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C HAPTER 13 What are Infectious Diseases? Five different agents that can cause infectious diseases are: Bacteria Viruses Fungi Protists Parasties Four ways infectious diseases are spread are: Person to person Food and water Environment Animals

Two treatments for infectious diseases are: Antibiotics, kill or slows the growth of bacteria. Over the counter antifungal medicine, used for fungal diseases. If the fungal infection is more serious you may need a stronger prescription. Two ways to prevent the development of antibiotic resistance are: Don’t ask your doctor for antibiotics during a viral disease If given a prescription follow all the directions and finish the medication

Protecting Yourself from Infectious Diseases How the body fights infectious diseases: Physical barriers Skin- keeps pathogens out Mucous Membranes- catches pathogens and sends them to the stomach to be destroyed by the stomach acid Chemicals- chemicals like sweat, tears and stomach acid destroy pathogens Inflammatory Response- inflamed areas show that the body is responding to the pathogen and fighting it off, most inflamed areas will swell, be red in color and can release pus Immune System- the immune system fights off pathogens using white blood cells and antibodies

Five things you can do to stay well: Drink water- 8 to 10 glasses a day Reduce stress- large amounts of stress weaken the immune system Exercise regularly- 60 minutes a day Get enough sleep- sleep keeps the body functioning Eat a healthy, balanced diet- this helps you the necessary nutrients to stay healthy


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How to build immunity to a disease: Getting vaccinated- injecting weak or dead pathogens into a person’s body to build immunity.

Newsletter Title Three things you should do to prevent spreading infectious diseases: Get vaccinated Stay clean Don’t share personal items

Three things you should do when you are sick: Drink a lot of fluids Stay home and rest Follow your doctors directions and take all medicines prescribed to you

Common Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases affect everybody because pathogens are everywhere on the planet and it is impossible to avoid every single one. Bacterial Diseases: Strep Throat Symptoms- sore throat, fever, yellow/white specks on tonsils Transmitted by- contact with mucus of an infected person Tetanus Symptoms- severe muscle spasms Transmitted by- tetanus causing bacteria found in soil Viral Diseases: Influenza Symptoms- headache, sore muscles, fever, vomiting, sore throat, coughing Transmitted by- personal contact and contact with the mucus of an infected person

Colds Symptoms- scratchy or sore throat, sneezing, runny nose, mild cough Transmitted by- contact with saliva or mucus of an infected person Fungal Infection Athletes Foot- itchy, red skin on feet Protistan Infection Amebic Dysenteryinflammation of intestine, causes nausea, diarrhea, and sometimes fever Parasitic Infections Head lice- Itchy head and sores on scalp


Organizations that treat and help prevent the spreading of infectious diseases: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Institutes of Health


Chapter 13 Newsletter