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Empowering people, Developing nations.

CONFERENCE HANDBOOK


Contents

5

Welcome Letter

6

Thematic Conception

8

Steering Comittee

8

The Secretariat

10

Our Staff

12

Conference Schedule

13

Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors

13

Cultural and Social Activities

16

General Policies

18

Awards Policy

21

General Rules of Procedure

35

General Rules of Procedure of the UNSC

40

General Rules of Procedure of the HICJ

44

Flow of Documents

46

Flow of the Debate

48

Appendix I: Final Documents

51

Appendix II: Voting Shares of the IMF-WB


Conference Handbook

Welcome Letter Dear Participants, It is our great pleasure to welcome you to the 15th edition of the Americas Model United Nations (AMUN) in Brasília, Brazil! For 15 years, AMUN has convened hundreds of skillful students from all over the world to debate critical issues of the international agenda under the rules and procedures of the UN system. The project was created in 1998 in the bosom of the renowned Institute of International Relations of the University of Brasília and enjoys today the status of most traditional Model UN conference in Latin America. Every year, it grants its participants the chance to develop expertise in public speaking, diplomacy and negotiation. The current edition marks the 15th Anniversary of the project and was thoroughly prepared during ten months by a team of 60 volunteer students. During the five days of conference, you will have a full agenda of debates and social events. This conference handbook has the purpose of guiding you through these activities and assisting your preparation for the debate sessions that will take place in each committee. It contains background information about AMUN and the present edition’s thematic conception, details about our general policies, the conference schedule, the General and Special Rules of Procedure of the 15th AMUN, as well as other supporting materials. We expect them to serve as a helpful reference during your participation in AMUN. Throughout this intense week, the beautiful city of Brasília will provide the setting for our activities. AMUN is fortunate to be located in the capital of Brazil, seat of all three branches of the Federal Government and only city built in the 20th Century to be awarded the status of World Heritage Site by UNESCO. A melting pot that brings together people and traditions from all regions of Brazil, the city provides a singular perspective into the country that today is one of the world’s most dynamic economies. We encourage you to immerse into the atmosphere of this wonderful city and make the most of your time here. Thank you for joining the 15th AMUN. We hope that you enjoy your stay in Brasília and wish you an exciting conference! Sincerely, The Secretariat

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Thematic Conception Human development is a process of enlarging people’s choices. [...] No one can guarantee human happiness, and the choices people make are their own concern. But the process of development should at least create a conductive environment for people, individually and collectively, to develop their full potential and to have a reasonable chance of leading productive and creative lives in accord with their needs and interests. 1990 Human Development Report

The 1990 edition of the Human Development Report succinctly stated its central thesis in the first sentence of the text: “People are the real wealth of a nation”. The premise of the Report was that the measurement of national development only in terms of the Gross National Product (GNP), a long-standing practice, obscured the fact that the goal of development is to benefit people. The income is a means, not an end, of the process of development, it argued. First and foremost, development should aim at enlarging people’s choices. This new approach has influenced a whole generation of development experts and decision makers around the world. However, more than twenty years later, many public policies still fail to consider the various dimensions of development in an integrated manner. The thematic conception of the 15th AMUN was born out of the understanding that development is a multidimensional process. The overarching argument the 15th AMUN shall put forward is both simple and massive: human freedoms have an intrinsic importance as the preeminent objectives of development. In other words, the end of development should be that of strengthening the agency role of individuals to pursue the goals they have reason to value. This approach draws heavily on the work of the Nobel Laureate in Economics Amartya Sen. This Indian economist advocates that the real freedoms people enjoy are among the constitutive parts of development. Adopting the perspective of freedom is to acknowledge that a series of deprivations other than the lowness of income may hamper a person’s capability to shape their own destiny. According to the author, even financially successful individuals may lead an impoverished life as a consequence of the denial of the right to political participation, the suppression of free speech, or the absence of personal security. Development must address such deprivations. This is not to say that economic growth is irrelevant to the promotion of these freedoms. In many cases, income effectively translates into command

over the resources to enjoy a decent standard of living. Nevertheless, as Sen points out, putting human freedom at the center of the stage implies a shift of focus that allows us to concentrate on what is intrinsically important instead of what is instrumentally relevant. Shifting the focus poses the challenge of designing public policies that strengthen individuals’ role as actors capable of bringing about changes in their lives and in their social reality - rather than treat them as passive recipients of government programs. While income is such an important means to capabilities, there is also a connection between the two operating in the reverse direction. Health care, education and other social opportunities also affect people’s ability to earn a higher income. This linkage between capability improvement and greater earning power calls attentions to the fact that expanding human freedom is not only the primary end of development, but also its principal means, as Sen puts it. The capability approach defended by the Indian economist seeks to demonstrate the roles of freedoms as mutually reinforcing. In his view, there are at least five groups of linked instrumental freedoms: political freedoms, economical facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security. Strong interconnections exist between them, which can go in different directions. The discussion about the real meaning of development is relevant because more than empty definitions are at stake. Different concepts also convey specific understandings of the social phenomena and, thus, result in distinct diagnoses of the problems that need to be overcome. Each course of action, in turn, has real and tangible impacts on peoples’ lives. Bringing the theme Empowering people, Developing nations to the 15th AMUN will provide participants with the opportunity to reflect upon these impacts and seek comprehensive, effective and human-sensitive solutions to tackle the enduring development challenges across today’s world, thus fulfilling the project’s mission as a driver of social change.

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Steering Committee Prof. Eiiti Sato Prof. Ana Flávia Granja e Barros Prof. Cristina Yumie Aoki Inoue Ms. Narue Shiki Ms. Gabriela Campos Teixeira Mr. João Marcelo Borges Ms. Marina Veloso Rocha Mr. Raphael Oliveira Nascimento

Ms. Maria Beatriz Bonna Nogueira Ms. Marina Moreira Costa Mr. Adam Jayme Muniz Mr. Renato Cabral Dias Dutra Ms. Juliana Pinheiro Nogueira Bessa Mr. Rodrigo Wiese Randig Mr. Artur Andrade da Silva Machado Mr. Alexandre Rodrigues da Silva Ms. Isabela Cristina Pereira Cunha

The Secretariat Secretary-General João Sigora is a senior at University of Brasília, majoring in International Relations with a focus on trade and development studies. He was born and raised in upstate Paraná, South of Brazil, and his first participation in AMUN happened in 2009, when he represented the delegation of Liechtenstein at the UN Conference on Sovereignty and Self-Determination. He has been involved in the project ever since, having participated as an Academic Director in both 2010 and 2011. In 2012, in the position of Secretary-General of the 15th AMUN, he is responsible for overseeing and synchronizing the work of all administrative cells and academic committees to effectively meet the goals of the project. In the past, João served as an intern at the National Confederation of Industry and at the UK Trade & Investment. He also studied at Concordia University in Montréal, Canada as part of an exchange program and volunteered in Cambodia for an NGO during university. In his spare time, João enjoys traveling, watching movies and rowing on Paranoá Lake.

Under-Secretariat for Administrative Affairs Caroline Caldeira is a junior at University of Brasilia, majoring in International Relations. She grew up in Goiânia and has taken part in the organization of MUNs since the beginning of her undergraduate studies. On the administra-

tive side, she has already been part of the Logistics and the Fundraising team; on the academic front, she has chaired the Women’s Conference and the American Conference. Caroline is extremely passionate about gender studies and intends to concentrate her future studies on this topic. As for now, however, she is deeply involved in her work as Under-Secretary-General for Administrative Affairs, so as to deliver a perfect AMUN for all participants. When not doing MUN-related things, she loves listening to samba, dancing and going out with her friends. Carolina Sanches is a junior studying International Relations at University of Brasília. She was born in São Paulo and raised in Uberlândia. Carol has been involved with MUNs since her freshman year and she has previously worked in AMUN as Marketing Assistant-Director and Knowledge Management Director. In the past, she has also chaired the International Court of Justice and the Rio+20 Conference in SiNUS, a MUN for high school students also organized by the University of Brasília. In this edition of AMUN, she is thrilled to serve as an Under-Secretary-General for Administrative Affairs. In her free time, Carol enjoys listening to music, singing and surfing on the internet.

Under-Secretariat for Academic Affairs Corina Avellar is a senior at University of Brasilia, majoring in International Relations with a secondary field in Economics. She grew up in a small town in the state of São Paulo, Avaré, and has been involved in Model UNs since her first year at UnB. Corina served as the Director of the World Trade Organization at the 14th AMUN and she is very excited to be returning this year as Under-Secretary-General for Academic Affairs. During her spare time, Corina enjoys cooking for her friends, watching F1 and travelling. Cristal Ribeiro is a senior International Relations student at University of Brasília. Her main areas of interest are related to international law and the UN system. Currently, she is an intern at the Advisory for International Affairs of the Secretariat for Human Rights of the Presidency of the Republic. Previously, she has worked at the Ministry of External Relations and at the Brazilian office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees. This year’s edition is her 4th AMUN experience; she has been delegate, assistant, director and now an Under-Secretary-General for Academic Affairs. Finally, Cristal intends to study Law after concluding her present major and she is a cat lover who likes cooking and British rock.

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Our Staff Secretariat Secretary-General João Augusto Sobreiro Sigora Under-Secretariat for Academic Affairs Corina Lovison Nassif Avellar Cristal Augustus Carneiro Ribeiro Under-Secretariat for Administrative Affairs Carolina Sanches Lecornec Dias Caroline Monteiro Caldeira

United Nations Development Programme

Administrative Staff

Marketing – Advertising Subdivision

Director Thaís Soares Oliveira

Finances & Accounting

Director Raíssa Vitório Pereira

Directors Renata Café Sophia Cunha Afonso

Marketing – Public Relations Subdivision

Assistant-Directors Christiane Souza Viana Najar Diego Bielinski Graziela Streit Pedro Henrique Dias Alves Bernardes Rafael José da Silva Lins

Historical International Court of Justice Director Felipe Ferreira Pires de Carvalho Assistant-Directors Ananda Carvalho Martins Jamerson S. Albuquerque Oliveira Leticia Raymundo Tavares The 2012 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank Directors Max Alexandre Barbosa Villela Nicolas Powidayko Assistant-Directors Henrique Felix João Diogo Ramos S. de S. Brites Lucas Braga

Directors Caio César Paccola Jacon Victória Santos

Director Débora Lobato Marketing – Art Subdivision

Logistics & Sustainability United Nations Human Rights Council

Academic Staff

Assistant-Director Caio Vivan de Oliveira

Directors Luis Guilherme Alho Batista Pedro Lucas de J. Boareto

Directors Henrique Eira Ricki Lustoza Teo Horta

Assistant-Directors Pedro Henrique L. do Nascimento Samantha Vitena Tarcísio Barbosa Pinhate

Assistant-Directors Fabiane Cristine Almeida Freitas Flávia Neme Isadora Bertolin Schetinger Jéssika Santiago de Assis

United Nations Security Council

Cultural Activities

Press Team

Directors Nayara F. Macedo de Medeiros Antonio Philipe de Moura Pereira

Directors Joaquim Otávio Melo Lima Juliana Grangeiro

Director Lorenna da Silva Vieira

Assistant-Directors Bárbara Teixeira Vilarinhos Qu Cheng Vinícius Bivar Marra Pereira

Assistant-Directors Felipe Oliveira Dias Fernanda Fernandes Guilherme de Campos Salles Nicolas Wulk

Marketing – IT Subdivision Director Rebeca Guerreiro Machado

Assistant-Directors Andresa Rodrigues Bárbara Cruz Luisa Bravo Vitor Pessôa

United Nations World Summit on Corruption Directors Antonio Carvalho e Silva Neto Rodrigo Araújo Assistant-Directors Anna Emília Arend dos Santos Bárbara Sabadin Bueno Eduardo Novaes de Oliveira Sena Márcio Nascimento Costa Carvalho

Marketing Director Maíra Carvalho Branco Ribeiro Assistant-Directors Felipe Pereira Pedro de Souza Melo

AMUN Kids Coordinators Bárbara Sabadin Bueno Luisa Helena Lemos da Cruz

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Conference Schedule EVENT

Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors SCHEDULED FOR...

Day 1: Monday, July 23rd, 2012 Registration

10am to 6pm

Rules revision

2pm to 5pm

Opening Ceremony

7:30pm to 10:30pm Day 2: Tuesday, July 24th, 2012

First Committees’ Session

9am to 12pm

Lunch Time

12pm to 2pm

Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors are a delegation’s leaders. They are encouraged to bring problems and difficulties they might face to the attention of the conference staff. At the 15th AMUN, there will be two Head Delegate and Faculty Advisor Meetings, which will be conducted by the Secretariat:

Wednesday, July 25th – 8am to 9am In this meeting, Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors will be able to introduce themselves and to express important concerns to the Secretariat related to committees or to logistics matters.

Second Committees’ Session

2pm to 4:30pm

Thursday, July 26th – 6:30pm to 7:30pm

Coffee break

4:30pm to 5pm

This second meeting aims to present a follow-up of the committees’ achievements and to summarize overall impressions regarding developments of the conference.

Third Committees’ Session

5pm to 7pm

Beer Garden Party

9pm to 12am Day 3: Wednesday, July 25th, 2012

Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors First Meeting

8am to 9am

Fourth Committees’ Session

9am to 12pm

Lunch Time

12pm to 2pm

Fifth Committees’ Session

2pm to 4:30pm

Coffee break

4:30pm to 5pm

Sixth Committees’ Session

5pm to 7pm

Opening Ceremony

Dirty Dancing – A Night at the Musicals!

11pm to 3am

The Opening Ceremony marks the official start of the 15th edition of the Americas Model United Nations! It is a celebration of AMUN’s history and of all the people that somehow helped make it possible. This Ceremony will also provide an opportunity for delegates, staff members, partners and guests to fraternize and get to know each other better before the sessions begin!

Day 4: Thursday, July 26th, 2012 City Tour

9am to 11am

Seventh Committees’ Session

2pm to 4:30pm

Coffee break

4:30pm to 5pm

Eight Committees’ Session

5pm to 6:30pm

Head Delegates and Faculty Advisors Second Meeting

6:30pm to 7:30pm

Nations Fair

8pm to 11pm Day 5: Friday, July 27th, 2012

CULTURAL AND SOCIAL ACTIVITIES Monday, July 23rd, 2012

Dress code: formal attire

Tuesday, July 24th, 2012 Beer Garden

Ninth Committees’ Session

9am to 12:30pm

Closing Cerimony and Awards

4pm to 6:30pm

Farewell Party

10pm

The Beer Garden Party aims to provide a new look to the Americas Soccer Cup (ASCUP) held in previous editions. The 8th edition of the traditional soccer

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competition among AMUN participants will continue to take place during the event and a new sports modality will be introduced: volleyball. Delegates who prefer something more calm will be able to enjoy activities such as darts and karaoke or just sit on a bench to sip on a cold beer and make new friends! Our intention is to create an informal and inviting atmosphere for AMUN delegates to relax and interact with their colleagues outside the conference environment. Meanwhile, the tradition to use this party to highlight singular aspects of the Brazilian culture and people will continue to be explored when it comes to music, decoration, food and beverages, but mixed with the traditional proposal of a German Beer Garden. Dress code: casual

Wednesday, July 25th, 2012 Dirty Dancing – A Night at the Musicals! Musicals combine acting, singing, and dancing to communicate a story. Our staff is working very hard to blend all these elements and deliver a night of sheer entertainment! Inspired by the unique match of various art forms, the 15th AMUN invites all its participants to a night at the musicals for a party of non-stop hits, extravagant costumes, great dancing, and plenty of romance! The movie “Dirty Dancing” was chosen to be the ultimate symbol of the party. The 15th AMUN intends to make the Dirty Dancing party a genuine tribute to this genre, looking for inspiration in different musical eras: from the classic pieces of Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers, passing through the popular musicals of the second half of the 20th century, such as West Side Story, My Fair Lady and Hair, to the plays and movies of recent years, like Chicago and Rent. This night at the musicals will sure be a memorable one! Dress code: your favorite musical character!

Thursday, July 26th, 2012 City Tour Brasília is a beautiful city, listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO – the United Nations’ Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. It was inaugurated on April 21, 1960, by President Juscelino Kubitschek and hosts about one million visitors a year. Known as ‘the city without corners’, our capital city surprises visitors from all corners of the world with every landscape.

Conference Handbook

In the morning of July 26, AMUN will offer its participants the opportunity to participate in a City Tour around Brasília’s most important landmarks, such as the Metropolitan Cathedral, the Itamaraty Palace and the National Congress. Dress code: casual

Nations Fair This is the time for your delegation to shine! More than a simulation of negotiation and decision-making processes in diplomatic fora, AMUN is a project intended to increase delegates’ contact with different cultures. In the Nations Fair, delegations will have the chance of highlighting cultural elements of the country they represent through typical booths and artistic presentations. Let your talents ignite! Dress code: traditional clothing

Friday, July 27th, 2012 Closing Ceremony and Awards The Closing Ceremony is the event we dedicate to acknowledge the hard work of the members of our staff, the essential support of our partners and, of course, it is when we reward the delegates that stood out the most during the debates in each committee! Dress code: formal attire

Farewell Party It is time to say “So long, farewell”! After the Closing Ceremony, we invite all participants to spend the rest of the night in a bustling pub, enjoying the company of all AMUNers that contributed to make the event happen! This is to moment to relax, loosen the ties, forget about speeches and documents and just have fun after a very busy week! Dress code: casual

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Conference Handbook

General Policies University Students Only

Smoking Policy

Under no circumstances will AMUN accept participants who are not regularly enrolled in a degree-seeking program at an undergraduate or graduate level. Head delegates are liable for the information provided in all registration forms and AMUN reserves the right to ask for a proof of enrollment in an accredited institution of higher education of anyone suspected of violating this rule. Any fraud attempts will result in the immediate expulsion from the conference of all participants involved without refund.

Brazilian law prohibits smoking indoors in public spaces. Delegates will not be permitted to smoke inside committee rooms or hallways in the conference venue.

Country Assignment All decisions of AMUN’s Secretariat with regard to country assignments are final. Fees will not be refunded even if a delegation does not accept the country that has been assigned to it. AMUN reserves the right to relocate spots from an already assigned country in the event that a delegation fails to fill all the assigned spots. Delegations are required to assign at least one delegate to all assigned committees. If a delegate in a committee in which the country has only one seat cannot attend the conference, another delegate from the same delegation in a committee in which the country holds two seats will be required to take up the open spot.

Dress Code AMUN delegates are requested to follow a formal dress code during all sessions and ceremonies. Men must wear a tie and women should keep skirts at proper length. Traditional clothes that reflect the cultural background of the country represented are allowed and encouraged as long as they maintain a similar level of formality. AMUN badges must be worn at all times during the conference.

Alcohol & Drug Policy Delegates must be 18 or older to purchase or consume alcohol in Brazil. Open containers of alcohol may not be carried in the conference venue. Furthermore, delegates found possessing or using illicit drugs, as defined by Brazilian law, will be required to leave immediately and may be held criminally liable.

Official Hotel Participants are responsible for their own accommodation arrangements. AMUN is not liable for any room booking or commitment made by participants with any hotels in Brasília. Spaces at AMUN’s official hotels are limited and will be filled on a firstcome, first-served basis. If participants do not manage to get a spot at Hotel Nacional or at Brasília Palace Hotel, it is their sole responsibility to look for another accommodation option on their own. Costs may be considerably higher. AMUN is neither liable for the additional costs incurred nor will it refund registration fees in case of conference withdrawal.

Transportation AMUN’s official transportation has a tight schedule. Delegates are expected to be punctual in order to make use of it. Drivers will neither wait nor turn back to pick up late delegates. If a participant misses the official transportation, he/she will be responsible to arrive at event venues at their own expenses.

Vandalism & Courtesy Individuals will be held responsible for vandalism or any other damage that occurs in event venues or in the official hotel. AMUN reserves the right to expel individuals for any disruptions to the safety and well-being of other participants without refund.

Valuables If delegates bring valuables, they are encouraged to place them in a hotel safe deposit box. Neither AMUN nor its official hotels are not responsible for belongings left unattended in guest rooms or in committee rooms.

Certificate of Participation Certificates of Participation will be delivered to participants in the last committee session of AMUN. Participants must achieve at least 75% attendance in order to qualify for one.

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Refunds

1.2 Delegation awards

All AMUN fees are non-refundable.

Delegation awards will be granted to the delegations whose cumulative number of prizes is the highest. A delegation is understood here as the group formed by all the delegates under the responsibility of the same head delegate – which means that it can represent more than one country. This year at AMUN, two types of awards will be granted: • Best Large Delegation Award: awarded to the delegation from 7 to 10 delegates that performs best at the conference. • Best Small Delegation Award: awarded to the delegation from 2 (as long as the country has seats in two committees) to 6 delegates that performs best at the conference.

Exceptions The Secretary-General is the only staff member empowered to grant exceptions to any conference policies or other general AMUN practices. AMUN is not liable for any erroneous statements coming from other sources. Requests for exceptions must be submitted in writing to amun@amun.org.br

Awards Policy

2. Obligatory skills and achievements AMUN awards those delegates and delegations that have distinguished themselves by going above and beyond expectations. The responsibility of choosing which delegates and delegations deserve to be awarded falls exclusively to the Committee Chairs and to the Secretariat, who will base their choices on the criteria laid out below.

1. Types of Awards 1.1 Best delegate awards Best delegate awards are to be granted to delegates who stand out from his or her fellows, both verbally and through written correspondence, within committee. Best delegate awards will be granted to each Committee according to the following numbers: • • • • • •

HICJ: up to 2 judges will be awarded; IMF-WB: up to 2 delegations will be awarded; UNDP: up to 3 delegations will be awarded; UNHRC: up to 4 delegations will be awarded; UNSC: up to 2 delegations will be awarded; UNWSC: up to 4 delegations will be awarded.

If neglected, these points may block individuals and delegations from being awarded.

2.1 Individual awards: Delegates must attend to all sessions and show proper diplomatic decorum. Plagiarism will not be tolerated.

2.2 Delegation awards: In order to qualify for a best delegation award, a delegation has to occupy all the seats that have been assigned to the countries it represents in the conference.

3. Expected skills or achievements These are points that advance the chances of receiving an award.

3.1 Individual prizes 3.1.1 Foreign policy • Position papers must follow the correct use of English grammar, contain reliable information, and address all necessary points regarding the country’s foreign policy and the Committee’s theme. • Public speeches must be based on reliable information and show awareness of national interests.

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3.1.2 Diplomatic skills • Public speeches must respect the time stipulated by the Chair. • Public speeches and written documents shall be used in order to show the delegate’s capacity to influence the flow and the outcome of the discussions.

3.2 Delegation awards Delegation’s performance (M) will be objectively rated according to an average mark accounting for the aggregate individual awards plus a Nations Fair special award, the best stand accolade. During the Nations Fair, judges appointed by the Secretariat will vote for the best delegations’ stands. The rating for the 2 best delegations awards will follow the equation below: M = number of individual awards (+ best stand accolade) In case there is a tie, the following equation shall be used: M = number of individual awards (+ best stand accolade) number of delegation members

Conference Handbook

General Rules of Procedure1

Americas Model United Nations and UFRGS Model United Nations RULE #1 SCOPE These rules shall apply to all committees simulated at AMUN and UFRGSMUN, except for committees that possess Special Rules of Procedure2, which take precedence over these. These General Rules of Procedure shall be considered adopted in advance of the session and no other rules of procedure will be applicable.

RULE #2 LANGUAGE The official and working language of the conference is English. Delegates will not be allowed to address the Chair or the committee in another language. The use of foreign expressions will be permitted if followed immediately by a translation into English or if they are considered to be current in the English language.

RULE #3 DELEGATIONS Each delegation (country, non-governmental organization or international organization) will be represented by one or two delegates on each committee of which it is a member, according to the number established by the Secretariat in advance of the conference. Delegates allocated to a committee will remain in that same committee during the entire conference.

RULE #4 CREDENTIALS 4.1

4.2

The names of all members of a delegation shall be submitted to the Secretariat prior to the opening of the conference. All delegations will be assumed to have proper credentials to participate in the conference. Delegates are all presumed to possess the diplomatic authority necessary to discuss and vote for the main issues being dealt with by the committees. The instructions and powers given to any and all delegates do not allow them to declare war, sign or denounce treaties, impose sanctions, or perform any action not strictly within the purview of the committee, unless so determined by the Chair.

1 These rules are valid for the following committees at the 15th AMUN: the 2012 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank (IMF-WB), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) and the United Nations World Summit on Corruption (UNWSC). 2 At the 15th AMUN, the Historical International Court of Justice (HICJ) and the United Nations Security Council (UNSC) have Special Rules of Procedure.

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RULE #5 GENERAL DUTIES OF DELEGATES Delegates have the duties of respecting the decisions of the Chair, obtaining the floor before speaking, safeguarding and advocating their country’s interests, acting according to their country’s foreign policy and acting with diplomatic decorum at all times.

RULE #6 GENERAL DUTIES OF THE SECRETARIAT The Secretary-General is the highest-ranking member of the staff. He may designate a staff member to act in his place during any session of the conference. Along with the Under-Secretaries-General, he shall direct all the work of the conference. The Secretary-General or a member of the staff designated as his representative may, at any time, address either oral or written statements concerning any matter to the committees.

RULE #7 GENERAL DUTIES OF THE CHAIR 7.1

7.2

7.3

Each committee will be presided over by a Chair, composed of at least one Director and Assistant-Directors. In addition to exercising the powers which are conferred upon it elsewhere in these rules, the Chair shall declare the opening and closing of each session of the committee, direct its discussions, ensure the observance of these rules, accord the right to speak and make announcements. It shall rule on Points and Motions without appeal, stipulate the time limit for speakers, and have complete control over and responsibility for the proceedings of the committee. The Chair may also suggest motions that it deems beneficial for the flow of debate. The Chair will treat delegates with due courtesy at all times.

RULE #8 RULINGS OF THE CHAIR The rulings and decisions of the Committee’s Chair are final and not subject to appeal. The members of the Chair are empowered to supersede and interpret the rules as they see fit, in order to guarantee the fruitful development of the committee’s work.

RULE #9 PLAGIARISM Plagiarism is understood within the scope of these rules as the unacknowledged use of another individual’s words or ideas. When writing position papers, working papers, draft final documents and during all their participation in the conference, delegates are not allowed to make use of fragments of already existing documents. A participant caught plagiarizing any written work will be dealt with

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accordingly. Punishment may entail disqualification for awards, denied voting and/or speaking rights and possible expulsion from the conference. Applicable legal measures will be taken at the discretion of the conference’s organization alone.

RULE #10 SUBSTANCE AND PROCEDURE A substantive matter is herein defined as a Final Document or an Amendment. A substantive vote is a vote on a substantive matter. A procedural matter is all that which is not substantive. A procedural vote is one that decides a procedural matter.

RULE #11 VOTING RIGHTS 11.1

Unless otherwise stated in these rules, each country shall have one vote. Observer countries, Nongovernmental Organizations, and International Organizations shall be able to vote on procedural matters, but not on substantive matters. The following paragraph applies only to the 15th AMUN’s 2012 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank 11.1.1 Each delegation shall have one vote on procedural matters only. Voting on substantial matters is weighted according to the quotas each Member Country holds within the Bretton Woods Institutions. The IMF-WB’s Chair shall make a list of voting powers available to delegates prior to the conference.

RULE #12 VOTING MAJORITIES A “simple majority” will be understood as one half of the possible votes plus one, rounded down, whereas a “two-third majority” shall consist of two thirds of the possible votes, rounded up. For example, the simple majority of 5 is 3, and the two-third majority of 10 is 7. Whenever the expression “qualified majority” appears, delegates must check its exact meaning in a committee3. Tied votes always fail.

RULE #13 VOTING ON PROCEDURAL MATTERS Voting on procedural matters shall be done by a show of placards. Each delegate may vote only in favor or against the proposed motion; abstentions are not allowed while voting on procedural matters. 3 At the 15th AMUN, a qualified majority is equal to a two-third majority in all Committees that follow these General Rules of Procedure, except for the IMF-WB. A qualified majority in the IMF-WB shall be understood as 70 percent of the total quotas assigned to Member Countries of the Bretton Woods Institutions.

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RULE #14 QUORUM

RULE #17 SPEECHES

The Chair may declare a session open and permit debate to proceed when at least one third (rounded up) of the registered delegations are present. The presence of a simple majority of the registered delegations shall be required for any substantive vote to be taken. The Chair shall proceed with a Roll Call at the beginning of each session in order to recognize the presence of the delegates. The Chair shall inform delegates of the Quorum whenever requested.

17.1

No delegate may address the Committee without previously obtaining the permission of the Chair. The Chair shall call upon speakers in the order they signify their desire to speak. The speaking time shall be stipulated by the Chair in advance of each speech, though it may consult the committee before deciding on the matter. When a delegate has ten seconds of speaking time left, the Chair will make a discreet signal. When the allotted time has expired, the Chair will call the delegate to order.

The following rule applies only to UFRGSMUN

RULE #15 AGENDA 15.1 When there is more than one proposed topic for discussion by delegates, the consideration of the agenda shall be the committee’s first task. At this time, the only motion in order will be to place a topic first on the agenda, in the form: “I move that topic x be placed first on the agenda”. A speakers list shall be established for and against the motion. Both motions for moderated and unmoderated caucus shall be in order during the debate on the agenda. 15.2 A Motion to Close Debate will be in order after the Committee has heard at least two speeches in favor of the Motion and two against it, if available. A vote of two-third majority is required for Closure of Debate on the Agenda. After Closure of Debate, an immediate vote on the Agenda shall be taken. A simple majority is required for the Motion to pass. If the Motion passes, the Committee will proceed to debate on the approved topic. If the Motion fails, the automatic approval of the other topic will be assumed. As stated above, ties fail.

RULE #16 SPEAKERS’ LIST The Committee shall have at all times an open General Speakers’ List, which shall be drawn up at the beginning of the debate on each topic. This General Speakers’ List will be followed during the entire debate, except when superseded by Procedural Motions or by the Introduction of Amendments, which are discussed on a Special Speakers’ List. Delegations may add their names to the Speakers’ List by raising their placards, provided that the delegation’s name is not already on the List. Names will appear on the Speakers’ List according to the order in which delegates indicate their desire to speak.

The following paragraph applies only to the 15th AMUN’s United Nations World Summit on Corruption 17.2 There is no time limit for speeches in the UNWSC. However, whenever the Chair believes this prerogative is being abused, it is empowered to call a delegate to order by asking him/her to finish his/her speech.

RULE #18 YIELDS 18.1

At the conclusion of the speech, a delegate may yield his/her remaining speaking time to the Chair, to another delegate, or for questions. When a delegate does not yield his/her remaining speaking time, it is understood that it has been yielded to the Chair. A delegate who has received the yielded time may not yield that time again to a third delegate or for questions. 18.2 If the delegate yields his/her time for questions, the time taken to answer them, but not the time taken to ask them, shall be discounted from remaining time. Once a speaker has yielded his/her time for questions, delegates will indicate their desire to speak, and the chair will recognize them at its discretion. When recognized, the delegate may ask the speaker a single, straightforward question related to his/her speech, having no more than 30 seconds to do so. If there are no questions, the time will be automatically yielded to the chair. The following paragraph applies only to the 15th AMUN’s United Nations World Summit on Corruption 18.3 Delegates cannot yield speech time in the UNWSC.

RULE #19 RIGHT OF REPLY There is no right of reply. Real or perceived offenses or untruths should be dealt within the course of normal debate.

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RULE #20 POINTS 20.1

There are three types of Points by which a delegate may address the Chair directly: Point of Personal Privilege, Point of Order and Point of Inquiry. 20.1.1 Point of Personal Privilege At any moment during the debate, a delegate may raise a Point of Personal Privilege to indicate that he/she is experiencing extreme personal physical discomfort or being prevented from properly following the discussion. The Chair will attempt to rectify the situation. This point may interrupt a speech if necessary. 20.1.2 Point of Order A delegate may raise a Point of Order if he/she feels that the Rules of Procedure are not being properly followed by the Chair. This Point must be directly related to the rules and cannot interrupt a speech. The Chair will rule the Point in or out of order as it sees fit. 20.1.3 Point of Inquiry A delegate may raise a Point of Inquiry when he/she has a doubt regarding the Rules of Procedure or the flow of debate. This Point cannot interrupt a speech. 20.2 Different kinds of Points used in distinct international negotiations, such as Point of Information or Point of Parliamentary Inquiry are not in order in accordance to the Rules of Procedure hereby defined and shall never be recognized by the Chair. 20.3 Should a delegate wish to consult the Chair on a matter not covered by any of these three points, he/she should do so privately, with the understanding that the Chair will inform the whole committee of the matter if it is deemed to be of general interest.

RULE #21 CAUCUSES 21.1

Motion for Unmoderated Caucus 21.1.1 An Unmoderated Caucus causes the Chair to suspend formal debate so that delegates can discuss without its interference. This facilitates substantive discussion by relaxing the structure of debate imposed by regular procedures. 21.1.2 Delegates may move for an Unmoderated Caucus whenever the floor is open, prior to the Closure of Debate. The delegate must state a reason and a time limit for the Caucus. The time requested for the Caucus shall not exceed 15 minutes, although the Chair may grant extensions at its discretion. The Motion shall be put to a vote if there are no other Points or Motions that take precedence on the floor and requires a simple majority to pass.

Conference Handbook

21.2

Motion for Moderated Caucus 21.2.1 The purpose of the Moderated Caucus is to make the debate more flexible. During the Moderated Caucus, the Speakers’ List is set aside and the debate is conducted directly by the Chair. 21.2.2 Delegates wishing to speak during the Moderated Caucus may raise their placards and they will be recognized by the Chair at its discretion. Delegates may move for a Moderated Caucus whenever the floor is open. Yielding and Motions are out of order during a Moderated Caucus. 21.2.3 Delegates must necessarily state a reason, a speech time and a time limit for the Caucus. The time requested for the Moderated Caucus shall not exceed 15 minutes, although the Chair may grant extensions at its discretion. The motion shall be put to a vote if there are no other Points or Motions that take precedence on the floor and requires a simple majority to pass.

The following rule applies only to UFRGSMUN

RULE #22 MOTION FOR TABLING OF THE DEBATE Whenever the floor is open, a delegate may move for a Tabling of the Debate of the topic under discussion. Two delegates may speak in favor of the motion, and two against it. After these speeches, the motion shall be put to a vote (if there are no other Points or Motions that take precedence). This motion requires a two-third majority to pass; if it does so, the topic under discussion is considered tabled and postponed. The next topic on the Agenda is considered to be automatically adopted. If a Final Document on the new topic is passed, debate automatically returns to the tabled topic. If the new topic is also tabled, debate automatically returns to the first topic.

RULE #23 MOTION FOR CLOSURE & REOPENING OF THE SPEAKERS’ LIST 23.1 During the course of debate, a member may move for Closure of the Speakers’ List on the matter under discussion. This Motion requires a simple majority to pass and means that no delegations can add their names to the Speakers’ List. If it passes, only those delegations that already have their names on the List will be granted their speech time. 23.2 If the Speakers’ List is closed and a delegate wishes to reopen it, a twothird majority is required for the approval of the Motion for Reopening of the Speakers’ List. In both cases, a reason for the Motion must be stated for the Chair to consider it in order.

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23.3

Conference Handbook

The Chair may choose to recognize speeches against and in favor of the Motion at its discretion. If the Committee comes to a situation in which the Speakers’ List is closed with no speeches left and the Committee does not reopen it, the debate will be considered closed and voting will follow.

Whenever the floor is open, delegates may move to Close Debate on whichever matter that is under discussion (the Agenda, a Draft Final Document or an Amendment). After a Motion for Closure of Debate is proposed, the Chair shall recognize two speakers against the motion if available. In order to pass, the Motion requires a two-third majority. If the Motion to Close Debate passes, the Committee will move to immediate vote on the matters on the floor.

RULE #25 MOTION FOR ADJOURNMENT OF THE SESSION During the discussion of any matter, a delegate may move for the Adjournment of the Session. Such a motion shall not be debated and shall be put to a vote if there are no other Points or Motions that take precedence to it on the floor, requiring a two-third majority for approval. After the session is adjourned, the Committee shall reconvene at its next regularly scheduled session time. The adjournment of the final session will adjourn the conference. As with all motions, the Chair may rule a Motion for Adjournment of the Session out of order.

RULE #26 ORDER OF PRECEDENCE speeches

voting majority

voting majority

notes In order at any time; used when a delegate’s comfort or well-being is disturbed.

Point of Order

Used when the adequate following of the Rules of Procedure is in doubt; not in order during a speech. In order when yielded to; requires a straightforward question; limited to one delegate at a time.

notes In order when the floor is open; addressed to the Director regarding misunderstanding of the Rules of Procedure.

Adjournment of the Session Unmoderated/ Moderated Caucus

2/3

In order when the floor is open; dismisses the committee until the next session.

1/2

Aims at facilitating the debate; requires time limit and purpose; time limit may not exceed 15 minutes; yields are out of order.

Closure of Debate

2 against

2/3

Closes the debate on substantive or procedural matters; if passed, the committee moves automatically to voting on the matter under discussion; statement of reason is necessary.

Closure of the Speakers’ List

At the Chair’s discretion

1/2

Statement of reason is necessary.

2/3

Statement of reason is necessary.

Reopening of the Speakers’ List

Point of Personal Privilege

Questions

speeches

Point of Inquiry

RULE #24 MOTION FOR CLOSURE OF DEBATE

rule

rule

Introduction of Draft Final Document

Must be approved by the Chair; minimum of 8 signatories; procedural reading is mandatory.

Introduction of Amendment

Must be approved by the Chair; requires 3 signatories; procedural reading is mandatory.

Division of the Question

Four-step process: (1) vote on motion to divide, (2) vote on each proposal, (3) vote on the inclusion of each part of the winning proposal, (4) vote on Final Document.

Roll Call Voting

2 for and 2 against

1/2

In order only for substantive matters.

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The following rule applies only to the 15th AMUN’s United Nations Development Programme and United Nations World Summit on Corruption

RULE #27 WORKING GROUPS 27.1

The Chair of the Executive Board of the UNDP and the Chair of the Summit may establish ad hoc working groups as and when it deems necessary. Whenever this happens, the Chair shall define their functions and will refer to them questions and/or projects for study and report.

RULE #28 WORKING PAPERS 28.1

28.2

Working Papers are informal documents that aid the Committee in its discussion on substantive matters. Delegates may propose Working Papers for consideration by the Committee at any time during the Conference. They need not be written in a specific format, but must be approved by the Chair to be distributed for and to be mentioned in the Committee. There is no need for sponsors or signatories of Working Papers. Observers may present working papers as well.

RULE #29 DRAFT FINAL DOCUMENTS 29.1

Before being introduced for debate, all Draft Final Documents require the approval of the Chair. These Documents also require eight signatures to be introduced to the Chair. Signatures of observer delegations do not count for purposes of introducing Draft Final Documents. 29.1.1 Signing a Draft Final Document does not necessarily indicate that a delegation supports its ideas, but only that it desires to have the Draft Final Document discussed. A signatory of a Draft Final Document is not required to vote in favor of it. 29.1.2 The Draft Final Document needs its signatories’ support to continue on the floor. In the event of all signatories withdrawing their signatures, debate on the Draft Final Document is ceased. Other delegations may add their signatures to the Draft Final Document in the course of the debate. 29.2 During the debate on a topic, there may be more than one Draft Final Document on the floor at the same time. All Draft Final Documents shall be discussed simultaneously on the General Speakers’ List. Nevertheless, the Committee may approve only one Draft Final Document of each kind per topic.

Conference Handbook

29.3 A Draft Final Document will remain on the floor until debate on that specific Draft Final Document is closed or another Draft Final Document of the same kind on the topic passes.

RULE #30 MOTION FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF A DRAFT FINAL DOCUMENT 30.1

Delegates may move for the Introduction of a Draft Final Document once it has been approved by the Chair and distributed to the Committee. 30.2 This Motion does not require a vote to pass; once accepted by the Chair, it is automatically approved. The Chair will then grant the floor to one of the signatories of the Draft Final Document for him/her to read its operative clauses. 30.3 After the Draft Final Document is read, the Chair asks for questions, which shall be limited to grammar or technical matters and may not pertain to the substance of the Draft Final Document.

RULE #31 MOTION FOR THE INTRODUCTION OF AN AMENDMENT 31. 1 Delegates may amend any Draft Final Document that is on the floor. Amendments may add, subtract, or modify part of the Draft Final Document. An Amendment requires the signatures of three members of the Committee and the approval of the Chair to be introduced. Signatures of observer delegations do not count for purposes of introducing Amendments. Signing an Amendment does not constitute or require a vote in favor of it. 31.2 After a Motion for the Introduction of an Amendment is approved by the Chair, debate on the General Speakers’ List shall be suspended and a Special Speakers’ List shall be established for and against the specific Amendment. 31.3 A Motion for Closure of the Special Speakers’ List or a Motion to Close Debate on the Amendment will be in order after the Committee has heard at least two speakers in favor of the Amendment and two speakers against it, when available. 31.4 When debate is closed on the Amendment, the Committee shall proceed to an immediate vote, which may be a Roll Call Vote if so moved. Following the voting procedure, debate according to the General Speakers’ List shall resume. 31.5 Once an Amendment is approved, it becomes part of the Draft Final Document, which means that it is no longer considered an Amendment, though it cannot be further amended.

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Amendments Step by Step 1. 2. 3. 4.

Amendment is introduced and read; Delegates suggest grammar and technical corrections; Special Speakers’ List on the Amendment is opened; Delegates shall manifest in favor or against the Amendment before adding their names to the Special Speakers’ List; 5. Delegates may close the debate or the Special Speakers’ List on the Amendment 6. The debate is closed or the last speech on the closed special list is professed; 6.1 The Special Speakers’ List can only be closed after two delegations in favor and two delegations against the Amendment are on the list; 6.2 The closure of the debate is only in order when two speeches against and two speeches in favor of it are professed; 7. Voting; 8. The floor goes back to the General Speakers’ List.

RULE #32 VOTING ON SUBSTANTIAL MATTERS 32.1 Voting on substantial matters shall be done by a show of placards. Except in the event of a Roll Call Voting procedure being requested, each delegate may vote only in favor, against, or abstain from voting. 32.2 After the Chair has announced the beginning of voting procedures no Motions will be in order, except for Division of the Question and Roll Call Voting. During voting procedures the chamber will be sealed, and no delegates will be allowed to enter or leave the room. 32.3 Unless otherwise stated in these rules, Draft Final Documents and Amendments require a simple majority of all votes cast to pass. Abstentions from voting will not count if not stated otherwise. The following paragraph applies only to the 15th AMUN’s 2012 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and the United Nations World Summit on Corruption 32.3.1 All Draft Final Documents and Amendments in the IMF-WB and the UNWSC require a qualified majority of all votes cast in order to pass. Abstentions from voting will count in the IMFWB and will not count in the UNWSC.

Conference Handbook

RULE #33 MOTION FOR DIVISION OF THE QUESTION 33.1

After debate has been closed and the Chair has started the voting procedures, a delegate may move for the Operative Clauses of the Draft Final Document to be voted on separately. Preambulatory Clauses may not be divided. 33.2 If a delegate moves for a Division of the Question, the Chair shall recognize two speakers in favor and two speakers against the Motion if available. A simple majority is needed for the Motion to pass. This is a procedural vote, with no abstentions allowed. 33.3 If it does pass, a five-minute Unmoderated Caucus will be automatically granted to the Committee so that delegates can discuss, prepare, and present to the Chair, in written format, their proposals to divide the question. Upon receipt, these proposals shall be numbered by the Chair. 33.4 Once the Unmoderated Caucus expires, the Chair will read all the proposals and arrange them in order of the most severe to the least severe. The most severe proposal will be the one that intends to have the Draft Final Document divided in the greatest number of parts. If two proposals are equally severe, the Chair shall entertain the proposal that was first presented.

Division of the Question Step by Step 1. There shall be two speeches against and 2 speeches in favor of the motion; 2. Voting on the motion (procedural, matter); 3. If the motion passes, debate turns to an automatic unmoderated caucus of five minutes; 4. Proposals are presented to the Chair and duly numbered; 5. The chair shall order the proposals according to the criteria below: 5.1 Criterion 1: from the most severe to the most simple; 5.2 Criterion 2: order or presentation of equally severe proposals; 6. There shall be two speeches against and two speeches in favor of the first proposal to be voted; 7. Voting on proposals (procedural matter); 8. When a proposal passes, the others automatically fail; 9. Voting on each bloc of clauses of the successful proposal (substantial matter); 10. Voting on the resulting Final Document (substantial matter).

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33.5

The Chair shall entertain two speakers in favor and two speakers against the most severe proposal, if available. Then, it shall be voted upon. If it receives the simple majority needed for approval, the Draft Final Document shall be divided in the manner proposed by it. If it fails, the Committee will proceed to voting upon the second most severe proposal and so on. 33.6 The Committee will hear two speakers in favor and two speakers against every proposal of division before voting until one is approved. No abstentions are allowed in these votes, as they are procedural matters. 33.7 If no proposals are approved by simple majority, the Draft Final Document shall be voted as a whole. When one of the proposals is approved, a separate vote shall be taken on each divided part to determine whether it shall be included in the Draft Final Document to be voted later on. For the Operative Clauses to remain in the Draft Final Document, a simple majority of the votes is required. The substantive nature of this vote means abstentions are permitted. 33.8 Having determined which Operative Clauses shall be included in the Draft Final Document, a final vote on the whole document shall be taken. Abstentions from voting are allowed. If all Operative Clauses are rejected, the Draft Final Document shall be considered to have failed as a whole.

Conference Handbook

SPECIAL RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL

Americas Model United Nations and UFRGS Model United Nations RULE #1 CREDENTIALS 1.1

1.2

RULE #2 ROLE OF THE SECRETARY-GENERAL 2.1

RULE #32 ROLL CALL VOTING 32.1

After debate has been closed on a Draft Final Document or Amendment, a delegate may move for a Roll Call Vote. 32.2 In a Roll Call Vote, the Chair will recognize, in alphabetical order, starting with a randomly selected member, each voting delegate, who must state his/her vote. Once accepted by the Chair, the motion for a Roll Call Vote is automatically approved and does not require a vote to pass. 32.3 In the event of a Roll Call Vote procedure being requested and granted, delegates may vote “In Favor”, “In Favor with Rights”, “Against”, “Against with Rights”, or they may abstain. “Rights” may be asked to explain votes that seem contradictory and will only be recognized by the Chair after the end of voting procedures on a Draft Final Document. The time limit will be set by the Chair at its discretion. When a Roll Call Vote is adopted, delegates may choose to pass their turn of voting and wait for another roll call round to state their actual vote. Delegates are allowed to pass only once. If a delegate passes his/her vote, he/she will not be allowed to abstain from voting.

Delegates must present their Representation Credentials at the beginning of the meeting. These credentials were sent to the delegates by their respective country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. In the case of not having received the representation credentials, delegates must contact the Secretariat. Delegates are encouraged to write letters to their governments to obtain authorization to undertake actions beyond those listed in the credentials section of the General Rules of Procedure or request needed information.

2.2 2.3

The Secretary-General shall immediately bring to the attention of all representatives on the Security Council all communications from States, organs of the United Nations, or himself concerning any matter for the consideration of the Council in accordance with the provisions of the Charter. The Secretary-General may designate members of the Secretariat to attend any Council’s meetings. The selected members from the Secretariat must provide logistical and technical support to the Security Council’s discussions, entertaining the Council with any formal or informal documents specifically sent to the Council or addressing any matters under its consideration. Draftcommuniqués reporting on behalf of the Council may also be sent to its appreciation, whenever the Secretariat finds it fit.

RULE #3 VOTING MAJORITIES 3.1

3.2

Decisions of the Security Council on procedural matters shall be made by a simple majority. Delegates may not abstain or pass in the voting of procedural matters. Decisions of the Security Council on substantive matters shall be made by a qualified majority, hereby understood as the affirmative vote of nine members with no negative votes on the part of the permanent members. Provided that, in decisions under Chapter VI of the UN Charter and under paragraph 3 of Article 52, a party to a dispute shall abstain from voting.

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3.2.1 The substantive matters hereby considered are amendments to the agenda, approval of the agenda, amendments to the draft resolution, and approval of the draft resolution.

RULE #4 FORM OF DEBATE 4.1

4.2

4.3

4.4 4.5

4.6

Unless otherwise stated, all sessions of the Security Council are presumed to be closed sessions until the closure of debate. Closed sessions are secret and information on the proceedings is entrusted to the discretion of the participants. This is meant to facilitate discussion and negotiation between members of the Council as the conversations will be confidential and undocumented. Closed Sessions follow the format of a Moderated Caucus at all times, except in the case of motions. Besides the three points described in the General Rules of Procedure, the following motions will be allowed during closed sessions (according to the order of precedence): a. Motion for adjournment of the session; b. Motion for consultations; c. Motion for introduction of amendment to the agenda; d. Motion for closure of debate; e. Motion for introduction of draft resolution; f. Motion for introduction of amendment; g. Motion for division of the question; h. Motion to issue a presidential statement; i. Motion of no confidence; j. Motion for roll call voting. During Open Sessions, the following motions will be allowed (according to the order of precedence): a. Motion for adjournment of the session; b. Motion for a closed session. A motion for consultations functions in the same way as a motion for an unmoderated caucus, with the same effects. Any delegate may move to issue a UNSC Presidential Statement, which is a UN official document meant to inform the public on some of the deliberations of the UNSC. If the motion is ruled to be in order, the delegate will read the proposed text for the statement, and the president will ask if any Council member objects to it. There being no objection, the statement is considered to be issued and released to the public. After the closure of debate on a specified draft resolution has been approved, there will be only two motions in order: division of the question and roll call voting.

4.7

4.6.1 Before proceeding with the voting on the draft resolution, the President must declare the Session Opened, when the voting procedure of the draft resolution will automatically take place and all statements will be duly recorded and made available to the general public. 4.6.2 After the voting, Open Sessions follow a Speakers’ List as per the General Rules of procedure. A motion for a closed session is a procedural matter, which will immediately be put to a vote. If the motion passes, the session will be immediately closed to the public, statements will no longer be recorded and all individuals who do not belong to the Secretariat or to the delegations represented in the Council will be asked to leave the room.

RULE #5 PARTICIPATION IN COUNCIL DELIBERATIONS 5.1

5.2

If any member of the Council wishes to invite an individual or representative of an organization or government to participate (without vote) in the deliberations of the Council, he/she should submit a request in writing to the President of the Council. The President will ask if any Council member objects to the invitation. There being no objection, the invitation will be issued.

RULE #6 ADOPTION OF AGENDA AND MOTION FOR INTRODUCTION OF AMENDMENT TO THE AGENDA 6.1

6.2

6.3

The agenda will be presented by the Secretariat to UNSC delegates at least a week before the date scheduled for the meeting. At the time of the meeting, delegates may challenge the proposed agenda and suggest a new one. 6.1.1 The written proposal must be handed in at the beginning of the first session and contain nine signatories. 6.1.2 Once the proposal has been accepted by the Secretariat, the Presidency will then grant the floor to one of the signatories for him/ her to read the document. After the agenda is read, the president will ask if any permanent member of the Council objects to it. There being no objection, the agenda is considered approved. In the case of more than one proposed agenda, the proposals will be considered in the order that they are presented. If none of the proposals are approved, the original agenda will be considered adopted. Amendments to the agenda of the following sessions are in order at any time during Closed Sessions. Before being introduced for voting, all amendments to the agenda require the approval of the Secretariat.

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6.3.1 After the amendment has been approved by the Secretariat, the Presidency will then grant the floor to one of the signatories of the amendment for him/her to read it. Immediate voting will follow. 6.3.2 Amendments require five signatures to be introduced and a qualified majority to pass.

RULE #7 SPEAKERS’ LIST

8.5

The General Speakers’ List will only be established once the debate has been closed and the session has been (automatically) opened.

RULE #8 PRESIDENCY 8.1

8.2

8.3

8.4

The presidency of the Security Council shall be held in turn by the delegations that wish to do so. Each President shall hold office for the length of one session. 8.1.1 Delegates must state in their position papers whether or not they would like to hold the presidency. 8.1.2 A rotational schedule of who will hold the presidency in which session will be established by the Secretariat and provided to the delegates a day before the session is to be held. 8.1.3 The Secretariat reserves the right to take the appropriate measures to assure the good flow and moderation of the debate, including presiding sections itself. Some delegations may be called upon to preside over multiple sessions. If there are more delegations desirous of presiding than sessions available, lots will be drawn to determine the order of preference in which the delegations will be allotted the presidency. 8.2.1 Those delegations not allotted to the schedule will be placed on a waiting list in an order determined by the Secretariat. The President shall preside over the meetings of the Security Council and, under the authority of the Security Council, shall represent it in its capacity as an organ of the United Nations. Whenever the President of the Security Council deems that for the proper fulfillment of the responsibilities of the Presidency he/she should not preside over the Council, he/she shall indicate his/her decision to the Council. The Presidency shall then devolve, for the rest of the session, on the first delegation on the waiting list for the Presidency. 8.4.1 If there are no delegations on the waiting list, the delegation scheduled to preside the following session will take up the

8.6

Presidency. Should this occur, the schedule will remain unchanged and the following session will be presided over by the previously designated delegation. 8.4.2 The provisions of this rule shall apply to the representatives on the Security Council called upon successively to preside in the event that multiple delegations refuse themselves. If the President is seen to be fulfilling his duties in a manner unsatisfactory to the members of the Council, these have the right to ask for a change in the Presidency. This is done by the proposition of a motion of no confidence. To introduce such a motion, an informal written request must be sent to the Secretariat. The request must be signed by at least three members of the Security Council, one of which must be a permanent member. Once the Secretariat addresses the members of the Security Council officially acknowledging the request, the motion of no confidence will be automatically in order and will be put to vote, requiring a simple majority to pass. If the motion of no confidence passes, the Presidency devolves to the next member on the waiting list or schedule in the manner stated above.

RULE #9 DRAFT RESOLUTIONS 9.1

9.2

In Closed Sessions, more than one draft resolution and amendments may be on the floor at the same time. All the draft resolutions and amendments shall be discussed simultaneously, yet the Council may approve only one resolution per topic. Before being introduced for debate, all draft resolutions and amendments require the approval of the Secretariat. Draft resolutions require five signatures and amendments require three to be introduced. Both need a qualified majority to pass. Once a draft resolution or an amendment has been introduced, it can be withdrawn only if all signatories remove their signatures.

RULE #10 ROLL CALL VOTING All Open Session votes will be done on the basis of Roll Call Voting. If a motion for roll call voting is moved, it will be automatically approved and the voting procedures will begin immediately, given that there are any points or motions that take precedence.

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SPECIAL RULES OF PROCEDURE OF THE HISTORICAL INTERNATIONAL COURT OF JUSTICE

Conference Handbook

RULE #5 DEBATES 5.1

RULE#1 GENERAL DISPOSITIONS 1.1

1.2 1.3

1.4 1.5

The following rules are applicable solely to AMUN’s Historical International Court of Justice (HICJ). The General Rules of Procedure and the International Court of Justice’s Statute shall be applied in a subsidiary way to these rules. The interpretation of these dispositions is up to the President of the Court, who is empowered to supersede and interpret them as he/she sees fit. Judges will have their seats in the Court following the order of seniority of admission and, in case of equal date of possession, following the order of age, starting from the right of the Presidency and the Vice Presidency. Judges are required to wear clothing that is appropriate to their position at the Court and to the dignity of Justice. During a voting on substantial matters, the vote of the Presidency shall follow the majority of the votes. In case there is a tie, the Presidency shall vote against the matter.

5.2

RULE#2 QUORUM 2.1 2.2

The minimum Quorum to the opening of the sessions is nine judges. The same Quorum is required for voting on substantial matters, herein defined as Draft Sentences and Amendments.

RULE #3 RAPPORTEUR 3.1

3.2

5.3

At the start of each debate session, a Rapporteur will be elected by a simple majority among the judges who are willing to take up this role. It is the Rapporteur’s duty to summarize opinions and divergences of the judges, presenting the overall outcome of each session to the Presidency. A new election shall take place at the beginning of each section. A Rapporteur can only be reelected by a qualified majority.

RULE #4 OATH 4.1

Before the opening proceedings, judges will hold the Oath alluded to by Article 20 of the Court’s Statute and set out in article 4 of the 1978 Rules of Court uttering the following words: “I solemnly declare that I will perform my duties and exercise my powers as judge honorably, faithfully, impartially and conscientiously.”

5.4

Opening Proceedings 5.1.1 In the first session, which will be closed, a short initial speech time will be granted for each magistrate to expose his/her initial considerations about the case. After the pronouncement of all judges in the session, the Presidency will summon a Public Audience to start the oral proceedings. Public Audiences 5.2.1 Public Audiences will be held in the presence of the interested parties on the matter. 5.2.2 Each party will be represented by agents and will have the opportunity to present their oral arguments before the Court. During the oral proceedings, accusers and defendants shall proceed according to the following: 5.2.2.1 Firstly, accusers will expose their positions, presenting the factual and legal aspects of the case. Following, defendants will do the same. Accusers will then present a rebuttal and defenders, their surrebuttal. 5.2.3 Judges may write down questions to the agents at any time and, when answered, the Presidency shall present them before the Court. 5.2.4 The last session will necessarily be public, in the presence of the parties and the press. At this moment, the President will read the Sentence collectively produced. At the end of reading, judges shall read their dissenting or concurring votes. Deliberative Sessions 5.3.1 With the closure of the oral proceedings, the Court moves to secret deliberations in which it is forbidden the participation of any non-judges. 5.3.2 Sessions will follow the format of a Moderated Caucus at all times, except in the case of motions. The Presidency shall ensure the equitable distribution of the word among judges. Those wishing to speak should put their placards in the upright position and wait for the approval of the President to start their speeches. There is no Speakers’ List nor Special Speakers’ Lists and thus no yielding of time. Defense and accusation may, at any time before the voting of the Draft Sentence, provide the Presidency with new evidences, documents, provisional measures or any other information they consider to be relevant to the case under discussion.

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RULE #6 POINTS 6.1

Conference Handbook

8.4

There are three types of Points by which a delegate may address the Chair directly: Point of Personal Privilege, Point of Order and Point of Inquiry. They all function in the same way as described in the General Rules of Procedure.

RULE #7 MOTIONS 7.1

The following Motions will be allowed during sessions (according to the order of precedence): a. Motion for adjournment of the session; b. Motion for unmoderated caucus; c. Motion for closure of debate; d. Motion for tour de table; e. Motion for introduction of draft sentence; f. Motion for introduction of amendment. 7.1.1 A motion for tour de table aims to survey the individual opinion of each judge about some specific topic of debate. Judges may move for tour de table by presenting a straightforward question regarding a specific issue and a plausible justification for such an investigation. If the proposed question is considered too vague or wide by the Presidency, the motion will be considered not in order. In case the motion passes, speeches must follow the order of seniority of admission to the Court, starting with the Vice-President. 7.1.2 Except for the motion for tour de table, the abovementioned Motions all function in the same way as described in the General Rules of Procedure.

RULE #8 DOCUMENTS 8.1 8.2 8.3

All documents produced by the judges, without exception, must be sent to the Presidency for validation and photocopying. The documents permitted in the HICJ are notes, Draft Sentences, Draft Amendments to a Sentence and Concurring and Dissident Votes. Draft Sentences and Amendments can only be removed from the discussion with the consent of all their signatories.

8.5

8.6

8.7

Notes 8.4.1 Notes are the working documents of the HICJ. Through them, judges can express their opinions, highlight important points of the case, clarify divergences and discuss any issues considered relevant for a decision. 8.4.2 Notes require only one signatory to be accepted by the Presidency for consideration. Draft Sentence 8.5.1 A Draft Sentence, if properly formatted and submitted with the minimum of nine signatures, will be accepted for introduction by the Presidency at any time during the sessions. 8.5.2 A signatory of a Draft Sentence is not required to vote in favor of the entire document. 8.5.3 The voting of each response of the Court to the parties’ claims (the clauses), as well as the voting of the Draft Sentence as a whole, shall necessarily be made by a roll call voting, following the order of seniority of admission to the Court. 8.5.4 Each clause as well as the whole Draft Sentence require a simple majority to be approved. Draft Amendments to the Sentence 8.6.1 Amendments to a Draft Sentence under discussion, if properly formatted and submitted with the minimum of three signatures, will be accepted for introduction by the Presidency whenever a Draft Sentence is on the floor. 8.6.2 The voting of Amendments shall necessarily be made by a roll call voting, following the order of seniority of admission to the Court. 8.6.3 Amendments require a simple majority to be approved. Concurring and Dissenting Votes 8.7.1 Any judge who dissents from the reasoning of the Court regarding the case, though agreeing with the final sentence, may write a Concurring Vote, explaining his/her differences and additions. 8.7.2 Any judge who disagrees with the operative part of the final sentence, dissenting from the Court’s decision regarding the case, may write a Dissenting Vote, explaining the reasons for his/her divergence.

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Flow of Documents

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Flow of Debate

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Appendix I: Final Documents Glossary of Documents a) Communiqué: contains only operative clauses, which are divided in sessions according to their subjects. Since the Board of Governors is the higher instance of the Bretton Woods institutions, the Communiqué is a mandatory document to the activities of both the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. b) Decision: contains only short operative clauses, which are action-oriented. This is the final document to be approved by the United Nations Development Program, and its content is binding to the further implementation of projects under UNDP funding. c) Declaration: summarizes the main principles the Committee proposes to enforce, although it is not legally binding. Only the United Nations World Summit on Corruption shall approve a Declaration. d) Plan of Action: regards more specific guidelines of action towards the achievement of the goals discussed in the Conference. The United Nations Development Program and the United Nations World Summit on Corruption are the committees that shall approve a Plan of Action. e) Resolution: contains both preambulatory and operative clauses. A Resolution approved by the United Nations Security Council is binding, but Resolutions approved by the United Nations Human Rights Council do not have the same power. f ) Sentence: as the final decision approved by the International Court of Justice, it is binding to the States Parties of the case. The introduction must include (i) the trial date; (ii) the names of the participating judges; (iii) the names of the parties and their agents; (iv) a brief summary of relevant facts to the trial; and (v) the parties’ claims. Finally, the disposition part must include (i) the Court’s explanation of the reason for its decision; and (ii) the Court’s response to each of the claims of the parties, with no exception.

Conference Handbook

Terms Used in Final Documents Preamble A preamble contains unnumbered clauses that explain the purpose of the final document and state the main reasons in support of the operative clauses. Very often, these clauses provide a history of the organizational involvement in the issue by referring to past actions or landmark documents. The beginnings of preambulatory clauses are always in italics and each clause is followed by a comma. It is important to be careful with preambulatory clauses, since they cannot be amended. Common preambulatory clauses begin with: Acknowledging Acting Adhering Affirming Agreeing with the observations Alarmed by Appreciating Aware of Aware that Bearing in mind the principle Bearing in mind the results Believing that Cognizant of the fact Concerned about Concurring with the proposals Condemning Conscious of Conscious that Considering that Convinced that Deploring Desirous of Emphasizing Encouraged Expressing concern Expressing its appreciation Faithful to Fearing

Fully aware Guided by Having considered the report Hopeful that Indignant at Inspired by Keeping in mind Mindful of Noting that Noting with appreciation Noting with regret Persuaded Reaffirming Recalling Recognizing Regretting Reiterating Sharing the concern Stressing Striving to Taking into account Taking into consideration Taking note of the observations Taking note of the report Underlining Viewing with concern Welcoming Wishing to

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Operative dispositions Operative clauses are sentences in the present tense, which put forward plans to advance a proposed solution to the problem the Committee is dealing with. They can also work on how serious the problem is and on what progress has been made so far on the matter. Common operative clauses begin with: Accepts Accepts with appreciation Accepts with deep appreciation Accepts with gratitude Acknowledges Adopts Affirms Agrees with the observations Appeals to all States Appoints Approves Authorizes Believes that Calls attention to Calls the attention of Calls upon Member States Commends Compliments Concurs with the observations Condemns Confirms Congratulates Considers Decides Decides accordingly Decides also Decides further Declares that Demands Denounces Deplores Designates Determines that Dissolves the Committee Draws the attention of Elects

Emphasizes Empowers the Mediator Endorses the Declaration Endorses the urgent appeal Entrusts the Committee Envisages Establishes a special fund Establishes a target of Exhorts all Member States to Expresses concern over Expresses its appreciation Expresses its concern Expresses its confidence Expresses its deep appreciation Expresses its deep concern Expresses its firm conviction Expresses its gratitude Expresses its profound indignation Expresses its satisfaction Expresses its solidarity with Expresses the hope Expresses the opinion that Extends the mandate Firmly supports the people Insists that Instructs the Committee Invites Invites once again Invites the attention of Is of the opinion that Looks forward to the meeting Makes an urgent appeal to Mandates the Secretary-General Notes that Notes with appreciation Notes with interest

Renews the mandate Requests the Secretary-General Resolves Solemnly adopts Stresses Suggests that Supports the efforts Takes note of the observations Takes note of the report Transmits Trusts that Underlines Urgently requests the Committee Urges all States Welcomes

Notes with regret Notes with satisfaction Pays tribute to Proclaims Proposes Reaffirms Realizes Reasserts Recalls Recognizes Recommends that Refers the report to Regrets Reiterates Rejects Reminds the States parties

Appendix II: Voting shares of the IMF-WB At the 2012 Annual Meetings of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank, voting on substantial matters shall be done according to the voting power of each Member State. The table below presents the voting shares of the countries that are represented in the Committee: Country

Voting share

Country

Voting share

Country

Australia

1,15%

Ireland

0,47%

Saudi Arabia

5,67%

Belgium

2,06%

Israel

0,39%

South Africa

3,21%

Brazil

4,12%

Italy

3,03%

South Korea

3,69%

Canada

2,62%

Japan

7,58%

Spain

1,62%

Voting share

China

7,11%

Mexico

3,82%

Switzerland

1,23%

Egypt

1,26%

Netherlands

2,18%

United Kingdom

4,96%

France

4,96%

Norway

0,63%

United States

14,85%

Germany

7,29%

Poland

2,34%

Venezuela

3,44%

India

4,93%

Russia

5,41%

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15th AMUN - Conference Handbook