Volume 3 â€“ 2007
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Letter from the President
ndergraduate research and scholarly activity has a dramatic impact on our students and the University as a whole. Collaborations between students and faculty enhance undergraduate education by creating opportunities to explore undiscovered regions of theory and practice. The work of our Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity (URSA) office assists in those individual and collective interactions which move Murray toward goals set by our University Community as well as the Council on Postsecondary Education. As part of an effort to highlight and encourage greater undergraduate student development through academic research, we are pleased to announce the third edition of Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research. I am confident that you will find the selected articles and the diversity of research and scholarly topics valuable as they address complex challenges facing our society. The work of our undergraduates published in this Journal is contributing new ideas, creative thoughts, and challenging questions for us to ponder. Randy J. Dunn President Murray State University
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Letter from the Editors
he interested reader is an elusive creature, as the saying goes, but if you are reading this editors’ note, then perhaps we have caught one, and maybe we can entice you further into the pages of our journal. In this volume you can contemplate for a moment with student author Jill Ligon the struggles of those who bear the debilitating effects of dementia from Alzheimer’s, and perhaps like us you will better appreciate the simple pleasure of being a full participant in the life of a community. In Katie Oller’s article you can read about the battle for religious freedom around the world --- and you might be surprised to find out which western countries were recent recipients of formal communications from the UN expressing concern for alleged violations of religious freedom. Kristyn Brown will acquaint you with the titular character of the Henry James novel What Maisie Knew, and will help you understand why, in James’ words, Maisie “was to feel henceforth as if she were flattening her nose upon the hard window-pane of the sweet-shop of knowledge.” Ever felt that way? Then don’t fog up the window. Sit with our journal, and stay a while. You need not be an expert or expert-in-training to be edified by what you will read here. You might join the company of at least one of the editors who was surprised to learn from Courtney Thomasson and Tiffany Hedrick that he should be concerned about the immunological health of white-footed mice (and that there is such a thing as Purina Rat Chow). You might better understand from Chris Bensing’s article the difficulties faced by a colleague or student peer who has Attention Deficit Disorder. Or you might find out from Jonathan Hill how psychologists wrangle precise and meaningful answers to questions such as: How do different types of music affect your mood? From a team of biology students you might learn something about the impact of exotic plants introduced into our local environment through nursuries ponder the ineluctable changes wrought on an ecosystem by the choices you make in spring planting. A scholarly journal which covers such a broad range of disciplines is a rarity, and it is a privilege to showcase students’ scholarly work. Chrysalis is made possible by the efforts of many. Presidents F. King Alexander, Kern Alexander and Randy J. Dunn, and Provost Gary Brockway have provided encouragement and financial support, for which we are grateful. This publication would not be possible without professional support from the MSU Publications and Printing Services staff. Through every stage, Jody Cofer has skillfully managed manuscripts, abstracts, student and faculty biographies, and editorial communications. Most important, however, are all of the student researchers and faculty mentors whose labors lead to this years’ submissions, which we believe represent some of the best student scholarship on this campus. We hope that the selections included in this volume will inspire conversation and inform critical thinking. Perhaps one of these selections will lead to a thought, or a question, or an hypothesis that will be the impetus for you, our dear reader, to consider making a scholarly contribution of your own in the coming years. Kevin Binfield Department of English and Philosophy
Rob Donnelly Department of Mathematics and Statistics
John Mateja URSA and McNair Programs
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
CONTENTS Letter from the President................................................................................................................................................... i Randy Dunn Letter from the Editors...................................................................................................................................................... ii Kevin Binfield, Rob Donnelly, and John Mateja How Does Attention Deficit Disorder Affect Co-worker Communication and Organizational Assimilation?..................1 J. Chris Bensing Faculty Mentor: Lou Tillson From Childhook to Maturity in Henry James “What Maisie Knew”..............................................................................10 Kristyn Brown Faculty Mentor: Peter Murphy Horticulture, a Key Source of Introducing Exotic Species to Native Communities and Ecosystems...............................16 Jacqueline Hawes, Laura Gossett, Jami Kara Hitch, Erica Ludtke, Sara Struve, Laura Gossett and Nicole Zelesnikar Faculty Mentor: Kate He Maintaining Participation with Communication for Individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type......................20 Jill Ligon Faculty Mentor: Kelly Kleinhans Assessing the Influence of Rock Music on Emotions.......................................................................................................27 Jonathan Hill Faculty Mentor: Alysia Ritter A Critique of the Global State of Religious Freedom......................................................................................................34 Katie Oller Faculty Mentor: Farouk Umar The Effects of Diet and Social Stress on Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity in Peromyscus leucopus....................42 Courtney Thomason and Tiffany Hedrick Faculty Mentor: Terry Derting
Volume 3 – 2007
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Achieve Your Potential
The URSA Program Can Help
Undergraduate Research and
What are URSA Grants?
The URSA Grants program is designed to encourage collaborative scholarly, research and creative work between undergraduate students and faculty. Student participants may become engaged in the scholarly pursuits of MSU faculty or carry out a project of their own under the supervision of a faculty mentor. This competitive program will provide undergraduates with financial support of up to $500 for supplies, equipment, operating expenses and travel. Full-time undergraduates enrolled at Murray State University are eligible to apply. Similarly, all university faculty, whatever their college, rank or nature of appointment, may serve as URSA Grant mentors. Students may work with faculty from their own colleges or from another of MSU’s five colleges or the School of Agriculture.
Opportunities provided through undergraduate research and scholarly activity: • Posters-at-the-Capitol
Participants present their work to legislators at the State Capitol Building in Frankfort, Ky.
• Scholars Week
Includes oral and poster sessions, exhibits and performance opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students.
• Get Published
Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research provides an avenue for undergraduates to publish their research.
• Research Scholar Fellowships
Undergraduates receive support in the form of stipends paid throughout the year, a supply budget, and a faculty support stipend for the purpose of conducting a scholarly project.
Call 270-809-3192 for more information about Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
r. Ken Bowman lived life to the fullest according to the “Success is a journey, not a destination” axiom. He perhaps invented the “been there, done that, have the shirt” saying. If there was something going on at Murray State, Dr. Bowman wanted to experience it. He was part of the “Agriculture Roads Scholar Brigade” before Roads Scholars was cool. He sacrificed his commitment to Agriculture students for two years to serve the larger student body as faculty head of Springer Franklin College. He was also co-founder and co-editor of the Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research. Dr. Bowman was an unusually gifted individual and faculty member. As noted during the presentation of his promotion packet last spring, “Although outstanding, Dr. Bowman was not the most productive researcher at MSU … but he could have been. Although outstanding, he was not the most active community or university servant… but he could have been. The reason he wasn’t the absolute best of the two aforementioned criteria was that he only had so much time and he put most of his time and energy into being a GREAT teacher, indeed among the very BEST.“ Dr. Bowman served students … and he served quite a few of them. He served as advisor to 93 students, undoubtedly one of the largest advising loads at MSU. Dr. Bowman worked well with students. He hosted student clubs at his home and even took some of them with him to his favorite professional sports events. Ironically, on the day that he passed he was headed to Nashville to watch the Titans and he had asked another faculty member to accompany him. If it was Friday, you could count on him to sport his favorite athletic team jersey. His teaching career at MSU was cut far too short and his loss will leave a great void in our School. The loss of Dr. Ken Bowman was definitely a sad day for Chrysalis and Murray State University. Dr. Tony Brannon Dean School of Agriculture
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Call for Articles Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research is published annually by the Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity Office with support from the Office of the President. The purpose of Chrysalis is to celebrate the research, scholarly and creative accomplishments of our undergraduates and their faculty mentors. Undergraduates in all academic disciplines may submit articles to Chrysalis. Articles must be submitted electronically. Photographs, illustrations and diagrams should be submitted separately in high resolution jpg format. Authors should follow the guidelines of the professionally accepted style for the discipline. Articles may be posted on the Undergraduate Research and Scholarly Activity Office website at Murray State University.
http://campus.murraystate.edu/services/URSA If you have questions regarding Chrysalis: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research please call 270-809-3192 or contact us electronically at email@example.com.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
J. Chris Bensing Class: Senior Major: Organizational Communications
J. Chris Bensing decided to follow in the foot steps of his loving parents John and Mary in 2003 by attending Murray State University. After jumping from one department to the next, Chris finally found his niche in Organizational Communication. Upon graduating, he enrolled in the Graduate program at Murray State University in Organizational Communication. He hopes to use his course work to become a Human Resource manager.
How Does Attention Deficit Disorder Affect Co-worker Communication and Organizational Assimilation? Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) can have serious effects on communication with co-workers and organizational assimilation. These effects are usually because of the behavioral differences that an ADD individual exhibits; particularly the inattentive, impulsive, and anti-social behaviors. The expectancy violation theory is used to illustrate why these behaviors influence co-worker communication the way they do. Uncertainty reduction theory helps in explaining why these symptoms make the assimilation process a challenging one. Knowledge of this disorder and its effects not only help individuals on a personal level, but can also improve organizational productivity.
FACULTY MENTORS Lou Davidson Tillson is a professor in the Department of Organizational Communication and a member of the Honors Program faculty. She earned a Ph.D. in organizational communication from The Ohio University in 1992 and has taught at Murray State University since that time. Tillson teaches health communication, the honors seminar in communication, and the senior seminar in organizational communication, supervising nearly 500 undergraduate research projects during the past seven years. She has co-authored a public speaking textbook, published 26 articles, and delivered more than 60 presentations at professional conferences.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
How Does Attention Deficit Disorder Affect Co-worker Communication and Organizational Assimilation?
eing diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) at a young age has definitely had powerful positive, as well as negative, long-term effects on my life. My experiences dealing with this disorder have made me who I am today. I am a stronger individual now than ever before. However, the workplace can be an uncertain, turbulent, stressful, even scary place for newcomers during the assimilation process, not to mention newcomers who
or think they might be, affected by the symptoms of this disorder educate themselves. A basic education of the symptoms caused by Attention Deficit Disorder could be beneficial to any organizational newcomer.
have been diagnosed with Attention Deficit Disorder. Many symptoms caused by the disorder affect the person on professional and social levels. Research has also revealed that secondary symptoms such as depression and social anxiety are brought on and intensified by the disorder. Secnik, Swensen, and Lage (2005) call these secondary symptoms “comorbidities” and report that employees with Attention Deficit Disorder along with secondary symptoms or “comorbidities” will generate significantly higher cost for an organization (p. 94). There is a good chance that you have, you are, or you will work with someone who deals with ADD.
Attention Deficit Disorder
How does Attention Deficit Disorder affect co-worker communication and organizational assimilation? This question is the basis for the content of this paper. How will these individuals handle the uncertainties all employees experience when social and cultural norms are unknown during organizational assimilation? Do the anti-social, impulsive, inattentive symptoms disrupt interpersonal communication in such a way that the co-worker communication essential to organizational assimilation is deemed impossible? The following content evaluates these questions by examining previous research with regard to the three variables: Attention Deficit Disorder, co-worker communication, and organizational assimilation. Communicative theory will be used in an attempt to explain how messages, meanings, and information may not be as functional in maintaining a complex organization that embraces individuals with ADD; and how the day-to-day tensions between the organization and its members may be amplified as a result of the disorder. Scholars and medical professionals who have researched Attention Deficit Disorder strongly recommend that individuals who are,
“ADD [or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)] is a disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by disturbances in the areas of attention, impulsiveness and hyperactivity” (Silver, 1993, p.8). However, the vagueness of this definition does not give full scope of the disorder’s effects on an individual. Silver (1993) sheds some light stressing that “ADD is a complicated disorder with diverse symptoms of varying degrees of severity” (p. 3). Existing research on ADD shows, with the exception of a small percentage of individuals, hyperactivity symptoms will diminish as an ADD individual reaches adulthood. Still, regardless of the presence of hyperactivity, the individual will continue to show symptoms of inattention and impulsiveness throughout adulthood. A basic knowledge of communication shows the importance of listening in any interpersonal interaction. However, listening could become a serious task for an individual with these two symptoms. Nadeau (2005) found that although hyperactivity may decrease when transitioning into adulthood, ADD or ADHD related symptoms such as inattention and impulsiveness, affect what Nadeau calls “executive functions” (p. 550). When taking into consideration these cognitive symptoms Nadeau (2005) found that: For adults who have ADHD, these problems with executive functioning have a direct effect on workplace performance. Poor time management skills result in chronic lateness and missed deadlines; organizational problems lead to cluttered desks, misplaced paperwork, and difficulty in scheduling and prioritizing tasks. (p. 550) It is understandable how an ADD individual with these cognitive
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research deficits can be perceived as unmotivated by co-workers and peers. Symptoms of impulsiveness common in individuals with ADD can have negative affects on the interpersonal level. “ADHD traits that may lead to interpersonal difficulties include missing nonverbal cues, interrupting, and overreacting emotionally” (Nadeau, 2005, p. 553). According to Katz (2003): Four to ten million adults in the United States are affected by the neurobiologically based and lifespan condition known as ADD. Therefore, understanding the problems and barriers to success that ADD poses in the workplace as well as possible solutions and strategies to overcoming its negative impact on employee productivity merit attention from employers and their HR staffs. (p. 276) Even more astonishing is Pary et al. (2002) belief that “ADD is most likely an underrecognized and undertreated condition in today’s society” (p. 109). Coping with any situation or experience is much easier if there is an understanding by the individual of the situation or experience. This is especially true for individuals who have gone through childhood with undiagnosed ADD. According to Hallowell and Ratey (1994) these individuals “struggle with the secondary symptoms that living with years of undiagnosed ADD created. These are symptoms such as impaired self-image, low self-esteem, depression, fearfulness of others, mistrust of self, skittishness in relationships, and anger over the past” (p. 106). Obviously these secondary symptoms will also have an effect on interpersonal communication in an organizational setting. Unfortunately, the behaviors an individual with ADD displays “are often discounted as symptomatic of a disorder, and the individual is then labeled as difficult to deal with, judgmental, apathetic, unmotivated, or lazy” (Katz, 2003, p. 31). According to Katz (2003) these labels eventually become an ADD individual’s perception of self. Co-worker Communication Because all co-worker communication is interpersonal, it seems logical to start with a definition of interpersonal communication. “We can define interpersonal communication as selective, systemic, unique, processual transactions that allow people to reflect and build personal knowledge of one another and create shared meanings” (Wood, 2007, p. 22). For the purposes of this paper, the key word in the definition is systemic; the particular system within which we are communicating influences our communication with other and helps us give meaning to the environment.
Anderson and Martin’s (1995) research found that an employee’s reason for co-worker communication has the most influence on how co-workers or peers communicate in the organizational setting. The study by Rubin et al. (1988) (as cited in Anderson and Martin, 1995, p. 251) found six motives for why people communicate with another person: pleasure is for fun; affection is caring; escape is the filling of time to avoid other behaviors; relaxation is an “unwinding” concept; control concerns power; and inclusion is sharing of feelings and avoiding loneliness. Anderson and Martin (1995) added duty motives to the existing research of Rubin and his colleagues. “The duty motive follows from the logic that employees need to communicate with their coworkers and bosses in order to get their jobs done” (p. 251). This duty motive did not hold up too well because Anderson and Martin (1995) found that employees communicate more with their peers for affection and inclusion than any of the other variables. They go on to point out that “employee’s needs differ. Employees communicate for closeness and intimacy (affection), which motives relate to job happiness, commitment, and satisfaction with bosses” (Anderson and Martin, 1995, p. 259). The bottom line seems to be that all employees want to enjoy work. Of course, who wants a job they can not stand? The research of Anderson and Martin (1995) suggests that co-workers need each other to act as a cushion or safety net. Anderson and Martin (1995) go on to explain the motivation for co-worker communication. However, their research does not give any insight as to what co-workers are communicating about. One thing co-workers may talk about around the water cooler is differential treatment. “Kramer (1995) and Sias and Jablin (1995) suggest that members’ perceptions of differential treatment may have an important impact on coworker communication and coworker relationships” (as cited in Sias, 1996, p. 173). Sias (1996) researched how the perceptions of differential treatment are formed through co-worker discourse. Sias seems unsure about the validity of this research, because in testing, subjects were asked to reconstruct the conversations they had about differential treatment. In her research she found that “in their conversations, coworkers provided information to one another about their work environment. By sharing opinions and attributions regarding the topic of discussion, they worked toward consensual understanding of their environment” (182). This research illustrates how employees use interpersonal communication to come to a common understanding of their environment, thereby reducing their uncertainty.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Specifically, when coworkers discussed differential treatment, they usually began by simply sharing information regarding the incident - essentially “telling the story” to a coworker. Once the story was told, the coworkers communicatively began to “figure out why” such an incident would occur. To accomplish this, the conversants discussed the target member in some detail - in particular his/her abilities or behaviors. (Sias, 1996, p. 183) Sias (1996) goes on to say that an employee’s behaviors and/ or abilities are key in the sense-making process. Still, before employees made sense of the situation, Sias (1996) found that they usually began by “telling a story”. The assumption can be made that the employee’s ability to get this process started and tell the story well requires him or her to be a competent communicator within the organization. Regardless of motives for communicating, or the topic of communication, co-workers believe it is important for others to have functional communication skills. According to Burleson and Samter (as cited in Myers, Knox, Pawlowski and Ropog, 1999) there are eight of these skills that are believed to be essential in co-worker communication. These skills are (a) ego support (the ability to make a person feel good about him/herself), (b) comforting (the ability to make a person feel better when depressed), (c) conflict management (the ability to develop mutually satisfying solutions in conflicts), (d) regulative (the ability to help someone who has violated a norm), (e) persuasive (the ability to modify a person’s thoughts and behaviors), (f) narrative (the ability to tell stories and jokes), (g) referential (the ability to convey information clearly), and (h) conversational (the ability to initiate, maintain, and terminate casual conversations). (Myers, Knox, Pawlowski and Ropog, 1999, p.73-74) While competent communicators will most likely have developed all of these skills, the importance of a specific functional communication skill will differ depending on the type of peer relationships in which a co-worker is involved. Myers et al. (1999) found three peer types within organizational systems: information, collegial, and special peers. Furthermore, their studies recognized that information peers, which account for most co-worker relationships, are less open, and unlikely to use all of the eight functional communication skills. According to Myers et al. (1999) this is because the primary function of this peer relationship is to share job-related information, whereas collegial and special peers
engage in higher levels of open communication, social support and closeness. This research is similar to the findings of Odden and Sias (1997) that a psychological climate high in cohesion produced more collegial and special peers. Influenced by the climate or not, the peer relationships co-workers choose to engage in may determine the type and style of communication used. All of the research above concerns co-worker communication. Whether it concerned the motives for communicating with peers, what was communicated, or which communication skills were deemed important by employees, all of the above suggests that, when it comes down to it, co-workers communicate to satisfy some need. Employees want satisfaction in work, and that satisfaction can come from communication with co-workers and peer relationships. Organizational members who engage in peer relationships adapt to the organization more quickly and efficiently (Comer, 1991; Kramer, 1996), receive information that they would not receive from other organizational members (Morrison, 1993), and move through the occupational role socialization process at a faster rate (Reicher, 1987), than those organizational members not involved in peer relationships. (Myers, Knox, Pawlowski and Ropog, 1999, p.72) Most of this research has shown that co-worker communication, and peer relationships can have a positive influence on the ability to receive vital information for organizational socialization and will mold the newcomer from an outsider to an insider. This transition from organizational outsider to insider is part of the organizational assimilation process. Organizational Assimilation According to Jablin and Putnam (2001) “Organizational assimilation concerns the processes by which individuals become integrated into the culture of an organization. (Jablin, 1982)” (p. 755). As stated by Hess (1993) an organization’s culture is defined by the shared meanings, values, norms, rituals and ideologies; and is socially constructed through communication. Waldeck, Seibold and Flanagin (2004) explain the importance of co-worker communication during assimilation by saying that an employee’s ability to communicate competently with co-workers reduces uncertainty; in turn decreasing the levels of work-related stress and facilitates the assimilation process.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Assimilation is not just the obligation of the employee. Jablin and Putnam (2001) found that there are planned and unplanned attempts by the organization to socialize the employee. In short, the organization attempts to transform an outsider to an organizational insider. “Failure to effectively assimilate new employees may lead to the undesirable consequences of anomie, alienation, or identity crisis (Van Maanen, 1997a) rather than satisfaction and productivity” (Hess, 1993, p.192). Researchers have worked over the years to develop a model of the assimilation process. Still, as Myers and Oetzel (2003) indicate, there is still no accurate way to measure organizational assimilation. However, scholars such as Hess (1993) have argued that the process should be looked at as a cluster instead of the traditional linear model. He claims that the linear model oversimplifies the assimilation process because employees will experience any process of assimilation in all of the stages. It makes sense to presume that the extent to which one feels him or herself to be a valuable part of an organization is likely to vary over time in accordance with unmet expectations, environmental shifts, changes in responsibility, promotions, burnout, and a wide variety of experiences that constitute organizational life. (Myers and Oetzel, 2003, p. 439) Still, “most of these models include (1) an anticipatory socialization phase; (2) an entry or “encounter” stage; and (3) a long term period of “metamorphosis” in which role conflicts are managed, and role negotiations and resocialization occur, among other activities” (Jablin and Putnam, 2001, p. 758). Anticipatory socialization is the first phase of the assimilation process that an organizational newcomer will experience. The interview process is an example of this phase: “newcomers communicate with contacts from the organization prior to the first day of work” (Hess, 1993, p. 199). Hess (1993) explains that this communication groundwork helps newcomers understand what is expected of them, gives them an idea of how they will be treated, and allows newcomers to begin learning about the organizational culture. Through clear communication during this stage, the employee will more easily anticipate his or her role in the organization, and uncertainty is reduced. Barge and Schuleter (2004) suggest that the encounter stage corresponds to the moment when the newcomer has entered into the organization and begins to notice the differences between their initial perception of the organization, and what actually exists
within the culture of the organization. “Encounter events are sense-making (anomie-reducing) activities. Newcomers begin to form organizational self-concepts and self-esteems, and they forge links to the organization” (Hess, 1993, p. 200). According to Jablin (2001) organizational entry or the encounter stage is a time for learning the expected behaviors, values and beliefs of the organization. Feldman et al., determined (as cited in Waldeck, Seibold and Flanagin, 2004, p. 163) that “new organizational members and incumbents have uncertainties about how to fit in, how to do their jobs, how their performance will be evaluated, how to relate to others socially, and how to select their friends at work.” Uncertainty forces an employee to become active in information seeking tactics. According to Miller and Jablin (as cited in Jablin and Putnam 2001) newcomers seek information in a number of ways: overtly, indirectly, through a third party, by testing, by disguising conversation, observing, and surveillance. However, as Jablin and Putnam (2001) points out, the tactics that an individual may or may not use depends on the social-cost perceived by the information seeker. The more social-cost an employee perceives, the more indirect the employee will be in seeking information. Organizational identity also plays an important role in informationseeking. “The development of organizational identity is important in assimilation because the way people see themselves can affect both their satisfaction and their productivity” (Hess, 1993, p. 201). The development of an individual’s identity or role within the organization may also be an event that signifies the metamorphosis stage of organizational assimilation. Of course, as mentioned earlier, finding ourselves or our role in any situation, or context, depends heavily on interpersonal communication with others. According to Gudykunst (1985) self-monitoring can also influence information seeking. Previous research has found that, in comparison to low self-monitors, high self-monitors are better able to discover appropriate behavior in new situations, have more control over emotional reactions, and create impressions they wish (Snyder, 1974), modify their behavior to change in social situations more (Snyder and Monson, 1975), make more confident and extreme attributions (Bershcheid, Graziano, Monson and Dermer, 1976), seek more information with others with whom they anticipate interacting (Elliot, 1979), and initiate and regulate conversation more, initiate more conversational sequences, and have a greater need to talk (Ickes and Barnes, 1977) (as cited in Gudykunst, 1985, p.204)
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Myers and Oetzel (2003) point out finding or adapting ourselves, although compromising on the part of the newcomer, does signify settling into the organization. A newcomer’s willingness to make these compromises, and adapt may be a measure for this final stage of organizational assimilation. Research has shown that ADD has serious effects on the organizational and interpersonal skills of those diagnosed early in life; and is even more likely to have serious secondary symptoms on those diagnosed as adults. These organizational and interpersonal skills are needed as we assimilate into a new organization. Newcomers depend on peers as a source of information, emotional support, and in the development of their identity or organizational roles.
Analysis Research has shown that ADD can have serious negative effects on an individual during their personal and professional life. Because of the impulsive, inattentive behaviors, coupled with the antisocial secondary symptoms of ADD, the messages, meanings, and information regularly used may not always be as functional for management in maintaining a complex organization; and the day-to-day tensions regularly experienced between the organization and its members may be amplified as a result of the disorder. The uncertainty reduction theory and expectancy violation theory will be used to analyze the effects of attention deficit disorder on coworker communication and organizational assimilation. Uncertainty Reduction Theory According to Berger and Calabrese, uncertainty reduction theory “posited seven axioms and 21 theorems which specify the interrelations among uncertainty, amount of communication, nonverbal affiliative expression, information seeking, intimacy level of communication content, reciprocity, similarity, and liking” (as cited in Gudykunst, 1985, p.203). “Berger’s uncertainty reduction theory focuses on how human communication is used to gain knowledge and create understanding” (Griffin, 2006, p. 130). Berger, as cited in Griffin (2006), states that we, as humans, are pushed by three prior conditions of communication to reduce uncertainty: (1) anticipation of the future, (2) incentive value, and (3) deviance. As humans, some psychological arousal pushed us to communicate with a stranger. In turn, we anticipate future
encounters with new acquaintances. Future communication between new acquaintances also suggests that there is some incentive to communicate and reduce uncertainty. Deviance, however, means that the individual acted in a different way than expected. “Berger believes that our main purpose in talking to people is to ‘make sense’ out of our interpersonal world” (Griffin, 2006, p.131). According to Griffin (2006), Berger writes that there are at least two types of uncertainty (behavioral and cognitive) an individual will experience in life. According to Griffin (2006), Berger’s uncertainty reduction theory deals with cognitive uncertainty, which focuses on the questions used to discover another’s individuality. Griffin (2006) highlights information-seeking as one of Berger’s strategies for dealing with uncertainty. It can be used passively by observing others, actively asking a third party for information or, as an interactive strategy, by using face-to-face communication. “This is the quickest route to reduce uncertainty, but continually probing in social settings begins to take on the feel of a crossexamination, or “the third degree” (Griffin, 2006, p. 137). Griffin (2006) explains that we can combat this feeling through selfdisclosure which creates an open climate, making the conversant feel safe. Berger and his associates (as cited in Gudykunst, 1985, p. 203) declare that these three strategies for seeking information are affected by self-monitoring. Most research using uncertainty reduction theory focuses on the initial meetings between strangers on an interpersonal level. However, I believe this theory can be applied to two key concepts of organizational assimilation: anticipatory socialization and the encounter stage. Metamorphosis is overlooked using this theory because the stage comes too long after the initial encounters. During these stages of organizational assimilation newcomers have numerous initial interactions with co-workers. The newcomer seeks information through interactions to reduce uncertainty, not only about their peers, but about the organization as a whole. Individuals with attention deficit disorder will have increased difficulty reducing uncertainty due to one key influence on uncertainty reduction: “self-monitoring”. Individuals with ADD are more likely to be low self-monitors. Based on the research of Gudykunst, this means they will be less likely to use self-disclosure and have less confidence in their attributions. They will also communicate with co-workers less and have trouble modifying their behavior between situations or context. This most likely has to do with problems concerning memory, impulsiveness, and inattention which are all symptoms of the disorder.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Expectancy Violation Theory Burgoon and Hale (1988) define expectancy violations as the actions or behaviors committed during interpersonal communication that can result in positive, as well as, negative outcomes. According to the expectancy violation model, expectancies may include cognitive, affective, and conative components and are primarily a function of (1) social norms and (2) known idiosyncrasies of the other. With unknown others, the expectations are identical to the societal norms and standards for the particular type of communicator, relationship, and situation. (Burgoon and Hale, 1988, p. 60) Griffin (2006) points out three key concepts of expectancy violation theory: “expectancy, violation valence, and communicator reward valence” (p. 88). Burgoon and Hale (1988) believe that all humans have an idea of the behaviors they consider appropriate. However, under expectancy violation theory, humans do not use these expectations to control the behavior of others; rather they use these expectations to anticipate the behavior. Still, humans do develop a sense of how others should behave, and these beliefs can be used as a measure of approval. “The term violation valence refers to the positive or negative value we place on a specific unexpected behavior, regardless of who does it” (Griffin, 2006, p. 89). Not all violations are considered negative. For example, a new acquaintance of the opposite sex may be surprised by an unexpected touch; however, this does not mean that the touch carries a negative valence. It may show more interest on the part of the violator than initially perceived, and this interest could lead to a positive relationship. The approval or disapproval depends largely on the communicator’s characteristics. Griffin (2006) defines communicator characteristics as the demographic categories an individual fits under, alongside personality features and communication style. When someone violates expectations during an interaction, the violated individual looks at the communicator’s characteristics to come up with a communicator reward valence. Communicator reward valence is very positive for someone who is considered credible, intelligent, and good looking. According to Burgoon (as cited in Griffin 2006), similar to violation valence, the communicator reward valence influences how the violation will affect communication outcomes. Burgoon (as cited in Griffin, 2006) summed up her theory by saying “Expectancies exert significant influence on people’s interaction patterns, on their impression of one another, and on the outcomes of their interactions” (p. 88).
Much research on Attention Deficit Disorder points out that individuals with ADD have trouble professionally, as well as interpersonally. How does ADD affect co-worker communication and organizational assimilation? Using the expectancy violation and uncertainty reduction theories to answer this research question requires us to first single out two variables: ADD and co-worker communication. Research in the literature review found that Attention Deficit Disorder causes symptoms of inattentive, impulsive behavior, and possible secondary symptoms, such as anti-social behavior. These secondary symptoms can also include anxiety disorders and depression. Hyperactivity was also listed as a possible symptom; however most research only mentioned it leveling off as adulthood was reached. As stated by Nadeau (2005), the inattentive impulsive, traits of ADHD can cause individuals to miss nonverbal cues, interrupt, and overreact. Expectancy violation theory tells us that these behaviors or violations would most likely cause a psychological arousal in others. Societal and cultural norms have told us that anxious, impulsive, inattentive, anti-social behaviors, regardless of context, will most likely carry a negative valence, unless the communicator reward valence, a key component of expectancy violation theory, is high enough to counteract the valence of the violation. If individuals decide to self-disclose information about the diagnosis of their disorder, they are automatically labeled ADD. Common beliefs, along with medical fact, about this characteristic could negatively affect the communicators reward valence. An individual with the disorder may be considered less credible because of inattentiveness or memory problems. Because of these characteristics non-ADD co-workers may avoid, rather encourage, future interactions with this co-worker. Missing a nonverbal cue would most likely cause some sort of discomfort during an interaction. For example, if a non-ADD individual was in a hurry, after a long day’s work, they would most likely show some sort of cues or signals. They might walk quickly with their head down, repeatedly check their watch, or multitask while trying to get out of the door. Still, an individual diagnosed with the disorder, may unintentionally miss these cues and slow or stop the person. We have all heard a similar story from a friend or peer about “that one guy” who would not catch the drift, no matter how many signals you tried to slip him. Usually, when we hear these stories, the speaker is in disbelief and very annoyed by the whole situation. This tells us that the behavior carried a negative valence, and the individual made mental record of this occurrence that will influence future interactions. Based on expectancy violation theory I have come to the conclusion
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research that the behavioral characteristics of ADD will (depending on the severity of the disorder) violate the social expectations of others, limiting communication, especially within the organization. If our co-workers see no reward and high punishment in communicating with an individual, the communication may be avoided. To sum up, we can come to the conclusion that when an ADD individual violates the expectations of their peers, future communication may be avoided. In turn, the ADD individual will have fewer information-seeking tactics at hand, and the assimilation process will be hindered.
ten million people are affected by this disorder; yet professionals believe that ADD is underdiagnosed and undertreated. I can personally substantiate that knowledge of the disorder can help an individual who has been diagnosed better understand life experiences. I personally feel that in trying to find how ADD affects co-worker communication and organizational assimilation, I have formed a more positive self-identity. Many social interactions and life experiences can become confusing due to the disorder. I know now what to work on to become a competent communicator within an organizational context.
The symptoms of ADD can negatively affect co-worker communication when an individual with ADD displays behavior that is considered to be a violation of negative valence. The negative valence means that the violation of a particular expectation was perceived negatively. The expectancy violation theory most likely has a direct effect on the uncertainty reduction theory and vice versa. Self-monitoring was mentioned by Berger as a process in uncertainty reduction theory. As mentioned earlier, individuals with ADD are more likely to be low self-monitors. Based on the research of Gudykunst (1985) this means they will be less likely to use self disclosure, and have less confidence in their attributions. They will also communicate with co-workers less and have trouble modifying their behavior between situations or context. This causes a serious problem for a newcomer with ADD entering the organization. According to Sias and Wyers the most important source of information for a newcomer in an established organization are the co-workers. If co-workers do not perceive rewards in future interactions they are less motivated to communicate with a newcomer. At this point, the ability to reduce uncertainty becomes a challenge. Not only is an individual diagnosed with ADD affected by others perceptions of his or her behavior; he or she is also affected by low self-monitoring characteristics, which lessen the number of information seeking tactics at hand. With or without ADD, a newcomer is expected to do his or her part in the assimilation process. The organization cannot be responsible for a newcomerâ€™s communicative behaviors; he or she must actively participate in the assimilation process. Still, ADD will impede on an individualâ€™s ability to communicate effectively with co-workers and, in turn, make assimilation difficult.
Anderson, C M., and Martin, M. M. (1995). Why employees speak to co-workers and bosses: Motives, gender, and organizational satisfaction. Journal of Business communication, 32(3), 249265.
However, knowledge of the disorder can help to combat the symptoms. According to Katz (2003) anywhere from four to
Barge, K., and Schlueter, D. (2004). Memorable messages and newcomer socialization. Western Journal of Communication, 68(3), 233-256. Burgoon, J., Hale, J. (1988) Nonverbal expectancy violations: model elaboration and application to immediacy behaviors. Communication Monographs, 55(1), 58-77. Griffin, E. (2000). A first look at communication theory. (6th ed., pp. 136-146 50-61). New York: McGraw Hill.
Gudykunst, W. (1985). The influence of cultural similarity, type of relationship, and self-monitoring on uncertainty reduction processes. Communication Monographs, 52(3), 203-217. Hallowell, E., and Ratey, J. (1994). Driven to distraction. NY: Touchstone. Hess, J, A. (1993). Assimilating newcomers into an organization: A cultural perspective. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 21(2), 189-207. Jablin, F. M., and Putnam, L. L. (Eds.).(2001). New handbook of organizational communication: Advances in theory, research, and methods. California: Sage Publications.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Katz, L. J. (2003). Providing opportunities in the workplace for individuals with ADD. Employment Relations Today, 30(2), 29-39.
Secnik, K., Swensen, A., and Lage, M. J. (2005). Comorbidities and costs of adult patients diagnosed with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pharmacoeconomics, 23(1), 93-102.
Myers, K., and Oetzel, J. G. (2003). Exploring the dimensions of
Sias, P. M. (1996). Constructing perceptions of differential treatment:
organizational assimilation: Creating and validating a measure.
An analysis of coworker discourse. Communication Monographs,
Communication Quarterly, 51(4), 438-457.
Myers, S. A., Knox, R. L., Pawlowski, D. R., and Ropog, B. L. (1999). Perceived communication openness and functional communication skills among organizational peers. Communication Reports,
Sias, P., Wyers, D. (2001). Employee uncertainty and informationseeking in newly formed expansion organizations. Management Communication Quarterly, 14(4), 549-573.
Nadeau, K. G. (2005). Career choices and workplace challenges for individuals with ADHD. Journal of clinical psychology, 61(5), 549-563. Odden, C., Sias, P. (1997). Peer communication relationships and
Silver, L. (1993). You mean Iâ€™m not lazy, stupid or crazy?!. Ohio: Tyrell and Jerem Press. Waldeck, J. H., Seibold, D. R., and Flanagin, A. J. (2004). Organizational assimilation and communication technology use. Communication Monographs, 71(2), 161-183.
psychological climate. Communication Quarterly, 45(3), p153166.
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CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT From Childhood to Maturity in Henry James’ What Maisie Knew
Kristyn Brown Class: Senior Major: English Education
I arrived at Murray State University from the small community of Hawesville, Ky., with a passion for writing and teaching. Hence, I declared my major as English Education. When not engaged in writing or reading, I enjoy worshiping God, spending time with friends and family, cooking, skiing, camping and boating. After graduation, I plan to teach at the high school level and soon afterwards, I will pursue graduate school with an emphasis in administration. After graduate school, I will continue my education and earn a Ph.D. in English. .
From reading this essay, one gathers an understanding of how Henry James shows his female protagonist’s progression from childhood to adolescence in the novel, What Maisie Knew. James clearly portrays Maisie’s corrupt adult influences and demonstrates the three primary strategies that Maisie invokes as she transitions from childhood into maturity: selective ignorance, purposeful silence, and an active and verbal quest for knowledge. James identifies Maisie’s shift from childhood to adolescence as Maisie ceases to merely observe and extrapolate meaning from the situations around her, but evolves into an active participant in the manipulation thereby assuming a more adult role in her environment. Essentially, James illustrates how Maisie’s exposure to the crude adult world diminishes her childhood until it completely evaporates and forces her into pre-mature adolescence. By the end of the novel, Maisie asserts her independence and emerges as one capable of making her own decisions.
FACULTY MENTOR Peter F. Murphy is a professor of English. He earned his Ph.D. from the University of Buffalo in 1987 and has been the chair of the Department of English and Philosophy since 1998. Before coming to MSU, he was the dean of Academic Affairs at Goddard College. He was a Fulbright Teaching Fellow in Brazil (1991). His scholarly work focuses on feminist masculinities, and he has published three books and several articles on the subject. He teaches courses on American literature, comedy, gender studies, men and masculinity, and gay and lesbian literature.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
From Childhood to Maturity in Henry James’ What Maisie Knew
ver the past ten years, criticism of Henry James’s novel, What Maisie Knew, has focused on such issues as: its relationship to the social comedy of Ford Maddox Ford, technologies of vision, the novel’s relationship to the trial of Oscar Wilde, social purity, racial phantasmagoria, the role of the governess, the oedipal family, and the novel’s significance in the context of James’s novella, The Turn of the Screw.1 Surprisingly, much of the current criticism
because these female characters assume motherly roles, but do not exhibit maternal instincts. Based on Maisie’s initial experiences with Mamma in particular, she surmises that “parents had come to be vague, but governesses were evidently to be trusted” (59). After reaching this conclusion, Maisie approaches a pivotal moment in her life when she reflects on her newfound purpose. She notices that the objective in her parents’ game of hatred shifts from her
fails to address the female protagonist’s growth from childhood to maturity in this novel. 2
parents wanting to withhold her from one another to her parents viewing her as an inconvenient obligation.
Through his complex narrative structure, however, Henry James explores Maisie’s transition from childhood innocence into premature adolescence. James characterizes Maisie as a clever sixyear-old girl oppressed by her parents’ divorce and their subsequent decisions. Based on her circumstances, Maisie adopts three primary strategies: selective ignorance, purposeful silence, and an active and verbal quest for knowledge. After Maisie effectively employs these strategies, James demonstrates her ability to manipulate her environment in order to obtain knowledge, understanding, and unconditional love. Ultimately, James illustrates how Maisie’s childhood evaporates because of her increased exposure to the corruption and selfishness of the adult world. He clearly shows how the young, innocent girl transforms into a mature, independently minded young woman. Thus, this novel illustrates the nature of life in which knowledge breeds power and truth.
Concerning Maisie’s intelligence at the onset of the novel, Paul Theroux notes that when she interacts with the adults around her, she “is no more than parroting another character’s words, but her detachment and her directness and her good sense give her a confident aura of independence” (13). Throughout the early chapters of the novel, the characters refer to Maisie as “poor little monkey,” and in the preface, James comments on these childish references as the “epitaph for the tomb of Maisie’s childhood” (36). Although Maisie’s six-year-old mentality limits her comprehension of the situations around her, she makes significant connections concerning her role in the events. When Maisie reflects on the alliances, for example, James reveals her cognitive ability to interpret situations and understand unspoken truths. She recognizes that she and Mrs. Wix favor Sir Claude, her mother’s young husband, and that tensions exist between Mrs. Wix and Miss Overmore. Theroux contends that Maisie “is shrewder and more clear-sighted than the adults around her” (11). Thus, James not only depicts Maisie as exceptionally intelligent for her age, but he uses some of the adult characters around her to magnify her intellect.
From the beginning of the novel, James portrays Maisie as a victim of her environment with two parents that despise one another and engage in sexual promiscuity. James consistently conveys Ida and Beale Farange, Maisie’s parents, as selfish, preoccupied, and neglectful. In the midst of these unfortunate circumstances, James depicts Maisie as an astutely perceptive child with a multitude of observations through which she constructs meaning. For example, Maisie perceives that she feels especially affectionate toward Mrs. Wix, the governess hired by her mother, because Mrs. Wix once had a daughter and thus displays a motherly nature. Maisie contrasts Mrs. Wix’s motherly disposition to Miss Overmore, the governess employed by her father whom he later marries, and even Mamma
After Maisie learns that her parents use her to torment one another, she adopts an efficient strategy of selective ignorance that the adults around her accept as “the theory of her stupidity” (43). Maisie realizes that her parents exploit her as a messenger of disgust when through her they transfer malicious messages to one another. This serves as a pivotal moment in Maisie’s development because her vow of silence gives her an immense amount of power. Theroux comments on this tactic when he asserts that Maisie “often seems 11
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research like a grown up novelist rendered small and fitted into a frock and given a taste for chocolates and an ability to play dumb” (18). When Maisie employs this strategy, she gains the power to ask blunt and insightful questions, which society normally considers inappropriate. Nonetheless, Maisie obtains scandalous information from these questions because of the mask of selective ignorance. As Maisie perfects this technique of selective ignorance, she gathers knowledge and transitions from a passive child to a more independent thinker. In addition to her selective ignorance, Maisie masters the art of purposeful silence that some of the adults assume to be ignorance and others see as unspoken understanding. When Maisie relies on strategic silence, the adults often accept her silence as fake stupidity and speak freely around her. For example, Mrs. Beale (formerly Miss Overmore) often criticizes Maisie’s parents and Mrs. Wix despite Maisie’s presence. At one point, Sir Claude confronts Mrs. Beale about her boldness and she retorts, “There’s nothing [Maisie] hasn’t heard. But it doesn’t matter – it hasn’t spoiled her” (74). Later, Mrs. Wix justifies her own open conversations with Maisie by explaining, “It isn’t as if [Maisie] didn’t already know everything … I can’t make you worse than you are” (80). Later in the novel, even Sir Claude reflects on his free speech when he says to Maisie: “I’m always talking to you in the most extraordinary way, ain’t I? One would think you were about sixty” (247). Through her powerful strategy of purposeful silence, Maisie fools the adult characters into engaging in unreserved candor. Geoffrey D. Smith perceives this strategy as a means of “least resistance,” one that corresponds to the popular depiction of Maisie as a peace-keeper. Smith explains that “silence eventually brings rewards, for while Maisie withdraws from socially active participation in the game, she observes and ascertains the rules that govern the adult players” (226). Drawing an analogy between the manipulation of the adult world and a game proves significant as Maisie’s role in the game gradually changes throughout the course of the novel. As Maisie matures, she does not abandon entirely the strategy of purposeful silence. She employs purposeful silence, for example, when Sir Claude presses her for information about what Mrs. Wix communicated to her concerning Sir Claude’s relationship with Mrs. Beale. Although Maisie knows a great deal about their affairs, she replies that she knows nothing. Through this scene, James illustrates that Maisie has learned that her weapon of silence bestows immense power.
As Maisie continues to mature, she often dismisses the strategy of purposeful silence and begins to verbalize her competence even when she does not clearly understand the situation. When the adults believe that she comprehends the information, they speak as freely to her as they did when she faked ignorance. As opposed to silence, Maisie begins to openly display an eagerness to learn and exhibit competence. James references Maisie’s desperate quest for knowledge throughout the novel. For example, he states that Maisie “was to feel henceforth as if she were flattening her nose upon the hard window-pane of the sweet-shop of knowledge” (120). In the article, “What Maisie Knows: A Study of Childhood and Adolescence,” John C. McCloskey includes multiple references in which Maisie declares her competence of a particular situation even when she does not fully understand the events. McCloskey cites instances such as when Maisie declares, “Oh, I know more than you think” (496). In addition to explicitly commenting on her knowledge, James frequently reveals her mental process. She often observes events, reflects on them, and subsequently reconstructs the situations, makes comparisons, and develops theories about life. As Maisie practices her theories, she changes allegiances at her convenience. Maisie’s allegiance begins with Miss Overmore, but shifts to Mrs. Wix after she bonds with Mrs. Wix because of her maternal intuition. However, Maisie’s allegiance quickly shifts to Sir Claude, almost immediately upon his arrival, because of her instantaneous infatuation with him. During her quest for knowledge and understanding, Maisie’s perception intensifies and she learns how to use her perceptions to extrapolate meaning from the situations around her. In one significant scene between Maisie and Mrs. Wix, Maisie notes the change in Mrs. Wix as her governess exerts a new authority. Moreover, instead of Maisie merely making a mental note of this perception, she challenges Mrs. Wix’s new authority and insults her confidant. In the midst of this scene, James explains changes in Maisie. He remarks about her childhood that she “began, the poor child, with scarcely knowing what [moral sense] was,” as opposed to the point when she earnestly wants to learn and develop her own moral sense. At this time, James emphasizes Maisie’s acquired knowledge when he observes, As she was condemned to know more and more, how could it logically stop before she should know Most? It came to her in fact as they sat there on the sands that she was distinctly on the road to know Everything. She had not had governesses
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research for nothing: what in the world had she ever done but learn and learn and learn? She looked at the pink sky with a placid foreboding that she soon should have learnt All. (213) James indicates by this passage not that Maisie already knows everything, but that she eagerly desires and has the mental capacity to learn anything. After bluntly explaining this to his audience, James proceeds to demonstrate Maisie’s desire to learn in spite of her persistent childhood mentality. In the subsequent scene, Mrs. Wix explains to Maisie the biblical crime of Sir Claude’s relationship with Mrs. Beale. Although at this point Maisie does not understand morality or the Bible, James notes that she “wanted to understand, and all her thoughts for a minute centered in the effort to come out with something which should be a disproof of her simplicity” (215). This scene demonstrates James’ style as he does not rush through Maisie’s development, but rather shows precisely how she evolves from a child to an adolescent. McCloskey notes that before Maisie assumes an active role in the adult world, she “sees clearly enough what is there, but she continues passive, still a recorder of impressions and now a drawer of inferences, an acute onlooker, but not yet an actor” (496). McCloskey’s idea simply reinforces the theory that James intentionally focuses on Maisie’s gradual progression rather than racing to the final result. Based on her survival strategies and the knowledge she gains from her crude circumstances, Maisie learns to manipulate the adults and the situations around her. Rather than merely perceiving and comprehending the games of the adult world, Maisie begins to participate in the deceit. When Maisie spends time with her father at the Countess’ house, for example, she savors her father’s attention and explains that she “helps him pretend” that he knows her. As this significant scene unfolds, Maisie comments that Beale “was now looking at her…as if she had grown ever so much older.” This observation not only shows Beale’s insignificant role in his daughter’s life, but that even someone as “out of tune” as Beale recognizes Maisie’s process to maturity (152). James continues, in this scene, to demonstrate Maisie’s ability to decipher situations and extrapolate meaning even after Beale invites Maisie to accompany him to America: the child was momentarily bewildered between her alternatives of agreeing with him about her wanting to get rid of him and displeasing him by pretending to stick to him ... She understood as well as if he had spoken it that what he wanted, hang it, was
that she should let him off with all the honours – with all the appearance of virtue and sacrifice on his side. (152-153) As the first time that Maisie disagrees with an adult, this conversation serves as a landmark in Maisie’s journey to maturity. Lastly, this scene reinforces the growth of Maisie’s intelligence through her ability to make connections when she identifies the Countess as “Papa’s Captain” (157). Clearly, Maisie understands that her parents engage in extramarital affairs, and that their current partners exist because of greed. James reinforces Maisie’s manipulative abilities in the scene between Maisie and the Captain. When, the Captain comments, “I’ve said too much to you,” Maisie responds, “I’ll never tell,” a reply designed to gather more information. As much as this novel discusses what Maisie knows, James emphasizes Maisie’s desire to learn what all of the other characters know and withhold. After Maisie realizes that the Captain will not disclose any additional information, she boldly instructs the Captain: “Then don’t [love Mamma] only for just a little…like all the others” (133). With this statement, Maisie deceives the Captain by forcing him to contemplate his intentions with Ida and by warning him about her mother’s past. Through this scene, James not only shows that Maisie thoroughly understands her environment, but assumes an active role in who enters her world. McCloskey argues that Maisie’s ability to “maneuver others” (as she demonstrates with the Captain) marks the point in which she gains independence since this ability reveals the adolescent desire to please one’s self rather than others (506). This idea identifies Maisie as an emerging adolescent, a perspective that James develops as Maisie’s quest for knowledge and independence carries over into her journey to France. Maisie’s knowledge and interpretive abilities only increase as she travels abroad. As Maisie tours the temple with Mrs. Wix, Mrs. Wix expresses her regret of not converting to Catholicism earlier in life. James reveals Maisie’s higher level thinking when she contemplates “what degree of lateness it was that shut the door against an escape from such an error” (204). James derives that “what [Maisie] had essentially done, these days, had been to read the unspoken into the spoken” (205). Moreover, James utilizes this scene to show Maisie’s autonomy when she argues with Mrs. Wix about the morality or immorality of Sir Claude and Mrs. Beale living together since their declared freedom. Maisie affirms her independence and takes pride in her knowledge. As she tours the
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research cities in France with Mrs. Wix, she proudly informs her ignorant governess of the French sites. In contrast to her previous stance of selective ignorance or silence, Maisie now displays confidence and delight in her intellect. During her time in France, Maisie exerts more and more power, as she had displayed when she insulted Mrs. Wix and argued with her father. Mrs. Wix perceives Maisie’s boldness and comments, “You’re coming out,” and Maisie replies, “Why shouldn’t I? You’ve come out. Mrs. Beale has come out” (230). James shows that Maisie no longer simply observes the situations around her like she did as a child, and does not simply observe and then attempt to interpret as she did during her second phase of childhood. At this point in time, James stresses the death of Maisie’s childhood and highlights the changes in her demeanor as a young woman. Maisie takes the initiative, for example, to search for Sir Claude in the salon even after Mrs. Wix expresses her fear, and informs Maisie that the salon now only belongs to Sir Claude and Mrs. Beale. Ultimately, James parades Maisie’s independence through the final scenes of the novel in which Sir Claude offers Maisie a new beginning with her stepparents. When given the freedom to make this important decision on her own, Maisie grasps that she, like Sir Claude, fears her own identity and she asks Sir Claude for more time to consider her options. Subsequently, Maisie displays her new adolescent mentality by revealing her desire to take risks when she begs Sir Claude to act impulsively and purchase train tickets to whisk them away to Paris and abandon Mrs. Wix and Mrs. Beale. After this plan fails, Maisie engages in her greatest act of independence and adulthood when she gives Sir Claude an ultimatum: if he will leave Mrs. Beale, she will leave Mrs. Wix. This demand demonstrates Maisie’s ability to negotiate (a vital skill in the adult world) and her refusal to sacrifice without gain. James explains at this point that Maisie “knew what she wanted. All her learning and learning had made her at last learn that” (262). As various characters comment throughout the novel, Maisie lacks a formal education, but learns life lessons that lead her to self-actualization. Jeff Westover asserts that Maisie “finds herself” while in France because her role changes as she progresses into “the actor who extends searching hands in order to bless, claim, and possess the promising new world around her” (210). He claims that the end of the novel marks Maisie’s “liberating revelation” when she takes an
active role, and “recognizes that the world belongs to her as much as she belongs to the world…she has the power to act and thus to influence the world in which she participates” (211). Similarly, Smith contends that the end of the novel shows how Maisie “assumes control of her own fate” by choosing the path which offers the most independence (235). Maisie repetitively refers to Mrs. Wix as “nobody” in the final chapters of the novel, which insinuates that Maisie will continue to make her own decisions because she views her new guardian as nobody. Likewise, McCloskey finalizes his argument by stating that “one must recognize the evolution of [Maisie’s] identity, of a sense of herself as an independent being capable of volition and aware of ‘self’ values, and of her ability to make comparative judgments which satisfy that self” (500). He asserts that “she achieves, at the end of her childhood, her psychic entity as an individual person and an independence of spirit” (500). Clearly, Maisie exerts her autonomy in the final scenes of the novel and journeys into adolescence. Theroux defines Maisie as “a girl whom circumstances have forced to behave like a woman,” and comments that she “can live perfectly well without her parents – perhaps too well” (9, 14). At varying points in the novel, James validates Maisie’s personal growth and intelligence. He states in the middle of the novel, “It may indeed be said that these days brought on a high quickening of Maisie’s direct perceptions, of her sense of freedom to make out things for herself,” which foreshadows Maisie’s boldness at the end of the novel (96). As she decides the path in life to follow, Maisie’s fears subside and she transcends the innocence of childhood to emerge into the crude reality of adulthood. Smith, for example, explains Maisie’s transition as a “graduate from the romantic idealism of childhood into the social realism of adulthood” (224). Essentially, Maisie’s childhood disappears over the course of the novel, and by the end she proceeds into maturity and self-reliance. As the title of the novel suggests, “What Maisie Knew” slaughtered her childhood and forced her into adolescence.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research End Notes Examples of these approaches include the following: Britzolakis, Christina. “Technologies of Vision in Henry James’s What Maisie Knew.” A Forum on Fiction. 34 (2001): 369-390; Catanzaro, Michael R. “An Analogy between Henry James’ What Maisie Knew and the Oscar Wilde Trial: Did James Really Know What Maisie Knew?” The Image of Europe in Literature, Media, and Society. 244 (2001): 135-143; Cornwell, Neil. “The Turn of the Screw and What Maisie Knew.” Casebooks. 9 (1998): 252; Davenport, Tony. “From What Maisie Knew to the Simple Life Limited: James’s Late Fiction and Ford’s Social Comedy.” Ford Madox Ford: A Reappraisal. 191 (2002): 7-30; DeVine, Christine. “Marginalized Maisie: Social Purity and What Maisie Knew.” Victorian Newsletter. 99 (2001): 7-15; Johnson, Kendall. “The Scarlet Feather: Racial Phantasmagoria in What Maisie Knew.” Henry James Review. 22 (2001): 128-146; and Miles, Kathryn. “What Maisie Knew and the Governess Muddled: Cognitive Development in James’s Post-Dramatic Fiction.” Colby Library Quarterly. 36 (2000): 193-208. 1
Two essays that discuss the role of childhood include: Honeyman, Susan E. “What Maisie Knew and the Impossible Representation of Childhood.” Henry James Review. 22 (2001): 67-80; and Phillips, Lawrence. “What Maisie Knew and the Victorian Cult of the Little Girl.” Henry Street: A Graduate Review of Literary Studies. 8 (1999): 37-58.
Davenport, Tony. “From What Maisie Knew to the Simple Life Limited: James’s Late Fiction and Ford’s Social Comedy.” Ford Madox Ford: A Reappraisal. 191 (2002): 7-30. DeVine, Christine. “Marginalized Maisie: Social Purity and What Maisie Knew.” Victorian Newsletter. 99 (2001): 7-15. Honeyman, Susan E. “What Maisie Knew and the Impossible Representation of Childhood.” Henry James Review. 22 (2001): 67-80. James, Henry. What Maisie Knew. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1985. Johnson, Kendall. “The Scarlet Feather: Racial Phantasmagoria in What Maisie Knew.” Henry James Review. 22 (2001): 128-146. McCloskey, John C. “What Maisie Knows: A Study of Childhood and Adolescence.” American Literature: A Journal of Literary History, Criticism, and Bibliography. 36 (1965):485-513.
References Britzolakis, Christina. “Technologies of Vision in Henry James’s What Maisie Knew.” A Forum on Fiction. 34 (2001): 369390. Catanzaro, Michael R. “An Analogy between Henry James’ What Maisie Knew and the Oscar Wilde Trial: Did James Really Know What Maisie Knew?” The Image of Europe in Literature, Media, and Society. 244 (2001): 135-143.
Miles, Kathryn. “What Maisie Knew and the Governess Muddled: Cognitive Development in James’s Post-Dramatic Fiction.” Colby Library Quarterly. 36 (2000): 193-208. Phillips, Lawrence. “What Maisie Knew and the Victorian Cult of the Little Girl.” Henry Street: A Graduate Review of Literary Studies. 8 (1999): 37-58. Smith, Geoffrey D. “How Maisie Knows: The Behavioral Path to Knowledge.” Studies in the Novel. 15 (1983): 224-236. Theroux, Paul. “Introduction” in Henry James’ What Maisie Knew. Harmondsworth: Penguin Books, 1897. 7-19. Westover, Jeff. “Handing Over Power in James’s What Maisie Knew.” Style. 28 (1994): 201-219.
Cornwell, Neil. “The Turn of the Screw and What Maisie Knew.” Casebooks. 9 (1998): 252.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Back, l-r: Jacqueline Hawes, Sara Struve, Erica Ludtke; front, l-r: Sanda Thomason, Nicole Zelesnikar; not pictured: Laura Gossett and Jami Kara Hitch
Laura Gossett Jacqueline Hawes Jami Kara Hitch Erica Ludtke Sara Struve Sanda Thomason Nicole Zelesnikar As biology majors taking Bio116 in the Fall of 2006, we carried out a study on species taxonomic affinity and their native origins using nursery plants. Studies have determined that invasive species can have negative effects on our natural ecosystems, and most invasive species are introduced intentionally through nurseries. We hope that our research project could help increase societyâ€™s awareness of biological invasion and the significance of native ecosystem conservation.
Horticulture, a Key Source of Introducing Exotic Species into Native Communities Studies have shown that invasive species can have negative effects on natural ecosystems. Currently, there is a lack of specific information on exotic and invasive plants in the state of Kentucky. This project was designed to gather information on plant species found in local nurseries in western Kentucky and to test the following hypotheses: there is no relationship between species taxonomic affinity and native origin; and there is no origin preference by people when purchasing gardening plants. By identifying all species found in the local nurseries, we discovered a significant relationship between taxonomic affinity and the origin of plant species; and exotic plant species, especially of eastern Asia origins are preferred by gardeners in general. We concluded that species taxonomic affinity and native origin could be used as an effective indicator in identifying the pool of potentially invasive species in the future. This project could help increase societyâ€™s awareness of biological invasion and the significance of native ecosystem conservation.
FACULTY MENTOR Kate S. He is an assistant professor in the Department of Biological Sciences. She received her Ph.D. from University of Western Ontario. Her research interests are in the broad areas of plant ecology with emphasis on statistical analysis of patterns and processes of plant communities in time and space. Her current research is centered on the study of the impact of invasive species on native ecosystems. She teaches courses in Botany, Quantitative Ecology, and Introductory Biology. She also mentors undergraduate students in her research laboratory.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Horticulture, a Key Source of Introducing Exotic Species to Native Communities and Ecosystems
xotic plant species are also called alien plants, non-indigenous plants, and introduced plants in the literature. According to Pysek et al. (2004), exotic plants are defined as plant species in a given area whose presence is due to intentional or unintentional human involvement. Without direct human intervention, some of the non-native species are capable of independent growth and sustain self-replacing populations for at least ten years. Such plants
We decided to study plants in our local nurseries. As the literature suggests, a substantial number of plant species, especially woody plants, have been intentionally introduced into new locations through nurseries and botanical gardens (Reichard and White 2001). Furthermore, by collecting data at local nurseries, we can evaluate customers’ preference for native versus exotic species. Our null hypotheses were that there is no relationship between
are categorized as naturalized plants. Among the naturalized plant species, about 10% or less could become invasive in the introduced habitats (Williamson, 1996). Here ‘invasive’ means that plants produce reproductive offspring, often in very large numbers, and thus have the potential to spread over a large area (Pysek et al., 2004).
species taxonomic affinity and origin and that there is no origin preference by people when they purchase gardening plants from local nurseries.
The impact of invasive plants has been observed in major natural ecosystems (Baskin 2002). Typically, plant invasion can change the niches of native species in the communities, alter the structure and function of ecosystems, and disrupt the evolutionary processes (D’Antonio and Vitousek, 1992; Williamson, 1996; Mack et al., 2000). According to Pimentel et al. (2000), it is estimated that in the United States alone more than 137 billion dollars is spent annually on combating biological invasions. Thus, the study of invasive species and their impact on the native ecosystems has emerged as one of the crucial areas of biological research. In the state of Kentucky, plant invasion has become one of the critical tasks for conservation management. About 90 invasive plant species have been listed by the Kentucky - EPPC (Southeast Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2000). However, there is lack of a systematic research on exotic and invasive plants in the state, especially in the areas of the species origin and the mechanisms of species introduction. This project was designed to gather information on plant species found in local nurseries in western Kentucky to: (1) identify species origin; (2) study species taxonomic affinity, i.e., to determine plant family, and (3) determine if relationship exists between species taxonomic affinities and their native origin.
Methods To test our hypotheses, we collected plant data from four local nurseries in the vicinity of Murray, Kentucky. The nurseries included Wal-Mart, Lowes, Rolling Hills, and the Wyatt Farms. Each plant species found in the nurseries was recorded and identified to species level. Taxonomic affinity was also examined at the family level for each plant. The independent variable, native origin was identified for all 124 exotic species. The dependent variable, total number of plants per family, was determined and recorded. StatView software was used to perform chi-square analysis to determine whether or not the null hypotheses were supported.
Results There was a total of 183 plant species found in the four local nurseries. The total number of native species proved to be much lower than the number of exotic species. There were fifty-nine (32%) native plants while there were one hundred and twenty-four (68%) exotic species (Figure 1). Information on species native origin is shown in Figure 2. The native origins of the plants are identified as seven main geographical areas around the world, which included Europe, eastern Asia, Africa, United States, India, Central and South America, and the Australia/Pacific area. By percentage, the largest groups of plants came from eastern Asia and the smallest percentage came from the Australia/Pacific area. 17
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Number of species
7% Central and South America 4% India
2% Australia/Pacific area 16% Europe
5% Africa 80 40 0
32% United States
34% East Asia
Figure 1. Total number of exotic and native plant species found at four Murray nurseries.
Table 1 Top eight families with most native species. Family Name
Number of species
Table 2 Top eight families with most exotic species.
Number of species
Figure 2. Information of native origin of plant species found at four Murray nurseries.
As shown in Table 1, our results indicated that the Violet family (Violaceae) had the most number of native plants with a total of nine species; and the Cypress family (Cupressaceae) obtained the highest number of exotic plant species with eleven (see Table 2). The results of chi-square analyses revealed: (1) there is a significant relationship between taxonomic affinity and the origin of plant species (p< 0.0001) and (2) exotic plant species are preferred by gardeners in general (x2 = 23.08 > x2 a = 0.05, df =1 = 3.841).
Discussion The results of our research show there were more than twice as many exotic than native plants found in the local nurseries primarily due to human preferences on gardening species. This finding is consistent with other research studies. Nurseries have been one of the major sources by which exotic plants are introduced into natural communities (Reichard and White, 2001). Among the exotic species found in Kentucky, a few have made negative impacts on native ecosystems by endangering and replacing native species, resulting in a loss of biodiversity. Typical invasive plants found in the local area are Japanese honeysuckle (Lonicera japonica), Chinese privet (Liqustrum sinense), oriental bittersweet (Celastrus orbiculata), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), and tree of heaven (Ailanthus altissima). Unfortunately, some of these species are still sold in the local nurseries. Therefore, it is important to increase societyâ€™s awareness of biological invasion due to its negative impact on our native ecosystems. It is even more critical to have informed and educated nursery staff and gardeners, so that invasive exotic species will not be introduced and purchased at the nurseries in the first place.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Our study also pointed out that a significant relationship between taxonomic affinity and the origin of plant species does exist. Certain families contain more exotic species than others, thus, taxonomic affinity could be used as an effective indicator in identifying and predicting potentially invasive species in the future. Information on the native origin of species can also serve this purpose. Although this research was very narrow in its scope, it could provide a solid basis for further study on agricultural, ecological, aquacultural, conservational, and commercial effects of exotic plants in this area. Identifying potentially harmful species presents a major challenge for scientists and is an essential step in preventing invasion from exotic plants. Further research is needed to determine if any of these species could present any danger to local ecosystems. Additional statistical analyses should also be performed to determine the probability that any of these exotic plants are harmful. At the same time, increasing society’s awareness of biological invasion should be treated as one of the most important elements in the management and conservation of our native ecosystems.
Mack, R.N., Simberloff, D., Lonsdale, W.M., Evans, H., Clout, M. and Bazzaz, F.A. 2000. Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10: 689-710. Pimentel, D., Lach, L., Zuniga, R., and Morrison, D. 2000. Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience 50: 53-65. Pysek, P., Richardson, D.M., Rejmanek, M., Grady, L., Webster, L. and Williamson, M. 2004. Alien plants in checklists and floras: toward better communication between taxonomists and ecologists. Taxon 53(1):131-143. Reichard S H. and White P. 2001. Horticulture as a pathway of invasive plant introductions in the United States. Bioscience 51(2): 103-113. Williamson, M.H.1996. Biological Invasions. Chapman and Hall, London.
References Baskin, Y. 2002. A Plague of Rate and Rubbervines: The Growing Threat of Species Invasion. Island Press. Washington, DC. D’Antonio, C.M. and Vitousek, P.M.1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:63-87. KY – EPPC, 2000. Invasive exotic plant list. http://www.se-eppc. org/ky/list.htm
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Class: Senior Major: Communication Disorders I plan to graduate from Murray State University in May of 2007 with my B.S. in Communication Disorders. While at Murray State, I have gained an appreciation and understanding of the importance of doing research in my field and of the importance of taking a personcentered approach to treatment. I am passionate about recognizing the strengths in individuals and I look forward to using this passion to direct my future career as a speechlanguage pathologist.
Maintaining Participation with Communication for Individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type Alzheimer’s disease is a disease that drastically changes the ways in which an individual can participate in daily activities. It affects not only the lives of the individuals with the condition, but also those of the people that interact with them on a daily basis. Individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease, as well as their caregivers, are suddenly left attempting to maintain what the disease is progressively taking away. This paper examines what the available literature reports regarding the changes in communication skills associated with the disease. It also presents strategies for caregivers of individuals with Alzheimer’s disease for maintaining conversational interactions with these individuals.
FACULTY MENTOR Kelly Kleinhans is a clinical supervisor and lecturer in the Division of Communication Disorders. She earned a Master’s in Speech-Language Pathology at Kent State University. She joined the Murray State University faculty in 2001. She is currently working on her Ph.D. in Rehabilitation Sciences at the University of Kentucky. Her research interest is facilitating the communicative competence of individuals with complex communication disorders.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Maintaining Participation with Communication for Individuals with Dementia of the Alzheimer’s Type he World Health Organization (WHO), as a part of their mission to promote and support the exchange of health-related information across cultures and disciplines, has developed a model for describing the health of an individual. Their model, known as the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF), provides a common language for discussing medical conditions that can be used and understood by all persons regardless
on neurons. Neurons are nerve cells in the brain are responsible for the exchange of information within the brain. The growth of the plaques and tangles interrupt the normal functioning of neurons, and therefore interrupt the transmission of messages in the brain. They continue to form until the brain is no longer able to function effectively (Love and Webb, 1996).
of their cultural or professional backgrounds. The World Health Organization’s ICF model not only classifies health impairments, but also the impact that those impairments have on a person’s participation in activities of daily living (WHO, 2001).
The progressive deterioration of the brain leads to a variety of physical, behavioral, sensory, and cognitive symptoms. Primarily, individuals with DAT experience both short and long-term memory loss, which interferes with their ability to independently participate in activities of daily living (Bayles, 2001). Individuals may also experience visuospatial confusion, cognitive impairment, poor judgment skills, personality changes, and language problems (Hopper and Bayles, 2001; http://www.alz.org/AboutAD/Warning. asp). As the disease progresses to its end stages, individuals will begin to lose physiological functioning such as walking, swallowing, and breathing.
The ICF model attempts to capture the dynamic and individualized nature of disease and disability. Furthermore, it emphasizes that dynamic and individualized forces directly impact a person’s participation in diverse ways. The ICF provides a systematic way to label specific body structures and functions that are impaired. It also allows for the description of how impairments may affect the specific social and vocational activities in which an individual participates (WHO, 2001). The ICF model shifts the concept of disability from one that focuses on impairments to one that focuses on the individual. With this perspective, health care professionals can work toward the ultimate goal of restoring, enhancing, or maintaining participation for their patients. Alzheimer’s disease is the perfect illustration of a globally occurring disease that affects participation in a variety of ways. While Alzheimer’s disease is a frequently used and recognized term, dementia is the diagnostic term for the acquired neurological disorder that results in memory loss and other cognitive impairments (Anderson and Shames, 2006). Medical treatments are available to reverse the effects of dementia when it occurs due to events such as dehydration and depression (Bhatnagar and Andy, 1995). However, dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT), the most common and well-known type of dementia, is irreversible (Anderson and Shames, 2006). DAT is caused by damage to brain tissue, characterized by sticky plaques and fibrous tangles that form
It has been said that “communication is the essence of life” (Light, 1997, p.61). For individuals with DAT, the progressive deterioration of memory and language skills will negatively affect communication and conversational abilities. It is inevitable then that the individual will encounter difficulty during daily communication exchanges with acquaintances and loved ones. The expression of one’s thoughts and ideas, social pleasantries, and communication exchanges simply for the purpose of maintaining relationships will be lost (Light, 1997). Therefore, successful communication is a vital component of maintaining participation. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature in order to illustrate the relationship between communication and participation for individuals with DAT. It will take a point of view consistent with The World Health Organization’s ICF model, which focuses on maintaining an individual’s participation in the activities of daily life. The review will provide evidence for the qualitative changes that characterize the communication skills of individuals
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research with DAT. It will then discuss strategies for caregivers that can be used to maintain or improve communication participation for individuals with DAT.
Literature Review Social linguistic researchers suggest the characteristics of a typical conversation are best understood through Grice’s conversational maxims (Hays, Niven, Godfrey and Linscott, 2004). Grice (1975) asserts that statements in a conversation need to: (a) contain the appropriate amount of information (quantity); (b) provide a valid contribution (quality); (c) be germane to the conversation (relevance); and (d) be clear and comprehensible (manner). Adherence to each of these four maxims contributes to the smooth, expected flow of conversation. Since each is a necessary contribution to conversation, violation of any one of these maxims causes a breakdown in communication. According to Mackenzie (2000), violations occur more frequently as a part of the changes associated with the normal aging process. Mackenzie studied the naturally occurring conversations of 189 neurologically normal adults between the ages of 40 and 88 to identify the changes in conversational skills over the lifespan of a typical individual. Fewer maxims were violated by normal adults between the ages of 40 and 74 than by older adults. After the age of 75, conversations were characterized by decreased skill in the conversational skill areas of turn taking, topic maintenance, and referencing. These changes were subtle and did not lead to any breakdowns in conversation. When compared with normal elderly adults, research on conversational abilities of individuals with DAT shows these individuals violate Grice’s maxims significantly more often, which leads to breakdowns in communication. Communication Characteristics of Individuals with DAT Research shows that individuals with DAT are susceptible to violations of Grice’s maxims of quality and relevance, as evidenced by significant difficulties maintaining a topic (Mentis and BriggsWhittaker, 1995). Topic maintenance is the skill of sustaining the flow of conversation by effectively introducing topics and then contributing novel and relevant information. Without the ability to maintain topics, individual’s participation in typical conversations is limited. Mentis and Briggs-Whittaker (1995) compared natural
conversations of individuals with DAT to the conversations of a control group of normal elderly subjects. All subjects participated in conversations with the same speech-language pathologist (SLP). The study identified that a greater number of topics were introduced in the DAT dyads than in the control dyads. However, the subjects with DAT introduced fewer of these topics. These frequent topic introductions by the SLP demonstrate that individuals with DAT are unable to maintain the current topic or introduce new topics to continue the conversation. Mentis and Briggs-Whittaker also found the control subjects introduced significantly more new and unsolicited information than did subjects with DAT. The individuals with DAT, however, tended to repeat topics, which also caused a breakdown in the conversation. Another violation of Grice’s quality maxim identified in individuals with DAT is difficulty with topic shifting (Garcia and Joanette, 1997; Mentis and Briggs-Whitaker, 1995). Once knowledge and novel information on a particular topic has been exhausted, conversational partners have the option of ending the conversation or shifting to a new topic. Garcia and Joanette (1997) compared the number of topic shifts by subjects with DAT to the number by normal elderly adults. Each subject was observed conversing with a social worker for an hour. Unexpectedly, the study revealed that subjects with DAT did not shift topics more often than the normal control group. Garcia and Joanette did identify that subjects with DAT shifted topics for significantly different reasons than did normal elderly adults. Normal elderly subjects shifted either for anecdotal reasons or because the topic had been exhausted. DAT subjects most often shifted topics for two reasons. Subjects with DAT shifted topics due to what the researchers define as a “failure to continue,” which forces the partner to change the topic (Garcia and Joanette, 1997, p. 111). The other reason was due to the subjects’ repetition of an idea in the conversation. Grice’s maxims of relevance and manner state that topics also must be changed in a logical and relevant way. Garcia and Joanette (1997) report normal elderly subjects used more appropriate and effective methods for shifting topics during a conversation than did individuals with DAT. They most often used the method of topic shading. Crow (1983) defines topic shading as the process of introducing a new topic by establishing its relevancy to the initial topic. Topic shading is an effective method for establishing relevancy between topics to assist the listener. Alternatively, violations of manner were observed in subjects with DAT who were
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research more likely to use shifts that were unexpected or abrupt, leading to communication breakdowns. When such confusion occurs in conversation, it is up to communication partners to repair the conversation. Conversational repair is the normal process of identifying and correcting errors and misunderstandings so a listener can follow the flow of conversation. This process applies to all of Griceâ€™s maxims. Individuals with DAT have a higher incidence of communication exchanges requiring conversational repair (Orange and Lubinski, 1996). Orange and Lubinski (1996) studied conversational repair by observing conversations of three groups of adults: subjects diagnosed with early stage DAT, subjects diagnosed with middle stage DAT, and one normal elderly control group. All subjects were observed communicating with a family member during mealtime. Results of the study show that as DAT progresses, a greater portion of the conversation is used for repair. In the control group, 18% of conversational time was associated with conversational repair. For subjects in the early stage, 23.6% of conversational time was associated with repair and 35.9% of time was devoted to conversational repair for subjects in the middle stages of the disease. This suggests that conversations become more problematic as the disease progresses (Orange and Lubinski, 1996). In addition to an increased need for conversational repair during their conversations, individuals with DAT also use less effective methods for signaling repair. Orange and Lubinski (1996) identify two types of repair: elaborations, which are statements that convey new information to clarify problematic conversation, and reductions, which are remarks that acknowledge problematic conversation. Elaborations are a more effective and higher level strategy for repair because they correct the problem rather than simply acknowledging it. Normal elderly control groups and individuals in the early stages of DAT were most likely to use elaborations. Individuals in the middle stage of DAT, however, used many more reductions as a method for repair. This less effective method contributes to the conversation breakdowns typical of individuals with DAT.
Strategies for Maintaining Communication Participation Despite the changes in communication due to language and memory loss, individuals with DAT still have the need and
ability to communicate effectively with others to maintain their participation in daily interactions. Professionals working with caregivers and individuals with DAT can identify the interaction of both impairments and preserved abilities to develop treatment strategies that focus on maintaining conversational skills. More importantly, caregivers should use these strategies because it is the caregivers who are ultimately responsible for providing a supportive communication environment. Recent studies show that when individuals with DAT are in a supportive environment, they can participate and successfully contribute to conversations. Perry, Galloway, Bottorff, and Nixon (2005) provided a group of subjects with DAT the opportunity to socialize and converse about personal experiences. The subjects, who were living in a long-term care facility, participated in a socialization group led by two group leaders familiar with dementia and communication facilitation. During discussions, leaders focused on the use of various conversational strategies to support and engage the subjects. Strategies group leaders used most often were exploring (asking specific questions of the individual subject), moderating (initiating topics and maintaining the flow of conversation), and discourse markers (using conventional social statements and phrases) (Perry et al., 2005). While subjects produced relatively few self-initiated statements, they did produce a greater number of responses when the group leaders used questioning and prompting strategies. This indicates the strategies used by the group leaders supported conversational participation by the subjects with DAT. Results of studies examining training and education of caregivers to improve communication of individuals with DAT are also encouraging. Ripich, Ziol, and Lee (1998) provided family members with information about communication skills of individuals with DAT. They complemented information with a training program that provided strategies to facilitate communication. Family members completed four two-hour sessions of training. After training, they reported a significant decrease in the number of communication breakdowns. Bourgeois, Dijkstra, Burgio, and Allen (2004) used a similar training program with nurse aids. They reported similar decreases in communication breakdowns and described improvement in the quality and quantity of interactions. The FOCUSED Program for Caregivers (Ripich, 1998) is another example of an effective method to maintain communication with individuals with DAT (Hopper, 2001; Ripich, 1998). The intent of this program is to
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research “ … correct misconceptions about how to communicate with persons with AD, and offer techniques to enhance communication potential” (Ripich, 1998, p. 41). Hopper (2001) recommends this program due to its adaptability and usability for caregivers and professionals to minimize communication breakdowns during conversations with individuals with DAT. The communication difficulty caregivers report as being most frustrating is the frequent repetition of the same question, story, or piece of information (Powell, Hale, and Bayer, 1995; Bourgeois, 2002; Garcia and Joanette (1997). Bourgeois (2002) views the repetition as a manifestation of an information encoding problem, or a problem of permanently storing the information. This is an idea important for caregivers to understand. Once they better understand what causes the individual with DAT to frequently repeat, caregivers can focus on facilitating improved interactions rather than focusing on the frustration. One strategy caregivers can use to overcome this communication barrier is responding to questions with statements (Hopper, 2001). A well-crafted statement should relate to the topic of the question, and extend it past a simple answer, thus allowing the conversation to continue. For example, if an individual is repeatedly questioning about an upcoming meal, a caregiver can answer the question and then redirect by asking the individual to describe a favorite meal or to tell what mealtime was like for him or her as a child. Another frustrating communication breakdown results from the difficulty individuals with DAT have answering questions (Small and Perry, 2005). Nevertheless, caregivers can encourage more effective conversation with a knowledge of the types of questions most appropriate for individuals with DAT. Small and Perry (2005) report that breakdowns occur twice as often when individuals with DAT are required to answer questions that involve episodic memory (memory of events in time) as opposed to those involving semantic memory (memory of facts and concepts). It was particularly difficult for individuals with DAT to answer questions about events of the recent past. Such questions are challenging for individuals with DAT because they require episodic memory, principally shortterm memory, which is affected by DAT (Love and Webb, 1996). Questions about topics such as feelings, opinions, and preferences are more appropriate for individuals with DAT because they tap into semantic memory rather than the episodic (Hopper, 2001).
Another strategy to assist individuals with DAT in answering questions and providing relevant topical information is the use of visual supports in the form of photographs and memory books. Memory books are helpful because they provide topics in written or pictorial form and work as a cue for accessing memories (Bourgeois et al., 2001). In addition, the procedural skill of reading a book and turning the pages remains relatively preserved even in the later stages of the disease (Bourgeois, 2002). Caregivers can create and use memory books to facilitate interactions with individuals with DAT (Bourgeois, 2002). Bourgeois et al. (2001) demonstrated the effectiveness of memory books by comparing the conversations of two groups of nursing aids conversing with individuals with DAT. One group conversed using a memory book and the other conversed without one. In this study, memory books were composed of twelve 4x6 inch pages. Each page had an illustration or photograph and a sentence about the individual’s family or a task of daily living. Bourgeois et al. found that individuals who used memory books quantitatively contributed more statements to the conversation than those who did not. Moreover, the statements of individuals with memory books were more informative and less ambiguous.
Conclusion Successful communication is a key to maintaining participation for individuals who are slowly and progressively losing functioning due to DAT. The effects of this disease are frustrating for both caregivers and for the individual. It is important to recognize that, even though there is no way of avoiding the progressive pattern of communication decline in DAT, caregivers and other communication partners can modify their own actions and behaviors to decrease communication breakdowns (Lee, 1991). By recognizing the inevitable changes in communication that occur in individuals with DAT and by using strategies contained in the literature, the lives of those living with DAT will be impacted in a positive way. Dementia of the Alzheimer’s type (DAT) is known all too well in our world today. It is likely that each of us knows at least one person who is living with this disease. It is estimated that at least one new case of DAT is diagnosed every seven seconds and this number is expected to increase rapidly in the coming years (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2005). By 2020, the number of individuals
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research with DAT is expected to reach 42.3 million worldwide (Alzheimer’s Disease International, 2005). It is a disease without borders, one that will benefit from both global and interdisciplinary communication and more importantly, motivated, individual-centered attitudes. The World Health Organization’s ICF model is a first step in approaching diseases such as Alzheimer’s in a person-centered way, which emphasizes ability rather than disability. To fully and successfully maintain participation, it is necessary to move away from the idea that individuals with DAT are helpless “victims” of a debilitating disease (Perry et al., 2005). Professionals in all disciplines need to take advantage of the preserved skills that individuals do have and search for ways of supporting and maintaining participation for these individuals. Future research should use the ICF model to identify and highlight the interactive nature of the impairments of body structure and function and the contexts in which individuals with these impairments participate.
Bourgeois, M. S., Dijkstra K., Burgio L. D., and Allen-Burge, R. (2001). Memory aids as an augmentative and alternative communication strategy for nursing home residents with dementia. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 17, 196-210. Garcia, L. J., and Joanette, Y. (1997). Analysis of conversational topic shifts: a multiple case study. Brain and Language, 58, 92-114. Hays, S., Niven B. E., Godfrey H. P., and Linscott, R. J. (2004). Clinical assessment of pragmatic language impairment: A generalisability study of older people with alzheimer’s disease. Aphasiology, 18(8), 693-714. Hopper, T. (2001). Indirect interventions to facilitate communication in alzheimer’s disease. Seminars in Speech and Language, 22(4), 305-315.
References Alzheimer’s Disease International. (2005). Global prevalence of dementia: a Delphi consensus study. Lancet, 366, 21122117. Anderson, Noma, and Shames, George. (2006). Human communication disorders (7 th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education. Bayles, K.A. (2001). Understanding the neurological syndrome of dementia. Seminars in Speech and Language, 22(4), 251259.
Hopper, T. and Bayles, K. A. (2001). Management of neurogenic communication disorders associated with dementia. Language Intervention strategies in Aphasia and Related Neurogenic Communication Disorders (4th ed.). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 829-846. Lee, V. K. (1991). Language changes and alzheimer’s disease: a literature review. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 17(1), 16-20. Light, J. (1997). ‘Communication is the essence of human life’: Reflections on communicative competence. AAC: Alternative and augmentative communication, 13(2), 61-70.
Bhatnagar, S, C. and Andy, O. J. (1995). Neuroscience for the study of communicative disorders. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 105-119.
Love, R., and Webb, W. (1996). Neurology for the speech-language pathologist (3rd ed.). Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann.
Bourgeois, M. S. (2002). “Where is my wife and when am I going home?” The challenge of communicating with persons with dementia. Alzheimer’s Care Quarterly, 3(2), 132-144.
Mackenzie, C. (2000). Adult spoken discourse: The influences of age and education. International Journal of Language and Communication Disorders, 35(2), 269-285.
Bourgeois, M. S., Dijkstra K., Burgio L. D., and Allen, R. S. (2004). Communication skills training for nursing aides of residents with dementia: The impact of measuring performance. Clinical Gerontologist, 27(1/2), 119-138.
Mentis, M., and Briggs-Whittaker, J. (1995). Discourse topic management in senile dementia of the alzheimer’s type. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 38(5).
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Orange, J., and Lubinski, R. (1996). Conversational repair by individuals with dementia of the alzheimer’s type. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 39(4).
Ripich, D. N., Ziol, E., and Lee M. M. (1998). Longitudinal effects of communication training on caregivers of persons with alzheimer’s disease. Clinical Gerontologist, 19(2), 37-55.
Perry, J., Galloway S., Bottorff J., and Nixon, S. (2005). Nursepatient communication in dementia: Improving the odds. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 31(4), 43-52.
Small, J., Perry, J. (2005). Do you remember? How caregivers question their spouses who have alzheimer’s disease and the impact on communication. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 48(1), 125-136.
Powell, J. A., Hale, M. A., and Bayer A. J. (1995). Symptoms of communication breakdown in dementia: Carer’s perceptions. European Journal of Disorders of Communication, 30, 6575.
World Health Organization. (2001). International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/classification/ icf.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT Assessing the Influence of Rock Music on Emotions
Jonathan Hill Class: Senior Major: Psychology
My name is Jonathan Hill and I am a senior at Murray State University. I plan to graduate in spring of 2007 with a bachelor of arts in psychology and a minor in biology. My future goal is to pursue a graduate education in clinical health psychology, neuropsychology, or behavioral medicine.
Using projective and objective measures, effects of rock music on emotion were investigated. Sixty students were randomly assigned to three conditions: hard rock, soft rock, and no music. One group listened to hard rock music while taking a projective test with five ink blots and an objective test with an Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS). The same procedure was used for the second group while listening to soft rock. A control group was given the same procedure with no music. Two one way analyses of variance and a Pearson’s correlation were used to determine if types of music affected one’s emotions using projective and objective measures. Significant differences were discovered comparing music with: projective measures, F (2, 59) = 4.41, p < .05, the preference of soft rock over hard rock, r (40) = .37, p < .01, and six of eight emotions on the EAS. Data analyses revealed significant differences between types of rock music and their effects on emotions.
FACULTY MENTOR Alysia D. Ritter is a professor of psychology who, during her 16 years at MSU, has taught general psychology, child development, perception, and research methods and design. She received her bachelor’s degree from the University of New Orleans and her master’s and doctorate degrees from University of Houston. Her research interests include sensations, perceptions, attitudes and beliefs pertaining to behavior. She actively encourages student interest and involvement in psychological research. The undergraduates she has mentored have published 16 articles and given 40 presentations at local and regional conferences.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Assessing the Influence of Rock Music on Emotions
iolence is so abundant in American society that one expects to encounter it daily through the many forms of media. It can be seen and heard on the television, radio, and even on the internet. Because these forms of media are saturated with explicit scenes and sounds of aggression and violence, it is possible that some forms of media, such as music, could contain a vast amount of negative stimuli that could impact society in many different ways. One important component of American culture is music, which can be experienced in many forms (e.g., radio, internet, CD player). Violence and aggression are found in many songs and types of music, which could have a detrimental effect upon the listener. Based on archival information, it has been estimated that acts of aggression and sexually explicit material can be found anywhere between twenty and seventy percent of rap music as well as videos (Atkin, Smith, Roberto, Fediuk, and Wagner, 2002). There is also evidence that people who watched rock music videos conveyed more insensitive and aggressive attitudes toward women than did men who were shown nonviolent rock videos (Barongan and Nagayama Hall, 1995). Other research concluded that even a brief exposure, such as fifteen minutes, to violent music and music videos, such as heavy metal, could desensitize its viewers and change the perception of another’s aggressive behavior (Atkin et al., 2002). Music is a vast and popular form of art. To add to its perplexity, there are dozens of genres that are all labeled as music, yet some types sound completely different than others while some sound very similar. Although the definition of a genre of music would be best defined by the auditory sensory system rather than an operational definition, there are some differing characteristics that can be found between hard rock and soft rock music. Hard rock music is classified as a style of rock ’n roll that contains a harsh, amplified sound and loud electric guitars. Soft rock music is a form of rock ‘n roll that tends to produce a softer, more pleasing sound. Pianos and synthesizers often accompany the electric guitars, which are typically absent from hard rock.
Some types of music contain more violence than other genres. For example, archival research performed by Smith and Boyson (2002) found that rap music had a tendency to attribute more violence in music videos than rock, adult contemporary, or rhythm and blues. They also discovered that the music channel Black Entertainment Television (BET) was significantly more likely to circulate music videos with aggression and violence than its competitors, Music Television (MTV) or Video Hits One (VH1) (Smith and Boyson). Their information was obtained by monitoring and studying the types of music videos aired during a certain time span on three different music channels. Similar results were revealed by Atkin et al. (2002), who reported that rap songs tend to use more aggressively explicit language – even more than heavy metal songs. Two thousand, three hundred males and females between the ages of 13 through 15 received mail surveys that inquired about verbal and physical aggression and media influences upon their lives. There was a strong correlation between committing and experiencing verbal aggression, regardless of the manner in which this aggression was portrayed. There is evidence to support the idea that content in a song or a music video can alter the perception of an individual and alter one’s cognition. Atkin et al. (2002), Barongan and Nagayama Hall (1995), and Smith and Boyson (2002) noted that music filled with violence, aggression, and sexually explicit material were related to distorted cognitive perceptions, and that aggressive behavior between music conditions were heavily associated with lyrics that were within a song (Barongan and Nagayama Hall). For example, Barongan and Nagayama Hall studied a sample of fifty-four college men and their perceptions on neutral rap music and violent rap music. Their findings also suggested that violent rap music aided the development of aggressive behavior in its audience – which gave credence to the idea that the content and lyrics of a song really do affect the individual. In order to assess the type of emotions experienced, one must undergo some form of psychological testing. One way to measure
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research this personality dynamic is through the use of projective tests, such as the Rorschach ink blot test. Although examining various elements of thought and behavior through projective means is still rather rudimentary in the scientific world, benefits of using this technique are possible because projective tests are virtually free of social desirability effects as well as containing no right or wrong answers, nor any guidelines. The participant simply looks for internal cues and responds to ambiguous stimuli, projecting possible fears and desires, which reproduces a measurable score of one’s inner thoughts. Projective tests are somewhat controversial due to the various ways they can be interpreted. However, many reliable scales used for interpretation have been produced in order to remove any quandaries that may arise in the scoring of these tests (Masling, 2002). Objective evaluations can also measure emotions produced through exposure to music. In contrast to an open-ended projective measure, an objective measurement, with specific response alternatives are not as likely to detect an influence in a situational variable, such as one’s emotion (Greenberg and Fisher, 1971). Because music seems to affect a person’s immediate mood, rather than alter personality characteristics, a projective measure would more likely discover an alteration of mood based on music rather than an objective measure. Therefore, if a change in mood is detected in both projective and objective tests, it strengthens the validity of the claim that rock music affects one’s emotions. Therefore, this study investigated how a brief exposure to music affected the emotions of an individual. It was hypothesized that soft rock songs would produce positive emotions, whereas hard rock songs would invoke negative emotions. It was also hypothesized that these emotional variants could be measured using both projective and objective measures.
Method Participants All sixty participants were students at Murray State University, and each voluntarily gave his/her consent to participate in this research project. Before beginning the study, all were reminded of the explicit content of some of the songs and were told that he/she could refuse to participate at any time without penalty.
Participants were cared for in agreement with the “Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct” (American Psychological Association, 2002). Materials and Apparatus Five ink blots were made for this investigation (see Appendix A). A five item self-report questionnaire was given in order to determine what each individual actually viewed in the ink blots. The responses to the ink blots were scored by the Barrier Response scoring procedure. Each response is given a score of 1 if it had a reference to clothing, buildings, vehicles with some type of containing structure, any reference that could contain or cover, all living things that have a special surface quality, all creatures that possess a shell, and all references to geographic or natural formations (Masling). Therefore, the total score cannot be higher than twenty-five. A higher score denotes a better coping ability to stress, or little to no hostile emotions at that present time. The Emotional Assessment Scale (Carlson et al., 1994) was used to measure immediate emotional responses of the participants based on the music. The EAS is a 24-item test designed to indicate the emotional state of an individual at that point in time. It contains eight emotional conditions that are seen as prevalent and fundamental across all cultures. There were three items per dimension of emotion, and the mean was used to gather the score for each condition. No emotion could exceed 100. A four-item demographics questionnaire determined age, gender, whether the individual had heard the music before, and whether the participant liked the music or not. The music was produced using CDs played on a Panasonic RXD12 portable stereo CD system. The songs that were used for the soft rock were “The Ocean”, “Ready and Waiting to Fall”, and “Anything” (Elkins, 2005, tracks 7, 12, and 13), all performed by Mae. These three soft rock songs were chosen because of their upbeat message and the continuous theme of love that is prevalent within the songs. The other three songs that were used were “Cryptorchild”, “Deformography”, and “Angel with the Scabbed Wings” (Warner, 1996, tracks 6, 7, and 10), performed by Marilyn Manson. These hard rock songs were chosen for their negative, downbeat tones as well as containing an overall hateful and angry theme.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Procedure Before the investigation began, all participants were asked to read a cover letter to assure their permission was given to continue with the research. The subjects were randomly assigned to three groups. The first group contained 20 participants, and they listened to the soft rock music on a volume of 5 on a 10 point scale for approximately five minutes in order to establish a desired mood. Once the mood was established the music continued and the participants were administered the various tests. The first assessment given was the projective tests. The researcher displayed five different ink blots for two minutes each. The participant then had to produce five nouns per ink blot. The next assessment was the objective test, or the Emotional Assessment Scale, which was also given while the music continued to play. The participants were instructed to rank their mood on eight different dimensions from
least possible to most possible. The volunteer would simply make a slash mark on the 100 millimeter line to indicate how they were feeling at that moment, which would offer a self-evaluation of the participantâ€™s current mood. The four item questionnaire was then administered. The second group also contained 20 participants, and they went through the same procedures except they listened to the hardcore rock music. The third group acted as the control, and went through the same procedures as well except they did not listen to any type of music.
Results For this experiment, the independent variables were the types of music and types of evaluation. The dependent variables were the scores on the emotional assessment scale, given to assess the emotions of the participants, and the scoring of the ink blot tests.
Table 1 Emotional Assessment Scale Dimension Scores for Music Types Dimensions
Mae (soft) M
Manson (hard) Sd
Note. The highest possible score was 100. Higher numbers for the mean denote a stronger emotional state towards the type of music to which one was exposed. *p < .05. **p < .01. ***p < .001. ****p< .0001.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Several one way analyses of variance were used to determine if the emotions derived from the three music conditions differed significantly. The objective test (EAS) was broken down into eight specific emotions, which were compared to the type of music played. The six emotions that showed a significant difference between the types of music were: anger, F (2, 59) = 12.62, p < .0001, disgust, F (2, 59) = 8.72, p < .001, fear, F (2, 59) = 3.39, p < .05, guilt, F (2, 59) = 9.32, p < .001, happiness, F (2, 59) = 13.98, p < .0001, and sadness, F (2, 59) = 6.65, p < .01. Descriptive statistics are shown in Table 1.
The objective test (EAS) also clearly distinguished more negative emotion with the hard rock music than control or the soft rock music. In fact, those who listened to Marilyn Manson were angrier than the control, and those who listened to Mae were significantly less angry than those who listened to no music. This is compatible with the findings of Smith and Boyson (2002), which determined that particular genres of music contain more violence than others. In addition, the data obtained also showed that more violence is found in certain factions of music within a single genre, like rock music.
Also, there was a significant difference between the projective test scores and the types of music, F (2, 59) = 4.41, p <.05. A Pearsonâ€™s correlation was used to determine if the participants liked the music
Manson evoked a more negative emotional response than Mae and the control group in the moods of disgust, guilt, happiness, and sadness. Emotions that showed no significant difference between
to which they were exposed, and there was a significant tendency to like soft rock and dislike hard rock, r(40) = .37, p < .01.
the three groups were surprise and anxiety. Of all the emotions, one would not expect to see a strong difference between groups with these emotional states because surprise and anxiety are two of the more neutral emotional states. Although the styles of music are vastly different, both are still likely to evoke the same amount of neutral emotions.
Discussion According to the data collected, there was a significant difference between the types of music played and the emotion the participants experienced based on the projective and objective measures. The ink blot (projective) tests distinguished more negative stressors in the hard rock music versus the control or the soft rock music. Also, the EAS (objective) tests revealed more negative emotions in the hard rock group than soft rock or the control group. The control group even displayed more negative emotions than the soft rock group. This data supported the hypothesis that even a brief exposure to the music, such as fifteen minutes, was able to produce significant differences in both the projective and objective measures. Mae, the soft rock music, produced a positive response to stress, thereby eliminating hostile emotions. Consequently, Marilyn Manson, the hard rock music, expressed a more stressful environment, thereby raising the levels of more negative emotions. Ink blot tests are very difficult to score. Although the Barrier Response scoring system (Masling) gave a list of criteria to precisely judge the ink blot responses of the volunteers, this scoring method had a weakness. This system did not differentiate between a positively toned response, such as a beautiful red rose, and a negatively toned response, such as an ugly dead flower. Categorizing opposing responses together, as the Barrier Response may often do, may not have been the most accurate way to score the projective test used in this study.
The data analyzed also showed that those who listened to soft rock (Mae) enjoyed the music, while those who listened to hard rock (Marilyn Manson) did not. This outcome was expected because of the nature of the types of music. These findings were also congruent with the data taken from the EAS. The participants enjoyed listening to soft rock because they felt happier, less angry, sad, disgusted, etc. Likewise, the volunteers did not like listening to hard rock because they were angrier, sadder, and more disgusted. The data obtained was also congruent with the findings of Atkin et al. (2002) in that certain types of media, including music, can affect the perception and emotions of an individual. The negative hard rock music was positively correlated with negative emotions and the soft rock music was positively correlated with positive emotions, which were similar to the research done by Smith and Boyson (2002) and Barongan and Nagayama Hall (1995). According to their research, rap music tended to be the most negative and violent. Therefore, a sample of this genre of music should also be evaluated in order to strengthen this study and to understand the differences between the types of music. This would enhance the knowledge of the effects of each genre on oneâ€™s mood. When replicating this study, one might examine the idea of evaluating different genres of music to strengthen these findings
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research and to understand the differences between the types of music. One might also examine the idea of decreasing exposure time in order to determine exactly when one’s emotional state is affected.
References American Psychological Association. (2002). Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 57 (12), 1060 – 1074. Atkin, C. K. , Smith, S. W. , Roberto, A. J. , Fediuk, T. and Wagner, T. (2002). Correlates of verbally aggressive communication in adolescents. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 30, 251 – 268. Retrieved March 11, 2005, from PsycINFO database. Barongan, C. , and Nagayama Hall, G. C. (1995). The influence of misogynous rap music on sexual aggression against women. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 19, 195 – 207. Retrieved March 11, 2005, from PsycINFO database. Carlson, C. , Collins, F. , Stewart, J. , Porzelius, J. , Nitz, A. , and Lind, C. (1994). Emotional Assessment Scale (EAS). In J. Fischer and K. Corcoran (Eds.), Measures for Clinical Studies: Second edition, Vol. 2. New York City: The Free Press. Elkins, D. (2005). The Ocean [Recorded by Mae]. On The Everglow [CD]. Seattle, Washington: Tooth and Nail Records. Elkins, D. (2005). Ready and Waiting to Fall [Recorded by Mae]. On The Everglow [CD]. Seattle, Washington: Tooth and Nail Records.
Elkins, D. (2005). Anything [Recorded by Mae]. On The Everglow [CD]. Seattle, Washington: Tooth and Nail Records. Greenberg, R . P. and Fisher, S. (1971). Some differential effects of music on projective and structured psychological tests. Psychological Reports, 28, 817 – 818. Retrieved October 10, 2005 from PsycINFO database. Masling, J. (2002). How do I score thee? Let me count the ways. Or some different methods of categorizing Rorschach responses. Journal of Personality Assessment, 79, 399 – 422. Retrieved October 1, 2005, from PsycINFO database. Smith, S. L. and Boyson, A. R. (2002). Violence in music videos: Examining the prevalence and context of physical aggression. Journal of Communication, 52, 61 – 83. Retrieved March 11, 2005, from PsycINFO database. Warner, B. (1996). Cryptorchild [Recorded by Marilyn Manson]. On AntiChrist Superstar [CD]. Los Angeles, California: Nothing/Interscope Records. Warner, B. (1996). Deformography [Recorded by Marilyn Manson]. On AntiChrist Superstar [CD]. Los Angeles, California: Nothing/Interscope Records. Warner, B. (1996). Angel with the Scabbed Wings [Recorded by Marilyn Manson]. On AntiChrist Superstar [CD]. Los Angeles, California: Nothing/Interscope Records.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research Appendix A
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT A Critique of the Global State of Religious Freedom
Class: Senior Major: Spanish Education As a Spanish Education major, I continually strive to understand international affairs and intercultural communication. In addition to writing an ethnography of Mexican culture as part of an Independent Study Abroad program in Campeche, Mexico, I have traveled to Latin America and Europe on more than fifteen mission trips. At Murray State University, I serve as a Student Ambassador for the College of Education, as president of Alpha Mu Gamma National Foreign Language Honor Society, and as a vice president for NSCS. After graduation, I will obtain a TESOL degree.
On December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) to identify those rights and freedoms to which every human should be entitled without any distinction regardless of race, gender, “language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,” or location. These rights include those of life, freedom, safety, humane treatment, equality before the law, fair trial, the freedoms of thought, expression, and assembly, and according to Article 18 the freedom of religion. This research will define religious freedom according to the international legal model set forth by this and other declarations and covenants, evaluate the global state of religious freedom by identifying worldwide patterns and specific concerns on the violation of religious freedom, and identify strategies for the improvement of the global state of religious freedom.
FACULTY MENTOR Dr. Farouk Umar is chair of the Department of Government, Law and International Affairs at MSU. He received his Ph.D. from Southern Illinois University. His research focuses upon the Middle East, International Relations and Law, International Organizations, and American Government. He has published multiple articles including “The Enigma of the Middle East,” published in the book, Papers in Public Policy and Economical Development. He has received the MSU Alumni Association’s Distinguished Professor Award, the Student Government Association’s Max Carman Outstanding Teacher Award, and the Board of Regents’ Teaching Excellence Award.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
A Critique of the Global State of Religious Freedom
n December 10, 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights was adopted by the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) to identify those rights and freedoms to which every human should be entitled without any distinction regardless of race, gender, “language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status,” or location. These rights include those of life, freedom, safety, humane treatment, equality before the law, fair trial, the freedoms
religion, which also has a basis in other UN international covenants and declarations, the Conventions on the Rights of the Child, the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide, the Status of Refugees, and the Rights of Migrant Workers, and the 1949 Geneva Conventions. (Jahangir 2004, 9-10)
of thought, expression, and assembly, and according to Article 18 the freedom of religion. This research will define religious freedom according to the international legal model set forth by this and other declarations and covenants, evaluate the global state of religious freedom by identifying worldwide patterns and specific concerns on the violation of religious freedom, and identify strategies for the improvement of the global state of religious freedom.
although signed or ratified by most of the UN member states—156 in the case of the ICCPR—are not legally binding. Rather, they are, as their titles suggest, merely declarations of what these nations have agreed should exist in terms of religious freedom. It is also necessary to explain, as frequent citations of her reports cannot be avoided in research on this topic, that Asma Jahangir is the present UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, a position which will later be discussed more fully, thus her writings are central to understanding the present interpretation of the relevant UN documents.
Defining Religious Freedom Article 18 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UN 1948) states, Everyone has the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion; this right includes freedom to change his religion or belief, and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in teaching, practice, worship and observance. According to the UN Human Rights Committee, this freedom “is far-reaching and profound” and “protects theistic, non-theistic and atheistic beliefs, as well as the right not to profess any religion or belief.” (Jahangir 2004, 6) Therefore, it is clear that this freedom applies equally to adherents of both traditional and nontraditional religions, as well as to those who choose not to believe or whose beliefs do not align with conventional religion. In accordance with this definition, the use of the term religion will be likewise used inclusively throughout this document. The Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief (1981; hereafter DEAFI), and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966; hereafter ICCPR), further define this freedom of
It is important to note that these covenants and declarations,
Article 1 of the DEAFI (1981) and Article 18 of the ICCPR (1966) state: 1. Everyone shall have the right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion. This right shall include freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice, and freedom, either individually or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching. 2. No one shall be subject to coercion which would impair his freedom to have or to adopt a religion or belief of his choice. 3. Freedom to manifest one’s religion or beliefs may be subject only to such limitations as are prescribed by law and are necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others. Thus these articles articulate the freedom to have a religion or belief of one’s choice, to practice, worship, and teach the religion both individually and collectively, both publicly and privately without threat of coercion or restriction except those legal limitations which 35
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research must be enacted for the protection of others and their rights, and which must be applied equally without religious distinction. Article 2 of the DEAFI states that no person or institution should be subjected to discrimination on the basis of religion or belief, defining discrimination as “any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on religion or belief [with the intent or effect of] nullification or impairment of the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis.” Article 3 emphasizes the magnitude of religious discrimination by enunciating that it is “an affront to human dignity and a disavowal” of UN agreements, as well as a hindrance to peaceful international relations. Consequently, Article 4 compels all nations to do whatever necessary for the prevention and elimination of religious discrimination, including making or changing legislation when necessary to accomplish this task. Article 5 addresses the right of parents or legal guardians to raise their children according to their own religious beliefs, and the rights of children to receive the moral education desired by their parents or legal guardians and not to be subjected to “teaching on religion or belief against the wishes of his parents or legal guardians, the best interests of the child being the guiding principle.” Orphans are also entitled to these rights according to the “expressed wishes or any other proof of their wishes” of the parents. This article states that “practices of a religion or belief in which a child is brought up must not be injurious to his physical or mental health or to his full development.” Finally, Article 5 states that every child “shall be brought up in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among peoples, peace and universal brotherhood, respect for freedom of religion or belief of others, and in full consciousness that his energy and talents should be devoted to the service of his fellow men.” (DEAFI 1981) Article 6 continues the definition process by outlining nine very specific freedoms also entailed in the freedom of thought, conscience, religion or belief. The first is the right to worship or assemble for religious purposes, including the establishment and maintenance of places of worship. The second is the right “to establish and maintain appropriate charitable or humanitarian institutions.” Third is the right to “make, acquire, and use” that which is necessary for rites or customs. Fourth is the right to publish and distribute literature. Fifth is the right to teach the religion or beliefs in “places suitable for these purposes.” Sixth is the right
to request and accept voluntary contributions either monetary or otherwise from institutions and individuals. Seventh is the right to train and select leaders either by appointment or succession that are suitable to the standards and requirements of the religion. Eighth is the right to observe days of rest and celebrate the holidays and ceremonies prescribed in the religion or belief, and ninth is the right to communicate with individuals and communities on the basis of religion or belief both nationally and internationally. (DEAFI 1981) Finally, Article 7 stipulates that all nations provide legislation within their respective countries guaranteeing these rights to every individual within their jurisdiction, and Article 8 places a final restriction on these rights, requiring that they not be permitted to violate any other rights. As already stated, the ICCPR addresses religious freedom in Article 18; additionally Articles 20, 26, and 27 provide the following rights of importance to religious freedom. Article 20 states that “any advocacy of national, racial, or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility, or violence shall be prohibited by law.” Article 26 states that everyone, without religious distinction, is equal before the law and entitled to protection by the law, and that all discrimination should be prohibited by law; and Article 27 guarantees the rights of communities of ethnic, religious, or linguistic minorities in diverse states “to enjoy their own culture, to profess and practice their own religion, or to use their own language.” Thus, religious freedom is defined by these and the aforementioned international laws and agreements as both fundamental and essential to all people everywhere, including both the components of freedom of thought or conscience, “which according to the main international instruments, forms the part of the right to freedom of religion or belief that is not susceptible to any limitation,” (Jahangir 2004, 15) and freedom of expression, through which individuals and communities may practice their beliefs both publicly and privately, with only those limitations which are necessary to ensure that others’ rights are not violated. These freedoms imply numerous additional freedoms which have already been identified, in addition to freedom from discrimination on the basis of religious beliefs or practices and freedom from coercion which would limit religious freedom including the right to change one’s beliefs or to hold no belief.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research While the distinction between freedom of conscience, which must not be restricted, and freedom of expression, which may only be restricted as “necessary to protect public safety, order, health, or morals or the fundamental rights and freedoms of others,” (DEAFI 1981; ICCPR 1966) is clear, the boundary at which religious freedom infringes upon others’ freedoms or at which the freedom of others curtails religious freedom is more complicated. Throughout the DEAFI (1981) and ICCPR (1966), “guidelines” have been presented to assist with this conundrum; however these too are limited by ambiguity and vulnerability to prejudiced interpretation, so they will now be examined. Two clauses in Article 5 of the DEAFI (1981) exemplify this type of “guideline” and the vulnerabilities to which they are susceptible. According to this article, children have the right to (ICCPR 1966, unless otherwise noted) the moral education determined by their parents with “the best interests of the child being the guiding principle,” and in accordance with the reservation that the “practices of a religion or belief in which a child is brought up must not be injurious to his physical or mental health or to his full development.” While important, both of these clauses serve as a potential point of controversy or limitation, as they are very vulnerable to biased interpretation. Therefore, their application must be carefully monitored internationally, which will later be discussed more fully, to ensure that religious discrimination and other violations of the freedom of religion are not accepted with these clauses as their justification. It may be asked, for example, what constitutes full development and does a belief which contradicts scientific ‘knowledge’ hinder a child from reaching full cognitive development. The ambiguity of these “guidelines,” necessary due to the wide range of beliefs and cultural viewpoints represented by the writers of this declaration, leaves questions such as this that must be answered vigilantly in order to determine to what degree these limitations should be exercised. Article 5 also states that every child “shall be brought up in a spirit of understanding, tolerance, friendship among peoples, peace and universal brotherhood, respect for freedom of religion or belief of others, and in full consciousness that his energy and talents should be devoted to the service of his fellow men,” (DEAFI 1981) which is certainly an admirable ideal that should be easily agreed upon; however it too is ambiguous, allowing for immense variation in interpretation across cultures, and expansive, perhaps beyond the boundaries of legislative model into utopian ambition. These ideals could even be misconstrued to the point of constituting a violation
of religious freedom if for example an individual’s beliefs are universal in nature, claiming to be more valid than another belief. This individual’s right to this belief may be jeopardized by this demand of tolerance. Perhaps “service of his fellow men” can also be interpreted quite differently across beliefs and cultures. Article 6 of the DEAFI includes the right to teach religion or beliefs in “places suitable for these purposes.” The question must be posed as to what constitutes a place suitable for the teaching of religion. It has been posited that this should only be permitted in designated, registered, public, monitored places (Jahangir 2005), or to another extreme that it should only take place in private, yet Article 1 of the DEAFI states that the freedom of religion, including specifically teaching of religion, may be manifested both publicly and privately. Furthermore, Article 8 places an absolute restriction on all of these rights, requiring that they not be permitted to violate any other rights. An excellent example of the potential for complication in this respect is found in Article 20 of the ICCPR (1966), which states that “any advocacy of national, racial, or religious hatred that constitutes incitement to discrimination, hostility, or violence shall be prohibited by law.” This control for discrimination certainly has the potential of infringement on the freedom of speech, especially as understood in the United States. In fact, on this very basis, the United States received communications from the UN expressing concerns that this article was being violated in 2004. “Public persons or professionals of the media had portrayed or criticized Islam in ways that could constitute incitement to religious hatred.” (Jahangir 2005) The United States responded by citing their previously declared reservation in regards to this article which states, “That Article 20 does not authorize or require legislation or other action by the US that would restrict the right of free speech and association protected by the Constitution.” Instead, “the criminal justice system penalizes specific unlawful actions, as opposed to punishing speech itself.” The United States also (Jahangir 2005, unless otherwise noted) included in its response statistics regarding the number of religious discrimination cases in recent years and the ways in which those cases have been resolved and are continuing to be resolved, and the UN thanked the US for the detailed response. Despite these complications which can be overcome through careful interpretation and application, perhaps as illustrated in the previous example, the international instruments provide a comprehensive 37
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research understanding of religious freedom and all that it entails as a model for states to consult in creating, evaluating, and enforcing legislation. The degree to which these ideals are realized must now be examined, as declarations and covenants, while important, do not directly correlate with the state of real world affairs.
Evaluating the Global State of Religious Freedom Therefore, this paper will now focus on the evaluation of the global state of religious freedom by examining worldwide patterns and specific concerns on the violation of religious freedom identified by the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, the Freedom House, and the US Office of International Religious Freedom. In 1987, the UN appointed a Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief whose responsibilities include evaluating issues of religious freedom with a focus on prevention and protection, determining best practices both in legislation and application, examining “incidents and governmental measures in all parts of the world that are incompatible with the provisions” (Jahangir 2004, 5) of the aforementioned declarations and covenants, recommending remedial actions, and communicating with member states regarding alleged violations and concerns about possible future violations. Each year, the Special Rapporteur releases a report which identifies worldwide patterns and specific concerns on the violation of religious freedom and summarizes the communications between the UN and member states regarding only those allegations and concerns which were shown reliable upon investigation. “In case of doubt, the Special Rapporteur will refrain from sending a communication.” (Jahangir 2004, 11) Jahangir’s December 2004 report identified the following patterns in religious freedom violations: human rights violations on the basis of religion, violence between religious groups, forced conversions, targeting of violence on places of worship, restrictions on religious publications, required religious registration, and anti-terrorist legislation which infringes upon religious freedom. In addressing these issues, the report summarized 69 communications which were sent to 41 different nations throughout the course of the year, including all eight of the nations designated as Countries of Particular Concern (CPCs) by the US Office of International Religious Freedom in 2004: China, North Korea, Eritrea, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Burma/Myanmar and Vietnam. (Hanford
2004) The United Kingdom, France, Russia, Iraq, Mexico, Pakistan, Israel, and the United States were also among the 41 nations contacted with concerns by the UN in 2004, demonstrating that violations of religious freedom are indeed a global concern. The extensive nature of this matter is further confirmed by Religious Freedom in the World, A Global Survey of Religious Freedom and Persecution, released by the Center for Religious Freedom in 2000, which affirms that 75% of the world’s population is subjected to some form of religious restriction or discrimination. Furthermore, the report asserts that “religious freedom is deteriorating rapidly in much of the world,” (Freedom House 2000) identifying Burma, Iran, North Korea, Tibet, Turkmenistan, Saudi Arabia, and Sudan, as those nations in which religious freedom is the most threatened. These listings are confirmed by the UN report which includes communications of concern to each of these nations, Tibet being categorized as within Chinese jurisdiction, and they further confirm the CPC designations made by the US Office of Religious Freedom in 2004, as all of these nations are considered CPCs except Turkmenistan. The Center for Religious Freedom, which opened in 1986, is a division of the Freedom House, which was founded in 1941 by Eleanor Roosevelt and Wendell Willkie. Its purpose is the exposure of religious persecution around the world and advocacy before “the media, Congress, the State Department, and the White House,” of those whose religious freedom has been violated. (Freedom House 2000) The 2000 survey cites the ICCPR, the DEAFI, and the European Convention on Human Rights as the foundation for its criteria. Certainly the degree of religious freedom violations and concerns varies greatly from nation to nation, with some of the most severe violations taking place in countries already identified. The following examples will illustrate this variation and those trends and concerns identified in the UN Report. (Jahangir 2004) The allegations against China cited in the UN 2004 report (Jahangir 2005) include human rights violations of adherents to Falun Gong, Christianity, both Catholic and Protestant, Islam, and Buddhism, including beatings, imprisonment, ‘reeducation’ in labor camps, detention without fair trial in which some have died, and inhumane treatment, as well as registration requirements on religious communities, which are closely regulated, and restriction of internet access to religious information in Chinese. Also, the
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research restriction on religious publications in China was highlighted in an article in the USA Today on November 17, 2005, which reported, “This month, China authorities demonstrated again their determination to control the spread of religious faith. On Nov. 8, a Beijing court jailed pastor Cai Zhuohua, leader of an underground church community, for three years for printing and distributing Bibles.” In Eritrea, members of various Christian churches, as well as Jehovah’s Witnesses, have been arrested and have suffered severe human rights violations on the basis of their faith with the intent of coercion “to abandon their faith” (Jahangir 2005, 24-27), i.e. forced conversion. Communications with Iran highlighted the destruction of religious property, particularly that of the Baha’i faith, as well as required religious ‘registration’ on the National University Entrance Examination. In the Sudan, members were
states, including Indonesia, Iraq, Israel, and Sudan, have provided no response at all, which may or may not indicate worse conditions than present in states which have issued responses consisting only of denial. North Korea exemplified this approach, categorically rejecting allegations and terming “the information communicated by the Special Rapporteur…false and fabricated by those forces hostile to the country,” “as part of their constant attempts to destroy the country’s socialist system.” (Jahangir 2005, 20-21) To which, the Special Rapporteur responded asking for the North Korean government to provide specific information about religious communities and how their rights are being secured, an approach taken in other similar situations. It is therefore clear that here, too, is immense variation and only one conclusive thread: the global state of religious freedom, despite numerous international covenants and
evicted from religious properties, their possession of which had been transferred by a court ruling. In Iraq, interreligious violence has taken place as Sunni Muslims have evicted Shiite Muslims from their homes in attempting to establish a strict Sunni state in the city of Latifiyah. Evangelical Christians were also evicted from their homes and denied education for their children in the Mexican state of Jalisco. Finally, in the United Kingdom and United States, concerns were centered on public statements by individuals which could be considered “incitement to religious hatred” (Jahangir 2005, 74-75), which has been previously addressed, and religious discrimination or targeting.
declarations, is substandard and perceived by some to be in decline. Still, it must be asked: with sustained international monitoring and efforts towards improvement, can the ideal of religious freedom be realized and how?
While these allegations and concerns provide an illustrated overview of the global state of religious freedom, one final factor must be considered in their examination, and that is the response of the governments whose jurisdiction includes those areas where these violations have taken place. The United Kingdom and the United States provided detailed responses, indicating the governments’ realization of the importance of the concerns expressed and efforts to rectify violations and uphold religious freedom. Still, both governments maintained the stance previously stated by the US that “incitement to religious hatred” is not prohibited nor punished by law, while any resulting illegal actions are penalized. The Mexican government also investigated the alleged violations within its jurisdiction, confirming their credibility, and is working to resolve the situation, although it is still far from resolved. Other states, including China, Eritrea, and Vietnam, have only provided partial responses, responding to some specific allegations for which there are alternative and potentially justifiable explanations and providing no response to other allegations and concerns. Still other
Improving the Global State of Religious Freedom International monitoring, as conducted by the UN Special Rapporteur on Freedom of Religion or Belief, the Freedom House, and the US Office of International Religious Freedom, is vital to maintaining religious freedom; however, it alone is not sufficient. The declarations, which have been discussed in depth, provide “guidelines” for religious freedom, yet they lack power for enforcement, which can be attributed to the international recognition and observance of national sovereignty. Thus, in order for religious freedom to be realized, states must assume responsibility for protecting this freedom. Perhaps, it is here that the greatest variation in the issue of religious freedom may be seen. State governmental models vary within the extremes of markedly religious states which place religious requirements on all citizens, to decidedly secular states which may place religious restrictions on all citizens, by narrowly defining places suitable for religious manifestation, for example. Iran, France, the United Kingdom, and the United States are very representative of the differing governmental approaches, which will now be examined briefly. The Islamic Republic of Iran, as it is officially titled, is a theocratic republic which “codifies Islamic principles of government.” (CIA 2006) As previously mentioned, Iran is designated as a Country of Particular Concern by the US on the grounds of religious freedom
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research violations, which are further confirmed by the communications sent to Iran by the UN Special Rapporteur. These include allegations of several arrests of Christian ministers and adherents by Iranian police, as well as the aforementioned destruction of religious property belonging to adherents of Baha’i and the mandatory religious registration of all non-Islamic students on the National University Entrance Exam. These practices clearly do not represent the ideals of religious freedom set forth by the UN. Furthermore, this governmental model allows for the violation of other human rights, such as the rights of women as violated in the case of J.I., a thirteen-year old girl who was sentenced to be stoned to death for adultery after being raped by her fifteen-year old brother whose sentence required one hundred lashes. (Jahangir 2005, 35-37) Certainly, the Iranian model of a religious state should not be
from wearing the head scarf required by their religion at school, and the effect thereof is their absence from the school system, their right to an education has been violated indirectly through religious discrimination. Although French religious adherents are not explicitly excluded from the school system or the commercial sector, the restrictions placed upon them have that effect of marginalization on their participation in the public sector, violating their human rights. This policy targeted at religious symbols also has the effect of distinguishing Muslim adherents from adherents of other faiths, as religious symbols are often considered more integral to the practice of their religion. While the French government has responded to these concerns, it has failed to provide any evidence which necessitate these restrictions and subsequently to provide a model for the realization of religious freedom. (Jahangir 2004,
18-19; 2005, 28-31)
France is a secular republic which in 1905 signed a law separating churches and the state. It is on this basis that subsequent restrictive laws have been enacted, including the 1997 law which prohibits any expression of worship in the commercial sector for the preservation of public order, and the 2004 law which prohibits the wearing of religious symbols within the schools. These laws are aimed at a narrow definition of the “places suitable for these purposes,” in which the DEAFI and ICCPR state that individuals should be allowed to manifest their “religion or belief in worship, observance, practice and teaching.” Although the French government maintains that its constitution guarantees religious freedom, respects all religions or beliefs, and does not in any way distinguish between religions or oppose them, these laws both directly and indirectly violate the religious freedoms to which every person should be entitled.
Finally, the United Kingdom and the United States serve together as yet another model for governmental measures designed to secure religious freedom. In both of these nations, the concerns expressed by the UN Special Rapporteur centered on indiscretions by nonstate actors, i.e. individuals not representing the government, which were investigated and penalized by the respective governments. Perhaps this is the most important distinction between the three governmental models. While both the Iranian and French models resulted in the government’s direct participation in activities threatening religious freedom, the UK/US model demonstrates a clear separation between the governments and the violators, with the governments providing evidence of efforts to rectify the situation. The US Constitution guarantees the freedom of religion, assuring that the government will make no law which either requires adherence to a particular religion or prohibits such. Still, even this model does not realize the ideal of religious freedom set forth by the UN. As previously mentioned, both of these governments have issued a reservation in regards to Article 20 of the ICCPR which prohibits incitement to religious discrimination, stating that penalizing speech is a violation of that human right yet simultaneously affirming that actions of discrimination must be penalized. Still, this reservation reveals the concern within this governmental model for ensuring each of the human rights to which all people are entitled. It is clear that as religious freedom exists in a world where other freedoms must also be secured, the utopian ideal may not be fully realized; still if states will take responsibility for religious freedom and follow the UK/US model, the global state of religious freedom can be greatly improved.
The freedom to manifest one’s religion is directly violated when the wearing of symbols is prohibited, even if this prohibition is not discriminatorily aimed at a singular religion. While this expression of belief is subject to limitation as necessary to maintain public order, the French government has not offered evidence suggesting that the symbols have led to any disorder. Simultaneously, multiple human rights are violated indirectly by these laws in the following manner. As previously discussed, Article 2 of the DEAFI states that discrimination is “any distinction, exclusion, restriction, or preference based on religion or belief [with the intent or effect of] nullification or impairment of the recognition, enjoyment, or exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms on an equal basis.” Therefore, when female Muslim students are restricted 40
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research References CIA. 2006. The World Factbook. http://www.cia.gov/cia/ publications/factbook/index. html (April 24, 2006). Freedom House. 2000. “Religious Freedom ‘Deteriorating’ New Freedom House Survey Finds.” October. http://freedomhouse. org/religion/news/bn2000/bn-2000-10-26.htm (November 15, 2005). Hanford, John. 2004. “On the Record Briefing: Release of the 2004 Annual Report on International Religious Freedom.” September. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/rm/36208.htm (October 28, 2005). Jahangir, Asma. 2004. Report of the Special Rapporteur on Religious Intolerance. http://www.ohchr.org/english/issues/ religion/annual.htm (October 28, 2005).
Jahangir, Asma. 2005. Summary of Cases Transmitted to Governments and Replies Received. http://www.ohchr.org/ english/issues/religion/annual.htm (October 28, 2005). MacLeod, Calum. “Christians in China Persevere Despite Religious Restrictions,” USA Today, 17 November 2005, sec. A. United Nations. General Assembly. 1948. Universal Declaration of Human Rights. http://www.un.org/Overview/rights.html (October 28, 2005). United Nations. General Assembly. 1966. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. http://www.ohchr.org/english/ law/ccpr.htm (October 28, 2005). United Nations. General Assembly. 1981. Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Intolerance and of Discrimination Based on Religion or Belief. http://www.ohchr.org/english/ issues/religion/standards.htm (October 28, 2005).
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
ABSTRACT The Effects of Diet and Social Stress on Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity in Peromyscus leucopus
Class: Senior Major: Wildlife/Zoological Conservation
Tiffany Hedrick Class: Senior Major: Biology and English-Creative Writing
Increased human disturbance of natural habitats often leads to habitat fragmentation, creating greater physical, nutritional, and social stress than wild animals normally experience. As habitats become more fragmented, population densities and diets of wildlife can change dramatically. Previous research on Peromyscus leucopus suggested that white-footed mice in disturbed areas have high quality diets, which can contribute to stronger immune systems. In order to better understand the effects of human disturbance on these animals, we studied individual and combined effects of poor diet quality (dietary protein) and social stress (population density) on immune response in wild-captured adult white-footed mice. We hypothesized that social stress takes a larger toll on the immune system than diet stress. We found that low dietary protein had a significant negative effect on cell-mediated immune response in P. leucopus and that mice housed in pairs mounted a significantly weaker humoral immune response than those housed individually. P. leucopus, a known vector of Lyme disease, are common in and around residential and agricultural areas. Reduced immunocompetence resulting from change in diet quality and/or population density may affect their contribution to transmission of disease to human populations nearby.
FACULTY MENTOR Dr. Terry Dertingâ€™s research interests focus on mammalian physiological ecology, especially energetics and health of small mammals, and improving undergraduate education. She has combined these interests through her work as a mentor of undergraduate research students. She has found mentoring of undergraduate researchers to be one of her most rewarding activities, as it is through research experiences that students truly understand and become participants in the process of science. She is currently a mentor in the Biology and Mathematics in Population Studies program at MSU.
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
The Effects of Diet and Social Stress on Humoral and Cell-mediated Immunity in Peromyscus leucopus
t is important to understand the effects of anthropogenic disturbance on local animal populations as humans continue to develop and expand into undeveloped territories. One of the primary ways that human disturbance occurs is through the fragmentation of habitats, creating patches that are either completely isolated or linked to other patches only by corridors. Increased habitat fragmentation is associated with nutritional, social, and predation stress in wild animals. Fragmentation is associated with artificially high population densities in edge habitats and increased nutritional stress due to increased competition (Derting and Compton 2003, Mathis et al. 2004). Increased stress typically has a negative effect on the immune system. Animals experiencing stress are less able to mount a significant immune response and are more likely to contract infections and diseases. Consequently, these animals are less likely to fight off illness or heal wounds, which can lead to increased transmission of disease to adjacent animal populations and higher death rates (Lochmiller et al. 1994, Derting and Compton 2003). Previous studies of white-footed mice, Peromyscus leucopus, indicated that animals in areas disturbed by humans (e.g., agricultural fields and residential areas) experienced lower levels of moderate term stress than their counterparts in undisturbed habitats (Mathis et al. 2004). White-footed mice in disturbed areas had a significantly decreased ability to mount a humoral immune response and a significantly increased ability to mount a cell-mediated immune response compared with mice in undisturbed habitats. One possible cause for this phenomenon is that mice in disturbed habitats have access to a higher quality diet because human refuse and agricultural left-overs provide ample amounts of high quality foods (Mathis et al. 2004). Food quality, specifically protein level, can have a significant effect on immunocompetence (Lochmiller et al. 1994). However, another possible explanation for altered immune function is social stress brought on by high population densities in disturbed areas. Because there is an inverse relationship between habitat patch size and population density, increasingly smaller fragments can lead to unusually high population densities and social stress (Nupp and Swihart 1996). Stress, through overcrowding and limited food availability, has inhibitory effects
on immune responses in some animals (Lochmiller et al. 1994). In other cases, however, stress can also increase immune responses in animals (Fujiwara et al. 1999). In order to better understand the potential causes of the different effects of anthropogenic disturbance on immunity, we studied the individual and combined effects of diet quality and density on stress and immunocompetence in free-born white-footed mice. We determined which stressor, or which combination of protein and density variables, had a greater effect on stress level, immune function, and general health. Our null hypothesis was that neither diet quality nor population density affects stress, cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity, or the sizes of internal organs. Our alternative hypothesis was that social stress, in the form of high density, takes a larger toll on the immune and other systems and stress level, compared with diet quality, in the form of low protein, because P. leucopus regularly experience the stress of low quality diets during winter (Derting and Hornung 2003). We also predicted that mice in a low-density, high-protein situation would experience the least amount of stress, resulting in stronger immune responses and lower blood corticosterone levels. Conversely, mice in highdensity, low-protein situations would experience the most stress to their immune system, resulting in weaker immune responses and higher blood corticosterone levels. We believed that immune function and corticosterone levels in mice in high-density, highprotein situations and mice in low-density, low-protein situations would fall somewhere between the other two groups.
Materials and Methods We studied wild-captured adult male white-footed mice from forested areas in western Kentucky. The habitats we trapped were located in either Calloway County or the Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area in Marshall County. There were no limits on site size or disturbance level. Animals were captured during the months of April, May, and June 2006. All mice were captured using ShermanÂŠ live traps set at 10-m intervals. Mice were brought to the laboratory and housed in the 43
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research College of Science Animal Care Facility at Murray State University. Animals were treated in accordance with all requirements of the United States Department of Agriculture and the Murray State University (MSU) Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IUCAC Approval No. 2005-003). Mice were housed individually in opaque propylene cages (28 x 18 x 12 cm) with wood shavings as bedding for the first 30 days to acclimate to the lab environment. During this period Purina Rat Chow 5001 (23% crude protein, 4.5% crude fat, 6.0% crude fiber, 8.0% ash, 2.5% added minerals) and water were provided ad libitum. Mice were randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups: high density-high protein (HDHP), low density-high protein (LDHP), high density-low protein (HDLP), and low density-low protein (LDLP). We defined high density as two mice housed in the same cage and low density as mice housed individually. Mice in high protein groups were fed a diet containing 30% protein. Those in low protein groups were fed a diet containing 5% protein, which was selected based on a previous study that used 5% protein as its lowest protein level (Lewis et al. 2001). The 30% protein level for the high protein groups was selected based on the levels used for high protein by Lewis et al. (2001), as well as a field study showing that protein intake for free-living white-footed mice during the spring, summer, and fall months averaged 25-38% (Derting and Hornung 2003). Dietary protein was supplied using whey protein supplements. The calorie content per unit mass of food was held constant for each diet as was the amount of sugar used. While on the experimental diets, all mice were given water containing VitaSol© liquid multi-vitamins to ensure proper nutrition. After the 30-day acclimation period, mice in each group were fed their respective diet. The body mass of each mouse was measured (± 0.1g) immediately prior to beginning its experimental diet and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 17 of the 17-day experimental period. For the first five days, mice in all four groups continued to be housed individually. On day 6, mice assigned to HD groups were housed as pairs. Body masses of mice in HD groups were measured on days 7 and 8 to see if any significant body mass changes occurred in the first few days after pairing. Mice in LD groups continued to be housed individually. Initial Measurements On day 2 of the experiment, mice were anesthetized with Isofluorane®. and approximately 150 μl of blood was removed 44
from the retro-orbital sinus using a micro-capillary tube. Blood was used for the following measurements. Corticosterone assay. Blood for measuring corticosterone levels was collected first and placed into a 500 μl eppendorf tube labeled for each individual. After clotting in a water bath at 37° C for 30 min and being centrifuged at 4,300 RPM for 17 min, approximately 40 ul of serum was removed and stored at -25ºC for a later I125 radio-immunoassay for corticosterone. White Blood Cell Counts. Two μl of whole blood were removed immediately after collection and added to white blood cell stain. Total leukocyte (i.e., white blood cells, WBC) counts were made using a hemacytometer. A drop of blood was used to make a blood smear which was then stained and allowed to dry. A count of each of the five different types of leukocytes was then made. Red Blood Cell Counts. Two μl of whole blood were removed immediately after collection and added to 400 μl of Hayem’s fluid. Ten μl of the stained solution was placed onto a hemacytometer and the erythrocytes (i.e., red blood cells, RBC) counted. The raw counts were multiplied by 10,000 to obtain the number of RBCs per mm3 of blood. Immune System Stimulation On day 12 of the experiment, each animal was injected intraperitoneally with 0.2 mL of 10% washed sheep red blood cells (SRBC) to stimulate the humoral portion of the immune system. On day 15, in vivo cell-mediated immunity was stimulated using Lectin (Pokeweed) from Phytolacca americana. Before injection, the thickness (+ 0.01 mm) of both hind feet of each mouse was measured behind all five toes using a pressure sensitive digital caliper. For each mouse a randomly selected hind foot was then injected subcutaneously with 0.025 mL of Pokeweed. The other hind foot was injected with 0.025 mL of sterile saline. The thickness of each foot was again measured 24 h after the injections. Final Measurements Final measurements were made on day 17 of the experiment. Final body masses were measured and the mice then anesthetized with Isoflurane®. Four hundred ul of blood was collected, and the procedures described in the Initial Measurements section were used
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research
Hemagglutination. All remaining blood was placed into an eppendorf tube labeled for each individual, allowed to clot in a water bath at 37Â° C for 30 min, and then centrifuged at 4,300 RPM for 17 min. Approximately 50 ul of serum was removed for each individual. A hemagglutination assay was then conducted for each animal, following the methods of Derting and Virk (2004), to determine the strength of the humoral immune response to the prior injection of SRBCs. Dissections. After blood collection, mice were euthanized using chloroform. Mice were then dissected to determine the masses and lengths of specific organs. Digestive organs (stomach, small intestines, caecum, and colon), reproductive organs (seminal vesicles and paired testes), vital organs (heart, liver, lungs, kidneys), adrenal glands, and the spleen were removed. For digestive organs, lengths were measured with contents (+ 0.1 cm). Contents were then removed. Wet masses of all organs were then measured using an electronic scale (+ 0.1 mg). Organs were then dried in an oven at 58ÂşC to constant mass (~ 48 h) and the dry mass of each organ measured. Corticosterone assay. Serum was brought to room temperature and tested using an I125 radioimmunoassay kit for corticosterone (ICN Biomedicals, Inc., CA). Duplicate samples were tested for each individual.
Statistical Analysis The SAS 9.1 statistical software package was used for all statistical analyses. A two-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to determine the main and interactive effects of density and protein level. A one-way ANOVA with a Tukey-Kramer adjustment for multiple comparisons was used to determine differences among means of the four groups. Because of a significant difference in
Results Density Effects. Mice in HD groups lost more body mass than those in LD groups (ANOVA, P=0.0052). As expected, HD mice also experienced greater stress as evidenced by their significantly higher final corticosterone levels (ANCOVA, P=0.0265, Fig. 1). HD mice also had a significantly weaker humoral immune response than their counterparts in LD groups (ANOVA, P=0.0021, Fig. 2). In contrast, density had no significant effect on measures of cellmediated immunity or on WBC and RBC counts.
Hematocrit. Blood was collected using heparinized hematocrit tubes. The tubes were placed into a TRIAC centrifuge and centrifuged for five minutes. The packed cell volume (PCV) and total volume length for each mouse was measured in mm. Hematocrit was calculated by dividing the PCV by the total volume.
initial corticosterone values between HD and LD groups, Analyses of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used for analysis of corticosterone level, using the initial corticosterone level as the covariate. Oneway and two-way ANCOVAs were also used for comparing organ masses, with final body mass as the covariate. Means from ANCOVAs are presented as least-squares means (LSMeans).
1500 1000 500 0
Figure 1. Final corticosterone values (LS +1 SE) in white-footed mice maintained at a high or low density.
Titre (Log 2)
for obtaining blood for the corticosterone assay and conducting WBC and RBC counts.
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Figure 2. Humoral immune response ( +1 SE) to SRBC injection in white-footed mice maintained at a high or low density. 45
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research TABLE 1 High Density
ANOVA P values
% Body Mass Loss (g)
Initial Corticosterone (ng/ml) 1141.31±50.26
Final Corticosterone (ng/ml)* 1129.13±58.30
Agglutination Titre (Log2)
Cell-mediated response (mm) 0.29±0.039
Initial % Lymphocytes
Initial % Basophils
Initial % Eosinophils
Both wet and dry stomach masses were significantly greater, on average, in LD than HD mice (ANCOVA; P=0.0007, P=0.0007, respectively). No significant differences were seen between density groups for masses of any other organs (Table 1). Table 1. Mean (± 1 SE) values for measures of body mass, immune function, and blood samples in white-footed mice maintained at a high or low density and fed a high or low protein diet. P values for the main effects of each treatment are given. Values with the same superscript are not significantly different from one another (ANOVA, P > 0.05). Diet Effects. As expected, mice fed a low protein (LP) diet lost a significantly greater percent of their body mass than those fed a high protein (HP) diet (ANOVA, P=0.0018). Interestingly, initial total and differential counts of WBCs in HP mice differed from those in LP mice. Initial basophils were 92% more frequent in HP mice (ANOVA, P=0.0295) and initial lymphocytes 5.8% more frequent in LP mice (ANOVA, P=0.0362). Dietary protein level did not significantly affect final WBC or RBC counts.
0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 0
Protein Level Figure 3. Cell-mediated immune response ( +1 SE) of whitefooted mice fed a diet with a high or low protein level. The effects of dietary protein on stress and immune function were the opposite of the effects of density. Dietary protein had no significant effect on final corticosterone level or on the humoral immune response. However, HP mice mounted a significantly stronger cell-mediated immune response compared with LP mice (ANOVA, P=0.0413, Fig. 3). The only organ affected significantly by dietary protein was the liver, which had a dry mass 14.7% heavier in HP compared with LP mice (ANCOVA, P=0.0434, Table 2).
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research TABLE 2 High Density Measured Variable
Low Density High Protein
ANCOVA P values Density
Stomach Mass (g) Wet
Seminal Vesicles Mass (g) Wet
Paired Testes Mass (g) Wet
Liver Mass (g) Wet
Spleen Mass (g) Wet
Table 2. Measures (LSMean ± 1 SE) of organ masses in whitefooted mice maintained at a high or low density and fed a high or low protein diet. P values for the main effects of the treatments are given. Means with the same superscript are not significantly different from each other (ANCOVA, P > 0.05).
Discussion The purpose of our research was to determine whether social stress, diet stress, or a combination of the two has a greater impact on immunocompetence, stress level, and general health in male P. leucopus. We rejected our null hypothesis that there is no difference between the effects of social stress and diet stress on our measured variables. Our alternative hypothesis was only partially supported, however, because diet and social stress each affected a branch of the immune system.
We first assessed whether our two treatments were effective. Since the liver orchestrates protein metabolism, the significant positive effect of protein level on liver dry mass (Table 2) indicated that the protein treatment was, in fact, effective (Charlton 1996). We used corticosterone level as a measure of the success of our social stress treatment because social stress induces increases in glucocorticoid hormones (e.g., Avitsur et al. 2001). The significant positive effect of density on corticosterone level indicated that our social stress treatment was also effective. Mice lost body mass regardless of dietary or social stress treatment. However, a significantly higher percent body mass loss was seen in the HD and LP groups. We observed mice in HD groups exhibiting food guarding, which probably contributed to the loss in body mass in these groups. Peromyscus are territorial (Burt 1940, Wolff et al. 1983) and display despotic behavior, often chasing opponents out of prime habitats (Korytko and Vessey 1991). Greater access of 47
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research LD mice to food was also indicated by their significantly heavier stomach masses, compared with HD mice (Table 2). Previous studies showed that an increase in gross ingestion rate results in enlarged digestive tracts (Green and Millar 1987). Mice in LP groups lost more body mass than mice in HP groups, presumably because protein is essential for maintenance of muscle and body condition. The effect of dietary protein on initial differential WBC counts (Table 1) was unexpected and led to the discovery of an interesting effect of our dietary protein regime. Whey protein is apparently an allergen for mice (Afuwape et al. 2004). Because the mice were fed a diet where whey was the only source of protein, we believe that the mice had an initial hypersensitivity reaction resulting in oral tolerance of whey protein later in the experiment (Afuwape et al. 2004). Thus, when we made our initial differential WBC counts the basophil cells, which are associated with allergic reactions, were elevated in the HP mice. There were also interactive effects of the two treatments on initial counts of eosinophils (Table 1), which play a role in allergic responses. After the mice developed a tolerance to the experimental diets, the differences in differential WBC counts among groups disappeared. The greater social stress that likely occurred in HD mice probably contributed to their weaker humoral immune response. Corticosterone is a measure of short-term stress, and HD mice had significantly higher final corticosterone levels compared with LD mice. Stress due to overcrowding can inhibit immune responses in rodent species (e.g., Lochmiller et al. 1994). Higher corticosterone levels and weaker humoral immune responses in our HD mice supported research describing increased disease transmission in high density populations of rodents since these animals may be less able to mount a strong humoral immune response (Mills and Childs 1998). The positive relationship which we found between the cell-mediated immune response and dietary protein also agreed with the results or prior studies. For example, Daly et al. (1978) found that depleted dietary protein levels had an inhibitory effect on cell-mediated immune responses in rats (Rattus sps.). In addition, Mathis et al. (2004) reported opposite effects of habitat disturbance on humoral and cell-mediated immune function in white-footed mice.
The effects of diet quality and social stress on different branches of the immune system in our mice have important implications for understanding the effects of habitat fragmentation and disturbance on the health of P. leucopus and adjacent human and animal populations. In small disturbed patches of habitat, like those created by human activities (e.g., patches bordering agricultural or residential areas), population densities of P. leucopus are greater along the edges of the patches, as compared to the interiors of the same patches. This pattern does not exist in larger, undisturbed areas of habitat (Anderson et al. 2003). Increased edge densities can be attributed to greater access to high quality foods (e.g., agricultural and human refuse) and increased shrubby cover for small mammals (Wolf and Batzli 2004). Because increased density was associated with a decreased ability to mount a strong humoral immune response in our mice, mice in disturbed edge habitats may have an increased likelihood of contracting and subsequently transmitting diseases to human and animal populations in surrounding areas. This inhibition of humoral immunocompetence is particularly important given the role of Peromyscus as a known reservoir of Lyme disease and Hantavirus (Botten et al. 2002). The positive relationship between food quality and cell-mediated immunity that we observed in our mice may also help explain the maintenance of high population densities of white-footed mice in the edges of disturbed habitat patches. Because mice in edge habitats have greater access to high quality foods, they may have a greater ability to mount a strong cell-mediated immune response compared with mice inhabiting the interior areas of patches. The cell-mediated portion of the immune system protects animals from infections resulting from wounds such as bites from conspecifics. Wounding typically increases with population density and the accompanying increase in agonistic encounters and fighting. Any increase in mortality that might be expected with increased wounding and subsequent infections may be alleviated because animals in these edge habitats can mount strong cell-mediated immune responses as a result, at least in part, of their high quality diets. Given the significant effects of dietary protein and density on stress level and immune function which we found in our laboratory study, further study of these independent variables in the field is highly desirable. Understanding factors that contribute to the health of wild animal populations is important not only for the conservation
CHRYSALIS: The Murray State University Journal of Undergraduate Research of biodiversity, but also to protect humans and domestic animals from increased exposure to infections and diseases transmitted by wild animal species. Diet quality and population density are only two of many variables that are potentially altered by human activities and have significant impacts on the health of wild animals. Thus, studies that use a multivariate approach, incorporating additional factors such as pesticide and herbicide use, and predation pressure, are needed to more accurately assess the consequences of anthropogenic disturbances on wild animal populations.
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