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T Y P O G R A P H Y F U N DA M E N TA L S

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TYPOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS

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TYPOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS

The following is a collection of projects and exercises assigned during the Fall 2019 term of Typography Fundamentals at UC Berkeley Extension. Each project or exercise challenges students to problem-solve while considering typography’s constraints coupled with graphic design practices, to make intelligent design decisions using research and comparative study as both guidelines and inspiration.

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CONTENT

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CONTENT

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CONTENT

01. 02. 03. 04. 05.

PROTOTYPEFACE

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TYPE ANATOMY

TYPESETTING

TYPE POSTERS

SWISS DESIGNER

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PROJECT ONE

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PROTOTYPEFACE

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Create nine letterforms of an original typeface within given parameters— present letterforms on a standard-sized postcard in black and white, color, and patterned. The exercise is intended to develop students’ command of Adobe’s InDesign and Illustrator, as well as hone critical evaluation and ability to follow directions. The result teaches students the mechanics of constructing characters that make an entire alphabet possible.

PROTOTYPEFACE

OBJECTIVE

APPROACH After researching Mayan glyphs and electrical line diagrams, I attempted letterforms inspired by each but found it challenging to keep characters simple. As an alternative exploration, I drew circles and either sketched letters from those circles or added elements around the circles to create a letterform. The resulting letterforms use a ring as the base of the form. The “bowl” serves as a foundation for the subsequent strokes, and a dot at the terminal unifies the set.

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PROJECT ONE

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PROJECT ONE

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PROTOTYPEFACE

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PROJECT TWO

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TYPE ANATOMY

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Introduce type terminology. Identify the structural aspects of type. Label the different kinds of strokes, junctions and negative spaces used to create letterforms. Identify a variety of different shaped terminals and serifs. Increase awareness of letterforms and glyphs. Gain layout skills: hierarchy, negative space, focal point, and impact.

TYPE ANATOMY

OBJECTIVE

APPROACH After reviewing several Type Anatomy booklets, I decided that flashcards are an exciting and novel approach to present type terminology. The entire alphabet and one ligature define thirty type terms. A found annual report inspires the color scheme, and Goudy Old Style is the typeface selected to represent the anatomy of type.

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PROJECT TWO

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TYPE ANATOMY

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PROJECT THREE

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TYPESETTING

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TYPESETTING

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PARAGRAPH INDICATORS + MANUSCRIPT GRID

03. TEXT + COLUMN GRID 04. HIERARCHY + MODULAR GRID


Understand typesetting rules. Demonstrate accurate and aesthetically pleasing typesetting. Recognize how different type treatments and alignments require unique handling of type.

TYPESETTING

OBJECTIVE

APPROACH Constrained by typography’s do’s and don’t’s and a chosen typeface’s characteristics limits a creative approach but does exercise one’s patience. A change in tracking for one line may influence surrounding lines to create hyphenated words, rivers, or orphans, as does column width. With persistence and experimentation, the following typesetting exercises are presented.

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EXERCISE ONE

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Center Alignment | 8/12 Linden Hill | +90 Tracking


TYPESETTING

Justified Alignment | 8/12 Molto | +25 Tracking

LETTERS HAVE A LIFE AND DIGNITY OF THEIR OWN Letterforms that honor and elucidate what humans see and say deserve to be honored in their turn. Well-chosen words deserve well-chosen letters; these in their turn deserve to be set with affection, intelligence, knowledge and skill. Typography is a link, and it ought, as a matter of honor, courtesy and pure delight, to be as strong as others in the chain. Typography is just that: idealized writing. Writers themselves now rarely have the calligraphic skill of earlier scribes, but they evoke countless versions of ideal script by their varying voices and literary styles. To these blind and often invisible visions, the typographer must respond in visible terms. In a badly designed book, the letters mill and stand like starving horses in a field. In a book designed by rote, they sit like stale

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bread and mutton on the page. In a well-made book, where designer, compositor and printer have all done their jobs, no matter how many thousands of lines and pages they must occupy, the letters are alive. They dance in their seats. Sometimes they rise and dance in the margins and aisles. Simple as it may sound, the task of creative non-interference with letters is a rewarding and difficult calling. In ideal conditions, it is all that typographers are really asked to do—and it is enough. —Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style

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Right Alignment | 8/12 Benton Mod Display | +20 Tracking

LETTERS HAVE A LIFE AND DIGNITY OF THEIR OWN Letterforms that honor and elucidate what humans see and say deserve to be honored in their turn. Well-chosen words deserve well-chosen letters; these in their turn deserve to be set with affection, intelligence, knowledge and skill. Typography is a link, and it ought, as a matter of honor, courtesy and pure delight, to be as strong as others in the chain.

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Typography is just that: idealized writing. Writers themselves now rarely have the calligraphic skill of earlier scribes, but they evoke countless versions of ideal script by their varying voices and literary styles. To these blind and often invisible visions, the typographer must respond in visible terms. In a badly designed book, the letters mill and stand like starving horses in a field. In a book designed by rote, they sit like stale bread and mutton on the page. In a well-made book, where designer, compositor and printer have all done their jobs, no matter how many thousands of lines and pages they must occupy, the letters are alive. They dance in their seats. Sometimes they rise and dance in the margins and aisles. Simple as it may sound, the task of creative non-interference with letters is a rewarding and difficult calling. In ideal conditions, it is all that typographers are really asked to do—and it is enough.

EXERCISE ONE

—Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style


TYPESETTING

Left Alignment | 8/12 Zenon | +10 Tracking

LETTERS HAVE A LIFE AND DIGNITY OF THEIR OWN Letterforms that honor and elucidate what humans see and say deserve to be honored in their turn. Well-chosen words deserve well-chosen letters; these in their turn deserve to be set with affection, intelligence, knowledge and skill. Typography is a link, and it ought, as a matter of honor, courtesy and pure delight, to be as strong as others in the chain. Typography is just that: idealized writing. Writers themselves now rarely have the calligraphic skill of earlier scribes, but they evoke countless versions of ideal script by their varying voices and literary styles. To these blind and often invisible visions, the typographer must respond in visible terms.

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In a badly designed book, the letters mill and stand like starving horses in a field. In a book designed by rote, they sit like stale bread and mutton on the page. In a well-made book, where designer, compositor and printer have all done their jobs, no matter how many thousands of lines and pages they must occupy, the letters are alive. They dance in their seats. Sometimes they rise and dance in the margins and aisles. Simple as it may sound, the task of creative non-interference with letters is a rewarding and difficult calling. In ideal conditions, it is all that typographers are really asked to do—and it is enough. —Robert Bringhurst, The Elements of Typographic Style

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EXERCISE TWO

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Indent | 10/12 Linden Hill


PARAGRAPH INDICATORS + MANUSCRIPT GRID

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Exdent | 8/12 Corbel

Karl Marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence

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in 1776, he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech. A manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes public a set of ideas and goals. A manifesto is passionate, personal and vivid. Such calls to action went out of fashion during the mid-20th century, replaced by more businesslike, professionally oriented statements of purpose and principle. But at the turn of the new century, just as at the turn of the old one, manifestos came back. Businesses started using “brand manifestos” to spell out the defining features of their products, and software companies and design firms started posting manifestos to publicize their approach in an edgy, direct way. Designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-written manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And drafting one is more like writing an ad than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function—they serve to bring together members of a group. Ten years ago, Bruce Mau published his “Incomplete Manifesto,” written as a list of commandments. These principles became the established creed of Mau’s own design office, but they can be used by anyone. Other designers with intriguing and influential personal manifestos include product designer Karim Rashid and the infamous post–typographers Bruce Willen and Nolen Strals. Bruce Sterling’s “Manifesto of January 3, 2000” helped galvanize the contemporary green movement, which is the epicenter of manifesto writing today. Sterling, in addition to demanding an overhaul of all social, political and military systems, pushed designers to create “intensely glamorous environmentally sound products; entirely new objects of entirely new materials; replacing material substance with information; a new relationship between the cybernetic and the material” (iPhone, anyone?). Also in 2000, Rick Poynor published the “First Things First 2000” manifesto, based on a text written by Ken Garland in 1964, a controversial document that called for designers to use their skills to improve environmental, social and cultural life rather than to sell hair gel and dog biscuits.

EXERCISE TWO

— excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton


Karl Marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech.

PARAGRAPH INDICATORS + MANUSCRIPT GRID

Extra Leading | 8/12 Farnham Display

A manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes public a set of ideas and goals. A manifesto is passionate, personal and vivid. Such calls to action went out of fashion during the mid-20th century, replaced by more businesslike, professionally oriented statements of purpose and principle. But at the turn of the new century, just as at the turn of the old one, manifestos came back. Businesses started using “brand manifestos” to spell out the defining features of their products, and software companies and design firms started posting manifestos to publicize their approach in an edgy, direct way.

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Designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-written manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And drafting one is more like writing an ad than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function—they serve to bring together members of a group. Ten years ago, Bruce Mau published his “Incomplete Manifesto,” written as a list of commandments. These principles became the established creed of Mau’s own design office, but they can be used by anyone. Other designers with intriguing and influential personal manifestos include product designer Karim Rashid and the infamous post–typographers Bruce Willen and Nolen Strals. Bruce Sterling’s “Manifesto of January 3, 2000” helped galvanize the contemporary green movement, which is the epicenter of manifesto writing today. Sterling, in addition to demanding an overhaul of all social, political and military systems, pushed designers to create “intensely glamorous environmentally sound products; entirely new objects of entirely new materials; replacing material substance with information; a new relationship between the cybernetic and the material” (iPhone, anyone?). Also in 2000, Rick Poynor published the “First Things First 2000” manifesto, based on a text written by Ken Garland in 1964, a controversial document that called for designers to use their skills to improve environmental, social and cultural life rather than to sell hair gel and dog biscuits. —excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton

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First Word | 8/12 Cresta

karl marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech. a manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes public a set of ideas and goals. A manifesto is passionate, personal and vivid. Such calls to action went out of fashion during the mid-20th century, replaced by more businesslike, professionally oriented statements of purpose and principle. But at the

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turn of the new century, just as at the turn of the old one, manifestos came back. Businesses started using “brand manifestos” to spell out the defining features of their products, and software companies and design firms started posting manifestos to publicize their approach in an edgy, direct way. designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-written manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And drafting one is more like writing an ad than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function—they serve to bring together members of a group. ten years ago, Bruce Mau published his “Incomplete Manifesto,” written as a list of commandments. These principles became the established creed of Mau’s own design office, but they can be used by anyone. Other designers with intriguing and influential personal manifestos include product designer Karim Rashid and the infamous post–typographers Bruce Willen and Nolen Strals. bruce sterling’s “Manifesto of January 3, 2000” helped galvanize the contemporary green movement, which is the epicenter of manifesto writing today. Sterling, in addition to demanding an overhaul of all social, political and military systems, pushed designers to create “intensely glamorous environmentally sound products; entirely new objects of entirely new materials; replacing material substance with information; a new relationship between the cybernetic and the material” (iPhone, anyone?). Also in 2000, Rick Poynor published the “First Things First 2000” manifesto, based on a text written by Ken Garland in 1964 , a controversial document that called for designers to use their skills to improve environmental, social and cultural life rather than to sell hair gel and dog biscuits.

EXERCISE TWO

—excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton


Karl Marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech. A manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes public a set of ideas and goals. A manifesto is

PARAGRAPH INDICATORS + MANUSCRIPT GRID

First Phrase | 8/12 Starling

passionate, personal and vivid. Such calls to action went out of fashion during the mid-20th century, replaced by more businesslike, professionally oriented statements of purpose and principle. But at the turn of the new century, just as at the turn of the old one, manifestos came back. Businesses started using “brand manifestos” to spell out the defining features of their products, and software companies and design firms started posting manifestos to publicize their approach in an edgy, direct way.

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Designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-written manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And drafting one is more like writing an ad than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function— they serve to bring together members of a group. Ten years ago, Bruce Mau published his “Incomplete Manifesto,” written as a list of commandments. These principles became the established creed of Mau’s own design office, but they can be used by anyone. Other designers with intriguing and influential personal manifestos include product designer Karim Rashid and the infamous post–typographers Bruce Willen and Nolen Strals. Bruce Sterling’s “Manifesto of January 3, 2000” helped galvanize the contemporary green movement, which is the epicenter of manifesto writing today. Sterling, in addition to demanding an overhaul of all social, political and military systems, pushed designers to create “intensely glamorous environmentally sound products; entirely new objects of entirely new materials; replacing material substance with information; a new relationship between the cybernetic and the material” (iPhone, anyone?). Also in 2000, Rick Poynor published the “First Things First 2000” manifesto, based on a text written by Ken Garland in 1964, a controversial document that called for designers to use their skills to improve environmental, social and cultural life rather than to sell hair gel and dog biscuits. —excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton

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EXERCISE THREE

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Initial Cap | 8/12 Filson Pro | Body Copy | 8/12 Rucksack


TEXT + COLUMN GRID

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Drop Cap | 8/10 Abril Fatface | Body Copy | 8/12 Farnham Text

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arl Marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776,

he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated

pr i nciples b eca me t he establ ished creed of Mau’s ow n desig n of f ice, but t hey ca n b e used by a nyone. Ot her desig ners w it h intrig uing and inf luential personal manifestos include product

Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech.

desig ner Kar im Rashid and the infamous post–ty pog raphers Br uce Willen and Nolen Strals. B r uce Ste rl i ng ’s “ M a n i fe sto of Ja nu a r y 3 , 2 0 0 0 ” help e d

A manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes p u b l i c a s e t o f i d e a s a n d g o a l s . A m a n i fe s to i s p a s s i o n at e , p e r s o n a l a n d v iv i d . S u c h c a l l s to a c t i o n we nt o ut o f f a s h i o n

g a lv a n i z e t he conte mp or a r y g re e n move me nt , wh ic h i s t he epicenter of ma ni festo w r it i ng today. Sterl i ng, i n add it ion to d e m a n d i n g a n ove rh au l o f a l l s o c i a l , p ol it i c a l a n d m i l it a r y

du r i n g t h e m i d-2 0 t h c e nt u r y, r e p l a c e d b y m o r e b u s i n e s s l i ke, p r o fe s s i o n a l l y o r i e nte d s t ate m e nt s o f p u r p o s e a n d p r i n c ip l e . B ut at t h e t u r n of t h e n e w c e nt u r y, ju st a s at t h e t u r n of t h e

s y s t e m s , p u s h e d d e s i g n e r s to c r e at e “ i nte n s e l y g l a m o r o u s e nv i r o n m e nt a l ly s ou n d p r o du c t s ; e nt i r e l y n e w o b j e c t s o f e nt i r e ly ne w m ate r i a l s; r e pl ac i ng m ate r i a l sub s t a nc e w it h

old one, m a n i fe sto s c a m e b a c k . B u si ne s s e s st a r te d u s i ng “ b r a nd m a n i fe sto s ” to sp e l l out t h e de f i n i ng fe at u r e s of t h e i r p r o du c t s , a n d s of t w a r e c o m p a n i e s a n d d e s i g n f i r m s s t a r t e d

i n for m at ion; a new rel at ionsh ip b et we e n t he c yb e r net ic a nd t he mater ia l” (i Phone, a nyone?). A lso i n 2 0 0 0, R ick Poy nor publ i s he d t h e “ F i r st T h i ng s F i r st 2 0 0 0 ” m a n i fe sto, b a s e d

p o s t i n g m a n i fe s to s to p u b l i c i z e t h e i r ap p r o ac h i n a n e d g y, d i r e c t w ay. Designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-writ-

on a te x t w r it te n by Ke n G a rl a nd i n 19 6 4 , a cont r ove r s i a l document that called for designers to use their skills to improve e nv i r o n m e nt a l , s o c i a l a nd c u lt u r a l l i fe r at h e r t h a n to s e l l

ten manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And drafting one is more like writing an ad

h a i r g e l a n d d o g b i s c u it s .

than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function— they serve to bring together members of a group.

EXERCISE THREE

Ten yea r s ago, Br uce Mau publ ishe d h is “ I ncomplete M a n i f e s t o ,” w r i t t e n a s a l i s t o f c o m m a n d m e n t s . T h e s e

—excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton


TEXT + COLUMN GRID

Intro Paragraph | 11/13 Omnes Cond | Body Copy | 8/12 Molto Extralight

Karl Marx had one. The Unibomber had one. When Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776, he drafted the manifesto that launched the American Revolution. Graphic design would not exist as we know it today if F. T. Marinetti hadn’t published his manifestos and instigated Futurism. By inventing the idea of art as a branded public enterprise, Marinetti compelled many poets, painters and designers after him to state their principles in compact, incendiary speech. A manifesto is a short document that “manifests” or makes public a set of ideas and goals. A manifesto is passionate, personal and vivid. Such calls to action went out of fashion during the mid-20th century, replaced by more businesslike, professionally oriented statements of purpose and principle. But at the turn of the new century, just as at the turn of the old one, manifestos came back. Businesses started using “brand manifestos” to spell out the defining features of their products, and software companies and design firms started posting manifestos to publicize their approach in an edgy,

Ten years ago, Bruce Mau published his “Incomplete Manifesto,” written as a list of commandments. These principles became the established creed of Mau’s own design office, but they can be used by anyone. Other designers with intriguing and inf luential personal manifestos include product designer Karim Rashid and the infamous post–typographers Bruce Willen and Nolen Strals. Bruce Sterling’s “Manifesto of January 3, 2000” helped galvanize the contemporary green movement, which is the epicenter of manifesto writing today. Sterling, in addition to

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demanding an overhaul of all social, political and military systems, pushed designers to create “intensely glamorous

direct way. Designers seem especially drawn to manifestos. A well-written manifesto is like a well-designed product. It communicates directly, it is broken into functional

environmentally sound products; entirely new objects of entirely new materials; replacing material subst a nce w it h i n for m at ion ; a ne w r el at ion sh ip b et we en t he cybernetic and the material” (iPhone, anyone?). Also in

parts, and it has elements of poetry and surprise. And

2000, Rick Poynor published the “First Things First 2000”

drafting one is more like writing an ad than writing a novel. Manifestos typically have a social function—they serve to bring together members of a group.

manifesto, based on a text written by Ken Garland in 1964, a controversial document that called for designers to use their skills to improve environmental, social and cultural life rather than to sell hair gel and dog biscuits. —excerpted from Manifesto Mania by Ellen and Julia Lupton

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EXERCISE FOUR

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Scale Change | Mr Eaves Mod OT


HIERARCHY + MODULAR GRID

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Scale + Typeface Change | Joanna Nova | Gill Sans Nova

Verbal and Visual Equations An examination of interactive signs exerted from Typographic Design: Form and Communication

By Ben Day and Philip Meggs

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Language, in any of its many forms, is a self-contained system of interactive signs that communicates ideas.

Signs may exist at various levels of abstraction. A simple example will illustrate this point. Let us consider

Just as elocution and diction enhance and clarify the meaning of our spoken words, typographic signs can be manipulated by a designer to achieve more lucid and expressive typographic communication.

something as elemental as a red dot. It is a sign only if it carries a particular meaning. It can represent any number of things: balloon, ball, or Japanese flag. The red dot can become a cherry, for example, as the mind is cued

Signs operate in two dimensions: syntactic and semantic. When the mind is concerned with the form of a sign, it is involved with typographic syntax. When it associates a particular meaning with a sign, it is operating in the semantic dimension. All objects in the environment can potentially function as signs, representing any number of concepts. A smog-filled city signifying pollution, a beached whale representing

EXERCISE FOUR

extinction, and confetti implying a celebration—each functions as a sign relating a specific concept.

by forms more familiar to its experience. The particular syntactic qualities associated with typographic signs determine a specific meaning. A series of repeated letters, for example, may signify motion or speed, while a small letter in a large void may signify isolation. These qualities, derived from the operating principles of visual hierarchy and ABA form, function as cues, permitting the mind to form concepts. Simple syntactic manipulations, such as the repetition of letters, or the weight change of certain letters, enable words visually to mimic verbal meaning.

In language, signs are joined together to create messages. Words as verbal sign, grouped together in a linear fashion, attain their value vis-Ă -vis other words through opposition and contrast. Words can also evoke meaning through mental association. These associative relations are semantically derived. Since typography is both visual and verbal, it operates in a linear fashion, with words following each other in a specific sequence, or in a nonlinear manner, with elements existing in many syntactic combinations.


HIERARCHY + MODULAR GRID

Scale + Typeface Change + Graphic Element | Future | Bodoni

Verbal and Visual Equations An examination of interactive signs exerted from Typographic Design: Form and Communication By Ben Day and Philip Meggs

Language, in any of its many forms, is a self-contained system of interactive signs that communicates ideas. Just as elocution and diction enhance and clarify the meaning of our spoken words, typographic signs can be manipulated by a designer to achieve more lucid and expressive typographic communication. Signs operate in two dimensions: syntactic and semantic. When the mind is concerned with the form of a sign, it is involved with typographic syntax. When it associates a particular meaning with a sign, it is operating in the semantic dimension. All objects in the environment can potentially function as signs, representing any number of concepts. A smog-filled city signifying pollution, a beached whale representing extinction, and confetti implying a celebration–each functions as a sign relating a specific concept.

Signs may exist at various levels of abstraction. A simple example will illustrate this point. Let us consider something as elemental as a red dot. It is a sign only if it carries a particular meaning. It can represent any number of things: balloon, ball, or Japanese flag. The red dot can become a cherry, for example, as the mind is cued by forms more familiar to its experience. The particular syntactic qualities associated with typographic signs determine a specific meaning. A series of repeated letters, for example, may signify motion or speed, while a small letter in a large void may signify isolation. These qualities, derived from the operating principles of visual hierarchy and ABA form, function as cues, permitting the mind to form concepts. Simple syntactic manipulations, such as the repetition of letters, or the weight change of certain letters, enable words visually to mimic verbal meaning.

In language, signs are joined together to create messages. Words as verbal sign, grouped together in a linear fashion, attain their value vis-à-vis other words through opposition and contrast. Words can also evoke meaning through mental association. These associative relations are semantically derived. Since typography is both visual and verbal, it operates in a linear fashion, with words following each other in a specific sequence, or in a nonlinear manner, with elements existing in many syntactic combinations.

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PROJECT FOUR

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TYPE POSTERS

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Design three type classification posters in the Vox System. Research various periods and designs. Visually communicate the evolution of type, and practice the principles of typography since the start of the course.

TYPE POSTERS

OBJECTIVE

APPROACH Aesthetics and geometry played roles in the typeface choices for this project. Centaur is slender and elegant and contrasts Joanna’s spare, sharp, and utilitarian serifs. Joanna’s geometric design combines well with Optima’s geometrical design. Reusing the color scheme for the Anatomy of Type flashcards appears to be a reliable option.

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TYPE ANATOMY

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PROJECT THREE

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PROJECT FOUR

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TYPE POSTERS

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PROJECT FIVE

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SWISS DESIGNER

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Research a Swiss typeface designer and write a 250-word paper which discusses a brief history of their life and work. Present the paper using the skills and knowledge attained in this course as well as abilities brought in from other graphic design courses.

SWISS DESIGNER

OBJECTIVE

APPROACH Bruno Maag is my choice for Swiss-born typeface designers. One reason is he actively designs typefaces, and another reason is he hates Helvetica and isn’t afraid to say so. His disdain runs so deep that he created an alternative to Helvetica called Aktiv Grotesk—though I wonder how deep that resentment runs as “imitation is the highest form of flattery.”

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PROJECT FIVE

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“To have a font that is beautifully crafted, spaced well, with not a chink in a curve or anything– perfectly drawn but hopefully with a bit of personality. We wanted to create something that could be used in a corporate environment but that has that bit of warmth.” —Bruno Maag

TYPE ANATOMY

Bruno Maag

Born in Switzerland in 1962, Swiss type designer Bruno Maag started his life in design as an apprentice typesetter with Switzerland’s largest newspaper Tages Anzeiger. Maag studied Visual Communications at Basel School of Design, where he was immersed in the Swiss-style. When asked about the infl uence of mid-century Swiss notables, he eagerly clarifies the terminology. “Swiss typography is not only about the grid. It’s about simplicity, about clarity of information, and structure helping the consumer understand what’s going on. It’s not an art form; it’s discipline, it’s product design.” Next, Maag earns a work experience placement at Stempel, where he meets Rene Kerfante - who moves to Monotype and asks Maag to join him there. Maag works for Monotype in the UK and the USA, where he designs fonts for The New Yorker.

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In 1996, Maag sets up London based type design company Dalton Maag. He goes on to win multiple awards and recently voted on the board of London’s Design and Art Direction. Maag is characterized in the typographic community for his intense dislike of the typeface Helvetica. “Designers use Helvetica because it’s the lazy choice. And second it’s also the safe choice. It creates a homogeneity about all the brand and identity work you see. There’s nothing exciting about it.” The type designer explains Helvetica comes loaded with issues resulting from its origins as a hot metal typeface that was digitized using hot metal spacing, Maag explains, “the essence is that you get a hot metal typeface in digital with all the problems that come with that.” Maag’s strong feelings on Helvetica inspired him to create his own interpretation of Helvetica’s original inspiration, Akzidenz Grotesque. “Aktiv Grotesque is really a reaction to that idiotic and slavish thinking that Helvetica is the best typeface.”

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TYPOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS

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DESIGNER Jennifer L. Smith INSTRUCTOR Ayca Kilicoglu TYPEFACE Aktiv Grotesk, Abril Fatface SCHOOL UC Berkeley Extension PROGRAM Professional Program in Graphic Design COURSE DESIGNX450.9-015 Typography Fundamentals


TYPOGRAPHY FUNDAMENTALS

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Typography Fundamentals_Final Book_Jennifer Smith  

Typography Fundamentals_Final Book_Jennifer Smith

Typography Fundamentals_Final Book_Jennifer Smith  

Typography Fundamentals_Final Book_Jennifer Smith

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