ELITE SPORTS CONDITIONING SECRETS - ISSUE #7
JUNE / JULY 2011
FREE IN GAZ E-MA
THIS MONTH... Danny Redrup talks on the comeback made by stretching and core stability, two contentious issues in the world of sports science. The truth is they are both important in an overall training program when used in a specific and individual manner. The moral to the story: donâ€™t be a hysterical trainer or coach that panics after one new study comes out and throw all principles out the window. A balanced and well-planned program is always the best and Danny explains more. Many people involved in recreational running believe entering a longer event is better and harder. It is just as difficult to run a sizzling and fast 5km as it is to complete a 10K, 20K or marathon. Peter Hadfield explains what is the most prestigious athletics event and how all of them can be tough to train for and compete in. My favourite article this month is an interview with the first Australian athlete to qualify for the 2012 London Olympics, Eloise Wellings. I have followed her career with interest ever since she burst onto the seen as a youngster many years ago. Her early career was struck down with many years of injuries that would have been enough to ruin most careers, but she fought on and I am so pleased to see her make an Olympic games. Anyone needing some inspiration, look no further than Eloise and watch her go at the Olympics! Enjoy!
Jock Cam pbell
Ezine Brains Trust Publisher: Jockishandsome Editors: Jock Campbell Carla Grossetti Art Director/Design: Kiss the Sky Advertising/Production: Melissa Campbell Jock Campbell Contributors: Peter Hadfield Melissa Campbell Paul Watson Craig Stevens Corey Bocking Jock Campbell Cassandra Govan Michael Martin Danny Redrup Julia Russell Rebecca Gawthorne Tim Brennan Editorial Office: Jock Athletic PO Box 1186 Cronulla 2230 p: 0435 728 200 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
PICTURED: Jock and the Great One, Usain Bolt. JUNE / JULY 2011
THIS MONTH 4
SPEED & POWER Corey Bocking
ELOISE WELLINGS Professional Athlete Profile
CHRIS McCORMACK: INTO THE WIND PART II Tim Brennan
PICTURED: Nutri-Grain IRONMAN Mark Simpson comes ashore after another hard ski session. JOCKATHLETIC.COM
DANNY REDRUP Latest Research Sports Science & Medicine
WEIGHT LOSS SECRETS Rebecca Gawthorne
FIT FACTS Cassie Govan
RUNNING..IT’S ALL HARD Peter Hadfield (OAM)
FITTEST COACH IN LEAGUE Paul Watson
KNEE INJURY REHAB Julia Russell
SWIMMING IN WINTER Craig Stevens
JUNE / JULY 2011
STRENGTH & POWER
d & POWER AN INSIGHT INTO FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY’S STRENGTH & CONDITIONING PROGRAM - PART I
BY COREY BOCKING TWO FITNESS EXPERTS FROM FLORIDA WERE RECENTLY IN AUSTRALIA TO DELIVER A VERY INFORMATIVE AND INTERESTING SEMINAR ON SPEED AND POWER. AS A STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH, IT IS GREAT TO HEAR HOW OTHER PROGRAMS ARE STRUCTURED AND THE THOUGHTS BEHIND THESE PROGRAMS. THANKS TO BOTH JOE AND ERIK FOR SHARING THEIR IDEAS; I HAVE SUMMARIZED SOME OF THE KEY LEARNING’S FROM THE DAY. PICTURED: Zane Campbell goes through the motions: these running drills help with explosive power for a sprinter JUNE / JULY 2011
STRENGTH & POWER ERIK KOREM IS A SPEED DEVELOPMENT CONSULTANT WHO HAS WORKED WITH WORLD-CLASS SPRINTERS, SUCH AS VERONICA CAMPBELL-BROWN AND TYSON GAY; HE IS ALSO A SPEED AND NUTRITION COACH AT FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY. Joe Danos is a two-time US national junior weightlifting champion under legendary USA Olympic Coach, Gayle Hatch. A graduate of Louisiana State University, Joe holds a degree in kinesiology and is employed at Florida State University. When Eric took to the stage in Sydney, he presented on some of the latest trends in speed and explosive movements. These are the Top 10 tips for speed development I gleaned from his presentation.
1. RELATIVE BODY STRENGTH Being able to express your speed-strength requires a high degree of relative body strength.
2. HIP STABILITY Controlling your centre of gravity when, say, running, jumping or changing direction, requires a high level of hip stability. Having a high level of hip stability enables an athlete to apply force into the ground effectively, which is essential for speed and strength.
3. ELASTICITY / REACTIVITY It is important to train and take advantage of the elasticity/reactivity; this component of strength is minimally affected by maximal strength.
4. RATE OF FORCE DEVELOPMENT The ability to develop and apply force fast is essential in speed and agility and must be consistently trained.
5. DEVELOPING STRENGTH IN A HIP HYPEREXTENDED POSITION This applies in a teams sports situation as well. You can see in this picture Sarah Walsh from the Matildas is forced to apply force into the ground when her hip is in the hyperextension position to avoid her opponent. Traditionally many coaches develop strength in the hips in extension by using exercises such as squats, cleans snatches etc. But how do we train the hips through that hyperextension range?? Erik demonstrated some innovative sled drags and wall drill strength exercises that placed the hip into hyperextension.
6. WATCH THE PLAYERS NOT THE GAME When designing your speed and agility programs all you have to do is watch the movements and positions your players perform in when in position and during the game.
Star Matilda’s Striker Sarah Walsh does her best to avoid her opponent’s challenge.
7. SHIFTING ALACTIC THRESHOLD Alactic threshold can be greatly improved; this should be a key focus in your energy` system development training.
8. MAXIMUM / LIMIT STRENGTH This can be a limiting factor for many expressions of strength, but not elastic/ reactive ability.
9. DEVELOPING STIFFNESS Developing joint stiffness and control is essential in the ability apply force; Erik favours the use of isometric type exercises to initially develop joint control and stiffness.
10. HARD WORK GETS MISTAKEN FOR LUCK! IF YOU’RE LUCKY, CONSISTENT HARD WORK AND PERSISTENCE GETS MISTAKEN FOR GENIUS!
This was a brief synopsis of the Top 10 tips for speed development delivered by Erik. I am grateful to Erik for his willingness to share his ideas. In Part 2 of the Speed and Power Seminar, I will share the key concepts on strength and power development delivered by Joe Danos.
COREY BOCKING HAS A PERSONAL TRAINING BUSINESS IN SYDNEY CBD; HE TRAINS 10-15 PEOPLE PER WEEK. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT COREY VIA EMAIL AT email@example.com
or visit www.performancetraininginstitute.com.au
JUNE / JULY 2011
Eloise WELLINGS PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE PROFILE
“KEEP ING A POSIT ATTIT IVE UDE I S I M FOR A PORT N ATH ANT LETE W STRUG HO IS GLING A DIS WITH APPO INJUR INTM HELPS ENT. M Y OR ME A Y FAI LOT W REME TH ITH TH MBER ING T IS, JUST HAT I A RUN ’M NO NER A VALU T ND TH E IS N AT MY OT W HOW RAPP FAST ED UP I CAN I AM IN RUN. REALL Y BLE SSED. ”
ELOISE training at altitude in Laguna Mountain California for a month before running a 31.41min 10km in Stanford California, qualifying her for the London Olympics. JUNE / JULY 2011
JA: WHO IS ELOISE WELLINGS? Wife, daughter, sister and Australian Distance runner! 5000m and 10000m Australian champion and Founder of Love Mercy Foundation Charity.
JA: WHAT IS YOUR SPORT OF CHOICE? Running
JA: WE BELIEVE YOU ARE THE FIRST AUSSIE ATHLETE TO QUALIFY FOR THE LONDON OLYMPICS, IS THIS TRUE AND HOW DID IT HAPPEN? Yes, this is true. I have qualified for the 10000m. I ran 31.41 in Stanford California on May 1st, achieving the standard by 4 seconds. The qualifying period for the games started on May 1st. Originally the race in Stanford was scheduled for April 30th but my coach and manager Nic Bideau lobbied to have the race moved to the following day so that the race would count for the Olympic selection period. I’m glad he did!
JA: HOW DO YOU FIT ALL THAT IN? DO YOU WORK/UNI – PLEASE EXPLAIN? I’m pretty much a full time athlete. I own a Personal Training studio at Sutherland - Live it Fitnesswith my brother Ben. I have an active role in directing this when I’m at home but otherwise my younger brother Lindsay manages the trainers and the clients and day to day running of the business. I also work on our charity - the Love Mercy Foundation - we work in Northern Uganda helping the people find their feet again after more than 20 years of war in the region. We do this through child sponsorship, micro finance loans and we’re building a medical clinic to provide adequate health care and reduce the amount of people suffering from easily treatable diseases. 12
ELOISE running with great mate Julius Achon, her inspiration for the Love Mercy Foundation.
ELOISE (centre back) almost falling on the track at Stanford where she qualified.
JA: WHAT’S THE TOUGHEST EVENT OR SPORTING ACHIEVEMENT YOU’VE EVER DONE? The World Cross Country Championships brings me to my knees every year. Thank goodness it is now only every two years! I’m a natural rhythm runner so I find the breaking of rhythm in cross country races tough, but I do it every year because it sets me up for the whole year, I know that mentally and physically I will never do anything harder.
JA: MOST PEOPLE WOULDN’T KNOW THE INJURY CHALLENGES YOU HAVE HAD THROUGH YOUR CAREER, CAN YOU LIST THEM ALL? The injuries I’ve had have mostly been bony-stress fractures. And I’ve had too 14
many to count, but thankfully I seem to be past that tough period that a lot of female distance runners seem to go through. My bone density is as high as ever and I’ve been working a lot in the gym so that I’m strong enough to cope with the miles that I run.
JA: THIS IS WHAT WE ADMIRE ABOUT YOU THE MOST HOW YOU HAVE STUCK IT OUT WITH YOUR SPORT DESPITE SO MANY INJURY SET BACKS, PARTICULARLY AS A YOUNG RUNNER, WHAT WAS YOUR SECRET AND WHAT ADVICE FROM THIS WOULD YOU GIVE TO OTHERS ABOUT OVERCOMING ADVERSITY? There is no real secret except just learning the art of patience and persisting no matter
ELOISE WELLINGS what. Staying focused on the BIG picture and not losing sight of what’s important. Keeping a positive attitude is important for an athlete who is struggling with injury or a disappointment. My faith helps me a lot with this, remembering that I’m not JUST a runner and that my value is not wrapped up in how fast I can run. I have an a team of people around me too. I’ve had people in my corner that have believed when I haven’t. I am really blessed.
JA: WHAT’S YOUR FAVORITE TRAINING SESSION AND WHAT DOES IT INVOLVE? My fave session is Tuesday nights at the track. And I love doing 800’s. We’ll do a workout that goes 5 sets of 800+200. So you run 800 in about 2.20 and then 30-second rest and then run 200m in about 31 seconds. Then a lap jog and repeat 5 times. I always feel fast in this session!
JA: HOW MANY TRAINING SESSIONS DO YOU DO PER WEEK & THE BREAKDOWN?
Lay your clothes out for training the night before!
JA: WHAT’S YOUR BEST EXCUSE FOR NOT STICKING TO A TRAINING PROGRAM? If I’m tired or sick or sore and need a rest I think this is a pretty good excuse! It’s important to listen to your body and not push on regardless. Sometimes less is more!
JA: WHAT’S YOUR MOST DREADED TRAINING SESSION (DETAILS) AND WHY? I think of my ice baths after workouts as part of training. So these, I dread. 5kg of ice in a shallow bath! Never gets any easier.
JA: WHAT’S YOUR NEXT BIG CHALLENGE? The World Championships in Korea in August.
JA: WHO HAS BEEN YOUR BIGGEST INSPIRATION IN THE SPORTING WORLD (WHY?)?
At the moment we are playing it low risk. I’m doing 2 workouts a week (Tuesday, Friday), a long run- 1hour 45mins (Sunday) and Monday, Wednesday, Thursday are easy running days- (2 runs and gym). Saturday is my rest day at the moment. Usually I do no exercise; every now and then I’ll go surfing if the waves are the right size for me!
My friend and inspiration for the Love Mercy Foundation, Julius Achon, growing up in a poverty in Northern Uganda, he was captured by rebels at age 12 and forced to be a child solider, escaping from the rebel camp he went on to run at 2 Olympic Games in the 1500m, captaining the Ugandan team and carrying the Ugandan flag at both Olympics.
JA: WHAT ARE YOUR SECRETS TO STICKING TO A TRAINING PROGRAM?
JA: NOW THE BIG ONE, YOUR FAVORITE MOTIVATIONAL SAYING?
Find a training partner and or someone to keep you accountable. Commit to a race or event to give you something to focus on.
It’s simple and it’s stolen from Julius “Never, ever, give up!”
JUNE / JULY 2011
MACCA claiming the LEADER -TYNAN 2011 Sportsperson of the Year Award Photo Fairfax JOCKATHLETIC.COM 16 Courtesy of Chris Lane, Media
Chris cCORMACK TRIATHLETE
INTO THE WIND: PART 2 MACCA HAS DOMINATED HIS SPORT IN ALL ITS FORMATS FOR THE BEST PART OF 20 YEARS. BRILLIANT, AT TIMES CONTROVERSIAL, BUT EXTREMELY POPULAR IN THE TRIATHLON WORLD, TIM BRENNAN BRINGS US PART II OF HIS INTERVIEW WITH THE “KING OF KONA.” JUNE / JULY 2011
MACCA. 2 x IRONMAN WORLD CHAMPION. IN WINNING THE 2010 IRONMAN YOU SAID YOU HAD TO WORK ON THE BIKE LEG, WHICH YOU CONSIDERED TO BE 2008-2009 IRONMAN CHAMPION CRAIG ALEXANDER’S WEAKNESS. HOW DID YOUR PRE-RACE PLANS COME TOGETHER AND HOW CONFIDENT WERE YOU TO MAKE A MOVE AT THE HALFWAY POINT OF AN IRONMAN? People like to talk about my relationship with Craig Alexander. I have known and raced Craig for my entire career. He has really come to fruition as a racer in these past six years and been exceptional in Kona. He is a small guy and if there was ever a race that suited him, Hawaii is it. I looked at Craig’s strengths and weaknesses and saw that my opportunity to destroy him in this event was to be aggressive in his most vulnerable distance and at the most vulnerable time for runners. Attacking into the crosswinds is key, as the runners have to burn up precious energy to sustain the increased power that is required during this section. If you push the pace in this section 18
they will break and the gap will open and we use our strength effectively. It was no disrespect to Craig, but as I tell everyone, I don’t care who it is. I want to win the race. That is my job description. So if people took personal offense to me calling out Craig as a weak biker then I don’t really care. We showed that I was correct. I am in this game and I know the strengths and weaknesses of all the guys I am racing. I then try and formulate a strategy that will best work in my favour to give me the best chance to win the event. I was confident I would get away in this section because I know I am stronger on the bike than the runners. I did not know if the other strong cyclists would come with me, but they did and this was the winning break. It was a pretty simple strategy when you understood your strengths and those of your main competitors.
THERE IS A FAMOUS PART OF THE RACE CALLED THE ENERGY LAB. THE HEAT, HUMIDITY AND DESOLATION ARE OF LEGEND. CAN YOU DESCRIBE WHAT
IT’S LIKE RUNNING THERE? The Energy Lab is a hot, desolate, brutal 5km section of road that athletes in Kona face at the 30km point of the marathon. It is about 1km downhill out of the wind into the barren lava fields, followed by a turnaround at the bottom and a run out. It breaks people.
IT IS SO HOT IN SOME SECTIONS OF THIS RACE THAT A CAMERA TEAM FRIED AN EGG ON THE LAVA ROCK BY THE SIDE OF THE ROAD. IT IS BRUTAL. You know when you get into a sauna and there are those rocks that you throw the water on that heat up really hot. Well that is lava rock, and we are running right through
the middle of it. You have to experience it to understand how tough this section of the race is. Your body is tired and beginning to break down and you face this section of road that is the hottest part of the event. It can be bliss or absolute hell on earth. It depends where your mind and body is at this point of the event. It is tough that’s for sure.
YOU’VE BEEN IN THE SPORT OF TRIATHLON FOR THE BEST PART OF TWO DECADES AND AT 37 WOULD BE CONSIDERED ONE OF THE ELDER STATESMEN (APOLOGIES). HOW DOES AGE CHANGE YOUR PREPARATION IN TERMS OF VOLUME OF TRAINING AND RECOVERY? I have been racing the sport of triathlon now for 21 years. I am without question one of
JUNE / JULY 2011
THE KEY TO SUCCESS FOR AN AGEING ATHLETE WHO WANTS TO IMPROVE IS CONSISTENCY AND RECOVERY.
CONSISTENT TRAINING WILL GIVE YOU RESULTS AND RESTING WHEN YOU ARE TIRED IS IMPERATIVE.
MACCA wins Kona, Hawaii 2010
the elder statesman and, to be honest, it is quite a nice place to be in as I have seen the complete evolution of this sport into the phenomenon it is today. I have raced against some of the greatest athletes in the entire history of the sport, which has only been in existence for 35 years. The key to understanding age as an athlete in endurance racing is your ability to let go of numbers and quantitative measures of training. Triathletes are so caught up in numbers, whether it is time spent running, miles accumulated in training, heart rates or power output on the bike. And I will happily go on record and say this is all crap! As you age, it becomes more so. 20
Youth forgives errors that age does not, so being more body aware and understanding your exertion levels on a real level without having to rely on a heart rate monitor or a power metre to tell you is the key. My advice to older athletes in this sport is to take more time to recover, give yourself longer to prepare for events and be flexible in your training plans. Rigid training plans are for younger athletes who can make mistakes. We donâ€™t have that luxury. Focus on your range of motion and your strength, as these are things that diminish as you age. Above all, enjoy it.
HOW DO YOU STAY STRONG ON THE CIRCUIT? Biestmilch is a supplement I use simply because it is an immune booster. Keeping your immunity up is key to everything we do in endurance racing. I have used this product for almost eight years and it is the only supplement I use. I take it daily and believe in it. The literature doesnâ€™t lie and many independent studies have shown that this product is very sound. Lots of endurance work can suppress the immune system and this just keeps you stable to some degree.
JUNE / JULY 2011
DANNY REDRUP EACH MONTH I WILL SELECT A FEW RECENT PIECES OF RESEARCH FOR YOU TO PONDER. OF COURSE NO SINGLE STUDY SHOULD FORM YOUR FULL OPINION ON A PARTICULAR SUBJECT BUT THERE ARE SOME INTERESTING THINGS GOING ON IN THE RESEARCH WORLD SO HERE YOU GO.
THE RESEARCH PRESENTED THIS MONTH IS FROM THE IOC WORLD CONFERENCE OF INJURY PREVENTION AND ILLNESS IN SPORT. DROP OFF IN GROIN STRENGTH COULD PREDICT INJURY Anthony Schache from Australia presented some preliminary data from his footballers demonstrating player groin power decreasing before they started reporting pain. The test is a simple groin squeeze and can be easily measured with a pressure cuff or electric dynamometer. Definitely worth a look at if you are monitoring runners or high running based a sports.
NORDIC HAMSTRINGS PREVENT INJURY Eccentric (Nordic) hamstring strengthening in a study involving 942 footballers have demonstrated a decreased risk of injury. In simple terms if you give Nordic hamstring exercises to 3 people who have had a hamstring strain in the past you will prevent one of re-tear in that next season. Similarly if you give Nordic hamstrings to 17 people who have never had a hamstring strain, you will prevent one hamstring strain. Letâ€™s put that in real terms, if you had 3 hamstring tears last year and you have a squad of 20 players, your Nordic program alone will prevent 2 hamstring strains. This will prevent 2-6 weeks rehabilitation for each player. This could add up to a team recording 12 less games missed for a season. 22
Stretching: Still part of the solution when done the right way at the right time
CORE STABILITY IS IMPORTANT – BUT WE DON’T REALLY HAVE A CLEAR UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT IT IS An interesting theme from the conference was the increased popularity of core stability research. Interestingly though, was the large variation in what was termed a core stability exercise and what these exercises where meant to be achieving. Probably best to summarised by saying core stability will be individual to the types of tasks required by individual athletes in different sports, playing in different positions. It is an important factor in any well balance program but emphasis must be on the specifics of these demands not just a generic program dished out to all players in a squad.
STRETCHING INTO NEURAL TENSION POSITIONS MAY DECREASE STRENGTH MORE THAN ‘NON NEURAL TENSION’ STRETCHING POSITIONS You may remember a heading in a previous research summary of mine bring attention to research indicating a drop off in strength after static stretching. Malachy McHugh from the USA has broken down the components of a hamstring stretch even further and demonstrated no drop off in strength if there was low neural tension involved in the stretch…... interesting! See you next month!
WWW. INJURYUPDATE.COM.AU JUNE / JULY 2011
SECRETS REBECCA GAWTHORNE
LOSING WEIGHT IS NOT ALWAYS EASY, AND KEEPING THE WEIGHT OFF CAN BE EVEN HARDER. SUCCESSFUL WEIGHT LOSS REQUIRES COMMITMENT TO A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE. BUT EVERYDAY TEMPTATIONS AND BUSY SCHEDULES CAN MAKE IT DIFFICULT TO STICK TO WEIGHT LOSS GOALS. 24
FOLLOW THIS TOP TEN LIST OF DIET AND WEIGHT LOSS SECRETS THAT WILL HELP YOU EAT BETTER, FEEL HEALTHIER AND SHED THOSE EXTRA KILOS AND KEEP THEM OFF!
eat slowly and enjoy your food: chew it well and savour the taste. Aim to take at least 20 minutes to eat your meal. This will give your brain enough time to register that you are full. Choose a variety of foods so you don’t get bored – aim for at least 20 different food items/ingredients daily.
1. HUNGER IS THE BEST GUIDE
5. LIMIT SUGARY DRINKS
Learn to stop eating when you’re comfortably full, not bloated or ‘stuffed’. Once you’ve finished a meal, wait 20 minutes before you have for seconds to see if you are actually hungry.
2. PORTION SIZE Don’t upsize your portions, especially when eating out. Portions are extremely important and upsizing can increase your kilojoule intake and lead to weight gain. The larger the portion of food on your plate, the more you will eat. Try serving your dinner meals on a smaller plate and aim to fill half your plate with coloured vegetables.
3. THINK BEFORE YOU EAT Before you go to the fridge or pantry, stop and think about what you are about to eat. Avoid mindless eating – don’t sit down in front of the TV or computer and eat. Use a food diary (written record of what and how much you eat) to help you keep track of what you eat and when you are vulnerable to mindless eating. Once you’ve identified these danger times, you can figure out strategies to avoid them.
4. ENJOY EATING Don’t rush your meals. Sit down at the table,
Soft drinks, energy drinks, fruit juice and cordials are packed full of extra kilojoules that will sabotage your weight loss efforts. The energy in these drinks can be equivalent to a whole meal. They are low in nutrition and not needed in your diet. Choose water instead: it contains no kilojoules and is the best fluid for hydrating the body.
6. PLAN YOUR MEALS Plan what you are going to eat for the day (or week) and stick to it. And don’t skip any meals, especially breakfast. Eating a healthy breakfast kick-starts your metabolism and gets you going for the day.
7. SNACKS AND SECONDS Small healthy snacks between meals can regulate your metabolism and help you avoid eating extremely large portions at other meals, especially at night. However, continual snacking or grazing can also add up to an incredible amount throughout the day. If you are hungry between main meals, pick one snack from the list below and stick to it.
8.HAVE HEALTHY FOODS READY TO EAT Keep your fridge and pantry full of healthy foods. Make sure they are visible and JUNE / JULY 2011
HEALTHY SNACKS > 1 SERVE OF FRUIT (1 MEDIUM SIZED PIECE OF FRUIT, 1 CUP CANNED OR CHOPPED FRUIT OR 1½ TABLESPOONS DRIED FRUIT) > 4 LOW-FAT CRACKERS WITH TOMATO AND AVOCADO OR LOW-FAT CHEESE > A FRUIT SMOOTHIE WITH SKIM MILK, BLENDED FRESH FRUIT AND HONEY > SLICE OF RAISIN TOAST WITH HONEY OR LOW-FAT RICOTTA > SMALL TUB OF LOW FAT YOGHURT > ¼ CUP RAW, UNSALTED NUTS (SUCH AS WALNUTS AND ALMONDS) > SMALL TIN OF TUNA/SALMON WITH SALAD VEGETABLES > PITA BREAD WITH SOME LOW- FAT DIP
ready to eat. Keep a bowl full of fruit on your bench and chopped-up fruit and vegetables in the fridge so you can grab them for a quick snack on the run. Keep a handful of dried fruit and nuts in sandwich bags for snacks and small yoghurt tubs for delicious desserts. When you have healthy food available, it will make it easier to avoid unhealthy ones.
9. AVOID TEMPTATION The best way to avoid unhealthy, energydense foods is not to bring them into the house. And if you do buy them occasionally, keep them ‘out of sight, out of mind’. You are more likely to snack on chocolates if you have a box sitting on your table.
10. USE THE 90/10 RULE Aim to eat healthy 90% of the time, and the other 10% you can treat yourself to your favourite food. This way you won’t deprave yourself and will be less likely to binge or over-indulge in your favourite food.
THE BEST WAY TO AVOID UNHEALTHY, ENERGY-DENSE FOODS IS NOT TO BRING THEM INTO THE HOUSE. REBECCA GAWTHORNE
IS AN ACCREDITED PRACTISING DIETICIAN. FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: firstname.lastname@example.org
FIT FACTS CASSANDRA GOVAN
FOR THIS MONTH’S FIT FACTS, WE’RE LOOKING AT EXERCISE AND HEALTH FACTS THAT RELATE TO BOTH TIME AND MONEY…
THE AUSTRALIAN FEDERAL GOVERNMENT BUDGET WAS DELIVERED ON MAY 10. ALTHOUGH NOT MANY OF US WOULD HAVE BEEN GLUED TO THE TV TO WATCH THE POST-BUDGET ADDRESS, IT DID GET US THINKING HERE AT EMPIRICA ABOUT HEALTH AND EXERCISE COSTS – AND THOSE COSTS RELATE TO BOTH TIME AND MONEY. One of the most common excuses people make for not exercising is “I don’t have time”! This can also be an excuse for not eating a healthy diet and picking up too much takeaway, too. But, can people really make the statement that there’s not enough time to exercise? A recent poll in the US found the average adult probably spends at least 56 hours each week sitting down. Some of that time is at work and unavoidable, but surely we should cut down some of that other “sitting down time” and move our butts instead? Recent research from the University of Queensland shows that even tiny disruptions to sedentary time (such as getting up for a minute or two to move around) can yield significant improvements in waist circumference and triglyceride levels – so the more you move the better! 28
Post Workout stretch: Cassie wants us doing more of this...
So, here’s a challenge for us all to do.
FOR ONE WEEK I WANT YOU TO KEEP A TIMESHEET: NOT JUST A TIMESHEET OF YOUR WORK, BUT A TIMESHEET OF YOUR LIFE. HOW LONG DO YOU SPEND SITTING DOWN? Where can we trade some “seat time” for some “active time”? Where can we trade some TV time for some time running outside with the kids? Let’s see if we can add some more active hours into our weeks. The time has come... Another common excuse for not exercising
is “it’s too expensive”. Sure, fitness activities cost money – running shoes, training fees, those beautiful new Skins you’ve been admiring. But compared to the financial impact of obesity, it’s a drop in the ocean.
A REPORT BY ACCESS ECONOMICS SAYS THAT OBESITY COST AUSTRALIA $58 BILLION IN 2008 (UP FROM $21 BILLION IN 2005). Obesity rates are predicted to rise – thus, the associated financial impact to us all as taxpayers is also set to rise. Perhaps we should view our fitness and sport “expenses” as a solid “investment” in our future instead. JUNE / JULY 2011
Research from the UK shows that, as we age, a dollar invested in exercise gives us more than a dollar in saved health care costs down the line. So, maybe buying those Skins really will make you money!
AND TO FINISH OFF, RECENTLY THE FINALE OF THE BIGGEST LOSER AIRED… HERE ARE SOME WEIGHT COMPARISONS TO PUT HOW MUCH WEIGHT THEY LOST IN PERSPECTIVE: • COMBINED STARTING WEIGHT OF THE CONTESTANTS: 2201kg (about the weight of a BMW X6 4WD)
• COMBINED END WEIGHT OF THE CONTESTANTS: 1409kg (about the weight of a Toyota Camry Sedan)
• COMBINED WEIGHT LOSS OF THE CONTESTANTS: 792kg (about the weight of a Smart Car. And a smart move, too – healthier and happier hearts, minds and bodies!).
...AND MUCH LESS OF THIS!
is a social and consumer research firm based in Melbourne and Los Angeles. For more about, email Cassie Govan (email@example.com), or David Neal (firstname.lastname@example.org) or find us on Facebook and Twitter (@empirica_update) or visit www.empiricaresearch.com.au and individuals.
IT’S ALL HARD! PETER HADFIELD (OAM)
ON THE GLOBAL ATHLETICS FIELD, WHO IS THE MORE RECOGNISABLE: USAIN BOLT OR SAMMY WANJIRU? AND WHO ARE THE HOUSEHOLD NAMES IN THE AUSTRALIAN ATHLETICS SCENE? IT WAS INTERESTING JOGGING OUT TO SANDHILLS THE OTHER WEEK TO OVERHEAR A CONVERSATION ABOUT THE MOTHER’S DAY CLASSIC FUN RUN AND ONE OF THE RUNNERS SAYING, ALMOST APOLOGETICALLY, THAT SHE WAS ONLY GOING TO RUN THE 4KM EVENT ON THE DAY, NOT THE LONGER 8KM RACE. It’s an interesting mindset that we have that in training and competition, the longer the event, the tougher it must be and the more prestigious.
AT THE MOMENT, USAIN BOLT IS ONE OF THE MOST GLAMOROUS ATHLETES IN THE WORLD. HE IS THE WORLD AND OLYMPIC CHAMPION OVER 100 AND 200 METRES AND HOLDS THE WORLD RECORD FOR BOTH EVENTS. He would only run 400 metres once in a year, yet some of his training sessions are extremely punishing. And, if you didn’t know, Sammy Wanjiru was the Kenyan who won a gold medal for the marathon event in Beijing. Unfortunately, Sammy died a few weeks ago at age 24 years, in what appears to have been a suicide, jumping from his balcony.
Usain Bolt and Australian Sprint Champ Matt Shervington swap training secrets. Love that body language!
JUNE / JULY 2011
Of our best-credentialled Australian athletes, Dani Samuels is the reigning World Champion in Women’s Discus and Steve Hooker is the World and Olympic Champion in the Men’s Pole Vault. Neither of them is noted for their feats of endurance. Sally Pearson is the leading female sprinter and hurdler in the Commonwealth and she won a silver medal at the Beijing Games in the 100m hurdles. Her leg of the Women’s 4 x 400m relay in Delhi was something to behold. Sally would have never raced 400m before and she must still be trying to get rid of the lactic acid she built up in running her leg of the relay!
MY POINT BEING, THAT COMPETING IN AND TRAINING FOR SHORTER EVENTS CAN BE JUST AS TOUGH, IF NOT TOUGHER THAN RUNNING OVER LONG DISTANCES. The development of anaerobic capacity and muscle strength created by training over shorter efforts is an extra weapon in your fitness arsenal. How tough these sessions are all comes down to intensity and a word often forgotten by some coaches – “recovery”. Although Usain Bolt’s running sessions involve incredibly lengthy warm-ups and cool-downs, only a few of these sessions demand almost 100 per cent intensity. He may only do 2-3 runs in a session with 1015 minutes recovery between each of the 34
runs, but when you are running at better than 10 seconds per 100 metres pace, you can be assured that the intensity is high and that he will be suffering plenty of burn in his legs and glutes and that he would suffer for a few days. That’s why sprinters have so many massages. The two toughest sessions I did when I was an athlete – way back in the Dark Ages – were for the 400 metres. One session I called “ins-and-outs”. It was basically a 300m run where I would sprint at maximum intensity for 30 metres, then coast for 30 metres, then maximum for 30 metres, continuing around the track for 300 metres. It involved five efforts at absolute maximum for 30 metres each effort, with five coasting phases between. I built up to the point where I was able to do four reps in a session with 10 minutes recovery between each rep. The lactic acid burn was incredible. Sitting down or standing up at the conclusion of each set was a painful experience.
A BURNING QUESTION
The second session was to run 1 x 200m, 1 x 300m & 1 x 400m with a 10-minute recovery between each run. The aim was to run the 200m in 23 seconds, the 300m in 3536 seconds and then to hang on in the 400 metres to try and run around 50 seconds flat. Again the burn was painful and it was impossible to back up with a hard training session within a couple of days. The beauty of both of these sessions was that they were very specific to racing over 400 metres and they significantly improved
SALLY PEARSON: Clearly exhausted after her 400m leg of the relay.
PETER HADFIELD (OAM)
represented Australia in two Olympic Games and two Commonwealth Games, winning a Commonwealth Games Silver medal behind Olympic Champion and World Record Holder Daley Thompson. As well as working as a TV and radio commentator and motivational speaker, Peter provides training programs for sporting teams and individuals.
my speed endurance and leg power. Over a four-week block of training in Europe I improved my 400m time in Decathlons from mid-49 seconds to 47.8. The key to all of these sessions is to maintain the intensity in all the efforts and to do that you need to take the time to be fully recovered before you start the next repetition. For anyone who runs at the sandhills sessions, see how much harder 3 x K1 hills at maximum speed with full
A refreshing approach to property
recovery is compared to doing more reps with less recovery but at a reduced speed. Mixing up your training to include long running (aerobic training) and shorter running (anaerobic training) can provide a good balance. It leads to better overall fitness plus the focus on speed leads to improvement in running performance overall. Throw in some strength and flexibility and you have all the elements covered to improve your running.
JUNE / JULY 2011
BY PAUL WATSON THESE DAYS, PHYSICAL FITNESS IS CONSIDERED A MEASURE OF THE BODYâ€™S ABILITY TO FUNCTION EFFICIENTLY AND EFFECTIVELY IN WORK AND LEISURE. RUGBY LEAGUE IS GAME THAT DEMANDS THE HIGHEST ATTRIBUTES OF PHYSICAL FITNESS. TO REACH A FIRST-GRADE STANDARD REQUIRES GREAT DISCIPLINE, COMBINED WITH MANY HOURS OF DEDICATION. UNDERPINNING ALL THIS IS THE HIGHEST DEMANDS OF FITNESS THAT, LIKE ALL ELITE ATHLETES, AND, IN MOST SPORTS, ARE ESSENTIAL FOR SUCCESS. After years of intense training, many retiring athletes forgo, to their detriment, continued physical training, as the years of stoic living are no longer an essential element of their lives. Such sudden reductions in physical training can depress the body after its initial super compensation. But not all retiring athletes stop their physical training and, in fact, some start a new lease of life in their training regimes. As a player, Nathan Brown played 172 first grade games for St George, and was always considered a very hard trainer, who relied on his physical fitness to play at his best. Upon his forced retirement in 2001 he turned his hand to coaching, but has kept up his professional training practice ever since. 36
IS THIS MAN
THE FITTEST COACH IN RUGBY LEAGUE? GIANTS Coach, Nathan Brown (right) leads by example. JUNE / JULY 2011
But just how many coaches in Rugby League still train to a high level? The legendary Wayne Bennett was renowned for beating his team member’s home over their long-distance run course and still maintains a high level of fitness today. Many others in the sport, such as former Bulldogs coach Steve Folkes, are also renowned for continuing to train and maintain a high standard of fitness. But these days, it would be hard to find a more dedicated athlete than Nathan Brown, who is now coach of the Huddersfield Giants in the UK.
A TYPICAL TRAINING WEEK OF COACH BROWN ( WHICH RIVALS THAT OF MANY PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES): > MONDAY: A 13.5KM RUN AT GOOD PACE FOR ABOUT ONE HOUR AND 10 MINUTES. START 6AM.
SO IS NATHAN BROWN THE FITTEST COACH IN RUGBY LEAGUE?
> TUESDAY: BOXING IN THE GYM FOR ONE HOUR. PLUS WEIGHTS: CHEST, BACK AND CORE.
Being one of the youngest obviously helps him. But few would argue – after looking at his weekly training outline that he must be up there with the fittest in the world of rugby league in the coaching ranks, and also fitter than a few of the players.
> WEDNESDAY: A RUN AROUND THE ROADS AT HOME – 90 MINUTES ON A VERY HILLY COURSE.
“I challenge you to join the ranks of those people who live what they teach, who walk their talk.” - Tony Robbins
HAS BEEN AN NRL STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH FOR 13 YEARS, AS A MEMBER OF JOHNNY LANG’S STAFF AT THE CRONULLA SHARKS AND PENRITH PANTHERS. HE IS NOW THE STRENGTH AND CONDITIONING COACH FOR THE HUDDERSFIELD GIANTS IN THE UK, WORKING ALONGSIDE COACH NATHAN BROWN. 38
> THURSDAY: WEIGHTS: LEGS, SHOULDERS, ARMS AND CORE. > FRIDAY: GAME DAY. THIS IS AN 80-MINUTE RUN AROUND THE FORESTS OF HOME, UP SOME VERY STEEP HILLS. > SATURDAYS: BOXING IN THE GYM FOR ONE HOUR. > SUNDAYS: FAMILY DAY
JUNE / JULY 2011
KNEE INJURY KNEE INJURY CASE STUDY REHABILITATION FOLLOWING SURGERY IMMOBILISATION AND NON WEIGHT-BEARING
BY JULIA RUSSELL MY PARTNER RECENTLY UNDERWENT KNEE SURGERY TO TREAT A CHONDRAL DEFECT IN HIS KNEE. A CHONDRAL DEFECT IS WHERE THE ARTIVVCULATING (HYALINE) CARTILAGE (IN THIS CASE, THE FEMUR) HAS EITHER COME AWAY FROM THE END OF THE BONE OR WORN THROUGH, LEAVING BARE BONE ON ONE SIDE OF THE ARTICULATING SURFACE. (SEE IMAGE 1). The natural repair process that takes place may then produce a scar tissue that is inferior to healthy cartilage and may not alleviate the symptoms of pain. For this reason, surgical repair is usually undertaken with the goal of getting the joint back to normal function. 40
MY PARTNER OPTED FOR A MACI PROCEDURE (MATRIX-INDUCED AUTOLOGOUS CHONDROCYTE IMPLANTATION). Coincidentally, he also works for the biotechnology company that pioneered this technique and has spent the last six years selling the technology to surgeons and teaching them how to perform the operation. This article looks at the procedure and follows the surgery and rehabilitation period. The symptoms of the injury were pain on knee flexion during simple weight-bearing activities such as walking up and down stairs, squatting and lunging. This was also
ONE WEEK POST OP EXTENSIVE EFFUSION OF JOINT AND MUSCLE ATROPHY
accompanied by some effusion or swelling of the knee joint. It was starting to limit my partner’s activities; there was a noticeable atrophy of the affected leg because of his tendency to favour the good one in activities of daily living such as standing up out of a chair. After attempting, without success, to manage the condition with a 12-month strengthening program, surgery was the next option.
Surgery is a two-stage process. The first stage is to undergo arthroscopic surgery, whereby the defect is cleaned up and any loose pieces are removed. A small piece of healthy cartilage – about the size of a tic-tac – is also taken, and this is sent off to the lab for the cells to be cultured. This process takes about six weeks and typically
produces around 20 million chondrocyte cells. These cells are then loaded onto a 20cm² collagen membrane ready for implanting into the defect. The second surgery for implantation of the cells requires an open incision of the joint capsule surrounding the knee to expose the joint. The defect is then cleared of any scar tissue that may have grown and a template the size and shape of the defect is made. An exact replica of this is cut out of the membrane and glued into the defect with the cells face-down onto the bone using a protein-based glue. The result looks like pastry lining a pie tin with the membrane forming a layer over the defect and up the walls of the healthy surrounding cartilage. Although the defect is still present, the cells migrate from the collagen matrix through JUNE / JULY 2011
IMAGE 2: TWO WEEKS POST OP - MUSCLES FLEXED SHOWS SIGNIFICANT ATROPHY OF VMO QUADS AND EFFUSION.
IMAGE 3: FIVE WEEKS POST OP EFFUSION SUBSIDING AND EXTENSIVE ATROPHY
IMAGE 4: NINE WEEKS POST OP - MINIMAL SWELLING VMO AND QAUDS RESTORING
the protein glue and proliferate to fill the defect over time. (See Image 2) The speed at which rehabilitation progresses is determined by the growth and maturation timeline of the chondrocyte cells into new cartilage. The delicate nature of the graft during the early stages following surgery dictates the speed at which the patient may progress. It must be noted that it is slower than other more invasive surgeries where there is no risk of compromising the prosthesis, such as a total knee replacement where rehab progresses as quickly as the patient is able to. This may be a source of frustration to physiotherapists who like to progress things as quickly as possible in order to limit joint stiffness, muscle tightening and atrophy. But itâ€™s important not to move outside this protocol in these early stages, as this will put the graft at risk. The rehab varies slightly with regard to weight-bearing exercises and the range of movement (ROM) that is allowed depending on the site of the defect in the knee. In this instance, the lesion was in the trochlea groove through which the patella glides. Because of this, the brace was worn for six weeks, 24 hours a day and set at 0 degrees so that the leg could not bend at all; this was to prevent any sheer force across the graft and risk of its de-lamination. This regime only altered during the daily physiotherapy exercises when the physio moved the joint passively with no muscle contraction at all. Initially only allowed to flex to 30 degrees during week one, this changed incrementally
to reach 135 degrees in week 7 and, after that, to full flexion when possible. Ideally, joint mobilisation is performed daily to limit tightening of the joint capsule. The patient also undertakes limited exercises including straight leg adduction and abduction, as well as a range of hydrotherapy exercises. The hydrotherapy exercises support body weight and provide minimal resistance, but also, importantly, allow the joint to move. Massage of the joint capsule and incision site also helps to loosen and prevent scar adhesions forming and massage of the insertion of the quads and hamstrings and the origins of the gastrocnemius muscle, in the back part of the lower leg, also helps to maintain flexibility. When the brace comes off â€“ even after following the rehab protocol closely â€“ the calf and thigh muscles have atrophied significantly (See Image 3) and there is still a lot of fluid in the joint. The lack of active movement has seen the muscles lose tone and it is weak to the point of not being able to hold its own weight to perform a straight leg raise. After three weeks of daily physiotherapy and soft tissue massage of the muscles and tendons surrounding the joint as well as leg strengthening exercises it has reached almost full range and tone is being restored. The thigh girth has also increased by close to 5cm. It is expected that over the next three weeks (bringing up the first 3 months of rehab) that strength will increase exponentially and the leg will be close to fully functional in terms of movement. JUNE / JULY 2011
Going through the motions: flexion limit at 5 weeks.
AT THREE MONTHS POSTOP, THE GRAFT IS STILL VERY DELICATE – LIKE JELLY – and, over the following three to six months it hardens and may be put through progressively increasing loads. According to literature on the subject, this hardening process may continue for up to five years.
RESUMING TO COMPETITIVE SPORT IS NOT RECOMMENDED UNTIL THE 12-MONTH PERIOD, BUT SOME PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES HAVE RETURNED TO ELITE COMPETITION SOONER. This short case study illustrates the rapidity with which the function of a joint and limb can decline when immobilisation is coupled with non-weight bearing. It also shows how function may be restored in a relatively short period if the patient is compliant and treated with intensive physiotherapy, strength and hydrotherapy exercises and massage of the soft tissues. (Matrix-induced Autologous Chondrocyte Implantation is a Genzyme product).
JULIA RUSSELL IS A PHYSIOTHERAPIST AND SOFT TISSUE THERAPIST WITH 12 YEARS’ EXPERIENCE. JULIA ESTABLISHED JULIA RUSSELL MASSAGE (JRM) IN 2001 TO CATER TO INDIVIDUAL ATHLETES AND PROFESSIONAL SPORTS TEAMS JULIA AND HER TEAM LOOK AFTER TRIATHLETES AND MOST NRL, SUPER 15 RUGBY AND SHEFFIELD SHIELD CRICKET TEAMS, AS WELL AS STATE OF ORIGIN AND NUMEROUS OTHER REPRESENTATIVE TEAMS FROM AUSTRALIA AND OVERSEAS. JULIA IS BASED IN SYDNEY AND HAS THERAPISTS LOCATED THROUGHOUT AUSTRALIA. FOR MORE INFORMATION, VISIT www.juliarussellmassage.com.au or Phone 0419 129 483.
JUNE / JULY 2011
SWIMMING BY CRAIG STEVENS
IT IS THAT TIME OF YEAR AGAIN WHEN THE COLD WINTER HAS STRUCK AND WE ALL HAVE TO GET THAT EXTRA BIT OF MOTIVATION TO GET OUT AND KEEP UP THE FITNESS LEVELS. Usually we use an upcoming competition to train for and set ourselves goals to achieve at a particular event. Most of you out there that do have an interest in swimming compete in Triathlons, Open Water Swimming Events or Surf Club Events. All these types of races usually finish around April and we don’t tend to get back in the water until around September to get ready again for the summer season, But the sooner you get back into it the better your training will progress when it comes time to compete again. Everyone has their favourite facility where they like to train, we usually like to turn up and swim in a particular lane or with the same group. Some train inside and some train outside, some in the pool and some in the open water. There are the ones who train in a squad and there are the ones who like to do it on their own. However, if you like to swim, there is always going to be a bit of a lack of motivation in winter. Those
that train outside have colder water and the wind and the rain to deal with and those that train inside probably have to deal with the extra volume of swimmers taking ‘their lane’ because of the people who don’t want to be in a cold outside pool and have chosen to go inside. Whatever your situation is, it is so important to be in the pool swimming NOW one way or another.
UNFORTUNATELY, AS MOST OF YOU KNOW, THE ONLY WAY TO GET BETTER AT SWIMMING IS TO SWIM! Runners have the treadmill if they don’t want to run outside and cyclist have other means of keeping up their fitness levels on the bike but there just is no other way to get that swimming fitness if you are not in the water. The sooner you get to the pool and get wet the more you will benefit in the early part of the summer season. Hopefully this will lead to better results early on in the summer season when more and more competitions start for you to test yourself against the clock and also the other competitors. You don’t have to be doing as much as you usually would or even as much as you could, it is just so much more of a benefit to get your body back in the water and doing it
IN WINTER consistently so your body keeps the feel of the water. There are so many variations in swimming training and it is always a good idea to set up a program of what you want to achieve each week or each month.
WINTER IS THE PERFECT TIME TO GET YOUR STROKE FINELY TUNED AND CONCENTRATE ON YOUR AEROBIC FITNESS. One way of looking at your training over the coming period is to do a lot of skills and drills mixed in with steady swimming. Use the first part of your session to get your body warmed up and throw in some backstroke to get the arms moving in the opposite direction, remember to kick those legs! A couple of good freestyle drills are ones that get your mind thinking about your stroke. Catch up or single arms are ones that are used a lot as they get you thinking about a nice high elbow position on the recovery and also keeping your hand nice and close to the surface when starting your catch. Again, it is really important to think about what your legs are doing. Try to mix the drill in with the normal stroke so you are always relating it back to your freestyle technique.
Try some different drills that you havenâ€™t used before. If you are not quite sure ask a coach of the pool where you swim, most are pretty happy to lend a bit of knowledge. Swimming with fins is also something that winter is a good time for, again when you slow your arms down because of the stronger kick behind you it gets you to make sure your hands are extending when you enter the water and the hand is pulling all the way back at the end of the stroke. If you are feeling your body position drop when performing the drills put the fins on for the drills then go into some easy swimming again with the fins on, and if you think you have it take the fins off and give it a go.
Swimming is all about repetition and practise, there is always something on your stroke to work on. If you are not back in the water yet take your time and start back twice a week, you may only do a kilometre but it is a much better start than doing nothing. Remember failing to plan is planning to fail. Give yourself enough time before the start of the competition season to have your technique feeling strong so when you move to do a training block of higher intensity and volume you have put in the time to get your stroke feeling strong and ready. JUNE / JULY 2011