 and 18 to measure antibody production during the primary response, day 24 to measure the antibody level before the second injection of SRBC, and days 30 and 33 to measure antibody production during the secondary response (Lochmiller et al., 1994; Eraud et al., 2005). We anesthetized the mice with Isoflurane® and removed 125μL of blood via the retroorbital sinus. Blood samples were placed into a water bath set at 37°C for 30 minutes and then centrifuged, the serum collected, and the serum frozen until assayed. Hemagglutination assays were conducted according to the methods in Derting and Virk (2005).
Resting Metabolic Rates (RMR). Resting metabolic rate was estimated on days three (prior to immunochallenge), 12 (posthumoral challenge), and 30 (post-humoral and cell-mediated challenges) by measuring oxygen consumption rates using a Columbus Instruments O2-ECO oxygen analyzer integrated with a computer. An animal was placed in the metabolic chamber (1,100mL) and maintained at a temperature within its thermoneutral zone (31 ± 1°C; Kaufman and Kaufman 1973). Oxygen consumption values (mL O2 g-¹ h-¹) were converted to kilojoules per gram per hour using a conversion factor of 2 x 10-2 kJ mL-¹ O2 (Bartholomew 1977). Daily Metabolic Rate (DMR). Daily metabolic rate was estimated from measurements of food intake and fecal production on days one-three (prior to immunochallenge), 11-13 (post-humoral challenge), and 30-32 (post-humoral and cell-mediated challenge). During each test, the bedding in a cage was replaced with an elevated platform of ¼” hardwire cloth, allowing feces and food crumbs to fall to the bottom of the cage for collection purposes. During each of two consecutive 24-h periods, the mass of food ingested and feces produced was measured. To estimate DMR, the apparent digested energy was calculated as the product of ingested energy and apparent dry matter digestibility following the methods of Derting and Compton (2003).
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Organ Measurements Organ masses were measured to evaluate possible changes in energy allocation to different organ systems during an immunochallenge. On day 33, mice were killed by an overdose of anesthetic. The body mass of each animal (±0.01g) was measured. Dissections were then performed focusing on the gastrointestinal (stomach, small intestine, caecum, colon), immune (spleen, thymus), reproductive (testes, seminal vesicles), endocrine (adrenal glands), and vital organs (heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys). Organs were removed and blotted dry before weighing to obtain the wet masses. The lengths of the stomach, caecum, small intestine, and colon were also measured. The organs were then placed in an oven at 58°C (±3°C) for 48 hours and weighed to obtain the dry masses. Statistical Analysis Data were tested for normality and equality of variances prior to analysis. All variables except the hemagglutination measurements met the assumption of normality. For the hemagglutination data, we used a repeated measures mixed effects analysis. Specifically, we tested for effects of time and the humoral challenge on hemagglutination titers of the H and CH groups from days four to 33. All other analyses were conducted using the general linear model function for one and two-way analyses of variance (ANOVA) and covariance (ANCOVA). Statistical analyses were conducted using SAS Version 9.2 (SAS Institute 2009). For all statistical tests, differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.
Figure 1. Mean hemagglutination titers (±1 SE) for the humoral (solid line) and humoral-plus-cell-mediated challenge (dashed line). The solid arrows on days four and 24 indicate the first and second injections of SRBC. The dashed arrow on day 29 indicates the introduction of the CM challenge.
Cell-mediated Immunochallenge Effects Application of DNFB resulted in a significant T-cell mediated inflammatory response, as indicated by pinnae thickness (Figure 2). On day 29, when the DNFB challenge was applied, there were no significant differences among the groups in pinnae thickness (two-way ANOVA, P > 0.05). On each subsequent day, there was a significant positive main effect of the T-cell mediated treatment (repeated measures two-way ANOVA, P < 0.0001) but no main effect of the ongoing humoral response (repeated measures twoway ANOVA, P > 0.05). There was also no interactive effect of the cell-mediated and humoral treatments on the inflammatory response (repeated measures two-way ANOVA, P > 0.05).
Humoral Immunochallenge Effects Treatment with SRBC was associated with a significant main effect on the hemagglutination titer (PROC MIXED, P < 0.05). Seven days after the first injection of SRBC (day 11), the hemagglutination titer was elevated in the H and CH mice (Figure 1), while that of Ct mice remained at zero. Following the second SRBC injection, the hemagglutination titer again increased, peaking on day 30 in both groups. During the secondary response and after addition of the T-cell mediated challenge (day 29), there was no significant effect of immune treatment (PROC MIXED, P > 0.05). There was also no significant interaction between time and treatment for days 24-33 (Figure 1).
Energetics Resting and daily metabolic rates We first analyzed for an effect of the primary humoral immune response on RMR and DMR (days three-12 and one-11, respectively). There was no effect of time, or any interactive effect of time and the humoral treatment (repeated measures ANOVA, P > 0.05). Next we tested for effects of the T-cell mediated treatment and its interaction with the ongoing secondary humoral immune response on day 30. For our analysis, we used the RMR (or DMR) measured on day 12 (days 11-12 for DMR) as a covariate to control for variation in values associated with the primary response. The cell-mediated immune response was associated with a significant
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Figure 2. Percent change (Âą1 SE) in pinnae thickness from day 29 (challenge) to day 33 of the experiment.
Figure 3. Resting (RMR) and daily (DMR) metabolic rates (lsmeans +1 SE) for all groups, on day 30 and 30-31 of the experiment, respectively.
positive main effect on RMR but not DMR (Figure 3). Mice treated with DNFB had RMRs that averaged 12.5 percent higher compared with mice without DNFB (Ct and H mice) on day 30 (two-way ANCOVA, P = 0.0137). There was no significant main effect of the humoral treatment or interactive effect between the cell-mediated and humoral effects; however, on RMR or DMR on day 30 (two-way ANCOVA, P > 0.05).
response was associated with a significant negative effect on the wet mass of the paired adrenal glands (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.05; Table 1). In contrast, the cell-mediated response was associated with a significant positive main effect on the dry paired kidney masses (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01). The only organ measurement for which an interactive effect of the two immunochallenges occurred was the dry heart mass (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.04).
Organ Masses There were no significant differences in mean body mass among the four experimental groups at the end of the study (one-way ANOVA, P > 0.05). As expected, both the humoral and T-cell mediated immune responses were associated with a marked positive effect on the wet and dry masses of the spleen (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01, Table 1). Spleen mass averaged over 50 percent greater in immmuno-challenged mice compared with controls. There was no significant association of either response with mass of the thymus gland, however (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.01). Other effects of the immunochallenges on organ sizes were associated primarily with the T-cell mediated, but not the humoral, response. Among the gastrointestinal organs, the T-cell mediated response was associated with a significantly shorter length (by 5â€“12 percent) of the colon. Similarly, among the reproductive organs the cellmediated response was associated with a negative main effect on the dry mass of the testes (two-way ANOVA, P < 0.04; Table 1). Mean testes masses were 13-19 percent less in C and CH mice compared with Ct and H mice. Among other organs, the effects of the cell-mediated treatment were mixed. The cell-mediated
Because of trade-offs between other physiological systems and the immune system and within the adaptive immune system itself, adaptive immunity has been considered to require a significant amount of energy (Martin et al., 2008). Our data for the T-cell mediated immune response supported the assumption of a high energetic cost of adaptive immunity; but the same was not seen with the humoral response. Our null hypothesis was not supported for the T-cell mediated response because there was a significant increase in energy expenditure when the T-cell mediated immune system was challenged. For the humoral response, however, our null hypothesis was supported; we saw no difference in energy use and expenditure in humoral-challenged mice compared with control mice. The absence of any interactions between the T-cell mediated and humoral responses also supported our null hypothesis. Humoral response The humoral immune response was not associated with any measurable change in energy use. Studies in avian species showed 33
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 1 Mean ( ±1 SE) organ wet and dry masses (g) or length (cm) for all measurements with a significant treatment effect. (Ct = control, Cm = cell-mediated treatment, CH = cell-mediated plus humoral treatment, H = humoral treatment; NS = not significant) Significant ANOVA P values Ct
Heart Wet (1x10-2)
Spleen Wet (1x10-2)
Testes Wet (1x10-2)
Kidneys Wet (1x10-2) 26.48±0.44
Adrenals Wet (1x10-2) 2.60±0.09
similar results. The humoral response in blue tits (Parus caeruleus) had no effect on basal metabolic rate (BMR; Svensson et al., 1998). Likewise, a humoral response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) did not change their field metabolic rate (Amat 2007). These results indicated that the humoral immune response was not energetically costly. A humoral response in the collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto), however, was associated with a small (< 10%) increase in BMR (Eraud et al., 2005). A similar increase in metabolic rate occurred in both adult and aged male C57BL/6J mice during an antibody response (Demas et al., 1997). Thus, even when a measurable cost was associated with the humoral response, the cost was low when compared with the cost of other physiological processes, such as molting, reproduction, or thermoregulation (Svensson et al., 1998). Cell-mediated response The increased RMR in both the Cm and CH groups on day 30 (Figure 3) indicated a rapid and significant increase in energy use within 24 hours of initiating a T-cell mediated inflammatory response. Similarly, house sparrows (Passer domesticus) had a 34
significant increase in RMR during an inflammatory response to phytohemagglutinin (Martin et al., 2002). Male white-footed mice also exhibited a significant increase in RMR when given both a humoral and a T-cell mediated immunochallenge (Derting and Virk 2005). These T-cell mediated immune responses were associated with a greater increase in energy use (17 percent-29 percent; Derting and Virk 2005; Martin et al., 2002; respectively) compared with that reported for a humoral response (Eraud et al., 2005). In our experiment, the DMR of immunochallenged mice was not significantly different from that of Ct mice which received vehicle only (Figure 3). Similar results have been reported for male whitefooted mice (Derting and Compton 2003; Derting and Virk 2005). The absence of a significant increase in DMR indicated that the total amount of energy used by the old-field mice did not change significantly, even while mounting a significant T-cell mediated immune response. Thus, the increase in energy use by the immune system must have been obtained by re-allocation of energy away from other physiological systems.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research To maintain immunocompetence, energy that an organism ingests may be re-allocated depending on the amount of stress or challenges which the immune system experiences (Lochmiller and Deerenberg 2000; Martin et al., 2008). Reallocation of energy during the T-cell mediated response in our study was indicated by the significantly shorter colon length and smaller testes mass (Table 1) compared with mice without a T-cell mediated immunochallenge. Interestingly, adult male white-footed mice also exhibited reductions in the size of gastrointestinal and reproductive organs when immuno-challenged; again, indicating that trade-offs in energy allocation among physiological systems occurred (Derting and Compton 2003). The colon functions to absorb excess water from indigestible food, an energy-requiring process. A shorter length of the colon may have reduced energy expended on water reabsorption and the ‘saved’ energy may have been re-allocated to meet the needs of the immune system. Depending on the life history of a species, reallocation of energy can also occur in the reproductive organs (Martin et al., 2008). When a challenge is introduced to the immune system, reproduction can be slowed and/or stopped in order to conserve energy. This can be seen in males through decreased testes mass, which was present in our experiment for the animals treated with the T-cell mediated challenge (Table 1). Regardless of the specific systems involved, energy saved from one physiological system can be used to maintain immunocompetence, resulting in increased survival (Martin et al., 2008). The question remains of why the increase in RMR and reallocation of energy occurred only during the T-cell mediated but not the humoral response. The humoral immune system is responsible for pathogen control through the creation of proteins (antibodies) which are released into circulation, while the cell-mediated response includes the formation and use of cytotoxic T-cells (Martin et al., 2008). Based on recent experiments in both avian and mammalian species, the energetic cost of antibody production is minimal when compared to an animal’s overall energy budget (Svensson et al., 1998; Amat et. al. 2007). This may be because the humoral response recruits a lower level of inflammatory cytokines than seen with the T-cell mediated response (Nilsson et al., 2007). Another explanation for a lower cost of humoral responses is their slow response time, taking a longer amount of time to reach a peak response compared with T-cell mediated responses. The highest antibody titers to SRBC generally occur about seven days post-challenge, while the greatest inflammation can occur within 24 to 48 hours (Martin et al., 2006).
Although slower, the humoral response has a longer duration compared with the T-cell mediated response. It was thought that the summed cost of a humoral response would be just as significant as that of an acute T-cell mediated immunoresponse (Eruad et al., 2005). Equal costs of the two types of responses were not supported by our data, indicating that the summed cost of the humoral response was less than that of the T-cell mediated response. If we had measured metabolic rates at the peak of the T-cell mediated response (day 33) rather than 24 hours after its initiation, we predict that the difference in costs would have been even greater. Another major factor included in a costly immunoresponse is the febrile response. A significant increase in energy use may result from even a 1-2°C increase in body temperature (Nilsson et al., 2007; Martin et al., 2008). We did not measure the temperature of the mice to determine a febrile response, but if one was initiated during the T-cell mediated response, then it would have contributed to the observed increase in energy use. Our results bring into question the assumption of a high energetic cost of adaptive immunity. Our research is consistent with an assumption of a significant energetic cost of T-cell mediated immunity but not humoral immunity. Distinguishing between the costs of the two branches of adaptive immunity will be important in understanding and predicting responses of animals to increased energy demands and reduced food availability in field situations. Clearly, more quantitative studies of the costs of humoral and T-cell mediated immunity are needed to accurately characterize their energetic costs.
Acknowledgements The authors thank Drs. D. Roach and C. Mecklin for their help in data analysis. We also thank J. Barnett, Dr. T. Henkel, and C. Woods for their technical support, and B. Papajeski and C. Williams for their assistance with the hematological data. We are grateful for the funding provided by the National Science Foundation (Award # 0531865) through the Biology and Mathematics in Population Studies program at Murray State University.
References Amat, J., E. Aguilera and H. Visser. 2007. Energetic and developmental costs of mounting an immune response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris). Ecol Res 22: 282-287.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Bartholomew, G. 1977. Energy metabolism. In: Gordon MS (ed) Animal physiology: principles and adaptation, Third Edition, Macmillan, New York, pp 75-110.
Lochmiller, R. and C. Deerenberg. 2000. Trade-offs in evolutionary immunology: just what is the cost of immunity? OIKOS 88: 87-98.
Derting, T. and M. Virk. 2005. Positive effects of testosterone and immunochallenge on energy allocation to reproductive organs. J Comp Physiol B 175: 543-556.
Lochmiller, R., M. Vestey, and S. McMurry. 1994. Temporal variation in humoral and cell-mediated immune response in a Sigmodon hispidus population. Ecology 75(1): 236-245.
Derting, T. and S. Compton. 2003. Immune response, not immune maintenance, is energetically costly in wild white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). Physiol Biochem Zo 76(5): 744-752.
Martin, L., A. Scheuerlein and M. Wikelski. 2002. Immune activity elevates energy expenditure of house sparrows: a link between direct and indirect costs? Proc R Soc Lond 270: 153-158.
Demas, G. E., V. Chefer, M. I. Talan, and R. J. Nelson. 1997. Metabolic costs of mounting an antigen-stimulated immune response in adult and aged C57BL/6J mice. Am J Physiol 273: 1631-1637. Eraud, C., O. Duriez, O. Chastel, B. Faivre. 2005. The energetic cost of humoral immunity in the Collared Dove, Streptopelia decaocto: is the magnitude sufficient to force energy tradeoffs? Functional Ecology 19: 110-118. Eraud, C., A. Jacquet, B. Faivre. 2008. Survival cost of an early immune soliciting in nature. The Society for the Study of Evolution. Glaser, R., and J. Kiecolt-Glaser. 2005. Stress-induced immune dysfunction: implications for health. Nature Reviews 5: 243251. Kaufman, D., and G. Kaufman. 1973. Body temperature of the old-field mouse (Peromyscus polionotus) in and below the thermoneutral zone. J of Mammology 54(4): 996-997.
Martin, L. B. 2005. Trade-offs between molt and immune activity in two populations of house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Can J Zool 83: 780-787. Martin, L., Z. Weil, J. Kuhlman, R. Nelson. 2006. Trade-offs within the immune systems of female White-footed Mice, Peromyscus leucopus. Funct Ecol 20: 630-636. Martin, L., Z. Weil, R. Nelson. 2008. Seasonal changes in vertebrate immune activity: mediation by physiological trade-offs. Phil Trans R Soc B 363: 321-339. Nilsson, J., M. Granbom, L. Raberg. 2007. Does the cost of an immune response reflect its energetic cost? J Avian Biol 38: 488-494. Norris, K. and M. R. Evans. 2000. Ecological immunology: life history trade-offs and immune defense in birds. Behave Ecol 11: 19-26. Svensson, E., L. Raberg, C. Koch, D. Hasselquist. 1998. Energetic stress, immunosuppression and the costs of an antibody response. Functional Ecol 12: 912-919.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Sarah Norris Class: Junior Major: History I grew up in Louisville and attended Catholic school for twelve years before beginning my academic career at Murray State. After I returned from study abroad in Spain, I threw myself into undergraduate research in history and especially Eleanor Roosevelt, whom I regard as an excellent role model for Christian women. I spent summer 2009 interning for the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers in Washington, D.C.; this project reflects a year of research on Eleanor Roosevelt’s numerous accomplishments and contributions to human rights. I plan to pursue a master’s degree in history at the University of Louisville.
The Foundation of Human Rights for All: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights In December 1945, Eleanor Roosevelt (ER) accepted President Harry Truman’s nomination to the United Nations, where she served as chair of the Human Rights Commission. This paper explores ER’s role in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) as well as the significance of the UDHR as the international human rights standard. Sources used include ER’s daily column My Day, contemporary magazines and publications, documentary editing projects, and biographies. ER solidified her legacy as an international human rights activist with the UDHR, which the UN General Assembly approved unanimously in 1948. ER’s international human rights legacy outshines her legacy as a First Lady who shattered boundaries. She devoted seven years at the UN dedicated to the cause of human rights and holding nations accountable for violating human rights. Key terms: Eleanor Roosevelt, United Nations, human rights, post World War II world history
FACULTY MENTOR Stephanie Carpenter is an associate professor of history. She received an M.A. in history from Iowa State University and earned her Ph.D. in agricultural history and rural studies from Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa. Carpenter’s current research has included twentieth century agriculture and rural life, and women in agriculture. She also researches women in the West, specifically related to the western frontier and agriculture. Carpenter mentors students in historical research and writing and serves as the advisor for Phi Alpha Theta, the national history honor society.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
The Foundation of Human Rights for All: Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
n today’s world, we accept that all people have basic human rights. As Americans and world citizens, we believe that all people deserve not only to have their physical needs met through food and water, but also that every human has emotional and intellectual rights as well. These beliefs are so commonplace that we do not question their existence in our society, and we only acknowledge their existence when violations of these basic human rights occur. Nevertheless, the concept of human rights is an invention of the twentieth century and represents a backlash from the violence, destruction, and immorality of World War II. Blanche Wiesen Cook reminded readers in Eleanor Roosevelt Volume 2: The Defining Years 1933-1938, “The 1930s was a time when human rights as a concept did not actually exist; and no nation was responsible to consider the domestic deeds of other nations.”�1 In World War II, however, atrocities committed by governments against their own citizens came to the forefront of international attention especially when the horrors of the Holocaust unfolded with the discovery of Nazi death camps. Notions of national sovereignty ended in favor of a greater worldview where all nations are responsible for the actions of other nations. The United Nations became the cornerstone of this new worldview including international human rights. One person who worked diligently to create an international standard of human rights at the end of World War II was Eleanor Roosevelt. Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (ER) was the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt who served as President of the United States from 1933 until his sudden death in April 1945.�2 During her 12 years in the White House, “ER served her husband’s interests, and was his primary ambassador to neighborhood people, to poor and hardworking and hidden communities in the mountains and deltas of America.”�3 ER traveled the country for her husband, wrote a daily column called My Day, held press conferences with female journalists, answered dozens of letters a day, and met ordinary Americans struggling in the Great Depression. When the U.S. entered the war in December 1941, ER encouraged all Americans to take an active role in the home front. After her husband died, however, ER faced a difficult decision about whether she should continue her public role in politics; his death provided a degree of 38
liberation for the former First Lady, who found herself wondering what her next move should be. As David Emblidge wrote in Eleanor Roosevelt’s, My Day, Volume II: The Post-War Years, Her Acclaimed Columns 1945-1952, after FDR’s death, “Eleanor Roosevelt took off the padded gloves and became the indefatigable, outspoken fighter for a whole rainbow of causes, many of them far from popular. She was, like most brave reformers, well ahead of her time.”�4 For a few months, she settled her husband’s estate at Hyde Park, but in 1945, she would accept her highest calling: a nomination to the United Nations where she would become that brave reformer working to progress the notion of human rights for all world citizens. In December 1945, President Harry S. Truman nominated ER to serve as an ambassador to the United Nations.�5 ER accepted his nomination and the Senate confirmed her appointment.� ER devoted her time at the United Nations.6 She served as chair of the UN’s Committee on Human Rights and worked for the passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which the UN adopted on December 10, 1948.7 ER worked diligently at the United Nations to secure an international human rights standard through the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the UDHR is now considered the foundation of human rights principles for all citizens of the world. Before ER entered the UN, her husband had dreamed of a postwar UN with a strong security council able to secure peace and justice throughout the world.�8 ER shared this vision of the UN in postwar international relations, and she championed her idealistic vision of the UN in her daily column, My Day. She believed that the UN would be a vital force in securing international peace. To ER, the success of continued civilization rested in the success of the UN.�9 She also wrote that “All peoples throughout the world must know that there is an organization where their interests can be considered and where justice and security will be sought for all.”�10 When ER herself began working at the UN, she embodied her husband’s dream of responsibility and accountability for all nations through her work for human rights on an international scale.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research In 1946, the UN began meeting formally.11� Honored by Truman’s appointment, ER immediately set to work at the UN where she eventually excelled in her position as an international diplomat and activist. David Emblidge wrote, “Eleanor Roosevelt threw herself into her United Nations work. Her diplomatic skills were soon given recognition when she was elected chair of the Human Rights Commission, a task that would absorb the better part of her energy and time for several years.”12� She utilized her political skills, honed during her years in the White House, and applied those skills to her work at the UN. In 1952, Time noted ER’s strong debate skills: “Yet, just because she is as she is, Mrs. Roosevelt is highly effective in U.N. debates. Her Republican partners in the U.N. are the first to acknowledge that she can often be more effective than they—not simply in answering a Malik or a Pavlov with the right arguments, but in winning the sympathy and the support of the Indians or the Arabs or the Indonesians.”�13 At the UN, ER developed effective debate skills as well as political flair. Allida M. Black, Director of the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers, wrote that ER “stunned delegates with her political finesse she displayed in overseeing the drafting and unanimous passage of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.”�14 ER applied these skills to the creation of the centerpiece of her work at the UN — the UDHR. In 1947, the permanent UN Human Rights Commission met for the first time, and the committee unanimously elected ER its chair in Lake Success, NY.15� ER led the Commission which worked two years drafting and editing their Declaration of Human Rights.16� In December 1948, the General Assembly unanimously approved the UDHR as a set of principles for further human rights protection worldwide. As ER explained in UN: Today and Tomorrow, the Declaration was “Intended to set standards and voice the aspirations of people throughout the world, but not to be legally binding.”�17 She added that the second step would be establishing a covenant of treaties whose nations accepted the UDHR, and the third step would be an implementation system holding nations accountable for their agreements.18� Though the General Assembly never ratified the covenant nor an implementation system, the UDHR remains “The foundation of international human rights law, the first universal statement on the basic principles of inalienable human rights, and a common standard of achievement for all peoples and all nations.”�19 The UDHR was the foundation of post-World War II human rights protection efforts and a new world order. ER recognized that the UDHR came about only as a result of World War II and international fury over the Holocaust. On December 9,
1948, she spoke at the UN General Assembly imploring them to approve the UDHR. As she spoke, she reminded her listeners of the human rights violations committed in the war: “The realization that the flagrant violation of human rights by Nazi and Fascist countries sowed the seeds of the last world war has supplied the impetus for the work which brings us to the moment of achievement here today.”20� ER feared that the senseless violence of the war would come again if nations did not take steps to protect basic human rights. The UN General Assembly honored Eleanor Roosevelt for her commitment to international human rights. On December 10, when the General Assembly unanimously approved the UDHR, “The delegates rose in unison to give Eleanor Roosevelt an ovation. She had truly become the first lady of the world—its foremost humanitarian.”21� She worked in the United Nations to bring about a new world order. FDR had this vision for the UN during the war, and after his death, his widow helped create an atmosphere where human rights are the center of international attention. In spite of ER’s best efforts, not every country approved of the UDHR and its principles for human rights. While the General Assembly unanimously adopted the Declaration, eight countries abstained from voting. The East bloc countries of Poland, Byelorussia, the United Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia, and Ukraine abstained, along with South Africa and Saudi Arabia.�22 The abstentions disappointed and infuriated ER, who reflected on the events in her autobiography, On My Own. She wrote, “In the end there was no vote cast against the Declaration in the General Assembly, but there were some disappointing abstentions. The Soviet Union and its satellite countries abstained, since the Russian delegate contended that the Declaration put emphasis mainly on ‘eighteenth-century rights’ and not enough on economic, social and cultural rights.”23� ER also noted that Saudi Arabia abstained on religious grounds while South Africa believed the Declaration was too radical.24� These abstentions frustrated ER, who remained dedicated to the principles of the UDHR and wanted to hold countries accountable when they did not protect human rights. Despite the abstentions to the UDHR in 1948, human rights are a core issue in international affairs today. In the post-1945 new world order, nations are accountable to other nations and responsible for securing the human rights of their people. This was a vast departure from isolationism in the 1930s where national sovereignty was the reigning principle in international relations. The UN and the UDHR represent a new conceptualization of morality within the 39
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research international realm. As Cook wrote in Eleanor Roosevelt Volume II: The Defining Years 1933-1938, “Fifty years after ER worked to place human rights on the international agenda, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the United Nations on December 10, 1948, every individual, citizen, committee and nation is responsible and accountable — encouraged to protest human rights abuses, empowered to prevent ethnic cleansing, torture, lynchings, hate crimes and genocide.”�25 The UDHR empowered people all over the world to view the violation of human rights as the suffering of their fellow world citizens, not simply the citizens of another nation they could not assist. As part of this spirit of empowerment in international human rights, Dorothy Canfield Fisher published a children’s book in 1952 on the UDHR and its significance called A Fair World For All: The Meaning of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. She outlined the Declaration’s Preamble and thirty articles in simple language with colorful illustrations for her young readers. ER wrote the foreword to Fisher’s book, highlighting the importance of the UDHR. She wrote, “This Declaration is a landmark in civilization and was written not by any one country or group of countries, but by the 58 nations that were part of the United Nations” and added that the UDHR “was drafted in conformity with the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations under which members of the United Nations agreed to promote human rights and fundamental freedoms.”�26 Still, as Fisher wrote her book, the UDHR remained only the first step on the road to full international cooperation and protection for the human rights of all the citizens of the world. She characterized the UDHR as the, “Building material for the only bridge which will let us keep on along the human road.”�27 Fisher’s book represents the departure from isolationism into a new world order based on international accountability and human rights. Eleanor Roosevelt was central to the proclamation of the UDHR in 1948. Her leadership enabled the UDHR’s principles to become the ideal for human rights activists worldwide. Cook wrote in her biography of ER, “After the White House years, Eleanor Roosevelt devoted her life to the achievement of human rights worldwide. The United Nations’ Declaration of Human Rights promised dignity, political influence and economic security to all the people of this planet.”�28 Frank Freidel called ER’s leadership role in the UDHR her “crowning achievement.”�29 Sixty-one years after the UN proclaimed the UDHR as the international standard of human rights, it remains the global human rights ideal, even if the full realization of the human rights principles it represents has 40
not been fully achieved. The UDHR remains the cornerstone of human rights principles today. As Black wrote, “Today, more than 50 years after its passage, the UDHR remains the touchstone of the global Human Rights movement and a key component of an international system that provides for international scrutiny of the way in which a nation treats its citizens.”�30 The UDHR was the first step in the long process ahead of us — guaranteeing human rights for all citizens of the world.
References Black, Allida M. “Biography of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt.” The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. George Washington University. http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/abouteleanor/ erbiography.cfm#yr1945 (accessed November 30, 2009). --, ed. The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I: The Human Rights Years 1945-1948. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007. Cook, Blanche Wiesen. Eleanor Roosevelt Volume 1: 1884-1933. New York: Penguin Books, 1992. --. Eleanor Roosevelt Volume II: The Defining Years 1933-1938. New York: Penguin Books, 1999. Emblidge, David, ed. Eleanor Roosevelt’s, My Day, Volume II: The Post-War Years 1945-1952. New York: Pharos Books, 1990. --, ed. Eleanor Roosevelt’s, My Day, Volume III: First Lady of the World, Her Acclaimed Columns 1953-1962. New York: Pharos Books, 1991. Fisher, Dorothy Canfield. A Fair World For All: The Meaning of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952. Nye, Joseph S. Jr. Understanding International Relations. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. “People: The Way Things Are.” Time, April 7, 1952. http://www. time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,816281-8,00.html (accessed November 30, 2009).
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Roosevelt, Eleanor. My Day. The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. George Washington University. http://www.gwu. edu/~erpapers/myday/browsebyyear.cfm (accessed November 30, 2009).
David Emblidge, ed., Eleanor Roosevelt’s, My Day, Volume II: The Post-War Years, Her Acclaimed Columns 1945-1952, (New York: Pharos Books, 1990), 2.
Allida M. Black, ed., The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I: The Human Rights Years 1945-1948, (Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007), 158. Truman assumed the presidency upon FDR’s death.
Eleanor Roosevelt, My Day, December 22, 1945, The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, George Washington University, http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/myday/displaydoc.cfm?_ y=1945&_f=md000215 (accessed November 30, 2009). ER published her syndicated column My Day six days a week in newspapers nationwide from 1936 until 1962. For a comprehensive electronic collection of ER’s My Day, see Eleanor Roosevelt, My Day, The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, George Washington University, http://www.gwu. edu/~erpapers/myday/browsebyyear.cfm (accessed November 30, 2009).
For a full text copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, see “Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, http:// www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/humanrights/udhr/lang/eng.htm (accessed November 30, 2009). For an abbreviated version of the UDHR, see “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Abbreviated Version),” Amnesty International USA, http:// www.amnestyusa.org/educate/un-documents/universaldeclaration-of-human-rights-abbreviated-version/page. do?id=1091119 (accessed November 30, 2009).
Joseph S. Nye Jr., Understanding International Relations, (New York: Pearson Longman, 2007) 119.
Roosevelt, My Day, January 5, 1946.
--. On My Own. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1958. Roosevelt, Eleanor and William DeWitt. UN: Today and Tomorrow. New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1953. Scharf, Lois. Eleanor Roosevelt: First Lady of American Liberalism. Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987. “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Living Document.” 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. http://www.un.org/events/humanrights/udhr60/declaration. shtml (accessed November 30, 2009). “Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Abbreviated Version).” Amnesty International USA. http://www.amnestyusa.org/ educate/un-documents/universal-declaration-of-human-rightsabbreviated-version/page.do?id=1091119 (accessed November 30, 2009). “Universal Declaration of Human Rights.” United Nations High Commissioner on Human Rights. http://www.gwu. edu/~erpapers/humanrights/udhr/lang/eng.htm (accessed November 30, 2009).
Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt Volume II: The Defining Years 1933-1938, (New York: Penguin Books, 1999) 6.
FDR was elected to the presidency a record four times and died shortly after the beginning of his fourth term. Hereafter President Franklin D. Roosevelt will be abbreviated as FDR and Eleanor Roosevelt as ER in the manner employed by the Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project and Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library in Hyde Park, NY.
10 Roosevelt, My Day, January 5, 1949. 11 Emblidge, ed., Eleanor Roosevelt’s My Day Volume II, 43. The UN met in London first and later moved to New York. 12 Emblidge, ed., Eleanor Roosevelt’s My Day Volume II, 57.
Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt Volume II: The Defining Years 19331938, 1. 41
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research 13 “People: The Way Things Are,” Time, April 7, 1952, http:// www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,816281-8,00. html (accessed November 30, 2009).
21 Lois Scharf, Eleanor Roosevelt: First Lady of American Liberalism, (Boston: Twayne Publishers, 1987) 148. 22 Black, ed., The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I, 974.
14 Allida M. Black, “Biography of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt,” The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project, George Washington University, http://www.gwu.edu/~erpapers/abouteleanor/ erbiography.cfm#yr1945 (accessed November 30, 2009).
23 Eleanor Roosevelt, On My Own, (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1958), 89. 24 Roosevelt, On My Own, 89.
15 Black, ed., The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I, 442. 16 For more information on the domestic and international struggles ER faced with the development of the UDHR, see Allida M. Black, The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I: The Human Rights Years 1945-1948, (Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2007). 17 Eleanor Roosevelt and William DeWitt, UN: Today and Tomorrow, (New York: Harper and Brothers Publishers, 1953), x.
25 Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt Volume II: The Defining Years 19331938, 6. 26 Dorothy Canfield Fisher, A Fair World For All: The Meaning of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1952) 5. 27 Fisher, A Fair World For All, 157. 28 Blanche Wiesen Cook, Eleanor Roosevelt Volume 1: 18841933, (New York: Penguin Books, 1992) 17.
18 Roosevelt and DeWitt, UN: Today and Tomorrow, xi. 19 “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights: A Living Document,” 60th Anniversary of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, http://www.un.org/events/humanrights/udhr60/ declaration.shtml (accessed November 30, 2009). 20 Black, ed., The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Volume I, 972.
29 David Emblidge, ed., Eleanor Roosevelt’s My Day Volume III: First Lady of the World, Her Acclaimed Columns 1953-1962, (New York: Pharos Books, 1991) xv. 30 Black, “Biography of Anna Eleanor Roosevelt.”
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Brooke E. Phillips Class: Senior Major: Applied Mathematics I am an undergraduate student originally from Providence, Ky. I will graduate with honors from Murray State University in December 2009 obtaining a degree in applied mathematics with an emphasis in finance.
The Mathematics of Indian Drums We will discuss the mathematics of Indian drums with a focus on the tabla and mridangam. These drums have evolved over many centuries and are the only known drums with harmonic properties, making them in some sense the ideal drums. We will present solutions of the wave equation modeling the vibration of these drums using piecewise densities to model the mridangam drum. Key terms: Mridangam and Tabla drums, Indian drums, wave equation, Bessel equation, harmonics, mathematically optimal drum
Lauren M. Schmidt Class: Senior Major: Mathematics and Computer Science I am an undergraduate student originally from Louisville, Ky. I will be graduating from Murray State University in May 2010 earning a dual degree in mathematics and computer science.
FACULTY MENTOR Maeve L. McCarthy is a professor in the Department of Mathematics and Statistics and executive director of the Association for Women in Mathematics. A native of Ireland, she received her M.Sc. in mathematical sciences from the National University of Ireland, Galway. She earned a Ph.D. in computational and applied mathematics from Rice University. Her research interests include the application of eigenvalues to population dynamics and mechanical design. Her work in differential equations and inverse problems focuses on the identification of parameters in biological and physical applications, and the design of musical instruments with prescribed mathematical properties.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
The Mathematics of Indian Drums
When people in America think of drums, they visualize the drum set used by bands or maybe the snare drum and bass drums that would be part of a marching band. Most people, however, do not think of drums with the ability to play harmonics like many other instruments. There are two ancient Indian drums called the Mridangam and Tabla . These drums have changed over many centuries and are the only known drums with harmonic properties, making them in some sense ideal drums. Using mathematics, we will present solutions of the wave equation modeling the vibration of these drums.
Vibrations of the Mridangam Drum There are many unique characteristics of the Mridangam that contribute to the harmonics. First, the body of the drum is constructed from the wood of the jackfruit tree. Then the two mouths or apertures of the drum are covered with goat skin leather and laced to each other with leather straps around the circumference of drum. These two membranes are dissimilar in width to allow for the production of both bass and treble sounds from the same drum. The goat skin covering the smaller aperture is anointed in the center with a black disk made of rice flour, ferric oxide powder and starch.
This black paste gives the Mridangam its distinct metallic timbre. The combination of two inhomogeneous circular membranes allows for the production of unique and distinct harmonics.  It should be noted that the drum can have more than one layer and each layer consists of material of a different density. A picture of the Mridangam and its many different layers can be viewed in Figure 1. To learn more about the construction of the Mridangam and why it is constructed in this manner, see . To begin, we declare the domain of the membrane to be a circle because of the circular nature of the drum. The wave equation is used to model the vibrations of one of the drum heads because it models vibrations. The well-known wave equation can be represented as:
1 1 ztt = c2 (zrr + zr + 2 zθθ ) r r
t>0 0<r<1 0<θ<2π where z(r,θ,t) is the displacement of the drum head, c =
is the wave speed, T is the tension, ρ is density, r is the radius, θ represents angle, and t represents time . Since we are working with a partial differential equation,we must have a set of boundary conditions and an initial condition in order to uniquely solve the equation. The conditions are as follows:
z(1,θ,t)=0 z(0,θ,t)<∞ z(r,θ,0)=Z(r,θ) The first boundary condition means the drum must be fixed or clamped at the outer boundary and the second boundary condition implies that the drum will not rupture at its center during vibrations. Figure 1 44
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research We know that the density of the Mridangam membrane is made up of concentric circular layers of paste on the goatskin.Thus we can treat the wave speed and density as a radial function ρ(r). In the absence of the paste, the density is effectively constant. In the presence of the paste, it is effectively a piecewise constant.
−g (θ) r2 f (r) rf (r) ω 2 r2 + + 2 = f (r) f (r) c g(θ) In polar coordinates, r and θ are independent, so again each side of the equation equals the same constant which we will call α2. In order to find α, we must first realize that we are working with a differential equation of the form
y"+α2y=0, To model the Mridangam mathematically, the constant density case must first be examined. Instead of having multiple layers of black paste as the Mridangam would normally appear, the drum is viewed with having only the goat skin leather stretched across the apertures. As stated earlier, the wave equation models the vibration, so we begin by using (2.1). We will assume the dependences on r, θ, and t can be separated from one another . So you can write z(r,θ,t) in the form
giving the solution
y=Acos(αθ)+Bsin(αθ). Since our domain is circular, we know that y(θ)=y(θ+2π). So, use this identity to obtain the following,
Acos(αθ)+Bsin(αθ)=Acos(αθ+α2π)+Bsin(αθ+α2π). The right-hand side of this equation can be expanded rendering
z(r,θ,t)=f(r)g(θ)h(t) and substitute into (2.1.) Then, divide by f(r)g(θ)h(t) to obtain
1 g (θ) f (r) 1 f (r) h (t) = c2 + + 2 h(t) f (r) r f (r) r g(θ)
where c is constant. The left hand side of the equation depends on time, t, and the right hand side depends on space, (r,θ). Since time and space are independent, we conclude that each side of the equation equals the same constant. Let the constant be –w2. So, (3.1) becomes
1 f (r)
1 g (θ)
+ + 2 = −ω 2 c2 (3.2) f (r) r f (r) r g(θ)
h (t) = −ω 2 h(t)
Then, by grouping terms,
Acos(αθ)+Bsin(αθ)=(Acos(2απ)+Bsin(2απ))cos(αθ) +(Bcos(2απ)−Asin(2απ))sin(αθ) which is true for all θ. When θ=0,
When 0= 2'
We must have that α is an integer in order for these conditions to hold.
To find h(t), rewrite the time equation (3.3) as
h"(t)+ w2 h(t) = 0 The solution is
h(t) = acos(ωt)+bsin(ωt) which can be written as h(t)=sin(ωt+φ). The values of ω will determine the frequencies of the drum.
All of this gives us the result
−g (θ) = n2 . g(θ)
g (θ) + n2 g(θ) = 0 g(θ) = sin(nθ + ψ)
Finally, by using all the previously given information, (3.2) becomes Bessel’s Equation ,
To find g(θ), use the space equation (3.2). First, multiply by r2 and rearrange to obtain
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research 1 ω 2 n2 f f (r) + (r) + ( − 2 )f (r) = 0. (3.4) r c2 r
Because ω2 and c2 are constants, we can write f (r) = Jn ( c2 r). This can be simplified to f (r) = Jn ( ωr ) given that ω>0 and c>0. c ) In principle, Yn ( ωr c can also be used for f(r) where Yn is a Bessel function of the second kind. Therefore, we use both types of Bessel functions, Jn and Yn so that f(r) becomes
f (r) =
An J n (
ωr ωr ) + B n Yn ( ) c c
and the overall solution to the wave equation for constant density is represented as a function of three variables ωr ωr ) + Bn Yn ( ) sin(nθ + ψ) sin(ωt + φ). c c n=0 (3.5)(0.1) z(r, θ, t) =
An Jn (
Table 1 Constant Density Table Ratio wi /w0
ratio between each frequency and the fundamental frequency ω0. For a harmonic instrument, the ratios will be integers, not decimals as they appear in the table. In particular, the constant density case does not provide a good model for our harmonic drum.
For the boundary condition at zero, we had z(0,θ,t)<∞. Since limr→0+ Y0 (r) = −∞ and limr→0+ Yn (r) = ∞ for n = 1, 2, 3...,Based on experiments on the Mridangam described by Rossing and Sykes , the frequencies of the harmonics have integer ratios. Is 2, 3 ... we must have Bn=0 for all n. Therefore, no rupturing implies it possible to mathematically construct a model that will force the no Bessel functions of the second kind, Yn. ratio of frequencies, ω, to be equal to an integer? To do this we will define a case where there are two layers of material by the Now, for the boundary condition at 1, we want z(1,θ,t)=0. Which following formula, implies
ω An Jn ( ) sin(nθ + ψ) sin(ωt + φ) = 0 c
where ω is the frequency of the drum. Bessel functions oscillate across the horizontal axis, meaning they have zeros. In this case, ω th th c must be the zeros of Bessel functions. The k zero of the n Bessel Function Jn(x) is denoted by jn,k so ωc = jn,k .
z(r, θ, t) =
An Jn (
Figure 2 46
0<r<a a < r < 1.
ωr ωr ) + Bn Yn ( ) sin(nθ + ψ) sin(ωt + φ). c0 c0
Like the constant density case, a singularity at zero will occur in this region. Therefore, there will be no Yn terms because Bessel functions of the second kind suggests rupturing at the center, so Bn=0 and
Also, as another representation, a table was created to display the frequencies, the order of the corresponding Bessel zeroes and the
The vibrations of the drum satisfy (2.1) in both regions. For the region 0<r<a,
The frequencies, or zeroes of the Bessel functions, for the constant density are indicated on the number line in Figure 2. Notice that they are very unevenly spaced and the farther out you go, the closer they get together. For a harmonic drum, the number line spacing 1 will be equal.
for all n.
An J n ( 1
ωr ) < ∞ at r = 0 c0
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research To obtain an integer ratio, we first must find the drum frequencies for the piecewise density. We start with a specific case. In this case we chose ωω10 = 2. Therefore ω1=2ω0 For the case ω=ω0 we have the system
Jn ( ωc10 ) Yn ( ωc10 ) Jn ( ωc01a ) Yn ( ωc01a )
0 0 Jn ( ωc00a )
which we solved for C and D. For the case ω = ω1 = 2ω0 , we have the constraint
0 0 ) Yn ( 2ω ) Jn ( 2ω 0 0 C c1 c1 = J ( 2ω0 a ) Y ( 2ω0 a ) (4.4) Jn ( 2ω0 a ) D
To solve for ω 0 we have created a Matlab program called Residual. For the region a<r<1, z(r, θ, t) =
ωr ωr Cn Jn ( ) + Dn Yn ( ) sin(nθ + ψ) sin(ωt + φ). c1 c1
The boundary condition on the rim of the drum z(1,θ,t)=0 gives
C n Jn (
ω ω ) + Dn Yn ( ) = 0 c1 c1
for all n. At the interface of the regions, we will enforce continuity and so we will set the equations equal to one another to obtain
An Jn (
ωa ωa ωa ) = Cn Jn ( ) + Dn Yn ( ) c0 c1 c1
for all n. An image of the piecewise density drum can be seen in Figure 3 above to reference the equations to a specific location.
The program solves the equation (4.3) for the variables C and D and computes the residual of equation (4.4)
Jn ( 2ω0 ) Yn ( 2ω0 ) 0 0 C c c 1 1 − Jn ( 2ω0 a ) Yn ( 2ω0 a ) Jn ( 2ωc00 a ) D c1 c1
Using the built-in Matlab function, fminbnd, we minimize this residual for a particular choice of c1 and a. The minimizer is the value of ω0, or the first fundamental frequency, for our piecewise constant drum. We can continue this procedure by adding equations of the form (4.1) with ω=2ω0,3ω0,4ω0, ... to the residual (4.5). We computed the value of ω0,ω1 and ω in the cases where √ and a=1/2 andand a=1/4 in Tables c1 = 1/ 2 and a = 1/2 a= 1/4 2 and 3. We noticed that ω0 changes with a.
For each n, now we have unknown variables which are An,Cn,Dn and ω. Also, when solving linear differential equations, we can set A=1. So, now we have two equations, with unknown variables C, D, and a vector of ω. These equations can be written as system of linear equations to solve for C and D. For ω=ω0,ω1,ω2...
Jn ( cω1 ) Yn ( cω1 ) Jn ( ωr ) Yn ( ωr ) c1 c1
0 0 Jn ( ωr ) c0
Table 2 Piecewise Density 1 =2w a=1/2,c1=1/ 2 forcing w2=3w0, w 1 0
Ratio wi/ w0
Given that ω is the fundamental frequency and ω is the ith
i Given that ω0 is0 the fundamental frequency ωi is the ith frequency, frequency, we set we set ωi = i + 1. (4.2) (0.1) ω0
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 3 Piecewise Density a=1/4,c1=1/ 2 forcing w2=3w0, w1=2w0
Ratio wi/ w0
Conclusion Using the wave equation we were successfully able to model an ideal drum. The constant density case did not provide us with best model for the drum, so we created a piecewise density model to more accurately represent the harmonics of the drum. By forcing the ratio of the frequencies to be integers, we were able to model the harmonics of the drums. In the future, having conditions that would more accurately model the materials in the tabla and mridangam would be ideal.
Benson, Dave, Music: A Mathematical Offering. New York: Cambridge UP, 2006. Print.
Raman, C.V., The Indian Musical Drum, Proc. Indian Academy of Science (1935): 179-88.
Rossing, T. and Sykes,W. Acoustics of Indian Drums, Percussive Notes, Vol 19, No. 3, pg 58-67, 1982.
General http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mridangam October 30, 2009.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Megan E. Rhodes Class: Senior Major: Chemistry As a senior from Whitesville, Ky., I have had the distinct opportunity to deepen my appreciation for chemical analysis and its importance regarding chemical pollutants and health effects. Environmental contaminants impact our lives, and the research that I have completed is just a small piece in understanding the larger problem of industrial chemicals and their impacts on human health. It is my desire to pursue a degree as a doctor of osteopathic medicine and practice family medicine in rural or underserved regions of Kentucky.
Bisphenol A Concentrations in Sewage Sludge Samples from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA) is a synthetic organic chemical used in industry and consumer products all over the world. BPA is used in plastic beverage bottles, compact disks, and sports and medical equipment. It is also used for the lining of food and beverage containers. Human exposure to this chemical comes through leaching from plastics into food and liquids. Exposure to BPA is believed to cause major complications in the endocrine systems of many animal species and human populations. Understanding of environmental contamination levels of BPA is essential in order to prevent future contamination and protect wildlife and humans from negative health effects from this chemical. In this study, sewage sludge samples collected from the local wastewater treatment plant during December 2008 to February 2009 were analyzed for BPA concentration using solid phase extraction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques. Results revealed that BPA concentrations ranged from 1.58 to 2.39 Âľg/g dry weight. This study provides evidence that detectable concentrations of BPA are found in sewage sludge from a local wastewater treatment plant.
Key terms: Bisphenol A, sewage sludge, endocrine disruptor, ELISA
FACULTY MENTOR Bommanna Loganathan, Ph.D., is an associate professor of environmental/analytical chemistry and holds joint appointment with the Department of Chemistry and Watershed Studies Institute. His research interests include toxic environmental pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pesticides (DDT, HCB, HCHs, chlordane, chlorpyrifos etc.), dioxins, dibenzofurans and butyl/phenyltins, their distribution, environmental behavior, fate and their effect on wildlife and human health. Students who work in Loganathan's laboratory receive training in trace level (parts per billion/parts per trillion) analysis of synthetic organic and organometallic pollutants in environmental (air, water, soil and sediment) and biological (fish, shellfish and human tissues) samples using state-of-the-art instrumentation.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Bisphenol A Concentrations in Sewage Sludge Samples from a Small Urban Wastewater Treatment Plant
isphenol A (BPA; 2,2-bis(hydroxyphenyl) propane, C15H16O2 , MW: 228.29) is a man-made organic compound (Figure 1). It appears as white to light brown flakes or powder with melting point of 158°C and boiling point of 220°C. BPA was first synthesized in 1891 (Dianin, 1891), and large scale production (millions of pounds) began in 1940s when new use of BPA in plastics was discovered.
development, and disturbances in the immunological system (Loos et al., 2003; Sawai et al., 2003; Szymanski et al., 2006). Recent studies on humans show that male workers who were exposed to extremely high levels of BPA experienced consistently higher sexual dysfunction than unexposed workers in the same plastics manufacturing setting (Erickson, 2009). Other recent studies show that BPA decreases sperm quantity, causes various types of cancer, and affects the brain and cardiovascular system (Hai et al., 2010). These harmful effects of BPA cause great concern for
the scientific community and general population. Therefore, it is important to understand the levels of BPA contamination in the environment in order to prevent further contamination and prevent harmful health effects on humans and wildlife. To our knowledge, no studies have been conducted on the levels of BPA in sewage sludge samples from a particular local wastewater treatment plant. The objective of this study was to determine concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge samples collected from the Murray wastewater treatment plant (MWWTP) and better understand the magnitude of BPA contamination in these samples in comparison with BPA concentrations reported for other wastewater treatment plant in the United States and other countries.
Figure 1. Structure of Bisphenol A (2,2-bis(hydroxyphenyl) propane, BPA), CAS # 80-05-7. BPA is produced in industrial reactions with phenol and acetone, most frequently in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins (PCs), polyester, and detergents (Maurico et al., 2006; Ohkuma et al., 2002; Sawai et al., 2003). These products are used in the linings of food containers, many water bottles, infant bottles, medical equipment, and even dental fillings (Estevez-Alberda et al., 2004; Loos et al., 2003; Nishi et al., 2003; Szymanski et al., 2006). BPA is prevalent in the chemical industry and its production is said to be a $6 billion global industry (Voith, 2009). Approximately 940,000 tons of BPA are produced in the U.S. annually, according to the National Institutes of Health (Voith, 2009). Epoxy resins when exposed to high temperatures, acidic conditions, or cleaning detergents are able to leach BPA into the food or food materials within the container (Hai et al., 2010; Szymanski et al., 2006). Humans are exposed to BPA via consumption of contaminated foods or beverages. After it is absorbed into the body, BPA can act as an endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) (Erickson, 2009). EDCs are able to imitate the activity of natural hormones (acting as an agonist), block receptors, enter into reactions with hormones, and modify the synthesis of hormones (Estevez-Alberda et al., 2004; Szymanski et al., 2006). By affecting the endocrine system, EDCs are capable of causing neurological conditions, problems with reproduction and 50
Methods The most commonly used methods for determining BPA concentrations are high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) (Ohkuma et al., 2002); however, these methods were less desirable due to costs, sample pretreatment requirements, etc. (Ohkuma et al., 2002). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is a faster, more cost effective alternative method to HPLC or GC-MS. ELISA is also able to quantify many samples simultaneously, and produces parallel data compared to the standard HPLC or GC-MS methods (Estevez-Alberda et al., 2004; Maurico et al., 2006; Nishi et al., 2003). ELISA assay was utilized for analysis of six sewage sludge samples from the MWWTP to determine the concentration of BPA in each sample.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 1 Details of sludge samples and volumes of extracts used during analysis.
Date of Sampling
Sample Dry Weight (grams)
Volume (mL) passed through SPE cartridge
Concentrated volume (mL)
Volume (µL) Analyzed
Sediment samples were obtained from the MWWTP during the months of December 2008, January 2009, and February 2009. Samples were collected by using a pre-cleaned stainless scoop and transferred into pre-cleaned I-Chem (Fisher Scientific) bottles. Sample bottles were stored in an insulated cooler with ice and then placed in a freezer at -20°C in the lab until analysis. In order to obtain dry sediments for analysis, each sample was freeze dried using the Labconco Freezone Freeze dry system (model 77535), at -55°C. About 0.5 grams for each sample was weighed and used for analysis. (Table 1). Dry sediments were dissolved in 100mL deionized water (18WM) acidified to 3-4 pH using trace metal grade concentrated Sulfuric acid (Fisher Scientific). Sonication was performed on the samples for 30 minutes in order to dissolve the analyte in the solvent (Sonicator-VWR, model 250 HT; West Chester, Pa., USA). Samples were filtered with Glass Fiber Filters (preashed, 0.45µM; Millipore Corporation, lot # H3BM98716, Bedford, Mass.) via vacuum filtration methods. Aqueous layer (filtrate) was used for BPA analysis. OASIS® C-18- Hydrophilic Lipophilic Balanced-Solid Phase Extraction cartridges (HLB-SPE) (6mL, 0.2g, 30 µm, Milford, Massachusetts, U.S.A.) obtained from Waters Corporation were used for sample extraction. Cartridges were preconditioned two times using 3.5mL of methanol (Fisher Scientific, N.J., U.S.A.) proceeded by 3mL of deionized water (18WM). The samples were passed through each cartridge (Table 1) under vacuum conditions
at an approximate flow rate of 1 mL/min. The sample cartridges were rinsed with 3mL of deionized water (18WM) and left under vacuum to dry the contents. Elution of cartridges was carried out using approximately 15mL of a 4:1 ratio of dichloromethane in hexane mixture. These solvents were optima grade and obtained from Fisher Scientific, N.J., USA. Eluted samples were also filtered with clean anhydrous sodium sulfate salt (rinsed with acetone and hexane, Fisher Scientific, N.J., USA-lot.no.041443) in order to dehydrate the eluted sample. Each sample was evaporated under a stream of ultrapure nitrogen gas (Airgas: 510545876) to a volume of 1mL. A 300µL aliquot was evaporated to residue using ultra pure nitrogen gas and brought to 1mL with 10 percent (v/v) methanol (optima grade, Fisher Scientific). 100µL of this solution was used for the following analysis. An ELISA kit specific for the analysis of BPA under supersensitive conditions was obtained from Ecologiena®, Envirochemicals, LTD., Japan. The detection limit of BPA using this assay is 0.05µg/L to10.0 µg/L. A 96-well microplate is pre-coated with BPA specific monoclonal antibody. A limited number of antibody binding sites exists, therefore a competitive reaction takes place between BPA in the sample and an added solution of BPA linked to an antigen-enzyme conjugate (BPA-enzyme). 100µL of BPA (sample or standard) was added to 100µL of the conjugate solution. 100µL of this mixture was dispensed in the coated wells of the microplate and incubated at room temp (18-25°C) for an hour (60 51
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 2 Spectrophotometric response for varying concentrations of Bisphenol A. B/Bo is calculated as percent absorbance observed for the sample over Absorbance for the standard at 0.0µg/L (1.295). Calibration Points
Figure 2: Calibration curve for B/Bo percent versus amount of Bisphenol A. 52
was determined using the response factor developed from the slope of the calibration curve (Table 2 and Figure 2).
Results Table 3 shows details of data obtained during the analytical process and concentration of BPA in each sample. BPA concentrations varied from 1.58 to 2.39 µg/g. Variation in concentrations revealed varying amount of BPA input into the wastewater treatment plant during December 2008, January 2009, and February 2009. The highest BPA concentration of 2.39 µg/g dry weight was found on January 2, 2009. Sewage sludge collected on February 20, 2009, contained a relatively lower concentration (1.58 µg/g dry weight) than all other samples (Figure 3).
Concentration of BPA Mg/g dry weight
min.). When the concentration of BPA in the sample is higher than the concentration of BPA-enzyme, the BPA in the sample will most frequently bind the antibody in the well. Washing was performed on each well to get rid of the excess, unbound BPA and BPA-enzyme. Each well was washed three times with 300µL aliquots of wash solution (wash buffer Concentration: (40x) 0.05 percent Tween20 in Phosphate buffer) to insure removal of unbound substance from each well. A coloring step allowed the detection of color from the BPA-enzyme compound bound to the antibodies in each well through the addition of a coloring reagent (100µL, Tetra Methyl Benzidine, TMB). BPA-enzyme is able to catalyze the reaction of the substrate into a colored product. 100µL of 1N H2SO4 was added to stop the reaction after incubating for 30 min., at 18-25 C. The color intensities were measured using a spectrophotometer (M-6+ Mini Photometer, Metertech Corporation, Taiwan), and absorbance was measured at 450nm. The spectrophotometer was calibrated using 0, 0.03, 0.5 and 1.0 ug/mL BPA concentration. An r2 value of 0.98 was obtained. The absorbance values were normalized (B/Bo), and BPA concentration for each sample
Figure 3: BPA concentration in sewage sludge samples from local wastewater treatment plant. Refer to Table 1 for information regarding sediment sample dates.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Table 3 BPA concentrations in sewage sludge samples Sample Number
Absorbance Observed (450nm)
Concentration of sample (µg/100µL)
Dry weight (g) of Sample
Concentration of BPA µg/g dry weight
Table 4 Comparison of Bisphenol A concentrations in sewage sludge samples from various wastewater treatment plants. Type of sample obtained
BPA conc. In sewage sludge (µg/kg)
Method of analysis
Burlington, ON, Canada
Lee and Peart, 2000
Murray, Ky., USA
1580 - 2390
Gehring et al., 2002
Gehring et al., 2002
Gehring et al., 2002
Weltin et al., 2002
Fromme et al., 2002
Discussion BPA has a log Kow value of 3.3 to 3.8, therefore it is moderately soluble in water and not degradable under anaerobic conditions (Gehring et al., 2007). Therefore, BPA tends to adsorb to solid particles, hence, elevated concentrations of BPA in sewage sludge is possible. Presence of BPA in sewage sludge indicates that BPA is not degraded or eliminated during the wastewater treatment process. Very limited information is available on BPA in sewage
sludge samples to compare our data with other WWTPs within the United States. Table 4 presents comparisons of BPA concentrations in sewage sludge samples from various WWTPs. Westin et al. reported BPA concentrations of 75-32100 µg/kg in sewage sludge from one of the WWTP that processes about 62 million gallons of wastewater per day. The wastewater treatment plant, in Murray, Ky., has the capacity to process only 5.2 million gallons per day. Therefore, BPA concentrations of 1580-2390 53
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research µg/kg in sewage sludge from Murray were comparatively lower than larger WWTPs. To our knowledge, this is the first study on Bisphenol A in sewage sludge from Murray Wastewater Treatment Plant. Our results provide evidence that detectable concentrations of BPA were found in all samples analyzed. Further studies with a greater number of samples are needed to make clear the contamination levels and fate of this compound.
Acknowledgements Sincere gratitude is granted to Subhadra Vemu for her help during the sample analysis and to Jason Henderson, Dylan Benningfield, and Sudan Loganathan for their help with sampling at the Murray Wastewater Treatment Plant.
References Dianin, A.P. 1981. Bisphenol A. Zhurnal russkogo fizikokhimicheskogo Obschchestva 21, 492. Erickson, B. E., (Nov. 16, 2009). BPA linked to male sexual dysfunction. Chemical and Engineering News. 87(46): 27. Estevez-Alberda, M.C., Marco, P., (2004). Immunochemical determination of xenobiotics with endocrine distrupting effects. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry Journal. 378:563-575. Fromme, H., Küchler,T., Otto,T., Pilz, K., Müller, J., Wenzel, A., (2002). Occurrence of phthalates and bisphenol A and F in the environment. Water Research. 36(6): 1429-1438. Gehring, M., Tennhardt, L., Vogel, D., Weltin, D. and Bilitewski, B. (2002). Occurrence and Fate of Bisphenol A during Wastewater and Sewage Sludge Treatment in Selected German Wastewater Treatment Plants. Proceedings of the 2002 AWWA Endocrine Disruptors & the Water Industry Symposium, April 18 -20, 2002, The Westin Cincinnati, Ohio, USA, accepted. Hai, F., Huanshun, Y., Lin, C., Lusheng, Z., Shiyun, A., (2010). Electrical determination of Bisphenol A at Mg---Al---CO3 layered double hydroxide modified glassy carbon electrode. Electrochimica Acta. 55: 603-610.
Lee, H.B., Peart, T.E., (2000). Determination of Bisphenol A in sewage effluent and sludge by solid-phase and superficial fluid extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Journal of AOAC International. 83(2): 290-297. Loos, R., Hanke, G., Eisenreich, S.J., (2003). Multi-component analysis of polar water pollutants using sequential solid-phase extraction followed by LC-ESI-MS. Journal of Environmental Monitering. 5: 384-394. Mauricio, R., Diniz, M., Petrovic, M., Amaral, L., Peres, I., Barcelo, D., Santana, F., (2006). A characterization of selected endocrine disruptor compounds in a Portuguese wastewater treatment plant. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 118: 75-87. Nishi, K., Takai, M., Morimune, K., Ohkawa, H., (2003). Molecular and Immunochemical Characteristics of Monoclonal and Recombinant Antibiodies Specific to Bisphenol A. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry Journal. 67(6): 1358-1367. Ohkuma, H., Abe, K., Ito, M., Kokado, A., Kambegawa, A., Maeda, M., (2002) Development of a highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to Bisphenol A in serum. The Analyst. 127: 93-97. Sawai, C., Anderson, K., Walser-Kuntz, D., (2003). Effect of Bisphenol A on Murine Immune Function: Modulation Interferon-γ, IgG2a and Disease Symptoms in NZB x NZW F1 Mice. Environmental Health Perspectives. 111: 1883-1887. Szymanski, A., Rykowska, I., Wasiak, W., (2006). New Ketoimine Sorbents in Solid Phase Extraction for HPLC Analysis of Bisphenol A and Other “Endocrine Disrupting” residues in Drinking Water. Polish Journal of Environmental Study. 15: 479-483. Voith, M., (July,20 2009). Can Conundrum. Chemical and Engineering News. 87(29): 28-29. Weltin, D., Gehring, M., Tennhardt, L., Vogel, D. and Bilitewski, B. (2002). Occurrence and fate of bisphenol A during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment in selected German wastewater treatment plants. In. Occurrence and fate of bisphenol A during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment in selected German wastewater treatment plants. American Water Works Association. pp 1-5.
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Published on Jun 1, 2010