J O S H U A M U R P H Y | V I R G I N I A T E C H | F A L L 2 016
S T U D I O : S T A T E
T H E
D I S T R I C T
‘Americans for less secrecy, MORE De mocracy ’ HIS TORY Since the beginning of the federal American Government, Congress has required executive branch agencies to release or otherwise make available government information and records. Today, federal government attempts to balance access to information with the need to protect certain information. This achieves transparency, yet still maintains national security and personal privacy. Nonetheless, ACCE SS and PROT E CT ION are often in tension. TRANSPARENCY | “Active Disclosur e” Defined not only as the disclosure of government information, but the access, comprehension and use of it by the public. Congress plays an active role in defining the balance between transparency and secrecy in American democratic society. The congressional office buildings are part of the capitol complex- they house the individual offices of each US representative and senator. They are all connected to the Capitol by means of several underground trains. Openness is important in government and can be essential to democratic operations and deliberations. However, secrecy can protect Americans from security threats, privacy invasion and economic harm. Congress (Senate and House of representatives) may have an interest in ensuring that the public has the ability to find and use the data properly. Congress are able to decide and determine whether agencies are inappropriately withholding documents. Transparency is created if the public can acquire, understand and use the information it receives from the Federal government. The Freedom of Information Acts (FOIA) respond to data requests but do not make data already available- Is more transparency needed? Transparency International Global Organization dedicated to curbing corruption states the following: “A principle that allows those affected by administrative decisions, business transactions or charitable work to know not only the basic facts and figures but the mechanisms and processes… It is the duty of civil servants, managers and trustees to act visibly, predictably and understandably.” Average crime by block in the District of Columbia. 2000-2009
Homicide in Washington DC. 2004-2006
(Cahill, Meagan; John K. Roman, November 2010)
Is Transparency the key to better governance? Transparency can be connected to the phenomena of corporate governance, human rights, communication ethics and institutional behaviour.
Law Enforcement Agencies
‘Transparency as a physical construction can carry symbolic power.’ ‘Transparency gives citizens and civil society organizations the ability to monitor the powerful and to expose corruption and abuse. It helps people to hold their leaders accountable.’ DATA AN ALY TICS Exploring ways in which oversight and Law Enforcement Agencies use data analytics to detect fraud. Often, Federal, state and local Government agencies are not always aware of all the data that may be available to assist them in their duties. Secure protection and safe disclosure of government Data through a number of ways: - Compile a library of available open source data analytics, modules and tools. - Develop an ongoing community of practice focused on data sharing challenges. - Knowledgeable and skilled staff are essential. - Consolidating data and analytics operations into one location. Instead of many groups doing small scale analytics in a limited way, creating one larger group could offer greater synergies and access to more resources. C HALLEN GES - Limited coordination between federal, state, and local oversight entities sometimes causes missed opportunities and redundancy in auditing activities. State and local government offices are sometimes reluctant to share data with the federal government. Local governments may be reluctant to share more than the required amount of data with state and federal agencies because data sharing seemed to be a “one-way street,” with local offices providing referrals to federal and state entities but getting nothing in return. URBAN PL AN Charles L’Enfant’s plan combined an orthogonal city grid with diagonal avenues that took advantage of the natural terrain- expansive vistas. From the capitol, wide avenues radiated on the diagonal and along the compass points. Interrupted at major intersections by reservations or open spaces that L’Enfant envisioned a ‘Historic column”.
Metropolitan Police Department - DC's largest, omnipresent police force. They have a presence at almost every protest in the city, except those on Capitol grounds,
Metro Transit Police - This agency has jurisdiction in DC, MD, and VA and is responsible for keeping us in line on the Metro. They patrol Metro stations and trains,
Capitol Police - Responsible for the Capitol, Congressional ofﬁces and surrounding buildings.
Park Police - This agency watches over the city's parks and monuments, including the National Mall and Lafayette Park.
Secret Service Uniformed Division - These folks provide security for the White House Complex, vice president's house, the Department of the Treasury and foreign Se embassies.
FBI Police - This small division of the FBI is responsible for guarding FBI personnel and facilities, including the D.C. ﬁeld ofﬁce, the Hoover Building and the Washington Field Ofﬁce.
District of Columbia Housing Authority Ofﬁce of Public Safety - This division aims to keep neighbourhoods safe through the prevention of crime, the protection of life and property, and the preservation of peace and safety in and around public housing in the District of Columbia.
Bureau of Engraving and Printing Police - BEP Police are tied to the Department of Treasury and is responsible for enforcing federal and municipal laws pertaining to the Treasury.
Pentagon Police - Established in 2002 as a response to 9/11 to protect the areas surrounding the Pentagon.
Naval District Washington Police - This police division speciﬁcally oversees the various naval ofﬁces (ie. naval base, research laboratory, observatory, etc)
Supreme Court of the US Police - SCUSP is a small law enforcement agency to provide protection of the US Supreme Court building and surrounding areas.
US Dept. of Homeland Security Federal Protective Service - The FPS is responsible for policing, securing and ensuring that federal agencies can conduct their business with minimal interferance.
Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority- This division is responsible for overseeing management, operations, and capital development at both Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport..
(Police departments, state and federal Uniform Crime Reports data)
Total homicides in
2016 The District Maryland Jurisdictions Virginia Jurisdictions
Manner of death Beating Shooting Stabbing Other
Age 20 136 27 16
Sex 0-9 7 10-19 18 20s 30s 40s 50s
10 60s 11 Unknown 1
Washington Metropolitan Police Department
Female Male Unknown 3
D E P I C T I N G T H E S I T E - U N D E R S TA N D I N G K E Y P R I N C I P L E S
S TAT E T H E D I S T R I C T | S T U D I O E T N A | J O S H U A M U R P H Y
UK Pavilion for Shanghai World Expo 2010 / Heatherwick Studio
STREET VIEW ALONG THE AXIS
S TAT E T H E D I S T R I C T | S T U D I O E T N A | J O S H U A M U R P H Y
A R R I VA L
PRECEDENTS S TAT E T H E D I S T R I C T | S T U D I O E T N A | J O S H U A M U R P H Y
UNDERGROUND NET WORK
WA F F L E S C R I P T I N G
DESIGN & BUILD
TOKENS OF WONDER: HODOR
TA S K : TO DESIGN AN OBJECT TO BE USED WITHIN THE ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL BUT ONE COULD N OT GUESS AT FIRST GLANCE ITS USE. THE OBJECT DESIGNED, NAMED HODOR, ENTAILED A S TEEL BAR RES T ING ON A CONCRETE PL ACEHOLDER.
TABLE REFURBISHMENT BEFORE
CONSTRUCTION PROCESS PHOTOGRAPHS
1: BENDING THE STEEL
2: FIXING AND SANDING WOOD PIECES TOGETHER
3: BUILD CONCRETE MOULD USING FOAM