Infrastructural Voids in congested cities [New York]
a research by joaquin mosquera
IN 50 YEARS,
POPULATION LIVE IN CITIES 2/3 OF HUMANITY WILL LIVE IN CITIES
PERCENTAGE OF WORLD POPULATION 80%
70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 20102015 2020 2025 2030 2035 2040 2045 2050 Data Source: United Nations, http://esa.un.ort/unup/p2k0data.asp
THE EFFECTS OF FAST-URBANIZATION -Low-quality living with the formation of slums and shanty towns -Low development of general infrastructures and their relation with living areas. -Suburbanization -Social unbalanced situation -Problems in water resources -Production and consume of energy -Degradation of landscapes and ecosystems -Ocupation of dangerous areas, i.e. lower lands or flood plains -Loss of cultural property -...
â€?The Megalopolis recognized as such in 1961 by the geographer Jean Gottman continues to proliferate throughout the developed world to such an extent that, with the exception of cities which were laid in place before the turn of the century, we are no longer able to maintain defined urban forms. The last quarter of a century has seen the so-called field of urban design degenerate into a theoretical subject whose discourse bears little relation to the processal realities of modern development.â€? (Kennenth Frampton, 1983)
Map showing global population over 5 million in 1955 (Post/War Period)
Global population over 5 million in 1955 (Post/War Period) (in millions)
City dwellers Rural dwellers
In 1995, North America and Europe are the most urbanised regions, although Europe has only recently passed the 50% urbanised mark. Urban growth is fastest in Latin America and Africa, although the numbers in Africa remain low. Tokyo has just overtaken New York as the worldâ€™s biggest city. Source: bbc news
1. Tokyo, Japan 2. New York, USA 3. London 4. Shanghai 5. ParĂs 6. Buenos Aires, Argentina 7. Moscow 8. Chicago 9. Los Angeles 10. Osaka-Kobe 11. Calcutta
13.7 13.2 8.2 6.2 6.2 5.7 5.7 5.5 5.1 5.1 5.0
Map showing global population over 5 million in 2015
Global population over 5 million in 2015 (in millions)
City dwellers Rural dwellers
The worldâ€™s population is expected to be 4 bn people between 2015 and 2020. Most of the growth will happen in Asia and Africa, with Africaâ€™s urban population growing fastest in percentage terms and Asia seeing the biggest volume in growth. Source: bbc news
1. Tokyo, Japan 2. Mumbai, India 3. Mexico 4. Sao Paulo 5. New York, USA 6. Delhi 7. Shanghai 8. Calcutta 9. Dhaka 10. Jakarta 10. Lagos 11. Karachi 12. Buenos Aires, Argentina 13. Los Angeles 14. Beijing 15. Rio de Janeiro 16. Osaka-Kobe 17. Moscow 18. Seoul 19. Chicago 20. Paris
35.4 21.8 21.5 20.5 19.8 18.6 17.2 16.9 16.8 16.8 16.1 15.1 13.3 13 12.8 12,7 11.3 11 9.5 9.4 9.8
12 18 6 b 10 a 7 5 f
DENSITY AND CONGESTION Densest cities
1 Mumbai, India 29,650 2 Kolkata, India 23,900 3 Karachi, Pakistan 18,900 4 Lagos, Nigeria 18,150 5 Shenzhen, China 17,150 6 Seoul, South Korea 16,700 7 Taipei, Taiwan 15,200 8 Chennai, India 14,350 9 Bogata, Columbia 13,500 10 Shanghai, China 13,400 11 Lima, Peru 11,750 12 Beijing, China 11,500 13 Delhi, India 11,050 14 Kinshasa, D.R. Congo 10,650 15 Manila, Philippines 10,550 16 Tehran, Iran 10,550 17 Jakarta, Indonesia 10,500 18 Tianjin, China 10,500 19 Bangalore, India 10,100 20 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 9,450
Map showing present densest cities in the world along with the fast-growing
Fast-growing cities a. Chongqing, China b. Chengdu, China c. Bangalore , India d. Ahmedabad, India e. Chennai, India f. Hanoi, Vietnam g. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia h. Lagos, Nigeria i. Luanda, Angola j. Kinshasa, D.R. Congo k. Cape Town, South Africa l. Santiago, Chile m. Campinas, Brazil
While the bulk of fast-growing cities are located in Asia, the list also includes some African and Latin American cities. The study of the growth of these cities gives us the knowledge to extract new parameters to be used in order to provide possible rules to future development.
NEW YORK MUMBAI
ALREADY CONSOLIDATED CITIES IN DEVELOPED COUNTRIES - PRESENT SITUATION OF CONGESTION
2 FIELDS TO WORK ON
While New York represents the old congestion with the apparent superation of consequent problems, Mumbai (the densest city) is the perfect model for looking to the possible problems of fast-growth during the last 30 years.
DENSEST CITIES WITH PRESENT PROBLEMS OF CONGESTION
Urban Void in Mumbai
Urban Void in New York
AMONG ALL COMMON PATTERNS CAUSED BY DENSIFICATION, WE HAVE FOUND SOME SPECIFIC SPACES THAT ARE NOT SOLVED IN DENSE CITIES, ISLANDS IN URBAN CONGESTION THAT ARCHITECTURE OR TRADITIONAL URBANISM HAVEN’T THOUGHT ABOUT.
MUMBAI CASE MUMBAI POPULATION INCREASE 1965 - 5,000,000 1x
2015 - 21,800,000 4x PRESENT DENSITY - 29650 p/km2
IN-FORMAL HOUSING? IN MUMBAI MORE THAN50%POPULATION
LIVES IN SLUMS IS THERE ANY CRITERIA?
DO THEY FOLLOW ANY PATTERN? The world's most congested cities reflect dense concentrations of population along with the proliferation of vehicular traffic and insufficient roads to handle them.
Water pipe + housing in Dharavi
SLUMS + INFRASTRUCTURES ROADS AND SLUMS
The concentration of informal housing is mostly related with all general infrastructures. Only free and public space available Proximity with noise and pollution
PRESENT INVESTMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURES
The tremendous growth of Indian IT, telecommunication, manufacturing, and pharmaceutical industry has created an enormous pressure on the limited world class urban infrastructure available in India. The Ministry of Finance has realized that economic development of India is directly connected to the availability of basic and modern urban infrastructure in Indian cities. The government of India has now formulated policies to forge public and private partnerships for tackling the problems related to infrastructure. In 2008, The Mumbai Metropolitian Region Development Authority (MMRDA) announced an ambitious revamp plan of Rs 2,07,956 crores ($45,594,403,188) till 2031, which would bring about a transformation to the infrastructure of the entire Mumbai metropolitian region.
TRAINS AND SLUMS
In growing economies, the need for investment in infrastructures is enormous. Among others, the main infrastructural problems in India are:
Urban residence Business premises Power Urban transport Water Sewerage Airports Railways Seaports Roads Bridges Tourism infrastructure Solid waste management Projects in SEZ Health care Entertainment Communications
WATER AND SLUMS
INFRASTRUCTURES DIRECTLY RELATED WITH ARCHITECTURAL DECISIONS
DHARAVI, URBAN VOID
Dharavi slum 175 ha Estimated population: 600,000-1,000,000
NEW YORK CASE
Hudson Rail Yards
Atlantic Rail Yards
URBAN VOIDS + INFRASTRUCTURES But this research is focused in the study of New York. Like in Mumbai, last big voids are placed in situations where infrastructures, mainly transportation, plays a fundamental role. Once the city is congested, and growth seems impossible, the market seeks new spaces for opportunity. These spaces will become, sooner or later, the object of development. These spaces are being right now the
CITIES ARE NOT COMPLETED
In a critical resistance of architects, we have to take position, understanding their complexity. The research, then, will become a study of the uncertainty of urban forms, being about looking inside cities, and understanding that even the cities that seem congested are not completed.
WE ARE IN A POST-URBAN CONDITION Traditional urbanism has nothing to do inside these voids. They are the proof that it is no longer possible thinking in the existing city with traditional tools of urbanism or architecture, but with the integration of multiple interests. It’s no more about architecture but about what architects haven’t usually thought about. Once detected the places for rethinking cities, posturbanism must define strategies to work on them.
10 QUESTIONS TO DEFINE INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS (IN THE BORDER OF ARCHITECTS’ WORK) 1. WHAT’S AN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOID? 2. WHERE ARE THEY? 3. WHAT DO WE DO WITH THEM? (STANDARD ANSWER) 4. WHAT DO WE DO WITH THEM? (SOME ALTERNATIVE ANSWERS) 5. WHO DECIDES? 6. WHO PAYS? 7. WHO CARES? 8. WHAT IF THEY CONNECT? 9. WHAT IF THEY REGENERATE THE ENVIRONMENT? 10. WHAT IF THEY ARE ENERGY NODES?
informational questions formal questions
1. WHAT’S AN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOID?
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS ARE EMPTY SPACES INSIDE CITY CONGESTION THAT HAVE THE PECULIARITY OF HAVING ENOUGH SCALE AND PROXIMITY WITH DENSE CITY TO BE EXTREMELY RELEVANT AND, AT THE SAME TIME, THAT ARE COMPLETELY UNDERUSED AS PLACES OF CHAOS, DISORDER AND GENERAL INFRASTRUCTURES. THEY ARE THE SYMBOLS OF PRESENT CONGESTION, PRECISELY BECAUSE THEY ARE SOME OF THE ONLY EXISTING REMAINING FREE SPACES IN HIGH-DENSE CITIES. THIS PARADOX IS USED IN THE RESEARCH AS THE TOOL FOR WORKING, AND THEIR MOST IMPORTANT CHARACTERISTICS ARE: -THEIR INTERMEDIATE SCALE BETWEEN ARCHITECTURE AND URBANISM. -THEIR POSITION WITHIN A NETWORK THAT AFFECTS MANY FIELDS OUTSIDE ARCHITECTURE. THINKING ABOUT THEM AS A GROUP IS THINKING ABOUT A UNIQUE AND MAYBE THE LAST POSSIBILITY FOR THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE WHOLE CITY.
2. WHERE ARE THEY?
THE TWO MOST RELEVANT THINGS ABOUT THEIR SITUATION IS THE PROXIMITY OR EVEN THEIR INSERTION IN CITY CENTERS AND THEIR SUPRISING SURFACE.
SURFACE - 100 ha 2 miles (3220 m)
GREENPOINT SURFACE - 116 ha
2 miles (3220 m)
HUDSON RAIL YARDS SURFACE - 72 ha 0.7 miles (1150 m)
NORTH DUMBO SURFACE - 132 ha 1.3 miles (2,000 m)
0.5 miles (830 m)
ATLANTIC RAILYARDS SURFACE - 6.75 ha
GOWANUS SURFACE - 190 ha 1,5 miles (2,400 m)
TOTAL ESTIMATED: 617 ha
CENTRAL PARK: 341 ha
Map showing estimated surfaces of closest Infrastructural Voids to Manhattan Almost twice the surface of Central Park is occupied by Infrastructural Voids
In terms of population, Infrastructural Voids are empty spaces in cities with almost nobody living in there and few people living surrounding them. It is not so strange that the city pushes to occupy and densify them in a constant pressure.
RESIDENTIAL DENSITY (people/km2)
0-4,000 4,000-8,000 8,000-12,000 12,000-20,000 20,000 and over
4,000-8,000 p/km2 0,000-4,000 p/km2 12,000-20,000 p/km2 12,000-20,000 p/km2 12,000-20,000 p/km2 12,000-20,000 p/km2
3. WHAT DO WE DO WITH THEM? (THE STANDARD ANSWER)
AUTHORITIES ARE SELLING THE SITES TO MEGA-DEVELOPERS WHO PROPOSE PROJECTS THAT SEEM TO SATISFY MULTIPLE DEMANDS, PROVIDING NEW HOUSING, COMMERCIAL, RETAIL, AND RECREATIONAL SPACE, WHILE YIELDING A PROFIT.
THE PROPOSALS ALWAYS CREATE “NEW AFFORDABLE HOUSING AND GREEN SPACES” EVERYBODY SEEMS TO GET THE BENEFITS, FROM THE PUBLIC TO THE PRIVATE COMPANY. THE QUESTION IS MORE BASIC... IS THIS REALLY THE MODEL OF CITY THAT EVERYBODY WANTS?
IF THE SITUATION KEEPS LIKE THIS... QUEENSBORO AREA
PEOPLE: 20,000-30,000 2 miles (3220 m)
ESTIMATED TOTAL SURFACE: 617 ha AVERAGE POPULATION DENSITY IN NEW YORK 26.401 p/sqmi (10.194 /km2) AVERAGE POPULATION DENSITY IN MANHATTAN 70.950 p/sqmi (27.400 /km2)
PEOPLE: 27,000-30,000 ESTIMATED PEOPLE LIVING IN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS IN LESS THAN 50 YEARS: 2 miles (3220 m)
HUDSON RAIL YARDS 0.7 miles (1150 m)
NORTH DUMBO PEOPLE: 15,000-20,000 1.3 miles (2,000 m)
ATLANTIC YARDS 0.5 miles (830 m)
GOWANUS PEOPLE: 40,000-50,000
1,5 miles (2,400 m)
HUDSON RAIL YARDS
Map showing the two main voids being discussed and planned nowadays
4. WHAT DO WE DO WITH THEM? (SOME ALTERNATIVE ANSWERS)
MANY ARCHITECTS HAVE WORKED ON QUESTIONS RELATED TO INFRASTRUCTURES AND URBAN VOIDS WITH UNEVEN RESULTS. THE MOST INCISIVE PROJECTS ARE NOT BUILT.
Map showing different proposals in New York that had a strong relation with preexistent infrastructures
NEW WELFARE ISLAND
WASHINGTON BRIDGE HOUSING CORBETT TRAFFIC PROPOSALS
FERRISS DRAWINGS WEST SIDE CONVERGENCE
PAUL RUDOLPH PROPOSAL
5. WHO DECIDES?
MOST INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS ARE PUBLIC PROPERTY, BUT NEW YORK HAS A COMPLEX SYSTEM OF AGENCIES THAT MANAGES THESE PUBLIC SPACES.
THE MOST IMPORTANT ONE IS THE PORT AUTHORITY OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY. IN 2000, ITS CUMULATIVE INVESTMENT IN FACILITIES AND INFRASTRUCTURE TOTALED $35 BILLION AND IT EMPLOYED DIRECTLY 7,200 PEOPLE.
THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION
TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE AND TUNNEL AUTHORITY
NEW JERSEY TRANSIT NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT AUTHORITY
DEPARTMENT OF CITY PLANNING NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT PORT AUTHORITY OF TRANSPORTATION OF NEW YORK AND NEW JERSEY
MANY OF THE REGION’S BRIDGES AND ROADWAYS
STATEN ISLAND FERRY MAJORITY OF BRIDGES
CONSTRUCTION AND MANAGEMENT OF MASS TRANSIT, MARINE AND AVIATION INDUSTRIES
TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE AND TUNNEL AUTHORITY
DEVELOPMENT OF OFFICE AND INDUSTIAL REAL ESTATE It was created in 1921 to protect and promote the commerce of New York Harbor and to develop terminal and transportation facilities in the New York metropolitan area. The Port Authority is permitted "to purchase, construct, lease and/or operate any terminal or transportation facility" and "to make charges for the use thereof."
OTHER BRIDGES AND TUNNELS
NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT AUTHORITY
A twelve-person Board of Commissioners governs the Port Authority. The New York and New Jersey governors appoint six members each.
BUSES AND SUBWAYS METRO NORTH LONG ISLAND RAIL ROAD
The Port Authority owns and operates major marine facilities in Elizabeth, New Jersey, and Brooklyn, New York, as well as industrial parks in Elizabeth and the Bronx, New York.
NEW JERSEY TRANSIT
In 2000, the Port Authority's cumulative investment in facilities and infrastructure totaled $35 billion. Its budget totaled $4.6 billion, and it employed 7,200.
BUSES COMMUTER RAIL LIGHT RAIL
NEW JERSEY TRANSIT
DEPARTMENT OF CITY PLANNING TRIBOROUGH BRIDGE AND TUNNEL AUTHORITY
THE NEW YORK CITY DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION NEW YORK CITY TRANSIT AUTHORITY
6. WHO PAYS?
THESE SITES ARE INSIDE CITIES WITH VERY SPECIFIC CONDITIONS AND PRESSURES THAT MAKE THEM BE REAL ATTRACTORS OF INVESTMENT. THIS INVESTMENT HAS TO BE UPFRONT, SO WITH THE PRESENT DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM, ONLY DEVELOPERS OR PUBLIC AGENCIES COULD DO IT.
1.3 miles (2100 m) 0.5 miles (800 m)
0 mile (0 m)
1 mile (1600 m)
0.5 miles (800 m)
2 miles (3200 m)
Map showing distances to Manhattan There are three in waterfronts of Queens and Brooklyn, two interior areas and one inside Manhattan
VIEWS AND SPECULATION
DENSITY AND SPECULATION
Any planning will consider the posibility of seeing Manhattan.
“Where there is nothing, everything is possible. Where there is architecture, nothing (else) is possible”
“ANY SITES THAT OFFER VIEWS FROM MANHATTAN SKYLINE BECOME HOTLY CONTESTED SCENARIOS FOR REAL ESTATE SPECULATION.”
Rem Koolhaas. S,M,L,XL
(THE ENDLESS CITY) Maintaining dreams in the Culture of Congestion Based on The City of the Captive Globe Project, New York, 1972 Rem Koolhaas, Madelon Vriesendorp
The markets needs to find new places of development. They are the main characters in the present development of New York. Right now, the city is densifying precisely the less dense areas, any kind of void.
Solutions have usually supported an idea of hiding infrastructure from the view, ending in the “tabula rasa”.
Destruction of existing infrastructures
Construction of covering deck
Construction of high-dense new housing
TABULA RASA EXCESSIVE ECONOMIC WASTE REPERCUTION IN THE USER
IN THE PRESENT ECONOMIC SITUATION, WE CANNOT MAINTAIN SOLUTIONS WHERE INTEGRATION IS NOT A PRIORITY.
A FEASIBLE FUTURE
The proposal is creating an attractive infrastructure that increases the value in the area, densificating available surrounding spaces in an integrated solution of infrastructure and housing.
Reinforcement of infrastructures
Economical consequences in the area
Densification of limits and surroundings
INCREASING USER’S INTEREST INCREASING INTEREST OF SMALLER DEVELOPERS
THE DISCUSSION IS, THEN, WHICH KIND OF INFRASTRUCTURES ARE INTERESTING FOR BOTH USERS AND DEVELOPERS SO THAT THEY CAN PRODUCE THE DESIRED ECONOMICAL MOVEMENT.
7. WHO CARES?
THE DEVELOPMENTS WE USUALLY SEE ARE ISOLATED DECISIONS MADE BY PRIVATE INTERESTS AND PERMITTED BY PUBLIC POWERS. THEY ASSUME TYPICAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF PROGRAM AND HIGH-DENSITY MODELS
VOICES OF RESISTANCE OFTEN COME FROM NEIGHBORHOOD GROUPS OF RESIDENTS. THEY SOMETIMES MAKE ALTERNATIVE ARCHITECTONIC PROPOSALS WITH PARALLEL ARCHITECTS AND URBAN DESIGNERS AND CREATING WEBS OR ACTIVE EVENTS TO PROMOTE THEIR INTENTIONS.
ATLANTIC YARDS PROJECT The Atlantic Yards Project is a $4 billion project that includes 16 buildings for residential, office, retail, community facilities, parking, and possibly hotel uses. These buildings will provide approximately 5,325 to 6,430 housing and it is expected to create thousands of construction and permanent jobs. Nevertheless, UNITY emerges as a platform against the planning and create a new proposal with the next goals: -CONNECT Prospect Heights, Fort Greene and other neighborhoods -Develop at a HUMAN SCALE and density -Promote DIVERSITY AND VITALITY in urban design -Create and preserve AFFORDABLE HOUSING -REDUCE TRAFFIC, IMPROVE MASS TRANSIT -Create JOBS for Brooklyn residents -Create truly usable and accessible PUBLIC SPACES -Guarantee an OPEN PLANNING PROCESS, with transparency and accountability (Information from www.unityplan.org)
“ THE ATLANTIC YARDS AND HUDSON YARDS SITES ARE BEING DEVELOPED IN THE WRONG WAY: INSTEAD OF SELLING THEM TO MEGA-DEVELOPERS LIKE FOREST CITY RATNER AND TISHMAN SPEYER (WHO ARE BOTH HAVING TROUBLE COMING UP WITH THE CASH), WE SHOULD DEVELOP THEM THE WAY NEW YORK WAS TRADITIONALLY DEVELOPED. THAT MEANS PLATTING THE STREETS AND BLOCKS, AND SELLING LOTS ON THOSE BLOCKS. NO EMINENT DOMAIN WOULD BE INVOLVED. ROBERT MOSES WAS WRONG. JANE JACOBS WAS RIGHT. “ (Text from John Massengale´s blog)
ANY NEW INFRASTRUCTURE MUST IMPROVE EVERYDAY LIFE OF THE NEIGHBORHOOD AS WELL AS MAINTAIN THE NECESSARY DIALOGUE WITH ECONOMIC REQUIREMENTS.
PRESENT SITUATION OF ISOLATED VOIDS
LINKING PREEXISTING STRUCTURES
8. WHAT IF THEY CONNECT? [CASE STUDY I]
NOW, INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS SEEM TO BE ISOLATED IN THE CITY. THEY ARE VAST TERRAIN VAGUES WITH A CLEAR OVEREXISTENCE OF UNDERUSED INFRASTRUCTURES.
STUDY OF CONNECTION WITH EXISTENT CITY PLAYS A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE FOR KNOWING THE POSSIBILITIES FOR BEING DEVELOPED. -STREET CONNECTIONS -MASS TRANSIT -PROXIMITY TO SUBWAY STATIONS -... THEY EXIST NOW. ANY PROJECT SHOULD NOT CREATE MUCH NEW INFRASTRUCTURE, BUT ADAPT TO THE EXISTENCE. THE BENEFITS ARE CLEAR...
TRAFFIC AND GLOBAL STRATEGIES LONG ISLAND EXPRESSWAY
210,000 vehicles / day (only through the borough of Queens)
BROOKLYN QUEENS EXPRESSWAY
PRESENT MONEY EXPENSE AGAINST CONGESTION: Rebuilt from the Queens-Midtown Tunnel viaduct to EXIT 22-$200 million Installation an ITS system-$70 million Massive reconstruction of EXIT 22 Reconstruction of EXIT 27-$34 million Rebuild EXIT 30 and EXIT 31-$130 million HOV project from the Queens-Nassau border to EXIT 64-$880 million Three bridges over the LIE to provide additional turn lanes-$45 million ...
160,000 vehicles / day (through the borough of Brooklyn) 120,000 vehicles / day (through Queens) PRESENT MONEY EXPENSE AGAINST CONGESTION: BQE connector ramp to the Williamsburg Bridge-$47 million BQE-Park Avenue viaduct rebuilt-$110 million Rebuilt from Broadway north to 25th Avenue in Woodside-$267 million General works from Exit 37 to Exit 36-$124 million Reconstruction of the cantilevered section through Brooklyn Heights ...
175,000 vehicles / day By the 1990's, the Gowanus Expressway handled approximately 175,000 vehicles per day (AADT), prompting the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT) to implement HOV lanes to ease congestion. GOWANUS TUNNEL The Regional Plan Association (RPA) says it will cost between $1.5 billion and $2.5 billion for the tunnel, or two to three times the estimated $750 million to rebuild the elevated expressway. The state Department of Transportation says a tunnel will cost even more: between $6 billion and $9 billion.
TRAFFIC IN NEW YORK AND UNSUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS During the last 10 years, NYC has spent more than $5 billion in these highways. Major traffic in New York comes from people that live outside the city try to enter in Manhattan in specific hours in specific highways. In this moment, solutions to permanent traffic congestion are, apart from maintenance, building elevated highways and viaducts, incrementing lanes or even building new tunnels to connect with Manhattan. The result is its internal increment of traffic, without giving sustainable solutions for the future...
Annual congestion delay per person 23 hrs Annual congestion cost per person $383 Annual congestion cost saved by public transit $4.9 billion Excess fuel consumed per person due to congestion 11 gal Data from 2003 TTI Urban Mobility Report
25% of people drive alone to work everyday
ANOTHER POSSIBILITY? PLAN NYC-2030: A Greener, Greater New York Traffic congestion fee for vehicles traveling into or within Low Manhattan (model of London, Singapore or Stockholm)
FOR A MORE SUSTAINABLE TRAFFIC (INSIDE MANHATTAN) ROLE OF INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS PUBLIC PRIVATE
1. REDUCTION OF PRIVATE CARS 2. IMPROVE CONNECTIVITY
Thanks to their peripheral condition to Manhattan, Infrastructural Voids are the last point before entering to it. Understanding them as catalytic points between public and private transportation could reduce traffic inside Manhattan an estimation of at least a 20%
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AS CATALYTIC POINTS
FUTURE GLOBAL CONNECTIONS FROM INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS Transport water stations in Manhattan Water as the 6th Borough Transport water stations in the Waterfront Water as the 6th Borough Estimated area of influence Water paths Waterfront - Pedestrian + Cycling Public road transportation systems Private transportation systems Subway from Infrastructural Voids
Map of a possible public transportation and Waterfront 2020 linking Infrastructural Voids
The development of water comunication infrastructures not only will affect and improve Infrastructural voids but also all the Waterfront. Several stations could be placed all along the coast line, increasing the interest (and value) of these areas.
WATERFRONT 2020 AS A CONNECTION IN A CLOSE FUTURE
The most important infrastructural voids are connected in a clear line that is coincident with the coast line. Relation with river is clear, being the boundary between neighborhoods and water. Waterfront 2020 is an ambitious plan that includes recovering and connecting some of them. It will automatically increase their value
GOWANUS CANAL CASE STUDY
SUBWAY LOCAL STREET CONNECTIONS HIGHWAY
SMITH-9th St SUBWAY STATION
WATER AS AN INTERNAL CONNECTOR WATERFRONT
SUPERPOSITION OF LAYERS WATER SUBWAY
ROAD PEDESTRIAN PEDESTRIAN
RESIDUAL AND UNDERUSED SPACES
ELEVATED SUBWAY STREET STREET-BRIDGE TRAIN
ELEVATED SUBWAY STREET CANAL
ELEVATED CANAL-WALKWAY FOR BYCICLES AND PEDESTRIAN
CONNECTOR STATION ON N
AVAILABLE SPACE POR CONNECTED ALTERNATIVE PROGRAMS
LONGITUDINAL BRIDGE CONNECTION WITH HIGHWAY
DIAGONAL CONNECTOR Aerial view of the disconnected situation
VERTICAL STRUCTURE AND COMUNICATION POINTS OF STREET CONNECTION
NEW INFRASTRUCTURAL TYPOLOGIES ELEMENT
-Daily parking of cars -Direct connection with public transportation systems
-Multistorey storage of cars with mechanical systems -Connection with highway -Connections with canal
Punctual connector station
-Multitransfer connector -Shops -Box offices
-Multitransfer horizontal connector -Megastructure open to any public program
-Public services: cafeterias, restaurants -Open spaces for rest -Playgrounds -Exhibition spaces
Water connection with other boroughs
-Box offices -Administration -Piers
Dynamic pedestrian water paths
-Internal pedestrian longitudinal connector (N-S) -Internal connection between both sides of the canal (E-W) -External connector with waterfront -The canal as enjoyment and connection
Distributed reactivating programs
-Reactivation of spaces around infrastructures -Leisure -Internal renting communications
-Storages -Shops -Box offices -Administration -Weekend general services -Kayak/bycicles renting
Direct connection between parallel and separated programs
9. WHAT IF THEY REGENERATE THE ENVIRONMENT? [CASE STUDY II]
TO THE QUESTION OF HOW CAN WE USE INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS, THE ANSWER IS HOW MUCH CAN THEY MAKE FOR US TO GET A BETTER ENVIRONMENT, THAT FINALLY IS A MORE SUSTAINABLE CITY...
LEED for Neighborhood Development New LEED for CITY Development?
Water efficiency Improvement of air quality Energy savings
NEW YORK CITY AND WATER EFFICIENCY Types of Sewer Drainage Areas in New York City 1. Combined sewer areas 2. Separate sewer areas 3. Unsewered areas
WATER SOURCES FROM OUTSIDE NEW YORK New York City delivers about 1.3 billion gallons of safe drinking water. This source of New York Cityâ€™s drinking water is supplied by a network of 19 reservoirs and three controlled lakes in a 1,972 square-mile watershed that extends 125 miles north and west of New York City
Two-thirds of New York City has a combined sewer system that collects wastewater and stormwater runoff together in the same pipe from properties and streets.
COMBINED SEWER OVERFLOWS (CSO)
EFFECT ON WATER QUALITY AND RECREATIONAL USES
New York City is facing the challenge of more frequent extreme weather events and flooding. Average rainfall in the City has increased nearly 10% in the last century.
NYC GREEN INFRASTRUCTURE PLAN Green infrastructure uses vegetation, soils, and other structural elements to mimic natural hydrologic cycles by slowing down, absorbing and evaporating stormwater. Types of green infrastructure projects include: blue roofs and green roofs for new and existing buildings that slow roof water from draining from roofs too quickly and overwhelming storm sewers; porous pavement for parking lots that allows water to seep through it and be absorbed into the ground rather than becoming runoff; tree pits and streetside swales for roadways that allow water to pool in underground holding areas until it can dissipate in the ground or transpire through plants; wetlands and swales for parks; rain barrels for low-density residential areas; and a compilation of these techniques for high-density residential housing and other developments. Once approved, the Green Infrastructure Plan will invest a total of $5.3 billion in a mix of green infrastructure, cost-effective grey infrastructure, system-wide optimization, and conservation.
WATER TREATMENT AND NEIGHBORHOOD RAIN WATER WASTE WATER WATER TREATMENT IN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS INTERNAL USE IN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS
DISTRIBUTION TO NEIGHBORHOOD USE
BLUE-GREEN ALGAE TURNS DIRTY WATER INTO CLEAN ENERGY
Algae could be responsible for cleaning water, as to produce a large number of economic possibilities. It is also associated with the production of biomass, bio diesel...
AQUATIC MACROPHYTE SYSTEMS (WASTE WATER)
Natural low-rate biological treatment systems tend to be lower in cost and less sophisticated in maintenance although they require the use of relatively large land areas. 1.- Upland natural wastewater treatment systems 2.- Wastewater stabilization ponds 3.- Wetland treatment systems (Macrophyte treatment
ANAEROBIC WASTEWATER /RAINWATER TREATMENT The absence of oxygen leads to controlled anaerobic conversions of organic pollutants to carbon dioxide and methane, the latter of which can be utilised as energy source
EXISTING RESIDENTIAL AREAS
EMPTY URBAN SPACES (PARKING, PARKS, STREETS...)
EXISTING INDUSTIAL AREAS
WATER AND BUILDINGS
SEPARATE WASTEWATER AND STORMWATER
DISTRIBUTION TO INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS TO BE ACCUMULATED AND TREATED
COMMON SYSTEM OF WATER TREATMENT
REDISTRIBUTION FOR GENERAL GARDENING OR BUILDINGS (USE IN ALL TOILETS, GREEN ROOFS, COOLING OR INTERNAL GARDENING)
CHEAPER TO BUILD CHEAPER AND EASIER TO MAINTAIN
GREEN INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AND AIR QUALITY
MORE THAN 400 ha OF GREEN SPACES THE PROJECT FOR THE POLITICIAN 116 ha
As a way of general working, the park is used by politicians in all degraded areas of New York that they want to recover and at the same tima get political credit. It’s the case of Brooklyn Bridge park, old waterfront areas and piers in Manhattan… Infrastructural voids could create a huge network of more than 400 ha of green spaces, transforming New York in the new capital of green cities.
SOME DIRECT EFFECTS OF VEGETATION ON AIR QUALITY
-Active consume of certain types of air pollution -Reduction of ozone and NO2 -Cooling effect: Reduction of evaporative emissions Reduction of power generation emissions Slows photochemical reactions
PERMANENT RELATION WITH EXISTING RESIDENTIAL AREAS
NEW BUILDINGS FACING TO A GREEN FUTURE
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AS GLOBAL WATER COLLECTORS Nodes of regeneration Main water distributors Secondary water distributors-Neighborhood scale
Map of centralized water system in Infrastructural Voids
REDUCTION OF 40% OF WASTE WATER
NEW REGENERATION TYPOLOGIES ELEMENT
Sewage Treatment Plant (STP)
-Treatment of the sewage from residential and commercial buildings -Uses for disposal, gardening, flushing and other non-potable purposes.
Effluent Treatment Plant
-Cleans mild to highly polluted waste water
-Close to existent industries
Dynamic horizontal distributor
-Collecting and distributing collected water to STP
Deposits of rain water coming from elevated highways
-Store water before being treated in STP
-Vertical communications -Local transformation centers -Vertical energy connectors
Small water deposits
-Once treated, water will be stored to local use
Rain water distributor
-Distribution of rain water over highway to be treated and stored in Infrastructural Voids
Water biological treatment plants
-Natural and biological treatment of wastewater and rainwater
-Parks and recreational open areas
10. WHAT IF THEY ARE ENERGY NODES? [CASE STUDY III]
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS ARE PERFECTLY PLACED FOR BEING THE CENTRAL NODES IN A POSSIBLE SUSTAINABLE ENERGY NETWORK IN THE CITY
LEED for Neighborhood Development New LEED for CITY Development?
Water efficiency Improvement of air quality Energy savings
ENERGY AND HIGHWAYS
1,674 miles (2,694 km) of Interstate Highways 5 miles
10 kms 100 kms 200 kms
5 miles 10 kms
Directioning energy fluence
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AS ATTRACTORS OF ENERGY Infrastructural Voids connect Highways. This condition is perfect to be their future organizers as attractors not only of cars but also of energy. The goal is transforming the 2,700 kms of Highways of New York in a huge sustainable energy network for the city. Then, conduct it to Infrastructural Voids, and redirect it to the city.
NEW YORK ENERGY PLAN 2030
The State has committed to ensure that 25% of its energy comes from renewable sources by 2013
The city was eyeing the generally windy coast off Queens, Brooklyn and Long Island for turbines that could generate 10 percent of the city’s electricity needs within 10 years.
Estimates of solar potential by Columbia University, the City University of New York, and NYSERDA range from 6,000 MW to over 15,000 MW, with one study claiming solar can contribute 18% of peak load by 2022. “But solar energy is still not as cost-effective as gasfired electricity. And New York City is uniquely expensive: our taller buildings require more wires and cranes to carry equipment to rooftops, while extensive interconnection requirements and inspections delay implementation.” Kilometers of highways in New York City at the (source: www.nyc.gov) same scale as the plan (above, next page) 2,600 kms
ALTERNATIVE SYSTEM OF ENERGY MANAGEMENT
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AND ENERGY
The city of New York has en average wind speed of 9.3 mph, one of the highest of the cities in USA. So, why not using it to produce clean wind energy? Or using their huge open space for solar energy? INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS (IV) AS CATALYTIC ENERGY POINTS
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS AS CATALYTIC POINTS
PRESENT INFRASTRUCTURES PRODUCERS OF CLEAN ENERGY
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS TRANSFORMERS + DISTRIBUTORS OF ENERGY
Privileged elevated situation No interference with existing building Using existing structure Occupation of public space
wind speed: 10-12 mph
WIND ENERGYwind speed: 9 mph
10,000kWh / year 5.5 tonnes of carbon dioxide / year. (Energy Saving Trust, 2011)
SOLAR ENERGY The highway as an energy producer
INFRASTRUCTURAL VOIDS PRODUCERS OF CLEAN ENERGY
+ ENERGY FOR 200,000 PEOPLE SOLAR PANELS FOR 400 ha An estimation of 336 MW could be created, giving energy to more than 70,000 housing, that is more that 200,000 people.
SOLAR ENERGY Infrastructural Voids as energy producers
ENERGY GLOBAL CONNECTIONS Energy transformation points Main energy connectors Secondary energy connectors-Neighborhood scale Estimated area of influence
Map giving “power” to Infrastructural Voids
ENERGY FOR 50% OF NEW YORK
NEW ENERGETIC URBAN TYPOLOGIES ELEMENT
Vertical solar energy megagenerator
-Production of solar energy in vertical facade
Micro wind turbines
-Generation of wind energy: Inexpensive, reliable and simple -Direct connection with public transportation systems
-Proximity with residential areas -Interconnected with a medium voltage, power collection system and communications network.
-Generation of solar energy -Each 12-by-12 foot would produce about 7,600 watt-hours a day from an average of four hours of sunlight. Each one-mile stretch of a four-lane highway could provide enough electricity to service about 500 homes.
-Receptor and connection among networks -Transformation to medium voltage
-Public uses (see communication typologies)
-Vertical distribution between Transformation Center and Infrastructural Void
-Vertical communications -Local transformation centers -Deposits of rain water
Dynamic horizontal distributor
-Horizontal distribution of energy generated along the Infrastructural Void -Communication with Transformation Center
Small energy generators
-Local scale energy generators
-Distributed reactivating programs
Infrastructural Voids in congested cities [New York]
a research by joaquin mosquera www.impresionesdearquitectura.com www.mam-arquitectos.com