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Salem County Farms Recording Project Volume II

Prepared by Janet L. Sheridan Down Jersey Heritage Research, LLC Salem, NJ 08079

This project was assisted by a research grant from the New Jersey Historical Commission, a division in the Department of State, State of New Jersey, and an Orlando Ridout V Fieldwork Fellowship from the Vernacular Architecture Forum.

Š 2017 Janet L. Sheridan April 24, 2017 Rev. May 20, 2017


Acknowledgements

This project happened by virtue of help from others. I owe thanks to all the farm owners or former owners—Asa, David and Jason Cadwallader, Fred Catalano, Ruthanne Wright, Lydia DeHope, and Joanne Wright—for their willingness to open their farm buildings to architectural and historical research, share with me historical family photos and memories, and answer endless questions. I apologize for any omissions or errors in these stories. Once again I am grateful to the New Jersey Historical Commission for continuing to support my vernacular landscape research in Salem County with this fifth research grant since 2008. I also thank my colleagues in the Vernacular Architecture Forum for the Orlando Ridout V Fieldwork Fellowship. Much appreciation goes to David Culver, Mannington Township Historian; Andrew Coldren, the curator/director of the Salem County Historical Society; and Kathleen Mills, director of the Salem County Office of Economic Development, Cultural Affairs, and Tourism for their letters of support for this project. I thank Stephanie Long Fazen and Maria Cerda-Moreno for serving as skilled, engaged, and fun-loving fieldwork crew members who assisted me in measuring the buildings. I also extend heartfelt thanks to Noel Kemm, my long-time comrade in historic preservation, for his volunteer measuring assistance. Thanks also go to Rich Guido and Ellen Morrisey at the Salem County Historical Society library for their cheerful research assistance.


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Table of Contents Introduction ................................................................................................................................1 Research Design.........................................................................................................................2 Objectives ..............................................................................................................................2 Expected research materials...................................................................................................2 Methodology ..........................................................................................................................2 Personnel ................................................................................................................................3 Expected Results ....................................................................................................................3 Location and Setting ..................................................................................................................4 Data Summary ...........................................................................................................................5 Statewide Contexts ................................................................................................................5 Historical Maps ......................................................................................................................6 Survey Forms .........................................................................................................................9 Drawings ..............................................................................................................................10 Analysis of Buildings...........................................................................................................10 Bibliography ............................................................................................................................16 Appendices ...............................................................................................................................22 Appendix I. Zerns-Wright Farm ..........................................................................................22 Appendix II. Basset-Allen-Waldac Farm ............................................................................23 Appendix III. Stretch-Mulford Farm ...................................................................................24

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Table of Figures Figure 1. Location map of Salem County and Mannington Township. ...........................................4 Figure 2. Study area. Detail of Mannington Township showing the study farm locations by tax parcel. (1) Zerns-Wright, (2) Bassett-Allen-Waldac, (3) Stretch-Mulford ......................................5 Figure 3. The study farms in 1849. (1) Zerns farm is not built yet on Joseph Bassett’s land. Note the large number of Bassett properties in the vicinity, (2) “D. Bassett Estate”, (3) Unidentified, owned by Hill Smith at this time. (Smith & Wistar, 1849) ............................................................6 Figure 4. The study farms in 1860. (1) “J. Bassett” Joseph Bassett owns the house he built for his daughter Lydia, (2) Allen farm is just outside the map coverage, (3) “R. Stretch” Robert Stretch (Beers and Lake, 1860). ...................................................................................................................7 Figure 5. Study farms in 1869. This edition of the Beers and Lake map has a different coverage than the 1860 edition (There is some question as to the actual date of the map). (1) “J. Bassett” is shown as still owning the Zerns farm (as in Fig. 5), though he died in 1867, when he devised the farm to his daughter Lydia Zerns, (2) “S. P. Allen” is shown on the David Bassett farm. (Beers and Lake, 1869). ..............................................................................................................................8 Figure 6. The study farms and their acreages in 1875. (1) “J. Zerns 109”, (2) “S. P. Allen 224”, (3) “J. Mulford 54”. (Everts and Stewart, 1876)..............................................................................9

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Introduction The purpose of this project is to continue a study of agricultural buildings in Salem County by recording them. This is the second volume in the author’s long-term plan to document farm buildings sufficient to be able to identify and evaluate specific types of farm buildings through fieldwork and archival research. The first study (Sheridan, 2014) was triggered by the desire to offer a theme of agriculture to the 2014 Annual Conference of the Vernacular Architecture Forum (VAF), slated for southern New Jersey, May 7-11, 2014. VAF conferences emphasize tours for getting participants into the field to examine first-hand the resources that typify regional landscapes. The steering committee discovered a lack of research on farm complexes available to base a tour upon. The resulting study looked at three entire farmsteads, including the farm house. This study, in contrast, looks exclusively at outbuildings in order to prioritize the study of the kind of farm buildings we know less about, and which are more at risk of perishing—the historic working buildings of farming. Also, significantly, the inclusion of farm houses in the last study consumed a large portion of the budget, which was much larger due to a conference grant from the VAF and a large in-kind contribution from the University of Delaware Center for Historic Architecture and Design, which were not available for this project. Salem County has been and still is a major agricultural area in New Jersey by virtue of its inner coastal plain geography, rich soils, early settlement, low degree of urbanization, and proximity to the Philadelphia and New York urban markets. The rapid disappearance of farm buildings from the landscape is a local problem shared with the rest of the nation, and so the need to study the surviving examples for preservation planning purposes and to inform our understanding of agricultural history is still urgent. The preservation of farm land has been successfully pursued in Salem County, but the programs privilege the land and the way of life over the heritage of buildings, and fail to offer incentives for saving and repurposing historic agricultural buildings. There is an absence of connection between appreciation of heritage and the role of buildings in preserving heritage. There seems to be a broad, nostalgic love of old farm buildings, but there is an absence of awareness of the preservation possibilities for those buildings. Even sound farm houses are being vacated and demolished in the course of saving the land. Losing historic farm buildings is a loss of irreplaceable primary source data for learning what characterizes regional types, and how they associate with the context of agricultural history, and so we lose the ability to write the history of everyday agricultural life without the buildings where it happened. The approach in this study is modeled after the Historic American Building Survey (HABS) program in that it incorporates measured drawings, photography, and architectural description and historical background narratives. It was modified by utilizing the survey forms and referencing the Guidelines for Architectural Survey provided by the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office (SHPO), and by using small-format digital photography instead of largeformat film. The approach also pulls from theory and practice developed by the Vernacular Architecture Forum for studying ordinary buildings (including work buildings such as farm outbuildings), which is based upon the object-centeredness of material culture studies and influenced by the field of social history, that their cultural meaning may be interpreted (Carter and Cromley, 2005). The work will serve to preserve local and statewide history in the form of records of farm buildings that are vulnerable to disuse and loss, research about their particular stories, and how they fit into the statewide contexts of settlement, agriculture, and architecture. The drawings,

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photos and state survey forms will provide data for historians, teachers, students, and resources for future research and public interpretation of local history.

Research Design Objectives The project objectives are:  To discover and analyze farm outbuilding types in Salem County, and their changes over time;  To make a graphical record of the buildings;  To reveal the human history of each farm by linking them with archival documents;  To assess the historical significance of the buildings;  To provide a basis for public history, continuing study and preservation planning.

Expected research materials The data sources will be the buildings themselves, deeds, wills, city directories, maps, genealogies, local secondary histories, oral histories, New Jersey agricultural histories, period sources on agriculture, and surveys of farm buildings in other regions.

Methodology The study outbuildings were selected using the following criteria:  Variety of types of outbuildings, adding new types to what has previously been presented;  Historic integrity;  Early age (to maximize the chance of finding the earliest types of outbuildings);  Accessibility to interiors as well as exteriors;  Location in Mannington in order to deepen the study of Mannington farms for comparative purposes. The following outbuildings in Mannington Township were selected: 1. A wagon house that has the appearance of a New Jersey Dutch Barn (gable-entry, straight roof slopes) at the Zerns-Wright Farm; 2. A ground barn known to be three combined hay barns and used for a dairy operation at the Bassett-Allen-Waldac Farm; 3. A wagon house with gable entry and broken roof slopes at the Stretch-Mulford Farm; 4. A small, two-story, two-bay barn at the Stretch-Mulford Farm. Tasks: 1. Cultural Resource Survey (CRS): Follow the New Jersey Historic Preservation Office’s Guidelines for Architectural Survey for a planning survey. Complete NJHPO CRS Base, Building, and Eligibility forms for the outbuildings. 2. Drawings: Measure the buildings to create field notes and make digital drawings of plans and sections with AutoCAD software following HABS standards. 3. Photography: Capture exterior and interior views using a digital SLR camera and tripod to insert into the forms. 4. Archival research: Access records pertaining to their land, human and agricultural history for the narratives in the Eligibility form.

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5. Analysis: Compare the outbuildings to the three subtypes of wagon houses and the two types of barns analyzed in the previous study, and to what might be found in the literature on farm buildings in other regions.

Personnel The following people carried out the particular tasks of this study:  Building Selection: Janet Sheridan, project director;  Fieldwork for Drawings: Janet L. Sheridan, hired technicians Stephanie Long Fazen and Maria Cerda-Moreno, and volunteer Noel Kemm;  Cultural Resource Survey, Photography, Drawings, Archival Research, and Analysis: Janet L. Sheridan.

Expected Results The expectation is to answer some or all of following questions:  Who designed and built these buildings, when, and why?  Why do they look the way they do?  How did they function?  Were they altered, and if so, why and when?  How do these buildings relate to other buildings in the farmstead?  Are they alike or different from previously documented local outbuildings?  Are they found elsewhere?  Can we define new property types or subtypes from the data?

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Location and Setting

Study area, see Fig. 2

Figure 1. Location map of Salem County and Mannington Township.

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Figure 2. Study area. Detail of Mannington Township showing the study farm locations by tax parcel. (1) Zerns-Wright, (2) Bassett-Allen-Waldac, (3) Stretch-Mulford

Data Summary Statewide Contexts The farms fall under the NJ HPO historic statewide contexts of:  #7 Colonial Settlement (1630-1775): Bassett-Allen-Waldac;  #8 Early Industrialization, Urbanization & Agricultural Development, 1775-1860: All three;  #10 Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial & Urban Expansion, 18501920: All three;  #12 Modern New Jersey (1945-Present): Bassett-Allen-Waldac and Zerns-Wright. They all also fall under the thematic historic contexts of:  Agriculture;  Farms and Farmsteads; and  Vernacular Architecture.

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.

Historical Maps

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Figure 3. The study farms in 1849. (1) Zerns farm is not built yet on Joseph Bassett’s land. Note the vicinity (2) “D. Bassett Estate”, (3) Unidentified, owned by large number of Bassett properties in the vicinity, Hill Smith at this time. (Stansbie,, 1849)

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1

3

Figure 4.. The study farms in 1860. (1) “J. Bassett” Joseph Bassett owns the house he built for his daughter Lydia, (2) Allen farm is just outside the map coverage, coverage (3) “R. Stretch” Robert Stretch ((Beers and Lake, 1860).

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1

2

Figure 5. Study farms in 1869. This edition of the Beers and Lake map has a different coverage than the 1860 edition, and there here is some question as to the actual date of the map. (1) “J. Bassett” is shown as still owning the Zerns farm (as in Fig. 5),, though he died in 1867, when he devised the farm to his daughter Lydia Zerns, (2) “S. P. Allen” is shown on the David Bassett farm. (Beers and Lake, 1869),, (3) is beyond the bottom edge of the map.

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1

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Figure 6. The study farms and their acreages in 1875. (1) “J. Zerns 109”, (2) “S. P. Allen 224”, (3) “J. Mulford 54”. (Everts and Stewart, 1876)

Survey Forms The survey forms are found in the Appendix for each farm. The forms contain the detail on each building from which the analysis (below) is drawn, including architectural description and

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photos, historical background, historical photos, maps and illustrations, statements of significance, and comparative buildings.

Drawings The drawings are formatted onto HABS standard 36" x 24" sheet sizes, and follow HABS guidelines for drafting and content as closely as possible. Reduced versions of the drawings are found in the Appendices. Full-size drawings will be archived at the Salem County Historical Society, the Salem Community College Library, and Rutgers Library Special Collections in New Brunswick. Electronic versions of the drawings will be available online for download through www.downjerseyheritage.com. Zerns-Wright Wagon House drawing set includes: 1. Ground and Loft Floor Plans; 2. Cellar Floor and Overhead Framing Plans; 3. Elevations; 4. Cross Section. Bassett-Allen-Waldac Ground Barn drawing set includes: 1. Ground Floor Plan; 2. Loft Plan; 3. Loft Overhead Framing Plan; 4. East and South Elevations; 5. Bent Elevations. Stretch-Mulford Carriage Barn drawing set includes: 1. Ground Floor Plan and Hay Box Section; 2. Ground Floor Overhead Framing Plan and Loft Plan; 3. Historic Ground Floor Plans; 4. South and East Elevations; 5. North and West Elevations; 6. Longitudinal Section and Post details; 7. Hardware Details. Stretch-Mulford Wagon House drawing set includes: 1. Ground and Loft Floor Plans; 2. Historic Ground Floor Plans; 3. South and East Elevations; 4. North and West Elevations; 5. Longitudinal Section and Hasp Detail

Analysis of Buildings FOUR-BAY ENGLISH GROUND BARN The three individual barns that comprise the aggregated Bassett-Allen-Waldac [Waldac] barn are all basically the same design, all hewn timber, and accrued generationally between 1792 and 1860. They all have features of the “ground barn” and the “English barn” or “English threshing barn” in that they stand on flat ground, they had double wagon doors on both side walls under the eaves, their structural bents are perpendicular to the ridge, the uppermost tie beam is a dropped tie, they each had a ground-level threshing bay with opposing double-leaf doors and side bays for

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animal stabling and hay mows. They are similar in size, ranging within two feet of 40x30 feet in plan, cited as a typical barn size for this kind of barn (Visser, 61). The earliest barn (dated 1792) was initially built approximately 13’-6” in height from the ground to the eaves, out of heavier, more irregular timbers, compared to the other two at approximately twenty feet to the eaves with more regularly-sized timbers. Their major distinguishing character, in contrast to the well-known English three-bay barn, is that they all have four bays instead of three, and each barn contains the threshing runway in the same bay—second from the east end. They are similar to barns that have been described in New York, New England, and Maryland (Visser, 61-66; Falk, 30-33; Noble and Cleek, 77-78; Mroszczyk, 36, 42-43). Visser identified a similar end-to-end connected series of English barns in Pawlet, Vermont (Visser, 62). This habit is seen in two examples in Mannington—the Waldac barn of this study and the Wyatt barn of Volume I of this study—where farmers also strung barns together (Sheridan, 2014). Southeastern Pennsylvania barns in the period 1780-1870, though not far away, are generally much different than New Jersey barns in the use of stone, being banked with an upper threshing floor and lower animal stables, and having forebays that overhang the downhill side (Pennsylvania Agricultural History Project, 37-38). These are held to be a significant evolution in barn design that occurred in early nineteenth-century Pennsylvania, and was carried to western and southern states, but generally not eastward into New Jersey (Noble et al, 84-100). The mid-Maryland Type J2 barn is a gabled three-bay ground barn like the English or Yankee barn characteristic of colonial New England, “constructed early in the region’s history; as agricultural activity increased, the type was abandoned,” and the bank barn sweeping down from Pennsylvania. Noble and Seymour (1982) had argued that this barn type was primarily for the processing and storing of grain, not for animal stabling, and also that a high proportion of English barns in a given region are indicative of poor agricultural conditions (Mroszczyk, 42). However, neither idea seems to apply to the English ground barns in topographically flat Mannington, which historically and still is a prime agricultural area where ground barns are prevalent, where animals were indeed stalled, and to where the Pennsylvania barn was not carried by westward migration. In this very flat territory, ground barns had to house animals at the level of the threshing bay. At the Wyatt farm, an alternative solution was to build a dedicated animal barn. But at the Waldac farm, Bassett and Allen built more of the same as the operation grew. The repeated building of identical barns for almost seventy years seems to say that production was expanding through the Bassett-Allen years, and more space was needed for threshing, animals, and fodder. This design must have worked for them and those who followed. The Cadwalladers continued to use these early barns by adapting them, as they expanded the dairy operation. None of the sources cited above mentioned a four-bay type of ground threshing barn. The 1984 Salem County Survey identified the three-bay English barn as the most common in the county (Thomson and Dickey, 18). In the first volume of this study (Sheridan, 2014), two three-bay examples were identified, but as yet, the Waldac barns are unique in their four-bay design feature. The Wyatt barn (renamed the John & Charlotte Wistar barn for the National Register listing) was three bays but with about the same footprint, 40x30, creating one much wider side bay where animals were housed. However, a four-bay English barn built before 1730 was identified in Topsfield, Massachusetts (St. George, 1987). The author pointed out that unlike their English antecedents, early colonial barns in New England housed animals as well as processed and stored grain crops, while some farmers had a separate barn for animals (such as at the Wyatt barn). In the Topsfield barn, the framing of the 43x27 foot plan had five transverse bents, but two bays at one end lacked interior

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posts between them, creating four major floor spaces. The double bay was divided longitudinally and likely used to stall animals. The Waldac barns may have had a similar spatial arrangement. The Waldac two western bays measure approximately the same as the single larger side bay in the Wyatt barn (about nineteen feet). Perhaps the intermediate extra bent offered greater structural strength, or it facilitated partitioning of the space for animal stalls. The dropped tie beam, creating an H-shaped bent, in an English-type barn, was an innovation over the standard English box frame in which tie beams running transversally joined the wall plates at the top of the posts (see Waldac drawings in Appendix II, Sheets 2, 3, 5). Dropping the tie a foot or more below the plate simplified the joinery and eliminated the need for a gunstock, or flared, post top to accommodate all the joinery. It also converted the structural logic from a box to a series of bents, or structural frames. This design seems to have been a widespread practice in northern states by the beginning of the late eighteenth century, as the structural form has been reported in Massachusetts (Sobon, 3; Endersby, 212), Vermont (Visser, 63-64, Endersby, 232), as well as in northern New Jersey (Endersby, 199-203, 210, 244, 248). The Wyatt and Watson barns (Sheridan, 2014) are other local examples of this practice. Since the Waldac barn is dated (a rarity), we now know that the practice of building English barns with Hbents here was established by 1792. Another structural aspect of comparison is the roof framing. The Waldac barns all have common rafters without any other means of support, such as collar ties or purlins, and it appears that the rafters are original. The Wyatt barns both had purlin plates supported by braced and cross-tied vertical frames standing on the upper tie beams. Most barns illustrated in the sources cited from northern New Jersey and other states had purlin plates supported by either vertical or canted posts. The Watson dairy barn had no purlins, either, but it was also a smaller barn, at 32x22 feet in plan. Nevertheless, the Waldac roof structures have survived despite lacking the extra support. In sum, the Waldac barn illustrates a unique and perhaps unusual design that was preferred and repeated for some 70 years, the four-bay English ground barn. The generational adding of barns also suggests the growth of the farming operation by successive owners, emphasizing livestock, which required more space for more animal stalls and more hay storage. The first half of the nineteenth century was a time of progressive agriculture, with new methods and attitudes prevailing, the establishment of agricultural societies (1826 in Salem County), the publication and circulation of farm journals, and growing urban markets (Schmidt,105-109). People like the Bassetts, who were large landholders, would have been at the forefront. The changes made by Samuel P. Allen starting around the time of the Civil War (moving two barns together), reflected the practical and economic sense it made to adapt old buildings as well as build new forms such as the combined crib barn/granary/cellar/wagon house. This was a time of expanding dairying in the state which required more space for stabling more cows and horses and hay storage. The stringing together of the barns, and the installation of the hay track to reduce the labor of stowing hay and straw in the barns, may be evidence for an expansion of dairying on this farm, as was the trend statewide, in the late nineteenth century (Cunningham, 154). The threshing bays may have disappeared as threshing machines came on the market (Ibid, 120). The further expansion of dairying in 1938 by the Cadwalladers, with the connection and expansion of the three barns, extended the usefulness of the old barns, perhaps encouraged by the effects of the Great Depression. Continuing to evolve, and still used for calf stalls, these barns have served farmers’ needs for 225 years.

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CARRIAGE BARN This two-story, two-bay, side wall entry barn was clearly structured with a drive-in bay, horse stalls, and a hay loft. It was altered by raising the floor, eliminating the double carriage doors, and reconfiguring the stall space. It was most likely built as well as altered before 1860 and the advent of circular saws. It is the first of this type identified and documented in the county in this study. There is a similar building on the property bordering on the east side. The carriage shed at the Caspar & Rebecca Wistar farm is a different form, one-story with an open front, and probably more exemplary of an earlier period. This barn is a specialized building that affords dedicated housing for a passenger vehicle, separation of road horses from the main barn, the increasing level of gentility on a farm, and the public display of that gentility. In this setting, it occupied a prominent location in the farmyard, oriented toward and highly visible from the road, and matched the adjacent granary/wagon house in exterior cladding, Gothic-style board-and-batten. This treatment suggests intent to architecturally unify these two highly visible buildings. In New England single-purpose carriage houses or carriage barns on small farms were not typical until after the 1830s except in villages and larger farms. Between 1830 and 1850, farming was scaling up and separate quarters for horses and carriages were becoming more common. This trend accelerated in the 1860s and 1870s. Common characteristics of carriage barns are a plank floor, a few glazed windows for light, weather-tightness, a hay loft, and a manger and feed box, and box stalls about twelve feet square (Visser, 143-149). Many urban carriage houses that survive in large American cities seem to date from the 1840s. Characteristics of carriage barns can also include hay drops, stall paneling, hay doors, horse doors to exterior, access to pasture, and grain bins (Perinton Historical Society). Many were built in the style of the main house or the current architectural trend. Most tended to be gable-fronted, whereas the Mulford carriage barn was side-wall entry, like an English barn, as illustrated in a period pattern book (Halstead, 1881: 39-40) (see Appendix III, Continuation sheet). The Mulford carriage barn was built to house one carriage, a horse or two, and a hay loft, based on the evidence of a former set of double doors and drive bay on the west side, boarded walls, a post mortised for a partition of heavy planks or timbers indicating a stall, a feeding trough or manger, hay drops, and a floored hay loft with two exterior hay doors. There is a curious absence of horse windows, but the north, south and east walls have been resided, and if there was any evidence of such, it has been lost. The glazed window in the north wall of the carriage bay is too low for a horse, but satisfies horses’ need for light, and as a sliding sash, admits air. There was ample area on the 6-acre lot, and later, on the 4.71 acre lot, for pasture. The presence of the carriage barn with its stylish exterior matching the granary/wagon house may be indicative of the presence of a well-to-do farmer, self-conscious of the public appearance of his farm. Also, the nearness of an urban center, the town of Salem, where such buildings are likely to have been prevalent, may have influenced its appearance.

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WAGON HOUSES (CRIB BARNS, DRIVE-IN CORN CRIBS) (Types 1-3, see Volume I) Type 4: single build, hybrid H-frame, one-and-a-half story, three drive bays, center wagon bay with built-in corn cribs and granary loft, two integral side aisles with corn cribs, single roof pitch. Type 5: multiple builds, English box frame, one-and-a-half story, three drive bays, center wagon bay with granary loft, two additive side aisles with corn cribs, double roof pitch. The noted scholar of folk buildings, Henry Glassie, noted the “drive-in corn crib” throughout the mid-Atlantic region, but in New Jersey, it “is a major farm building located in a position of importance within the farmyard; it is fitted with doors and sheds and serves multiple purposes…” The 1984 surveyors, Maria Thomson and John Dickie, retained that terminology. It is also popularly known as crib house, wagon shed, or wagon house. Wagon houses are multi-purpose storage buildings that are gable-fronted with two or more bays, usually three, and are made to store the products of the farm in corn cribs, granaries, and cellars, as well as implements and large farm vehicles. Volume I of this study looked at three examples, which were all different. This study looked at two more that were different yet. What they all share in common is gable-entry, one or more drive bays, the presence of corn cribs, and proximity to the farm house. The features that vary are: the presence or absence of a cellar, an elevated central wood floor, a loft, a granary, meat room, or aisles; framing style; the placement and number of corn cribs; a single- or doublepitched roof; integral or additive shed-roofed aisles; and number of stories. Most examples in this study so far have a central section with a cellar, a thick wood floor and a granary loft, two side aisles on the ground, and corn cribs in the central section. Perhaps because of the valuable stores they were intended to contain, they were typically situated close to the farm house, perhaps to facilitate surveillance. Some examples accrue to their final shape over time, others are built of a piece. The Zerns-Wright wagon house was built of a piece, had a central drive-in bay with two built-in corn cribs, two side aisles, a cellar, a loft, and has a continuous roof slope. It is markedly similar in outer appearance to the well-known Dutch barn of northern New Jersey and New York or the New England gable-ended barn. It stored farm products with specialized built-in structures such as a stone cellar for root and orchard crops (especially potatoes), three corn cribs, and a tightly finished loft probably for grain storage, and also housed the farm wagon and other implements. Means of access include an exterior ramp to the central bay, double-leaf swinging doors, floor hatches, and a wide, strongly built enclosed stair leading to cellar and loft. The Zerns-Wright wagon house is not a New World Dutch Barn, as detailed by Dutch barn expert Gregory Huber but it could be a Dutch barn derivative. “Any vernacular barn in the Northeast that has it main roof support through internally positioned posts is a Dutch barn or most likely a Dutch barn derivative” (Huber, in Fitchen, 2001: xxiv-xxxii). The Zerns wagon house does not fit into any of the five forms of Dutch barns Huber defined. There are points of similarity and difference. The similarities are the gable-entry; the three aisles with a raised, wood-floored, high central aisle and flanking one-story side-aisles; and the H-bents perpendicular to the ridge that form the main structure with the main posts supporting the roof internally. Differences include, one, age--the so-called Dutch barns were built before 1840, whereas the Zerns barn was built in 1851 (Huber, Ibid: xxxii). Two, size—Dutch barns are typically wider than 45 feet in the gable end dimension and almost the same in depth, Zerns is smaller and less square, at 40x28 feet.

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Three, Dutch barns are not known to have been built in southern New Jersey where the oldest barns seem to be English barns, and no anchorbeam in the strict sense (15-20 inches in depth with protruding tenons) has ever been found to the author’s knowledge. However, the Dutch were settled, though thinly, along the river before the English took possession of New Jersey in 1664, and there are known examples of simplified H-frame house construction in southwestern New Jersey, which could imply a Dutch legacy in timber framing (Sheridan, 2008). Four, functionally, the two Mannington examples (see the Thompson wagon house, Appendix I, Continuation Sheet. Fig. 16) were secondary buildings for storage, not the main barn, where threshing, animal stalling, and animal feed and bedding storage took place, as Dutch barns were. At the Zerns’ farm, threshing and animal stalling took place in the English bank barn. Five, structurally, the upper wall plate of the Zerns timber frame is not a true purlin plate that gives the entire roof its primary support, as it does in a Dutch barn. In the Zerns barn, the rafters are pieced in two sets that lap at the wall plate. A true purlin or purlin plate supports the midpoint of an entire rafter to give such a long, thin piece adequate stiffness. Sixth, a final structural and functional difference is that in the Zerns and Thompson wagon houses the loft floor was framed with milled joists that run parallel to the bents, bearing on horizontal girts that span between the posts, a decidedly English way of creating a floor (transferring loads to beams, not posts). The lofts are lined with tightly joined boards to form a granary. The Dutch barns, in contrast, did not have a floor, but a rack formed out of long poles on which hay was stacked. The Zerns and Thompson barns are a distinct design of unknown origin. The English Quakers of Mannington were not Dutch or even Dutch-descended, being a very closed society, so the idea did not likely originate from within. It could have been inspired by Dutch-American barns in the northern part of the New Jersey, modifying the concept for a storehouse. By 1850, such ideas could have easily traveled to southwestern New Jersey. But it would be misleading to call them New World Dutch, Dutch-American, or Anglo-Dutch. It seems to be a mid-nineteenth-century innovation that perhaps creolized English and Dutch ideas of form and function. The Stretch-Mulford wagon house is a stark contrast in formation. Beginning as a gable-roofed granary higher off the ground on piers, it transformed over time into the wagon house (or drive-in corn crib) form—three-aisled, perhaps emulating the intentional form of the integrally-built wagon houses in the region. It would have been a practical solution to the need for space, whether for implements or corn cribs, to expand an existing building with shed roofs. The double-pitch may be a consequence of geometry—to maximize the width of a side aisle and maintain adequate height in the aisle would require a flatter pitch on the aisle roof. Starting with a building less than two full stories would certainly flatten the lower slope, as it did at the Caspar & Rebecca Wistar wagon house. This is the first evidence of a single-purpose granary in this study, though other wagon houses contain granaries as one of their functions (Sheridan, 2014 and elsewhere in this report). The Stretch granary may be a generation earlier in construction than Zerns, and may be representative of a trend that inspired the design of an integrally-built wagon house, such as the Zerns in 1851. Other wagon houses previously studied in Salem County share certain characteristics with this one. All are gable-fronted buildings with at least one drive bay. All are the farm outbuilding

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closest to the farm house. The Stretch wagon house shares the broken roof slopes and the added lateral aisles of the Caspar & Rebecca Wistar wagon house, though the latter began with a pentagonal corn crib instead of a granary. Stretch shares the tight-fitting boarding provided for grain bins with the Zerns and Thompson wagon house lofts. Similar regional examples of the double-pitch roofed wagon house or crib barn include one in Woolwich Township, Gloucester County (Springate, 2011:5-5), and one in New Castle County, Delaware (CHAD, 1999) (Figs. 6 and 7, Stretch-Mulford Continuation Sheet, Appendix III). The Delaware example, like Zerns, also has a stone cellar. Some began in their final form like Zerns, Thompson and John & Charlotte Wistar, others grew over time, but all are multi-purpose buildings in their final form, built to protect valuable farming commodities such as feed and seed, whether for home use or market, house a farm vehicle, and store farming implements placed close to the farm house.

Bibliography Primary sources Stansbie, Alexander C., James Keily, and Samuel M Rea. A Map of the Counties of Salem and Gloucester, New Jersey from the Original Surveys. Phila: Smith & Wistar, 1849. http://www.loc.gov/item/2012586902 Everts & Stewart. Combination Atlas Map of Salem and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey: Compiled, Drawn and Published from Personal Examinations and Surveys. Woodbury, N.J.: Gloucester County Historical Society, 2001. Repr. Philadelphia: Everts and Stewart, 1876.

Federal Censuses, 1830-1940, Ancestry.com. Historic Aerial Photography, http://www.historicaerials.com/ United States Department of Agriculture aerial photos 1931, 1940, 1963, 1970, 1995, 2002, 2006. Lake, D. J. and S. N. Beers. Map of the Vicinity of Philadelphia from Actual Surveys. Philadelphia: John E. Gillette C.K. Stone Publishers, 1860. Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/bah/dam/mg/di/m011/Map0376Interface.html Lake, D. J. and S. N. Beers. Map of the Vicinity of Philadelphia from Actual Surveys. Philadelphia: John E. Gillette C.K. Stone Publishers, 1869. David Rumsey map Collection at Stanford University Libraries https://searchworks.stanford.edu/view/10451036 Ortho imagery. 1930, 1995/97, 2002. iMap NJ. http://www.state.nj.us/dep/gis/depsplash.htm Personal communications: Asa Cadwallader, David Cadwallader, Jason Cadwallader, Ruthanne Wright, Lydia DeHope. Salem County Deeds, Miscellaneous Records, Salem County Clerks Office.

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Salem County Probate Records, Familysearch.com Salem County parcel data http://tax1.co.monmouth.nj.us/cgibin/prc6.cgi?&ms_user=glou&passwd= data&district=1706&srch_type=0&adv=0&out_type=3

United States Geographic Survey. 1948 Topographic Map. Salem Quad. http://historical.mytopo.com/quad.cfm?quadname=Salem&state=NJ&series=15 United States Geographic Survey. 1890 Topographic Map. Salem Quad. http://historical.mytopo.com/quad.cfm?quadname=Salem&state=NJ&series=15 United States Direct Tax, 1798. Salem County, New Jersey. Copy of original list, New Jersey Archive: Series: New Jersey General Assembly, Tax Ratables (Duplicates), 1768-1846 Control #: SAS00001, Box 73 - Salem County – Mannington Township, Book #1555 – 1798 Direct Tax – Schedule A. Woodnutt, William Goodwin. The Plain Diary of a Plan Man. In Thompson, Helen H., Ed., “The Diary of a Quaker Farmer.” Salem Standard and Jerseyman, Feb. 20, 1941. Collection of Salem County Historical Society. Secondary Sources: Ardrey, R. L. American Agricultural Implements; a Review of Invention and Development in the Agricultural Implement Industry of the United States. Chicago: R. L. Ardrey, 1894. Barga, M. 2013. The Long Depression (1873-1878). Retrieved December 27, 2016 from http://socialwelfare.library.vcu.edu/eras/civil-war-reconstruction/the-long-depression/ Burns, John A., ed. Recording Historic Structures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2005. Carter, Thomas and Elizabeth Collins Cromley. Invitation to Vernacular Architecture. Knoxville: The University to Tennessee Press, 2005. Catts, Wade (2001) "Research Questions for the Archaeology of Rural Places: Experiences from the Middle Atlantic," Northeast Historical Archaeology: Vol. 30-31 31, Article 11. Available at: http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/neha/vol31/iss1/11 Center for Historic Architecture and Design. “Threatened Buildings Documented in Delaware, 1999-2000: John T. Simmons Farmstead.” Unpublished documentation, 1999. http://udspace.udel.edu/handle/19716/4734 Craig, H. Stanley, compiler. Genealogical Data: The Salem Tenth in West Jersey. Merchantville, NJ:H. S. Craig, 1926. Cunningham, John T. Garden State: The Story of Agriculture in New Jersey. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1955. Cushing, Thomas and Charles E. Sheppard, History of the Counties of Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1883; repr. Woodbury, NJ: Gloucester County Historical Society, 1974.

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De Cunzo, Lu Ann (2001) "The Archaeology of Agriculture and Rural Life in Northern Delaware, 1800-1940," Northeast Historical Archaeology: Vol. 30-31 31, Article 8. Available at: http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/neha/vol31/iss1/8 Delaware Valley Regional Planning Commission. Mannington Historical Sites Inventory. (Separate printing from the Environmental Resource Inventory for the Township of Mannington. DVRPC Publ. #07011, 2008. Endersby, Greenwood and Larkin, Barn Preservation & Adaptation. Universe: 2003, Repr 2008. Falk, Cynthia G. Barns of New York : Rural Architecture of the Empire State. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012. Fitchen, John; edited and with new material by Gregory D. Huber. The New World Dutch Barn : The Evolution, Forms, and Structure of a Disappearing Icon, Second Edition. Syracuse, N.Y.: Syracuse University Press, 2001. Frandsen, J. H. and W. B. Nevens. “Dairy /Barn and Milk House Arrangement” Circular 6, Agricultural Experimental Station, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska October, 1919. Garrison, J. Ritchie. “Remaking the Barnyard: The Archaeology of Farm Outbuildings in the Connecticut River Valley of Massachusetts, 1770-1870,” in De Cunzo, Lu Ann, and Bernard L. Herman. Historical Archaeology and the Study of American Culture. Winterthur, Del: Henry Francis du Pont Winterthur Museum, 1996. Glassie, Henry. “Eighteenth-Century Cultural Process in Delaware Valley Folk Building,” Winterthur Portfolio, Vol. 7 (1972). Halstead, Byron D. Barns, Sheds and Outbuildings: Placement, Design and Construction. New York: Orange Judd, 1881, repr. Brattleboro VT: Stephen Greene Press,1977. Hinshaw, William Wade, and Thomas Worth Marshall. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy. Vol 2, Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co, 1969. Honeyman, A. Van Doren, ed. Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, First Series, Vol. 34, Calendar of New Jersey Wills, Administrations, Etc, Vol. V, 1771-1780. Somerville, NJ, 1939. Honeyman, A. Van Doren, ed. Documents Relating To The Colonial History State Of New Jersey First Series---Vol. 31, Extracts From American Newspapers Relating To New Jersey For The Year 1775. Somerville, NJ: The Unionist-Gazette Association, Printers, 1923. Hubka, Thomas C. Big House. Little House, Back House, Barn: The Connected Farm Buildings of New England (Hanover [N.H.]: University Press of New England, 1984). McAlester, Virginia and Lee. A Field Guide to American Houses. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2006.

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Lanier, Gabrielle M. and Bernard L. Herman. Everyday Architecture of the Mid-Atlantic: Looking at Buildings and Landscapes. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. Mercer, Henry C. The Dating of Old Houses. Doylestown, Pa: Bucks County Historical Society, 1923. Mroszczyk, Lisa J. “Barns of Mid Maryland.” Historic American Building Survey, No. MD1275, 2007. Nelson, William, ed., Documents Relating to the Colonial History of the State of New Jersey, Vol. 22, Marriage Records, 1665-1800. Patterson, NJ, 1901. Nelson, Lee H. “Nail Chronology as an Aid to Dating Old Buildings,” American Association for State and Local History Technical Leaflet 48, History News Vol 24, No 11, November 1968. New Jersey Archive, New Jersey Colonial Conveyances. Noble, Allen G. and Gayle A. Seymour. “Distribution of Barn Types in Northeastern United States.” Geographical Review 72, No, 2 (April 1982):159. Noble, Allen G., Richard K. Cleek and M. Margaret Geib. The Old Barn Book: A Field Guide to North American Barns and Other Farm Structures. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1995. Pennsylvania Agricultural History Project, “Historic Agricultural Resources of Pennsylvania, 1700-1960: A National Register Multiple Property Documentation Form, Agricultural Resources of Pennsylvania, Southeastern Pennsylvania Historic Agricultural Region, c. 1750-1960.” http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/ agricultural_history_project/2579 Perinton Historical Society. “Perinton Barns and Carriage Houses.” http://www.perintonhistoricalsociety.org/about/structure-committee/perinton-historicalsociety-barns-a-carriage-houses Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends. Salem Quarter: The Quakers of Salem Quarterly Meeting of Philadelphia Yearly Meeting of the Religious Society of Friends in Southern New Jersey from 1675-1990. [N.J.?]: Salem Quarterly Meeting, 1991; Salem County Cultural Resource Surveys, 1984, 2004. New Jersey Historic Preservation Office. Salem County Historical Society: Bassett Files. SalemCountyParcels.shp. GIS shape file of Salem County tax parcels, https://njgin.state.nj.us/NJ_NJGINExplorer/DataDownloads.jsp Schmidt, Hubert G. Agriculture in New Jersey, A Three-Hundred-Year History. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 1973.

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Sebold, Kimberly R., and Sara Amy Leach. Historic Themes and Resources Within the New Jersey Coastal Heritage Trail: Southern New Jersey and the Delaware Bay : Cape May, Cumberland, and Salem Counties. Washington, DC: Historic American Buildings Survey/Historic American Engineering Record, National Park Service, 1991. Sheridan, Janet L. “ ‘Their House are Some Built of Timber’: The Colonial Timber Frames of Fenwick’s Colony, New Jersey.” Masters Thesis, University of Delaware, 2007. --------- “Marshalltown National Register Nomination.” 2012. https://app.box.com/s/u9gczmpcd88i52ti6bpg --------- “Colonial Timber Framing in Southwestern New Jersey: The Cultural Implications of Structural Logic.” The Bulletin of the Archaeological Society of Delaware, No. 45 (New Series), 2008 [publ. 2013], 37-58. --------- “Salem County Farms Recording Project.” 2014. https://app.box.com/s/t31y2n1h43yweges8lbrft0ld0rkoqbf --------- John and Charlotte Wistar National Register nomination, 2015 --------- Caspar and Rebecca Wistar National Register nomination, 2015 Shourds, Thomas. History and Genealogy of Fenwick’s Colony, New Jersey. Bridgeton, N.J.: G.F. Nixon, 1876. Sickler, Joseph S. The History of Salem County, New Jersey; Being the Story of John Fenwick's Colony, the Oldest English Speaking Settlement on the Delaware River. Salem, N.J.: Sunbeam Publishing Company, 1937. Sobon, Jack A. Edited by Kenneth Rower. Historic American Timber Joinery: A Graphic Guide. Timber Framers Guild, 2004. Splain, Shelby Weaver. Guidelines for Architectural Survey. Trenton: Historic Preservation Office, n. d. Springate, Megan E. South Jersey Fresh: A History of Agriculture in Woolwich Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Cranbury, NJ: Richard Grubb & Associates, 2011. St. George, Robert Blair. “The Stanley-Lake Barn in Topsfield, Massachusetts: Some Comment on Agricultural Outbuildings in Early New England.” Perspectives in Vernacular Architecture, I. Annapolis: Vernacular Architecture Forum, 1982, repr. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1987. Streeter, Donald. “The Historical Development of Hand-forged Iron Builders’ Hardware,” in H. Ward Jandl, ed., The Technology of Historic American Buildings: Studies of the Materials, Craft Processes, and the Mechanization of Building Construction. Washington, D. C.: APT, 1983. Thompson, Maria M. and John M. Dickey. Salem County Cultural Resource Survey Phase I. Salem County Cultural & Heritage Commission, August, 1984.

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United States, Federal Writers' Project of the Works Progress Administration for the State of New Jersey, Newark Public Library, and New Jersey Guild Associates. The WPA Guide to New Jersey: The Garden State. San Antonio, Texas: Trinity University Press, 2014. Visser, Thomas Durant. Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings. Hanover: University Press of New England, 1997. Vlach, John Michael. Barns. New York: W. W. Norton, 2003. Wacker, Peter O. "Folk Architecture as an Indicator of Culture Areas and Culture Diffusion: Dutch Barns and Barracks in New Jersey." Pioneer America 5, no. 2 (1973): 37-47. http://www.jstor.org/stable/20831816. Woodward, E. M., and John Frelinghuysen Hageman. History of Burlington and Mercer Counties, New Jersey: With Biographical Sketches of Many of Their Pioneers and Prominent Men. [Salem, Mass.]: [Higginson Book Co.], 1992.

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Appendices

Appendix I. Zerns-Wright Farm Wagon House

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New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM Property Name: Street Address:

Historic Sites #:

Zerns-Wright Farmstead Street #:

233 (Low)

Street Name:

Prefix:

County(s): Municipality(s): Local Place Name(s): Ownership::

Page 1

Apartment #: (High)

Pointers-Auburn

(Low)

(High)

Suffix:

Zip Code:

Salem Mannington Township

34

Lot(s):

10

USGS Quad(s)

RD

08079

Block(s):

Mannington Private

Type:

Salem

Photograph:

Description: The Zerns-Wright Farmstead stands on a 48 acre parcel that was first developed in 1851 from a larger farm owned by Joseph Bassett, Jr. It faces east on Pointer-Auburn Road in Mannington Township just north of Mannington Creek, surrounded by crop fields. The buildings surviving from 1851 include a farmhouse and a wagon house. The frame, Italianate-style farmhouse has two-and-a-half-stories, five-bays, is 40x30 feet in plan, and is currently vacant. Seventy feet to the northwest, the wagon house is sited prominently, facing the road at the end of a loop drive that accesses the farmyard. It was restored in 2006 with new cladding and doors. The farm is owned and actively farmed by a farmer who lives elsewhere, using a 60x200-foot metal-clad pole building built circa 1980, for machinery storage, and a grain bin built in the 1960s.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM

Page 2

Historic Sites #:

National Historic Landmark:

SHPO Opinion:

National Register:

Local Designation:

New Jersey Register:

Other Designation:

Determination of Eligibility:

Other Designation Date:

Registration and Status Dates:

Site Map:

Location Map:

W W A G O N WA AG GO ON N H H O U S E HO OU US SE E

P P A C K N G PA AC CK KIIIN NG G S S H E D SH HE ED D

S S E SIIITTTE E

H H O U S E HO OU US SE E G G R A N RA AIIIN N GR B B N BIIIN N

Bibliography/Sources: Delaware Valley Planning Commission, “Mannington Historical Sites Inventory” 2008; Map of the Counties of Salem and Gloucester, New Jersey from the Original Surveys by Alexander C. Stansbie, James Keily, and Samuel M Rea. Phila: Smith & Wistar, 1849; Combination Atlas Map of Salem and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts and Stewart, 1876; Federal Censuses, 1830-1930, Ancestry.com; Historic Aerial Photography, http://www.historicaerials.com/ USDA aerial photos 1931, 1940, 1963, 1970, 1995, 2002, 2006; Ortho imagery. 1930, 1995/97, 2002. iMap NJ; Salem County Deeds, Wills, Mortgages, Miscellaneous Records, Salem County Clerks Office; Salem County tax maps and parcel data; Cushing, Thomas and Charles E. Sheppard, History of the Counties of Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1883; repr. Woodbury, NJ: Gloucester County Historical Society, 1974; Thomas Shourds, History and Genealogy of Fenwick’s Colony, New Jersey, (Bridgeton, N.J.: G.F. Nixon, 1876); Hinshaw, William Wade, and Thomas Worth Marshall. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy. Vol 2, Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co, 1969; Janet Sheridan, “Marshalltown Survey” and “Marshalltown National Register nomination.” Halstead, Byron D. Barns, Sheds and Outbuildings: Placement, Design and Construction. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press, 1981; Familysearch.com, Salem County Probate Records (Wills, Divisions of Land); Cynthia G. Falk, Barns of New York : Rural Architecture of the Empire State (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012); Thomas Durant. Visser, Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1997); Ruthanne Wright and Emma May Hunter, personal communications. Jack Sobon, Historic American Timber Joinery: A Graphic Guide Timber Framers Guild, 2004; Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

Page 3

BASE FORM

Historic Sites #:

Additional Information:

More Research Needed?

Yes

No

(House was not surveyed)

INTENSIVE LEVEL USE ONLY Attachments Included: Within Historic District?

Building

Structure

Landscape

Industry

Yes Status:

Object

Bridge

No Key-Contributing

Associated Archaeological Site/Deposit?

Contributing

Non-Contributing

Yes

(Known or potential Sites – if yes, please describe briefly)

THIS PAGE TO BE COMPLETED ONLY AT INTENSIVE LEVEL AND ONLY IF PROPERTY IS A FARM COMPLEX Historic Farm Name:

Lydia and John R. Zerns Farm

Period of Agricultural Use: 1851 Source To Present Agriculture Type: Oilseed and grain farming Remaining Historic Fabric Medium Acreage: 48 ac

William Goodwin Woodnutt diary, Ruthanne Wright

Farm Description: The property consists of Tax Parcel Block 34, Lot 10. This parcel is part of the farm that Joseph Bassett devised to his daughter Lydia, and which she devised to her heirs, and which they sold to the Wrights, containing approximately 48 acres and containing the farmstead. The Zerns Wagon House, 40x28 feet in plan, stands 70 feet northwest of the now-vacant two-and-a-half-story, 40x30 foot, five-bay, frame Italianate-style farm house (built 1851), facing Pointers-Auburn Road on the east. It is the only historic outbuilding that remains on this farmstead, and stood closest to the house of any. The main barn, a bank barn built 1851 with a 1945 dairy wing and silo, formerly stood 75 feet north of the wagon house. The farmstead is accessed from Pointers-Auburn Road, running north-south on its east side, by an unpaved, circular driveway. The farmstead perimeter is defined by an outer circular drive. Standing 140 feet to the southwest is a 60x200-foot metal-clad pole building built circa 1980 which is used by the current owner to store farming equipment, and at 193 feet southwest stands a modern grain bin that is 35 feet in diameter. Crop fields surround the house on all sides. The land is slightly rolling and slopes downward to the north and west to wooded areas where a stream, Gravelly Run or the south branch of Horne Run, flows. A bungalow built by the Wright family circa 1925 stands 250 feet south on the other side of Pointers-Auburn Road. Beyond the south field, one-quarter mile distant, is Sunset Drive, running east-west, and one-third mile further south lies Mannington Creek and Meadow. The city of Salem is four miles south.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

Page 1

BUILDING ATTACHMENT Common Name: Historic Name:

Historic Sites #:

Wagon house, Crib barn, Drive-in corn crib Wagon house

Present Use:

Oilseed and grain farming

Historic Use:

Cattle ranching & farming, Vegetable and melon farming

Construction Date: Alteration Date(s): Designer: Builder:

1851

Source:

William G. Woodnutt diary

1949, 2006

Source:

Former owner, date in cellar Physical Condition:

Unknown

Remaining Historic Fabric:

Joseph Bassett, Jr.

Style:

N/A

Form:

N/A

Type:

Transverse frame barn

Roof Finish Materials: Exterior Finish Materials

Stories: Bays:

good medium 1½ 3

Standing Seam Metal Wood, Clapboard

Exterior Description: The Wagon house is a one-and-one-half-story, gable-fronted, three-bay transverse frame outbuilding with three drive-in bays on the east elevation. It measures approximately 40 feet wide and 28 feet deep in plan, stands on a partially parged stone foundation, and the gable roof is clad with ribbed sheet metal panels. The entire exterior is clad with unpainted, horizontal cedar clapboard with a 6-inch reveal which replaced the original clapboard siding (which was slightly wider) in 2006. The roof was replaced in 2006 from wood shingles to a green-coated, ribbed sheet metal product. East Elevation: The principal elevation faces east and is fenestrated with three ground-level double-leaf swinging doors at each drive bay, one passage door at the stair, and one six-over-six double-hung sliding sash window at the center of the building in the loft level. The braced board-and-batten doors, made in 2006, hang from handwrought iron strap hinges and pintels which may or may not be original to this building. The fenestration was changed slightly from the previous design during the 2006 rehabilitation, by comparison to a circa 1920 photo (see historic photo). The central door leafs are asymmetrical, measuring 6 feet and 4’-6” in width. The 1920s door was a sliding door, with a track extending over the south door, and that was probably an alteration made in the late nineteenth or early twentieth century to eliminate swinging doors (large swinging doors were a hazard in windy weather). The south double door had asymmetrical leafs circa 1920, the right hand of which hung on manufactured hinges, so it, too, may have been altered previously. By the 1950s this door had been converted to a sliding door. There was no passage door at the stair in the 1920s. The north and south doors were hinged on the building corner posts, whereas now they are hinged on a secondary post placed at a distance from each corner post. The present loft window may be original to the building, but was placed higher in the wall than it was originally. Prior to 2006, there were two, six-over-six double-hung sliding sash windows in each side aisle above the doors. The current doors and window and the roof rake are trimmed with plain flat boards as they were previously. In the 1920s, three lighting rods with glass balls were mounted along the ridge. Electrical service wires are attached to the wall near the ridge and the main cable follows the rake board down to its entry into the building at the bottom of the rake. A modern light fixture is mounted to the wall above the loft window. Where the foundation is visible, it is concrete, and therefore repaired. North Elevation: The parged foundation is exposed, increasingly so toward the west as the grade slopes downward. The parge is missing at a spot near the middle and at the west end. The horizontal clapboard wall, dating from 2006, has no openings. The single slope of roofing was clad with two courses of green, ribbed sheet metal panels. There is a slight bulge in the roof at the bottom of the upper course. This is due to a rack toward the north in the building frame. West elevation: The foundation is exposed for the entire length, and the stone is partially exposed where the Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 20, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BUILDING ATTACHMENT

Page 2

Historic Sites #:

parge has fallen off. The center section of foundation is 9-11 inches above the aisle foundations. There are two patched-up cellar window openings at each end of the center foundation using concrete block, brick and parge. There is one opening in the clapboarded wall—a six-over-six double-hung window in the center of the loft level. It is trimmed with plain flat boards, as is the roof rake. Distinctly visible in the wall is the ghosting of the two, twostory corner posts of the main frame, an effect of differential weathering of the clapboard where it is attached to the posts. The bulge in the north slope of the roof is apparent, though the south slope appears straight. South elevation: The parged foundation is visible above ground, tapering to invisible as the ground rises toward the east. All but 8 feet of foundation wall at the west end has been replaced with concrete block. There are no openings in the wood weatherboard wall. Historic photos showed a six-over-six double-hung window near the east corner of the elevation. The roofing is like the north slope, two courses of green, ribbed sheet metal panels of recent manufacture.. Interior Description: Frame: The center bay braced post-and-beam frame survives, and consists of sash-sawn oak timber, generally in 7-8 inch dimensions, with all members being joined with pinned, mortise and tenon joints. Three structural bents are located at the east and west walls and at mid-span. All the posts rise to the roof, and each opposing pair is connected by a heavy beam (essentially each is an H-frame), but between the posts at the north and south walls are intervening timber girts which support the floor joists running parallel with the bents, north-south. All posts are connected to longitudinal floor girts and to the wall plates with pinned up-braces, and the west bent may have had both up- and down-braces to its north-south floor beam (new stud walls would have eliminated the braces and covered evidence in the posts). The central bent has surviving down-braces between the upper post and the crossing floor beam, and these were likely present in the wall bents prior to the 2006 restoration. The first floor framing is different, designed to support a corn crib on the south side and a crib and a staircase on the north side. A summer beam runs north-south across the middle of the building, sill to sill, carrying east-west floor joists. Joined to the summer beam about 3 feet in from each sill and running east-west are longitudinal beams. The roof framing consists of common rafters joined at the ridge with bridle joints and wood pins. Each slope is framed with an upper and a lower set of rafters that bear on the upper wall plate. The roof slopes were designed to be continuous, though today the north slope bulges slightly due to the rack in the building frame toward the north, due to insufficient bracing in the north-south direction. Ground Floor: The center bay is characterized by its double-thick wood board floor, a south wall that is entirely clad with horizontal unfinished boards, a staircase to the loft and cellar at the north wall, a former corn crib behind the staircase, and exposed floor framing above. The floor boards run north-south and are random width (9-18 inches), one-inch thick, and nailed with cut nails and renailed with wire nails. Marks in the floor appear to be evidence of studded wheels, possibly of a tractor that was stored in this bay. A 4-foot square floor hatch is located in the front half of the floor, evidence of storing items in the cellar. The front edge of the floor at the double-door was cut back approximately one foot, and a concrete apron was poured to the new edge of floor. The south wall boards are shiplapped, oxidized dark, secured with cut nails, and apparently original. Graffiti was carved into the boards by James and Josephine Soldo, who may be the children of seasonal Italian farm workers from Camden, (ages 13 and 11 in the 1910 Federal Census). On some farms, such workers had been housed in local wagon houses (Ruthanne Wright). This is the north wall of a corn crib in the south aisle. The west wall is a stud wall of recently constructed nominal 2x4 lumber. At the staircase, the north wall is original sash-sawn exposed stud framing, with a board wall visible on the aisle side. Behind the stair is evidence of a former corn crib: an east-west seam in the floor (over a floor beam in the cellar), filled mortise pockets in the floor at the seam and in the north sill where studs formerly stood, and the shadows of removed horizontal slats on the north side of the middle wall post. The interior studs, if they followed the design of the corn crib on the south side, would have been clad with th horizontal boards on the interior. Running north-south within the former crib space is the remains of a 20 -century studwall with gypsum board. The 4-foot wide staircase is cased with horizontal boards, and runs straight up to the loft. A braced and battened, spaced-board door hangs at the fifth step. It is covered with chicken wire, and may be evidence of keeping chickens in the loft. A large hole near the bottom appears gnawed by an animal. Being made th with circular sawn wood suggests it was added later in the 19 century. The stair wall above the door is clad with spaced boards running on a diagonal parallel with the stair. Nailed on top of that for unknown reasons is a house

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shutter. At the bottom of the stair are two wood wall boxes built between the studs. A table is built onto the stair wall next to the cellar door with a board supported on a ledger and a stud. The cellar door is a board-and-batten door hung on wrought strap hinges and pintels. Tally marks have been carved into the door. At the doorway the floor level drops one step to a landing from which the cellar stair descends. On the boarded stair wall is more graffiti, including one that looks like a tall structure. Thirteen loft floor joists run north-south and notch over the north and south floor girts. They are sash-sawn, measure 3x8 inches and are spaced on 2-foot centers. The joists appear to have been wrapped with sheet metal on both sides of the bay, for unknown reasons. The south aisle is characterized by the exposed main building frame on the right, open replaced roof framing, an original horizontal board interior finish at the west (rear) wall, and a former corn crib on the north side. The south exterior walls are framed with replacement nominal lumber stud-wall framing. On the north side, a full-length corn crib was removed, and the floor lowered to the ground, evidently to expand the usable space in the aisle. The crib was within the main frame, that is, structurally part of the center bay, but not visible from it due to the solid board wall. The exterior wall of the crib was clad with spaced horizontal slats, the shadows of which are detectable on the posts. The boards inside the crib at the west wall appear to be a patch made of salvaged, painted weather boards, but placed at an early date, according to the use of cut nails. Originally the floor of the crib was continuous with the floor of the center bay, but sometime in the 20th century it was cut off at the inner east-west floor beam, the building sill and studs were cut out between the posts, and a double-thick board floor (possibly the cut-off pieces) was laid from the stone foundation to a new ledger on the inner floor beam. The west wall retains horizontal boarding in the interior to the level of the loft. Exposed in the west board wall is an original girt at eave height. The girt has a robbed mortise at about 3 feet from the south exterior wall, probable evidence of the upper plate of an original corn crib along the south wall. A comparable girt spanned to the south wall plate from the middle post but has been cut off. Between the loft floor girt and upper wall plate are original wall studs that support the visible interior board wall in the loft. The floor of the aisle is partially a concrete slab and partially earth. Cobblestone fill occupies a low area. The missing floor slab, the fill, and the replacement foundation under the south wall suggest that there was some sort of undermining of the foundation and floor, possibly by groundhogs. The rafters are recently replaced, doubled 2x6 lumber. The removals of the corn cribs may have signaled a change of use, possibly to garage an automobile. The standalone corn crib that once stood east of the wagon house and appears in circa 1920 photographs along the circular drive (in use until 1963 for cow fodder) may have been built to replace the wagon house corn cribs. Photos from the 1950s show details that suggest th early 20 century construction. The north aisle is characterized by a shiplapped horizontal board wall covering the east half of the south wall (north wall of center bay), open framing to the center bay at the west half (location of a corn crib), surviving aisle timbers including a middle post in the north exterior wall, and a connecting transverse girt to the main middle post. These pieces of the original frame have robbed mortises for transverse up-braces from the exterior post to the girt, and longitudinal up-braces and girts in the plane of the exterior (north) wall. The west half of the interior wall is open to the center bay, and used to have two studs (at robbed mortises in the floor girt and sill) and spaced horizontal slats (ghosted on the middle post and braces) framing a corn crib in the center bay. The board wall terminates at the rear of the staircase, and is decorated with graffiti carved by farm workers (A W, M, Josh, and the faint outline of a sailing ship, commonly seen near Atlantic coastal communities (Emmons, 2016). A W could be Alice Wright, and the Ms and Ws could be traditional apotropaic marks, or symbols used to ward off evil (Emmons, personal communication 2016). Loft Level: The stair ascends to a landing near the top then steps up toward the south to the floor level of the loft. The stairway is surrounded by a wood railing in the loft. There is one room, characterized by a horizontal shiplapped wood board finish, darkened by age, at the entire south wall and the west half of the north wall, a spaced slat wall at the east end of the north wall, an original board floor, and open roof framing. The board walls are trimmed with chamfered square wood moldings that seal the junctures of the wall with the floor and protruding posts, appearing to provide tightness of fit to exclude weather and animals from a space where grain or other farm products may have been stored. There are breaks in the moldings and ghosts of former attachments at the walls which may be evidence for grain bins. The east half of the north wall has open sash-sawn studs that are clad on the other side with open wood slats, implying that the loft was ventilated by design (as does the door at

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the bottom of the stairs). The east and west gable end walls consist of modern lumber replacement stud-wall framing, in which a six-over-six double-hung window in each provides light. At the middle posts are down-braces to the mid-span floor beam. It is likely that the end posts also had down-braces, but if so, they were removed, and new studs cover up the post where the evidence would be. Five 5x5 scantling posts are placed at approximately quarter-points in the east-west direction and third points in the north-south direction, and are roughly nailed to the rafters. The floor is random-width (5-16 inch) boards seamed at the middle bent, and there is a plywood cover over a floor opening in the middle of the east half. Most of the rafters are original, bridle-jointed and pinned at the ridge. Cellar: The cellar is characterized by its stone foundation, brick floor, brick piers, timber framed floor, and a wood stair. The rock is not native, but appears to be schist or gneiss that would have been imported from quarries in Pennsylvania or Delaware. Two possibly original brick piers (which interestingly utilized many vitrified headers) support the mid span of the north and south longitudinal floor beams. The 7-8 inch square floor beams are joined to the 10x8 inch summer beam with pinned, central mortise and tenons. Each longitudinal floor beam is supported at the west wall with a concrete block. On each side of the summer beam are 3x7½-inch sash-sawn joists, joined with pinned mortise and tenon joints. The upper part of the south pier was rebuilt with concrete block, parged, and signed, “Hackett and Wright June 22 1949.” This Wright would have been George B. Wright, and may have memorialized a campaign of repairs to the wagon house. A 2x8 timber was spiked to the bottom of the south floor beam as a ledger to support the lowered corn crib floor in the south aisle. Several helper posts are shoring up the summer beam and some of the joists. The floor hatch has been framed in and floored over. A new concrete block wall was built just inside of the front (east) stone foundation wall and supports the east-west floor joists (their ends, as well as the sill, were probably rotted). A new nominal 6x6 sill was placed on the front stone wall. The west and north walls appear to have their original sills, but the south sill was removed when the crib floor was lowered, as discussed above. Two former cellar windows in the west wall are filled in with concrete block. Setting: The Zerns Wagon House, 40x28 feet in plan, stands 70 feet northwest of the now-vacant, two-and-ahalf-story, 40x30 foot, five-bay, frame Italianate-style farm house (built 1851), facing Pointers-Auburn Road on the east. It is the only historic outbuilding that remains on this farmstead, and stood closest to the house of any. The main barn was a bank barn with a 1945 dairy wing and silo, formerly stood 75 feet north of the wagon house. The farmstead is accessed from Pointers-Auburn Road, running north-south on its east side, by an unpaved, circular driveway, and is planted in lawn and several trees. The farmstead perimeter is defined by an outer circular drive. Standing 140 feet to the southwest is a 60x200-foot metal-clad pole building built circa 1980 which is used by the current owner to store farming equipment, and at 193 feet southwest stands a modern grain bin that is 35 feet in diameter. Crop fields surround the house on all sides. The land is slightly rolling and slopes downward to the north and west to wooded areas where a stream, Gravelly Run, flows. A frame bungalow built by the Wright family circa 1925 stands 250 feet south on the other side of Pointers-Auburn Road. Beyond the south field, one-quarter mile distant, is Sunset Drive, running east-west, and one-third mile further south lies Mannington Creek and Meadow. The city of Salem is four miles south.

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Figure 1. View of farmstead from the road, looking west at farm house and wagon house.

Figure 2. Wagon House principal (east) facade, looking west

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Figure 3. South and east elevations, looking northwest. Note slope to the west.

Figure 4. North and west elevations, looking southeast. Farmhouse appears at left.

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Figure 5. Center bay. Interior view looking northwest, showing the staircase, built-in wall boxes (right of stair door), slatted door and upper enclosure, lower board wall enclosure, built-in table, and door to cellar.

Figure 6. Center bay. View of door to cellar hung on wrought iron strap hinges and pintels, looking northeast. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 7. Center bay. Graffiti at stair wall, looking north.

Figure 8. Center bay. South interior wall looking southeast, showing horizontal boarding.

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Figure 9. Center bay. View of loft floor joists and flooring looking west. Stair landing appears at upper right. West wall is 2006 construction.

Figure 10. South aisle, west wall, showing original timber girt, board wall, and salvaged board wall inside former corn crib. Robbed mortise at girt is evidence of a crib on the south (left) side. Crib slat ghosts can be seen on the brace. North wall (at left) and rafters are 2006 construction.

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Figure 11. South aisle, looking northwest, showing former corn crib, studs and board walls of center bay and loft. Removed crib slat ghosts are apparent at middle post and braces. Posts are braced at both levels.

Figure 12. South aisle, view of former crib location where the sill was cut away and the floor lowered to the level of the aisle floor. Beam at center is the summer beam of the center bay floor, and the beam at right is the longitudinal floor beam. Cut-off center bay flooring is visible at right under the board wall.

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Figure 13. North aisle. View of interior board wall, looking southeast. This wall encloses the center bay staircase.

Figure 14. North aisle. View of middle post of timber frame and only surviving aisle girt, looking southwest. Floor girts supporting loft level joists and studs run east and west from the post. Corn crib was inside the main frame in the open space. Shadows of crib slats are visible on the post and braces. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 15. North aisle. View of board wall and upper board and slatted walls in loft. Lower set of rafters is replaced.

Figure 16. Loft. View looking east showing front wall, roof, stair opening and railing, slatted wall on north wall, boarded wall on south wall.

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Figure 17. Loft. View looking west showing boarded walls, west wall, roof, interior posts, and down braces at middle bent.

Figure 18. Cellar. View looking north at stair, showing stone wall, new concrete block wall at east wall, brick pier supporting north floor beam, and floor joists.

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Figure 19. Cellar. View looking southwest, showing helper posts under summer beam, brick pier and 1949 repair, closed-up floor hatch and blocked-up cellar window.

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Historic Images (courtesy Ruthanne H. Wright, unless otherwise noted)

Figure 1. Wagon house, circa 1920. Central swinging doors have been converted to a sliding door. Aisle windows were extant. Small frame building at left later was later used to house laborers.

Figure 2. Wagon house and bank barn beyond. Picket fencing defines the farmyard. Note window no longer extant in south wall and shed addition at south end. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 3. Wright farmstead, circa 1980, looking northwest. From left, packing shed, house, help house, wagon house, barn and “long barn” milking parlor to the rear.

Figure 4. George B. and Ruthanne H. Wright in front of bank barn, 1950s. 1945 milk house shows at left.

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Figure 5. George Wright, Jr. with milk cans on wagon in the late 1950s, with the 1945 “long barn” milking parlor at right behind.

Figure 6. A child of farm help, with help house and wagon house beyond. Circa 1930.

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Figure 7. Portrait of a heifer at the bank barn ramp, with the early 20th century corn crib beyond.

Figure 8. Carol Jean Wright with views of the help house, the wagon house, and in the distance, a chicken house. Circa 1940.

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Figure 9. The Wright children with the new grain bin and conveyor, circa 1963.

Figure 10. Vegetable packing shed under construction, circa 1980.

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Figure 11. Wagon house, 2006, prior to restoration.

Figure 12. Wagon house, 2006 during restoration. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 13. George A. and Mary E. Wright, who bought the farm from the Zerns in 1904.

Figure 14. Wright farmstead, 1991. (Source: Google Earth historical imagery) Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 15. Wright farmstead, 1940. (Source: https://www.historicaerials.com/)

Figure 16. Andrew Thompson wagon house two miles away in lower Mannington, looking northwest. Built around the same time as the Zerns', it is nearly identical in design. (Source: Janet L. Sheridan) Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Chain of Title – Zerns-Wright Farm 233 Pointers-Auburn Road, Mannington Township (Block 34 Lot 10)

Grantor

Grantee

Book/page

Date

Acreage

Joseph Bassett, Jr. (inherited in 1847) Lydia Zerns

Lydia Bassett Zerns B. Arthur Zerns and Elizabeth W. Waddington George A. Wright

Will F/430 Will I/679

unspecified unspecified

Deed 99/93

12/12/1867 3/9/1888 (Died 1893) 12/9/1904

Bonds/Letters of Admin L/87 Deed 259/177

1/4/1939 (Died 1938) 7/24/1944

Will 9/302

B. Arthur Zerns and Lizzie W. Waddington and Joseph K. Waddington George A. Wright Herbert A. Wright (his undivided one-half interest) Isaac G. Wright Carol Jean Wright (her undivided halfinterest in farm valued at $10,000) Ruthanne H. Wright

Isaac and Herbert Wright Isaac G. Wright Alice B. Wright, George B. Wright, and Carol Jean Wright George B. Wright

Deed 392/173

9/28/1944 (Died 1945) 2/3/1959

Fred R. Catalano

Deed 3539/51

12/28/2012

110.26 + 14.60

110.26 + 14.60

110.26 + 14.60 48.1 +83.08

Price

-

Grantee Years Owned 20 26

$8,350

11

-

35

$1.00

5

-

5

$5,000

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History: The family name Zerns appears as Zorns in the earliest and most personal records, but in the late nineteenth century, appears as Zerns. In this narrative it will be spelled as it appears in the record cited. In 1867, Joseph Bassett, Jr. (1790-1867), a Quaker farmer of substance, bequeathed “unto my daughter Lydia Zorns the farm and premises now occupied by her husband John Zorns on that he pays rent for … to have and to hold unto my said daughter in fee simple” (Wills Book F/430). There were two parcels of 110 acres and 14 acres. Joseph Bassett made it very clear the farm would belong to Lydia, not her husband, and that this was the farm he had already provided for her and her husband to live upon. For Lydia and his other children, Elizabeth Woodnutt, Sarah Hall, Hannah Barber, and Morris H. Bassett, the conditions he set for each seemed to hinge on how much he trusted them or their husbands to manage assets. Joseph Bassett was very careful and explicit with his terms so that his children and wife would be provided for, even if someone else had to handle matters for them. He gave his son-in-law William G. Woodnutt and nephew Caspar Wistar, Jr. major responsibilities including holding farms in trust for his son Morris and daughter Sarah. But with Lydia, he trusted her. According to the township historic sites inventory, the farmhouse was built in 1859 by Joseph Bassett, Jr. for his daughter Lydia Zerns (Delaware Valley Planning Commission [Inventory] #30,10). But an eyewitness, Lydia’s brother-in-law William Goodwin Woodnutt, husband of her sister Elizabeth, saw it being built in 1851 (Woodnutt, Third mo., 1851). Lydia Bassett (1827-1893), and John R. Zorns (1825-1894), a Quaker from Montgomery County, Pennsylvania, married on April 3, 1849 at her father’s house in Mannington (Hinshaw, 144). William Woodnutt, Joseph Bassett’s most highly esteemed son-in-law, read the certificate at the ceremony (Woodnutt, Fourth mo., 1849). Joseph’s house stood on the north bank of Mannington Creek overlooking Mannington Meadow one-half mile south of this farmstead (Inventory #29, 10). Quaker records indicate that although Lydia and John married in Mannington, they lived near Gwyned in Montgomery County, for the next two years. William Woodnutt made several entries in his diary about visits to see them at a location two hours from Norristown, the first of which was only two days after the wedding, so the Zorns departed Salem County immediately upon marrying (Woodnutt, Fourth mo., 1849). Lydia was granted a certificate to the Gwyned Monthly Meeting on June 27, 1849 (Hinshaw, 161). But on July 31, 1851 the Gwyned Meeting granted John R. and Lydia F. Zorns a certificate, and one month later, on August 27, 1851, they were received by the Salem Meeting (Hinshaw, 161). William Woodnutt reported that John Zorns was preparing for the move in February. William greeted Lydia and his wife Elizabeth at the Salem steamboat wharf on March 19, 1851. Their household goods were hauled to the house by wagon. “The house not being finished, the goods were tumbled in quite rough.” Despite the incomplete condition of the house, they moved in anyway. It was the annual time for renting farm families to move into new quarters (the end of March). A barn and the wagon house were probably built at the same time. They both were sited along a natural ridge of ground on a north-south line that ran behind the house. The topography was sufficient to allow the barn to take the form of an English bank barn (or “Side-hill Barn”) with access on the downhill side to a stone basement for animal stabling. The threshing bay on the uphill side was accessed by an earthen ramp. The gable-fronted wagon house was a multi-purpose storage building that contains evidence of grain storage in the loft, corn cribs in the aisles at ground level and within the central wagon bay, and a stone cellar for the keeping of root and orchard crops. The flanking side aisles were integral, versus accrued over time. The Zorns were associated with the Hicksite Friends as were the Bassetts. The Bassetts as a group had aligned themselves with the Hicksite branch of the Quakers after the 1827 split over abolition and other issues. Both Lydia and her sister Sarah were disowned by the Orthodox Meeting for joining the Hicksites on February 2, 1849. Her father and his siblings had done so in 1828. This part of Mannington was heavily populated with Bassetts who descended from Lydia’s grandparents Joseph and Mary Allen Bassett, who settled on the north side of Mannington Creek and inhabited Haines Neck, the northwestern region of the township bounded by the Salem River. It was also a region heavily populated by African Americans, many who had migrated from the upper South region of the Delmarva peninsula to find safety among Quakers. They labored as farm hands, marl diggers,

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meadow bank builders, and house servants for Quaker families such as the Bassetts and the Zorns (Sheridan, 2012). Maps corroborate the story that Joseph Bassett built the house for his daughter. There was no house on this site in 1849, but by 1860, a house owned by “J Bassett” was on the site (Smith & Wistar, Gillette). Deeds confirm that the Zerns did not own the property until Joseph Bassett died (Deed 99/33). In 1860, John and Lydia Zorns were living in a ten-person household between the farms of David Bassett (1814-1876) and Elisha Bassett, Jr. (18191890) who were Lydia’s first cousins through her uncle Elisha (1788-1865) (1860 Federal Census, Mannington; Hinshaw, 21). John and Lydia did not own their farm, but listed $2,594 in personal property. In their household lived their two young children William, 8, and Elizabeth, 3, two apprentice farmers, a female servant, an unrelated girl, 13, and two farm laborers. One female servant was Mary Marshall, 40, the widow of Thomas Marshall, the progenitor of the black settlement of Marshalltown, just two miles away (see Sheridan, Marshalltown Survey and National Register nomination). Having lost most of her husband’s land to creditors in 1858, she resorted to domestic service to make a living. She had also apprenticed her son Thomas, Jr. to Lydia’s cousin David Bassett up the road. Such records point to important social networks between the Bassetts and the local population of free Blacks. David Bassett had been a witness to Thomas Marshall’s 1856 will, for example. Joseph Bassett, Jr. died in 1867. By 1870, Lydia owned the $18,000 farm inherited from her father three years earlier (1870 Federal Census, Mannington). Ten years later the Zorns family was off the farm and living in the town of Salem, at 69 Market Street, the address of Joseph and Sarah Bassett’s brick townhouse (Sarah was Joseph Bassett, Jr.’s second wife to whom he was married when he built his town house in Salem). John Zorns had become a coal dealer. He was in business with Ebenezer Dunn as Dunn & Zerns dealing in grain and coal at 1 Market Street (1883 Boyd’s Directory, 300). When John Zerns died in 1894, he was in business with his son-inlaw Joseph K. Waddington, who had married his daughter Elizabeth W. Zerns (Will J/186). They operated a business situated on Fenwick Creek on Market Street, the same site as for his business with Dunn. Lydia died in 1893, and left her real estate to her husband during his lifetime, but upon his death, whatever was not sold by her executor (with her husband’s permission) to pay debts, would go to her daughter Elizabeth W. Waddington and her grandson B. Arthur Zerns. It was her wish that the farm in Mannington would not go out of the family (Will Book I/679). The farm was indeed preserved in Lydia’s estate, and it was inherited by her daughter and grandson as Lydia had directed. In 1904, the heirs of Lydia and John R. Zerns, B. Arthur Zerns of Watertown, NY, Lizzie W. Waddington and Joseph K. Waddington, her husband, of Salem, sold the farm to George A. Wright (1856-1938) of Mannington for $8,350 (Deed 99/93). Wright was descended from a Yorkshire Quaker named Thomas Wright who immigrated to West Jersey in 1677, settling at Burlington (Woodward and Hageman, History of Burlington and Mercer Counties, New Jersey, 10). Subsequent generations migrated from there to Alloways Creek, to Salem, to Penns Neck, to Upper Penns Neck, to Lower Penns Neck, and finally, to Mannington (Ancestry.com, Wright Family Tree). George Wright’s cousin Howard Wright had already moved to Mannington from Lower Penns Neck, to the farm just west of the Zerns farm, so now they were neighbors. At the time of the sale, the Zerns farm was in the tenancy of one Joseph Kiger, showing that the Zerns, who had left farming, moved to Salem, and become a merchant, had kept the farm but rented it to tenant farmers. George A., at age 44 and Mary E. Wright (1859-1942), at age 41, were tenants themselves elsewhere in Mannington on a farm at 655 Kings Highway (aka Sharptown Road) (1900 Federal Census; Ruthanne Wright, personal communication). Their son Isaac G. Wright (1878-1945) was 21 and working on the farm. Another son, Herbert A., was 4 years old. They had two Black live-in workers, Charles T. Thomas, a day laborer, and Hannah J. Brown, a servant. In 1910, they owned the Zerns farm with a mortgage, and raised grain. Isaac, 31, and Herbert, 14, were doing farm work. Charles T. Jefferson, a Black servant who was a farm laborer by trade, lived with them, and may be one and the same as the Charles T. Thomas from ten years earlier, according to his matching age and birthplaces of his father and mother (Virginia and New Jersey). Jefferson later lived in Marshalltown, the Black settlement nearby, with a wife, Charlotte (1910, 1920 Federal Census). Servants and farm labor lived on the third floor of the house, where there were four rooms (Ruthanne Wright, personal communication).

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SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 15, 2017

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Historic Sites #:

By 1920, the Wrights owned the farm free and clear, and both sons, Isaac and Herbert, were still at home working on the farm (1920 Federal Census). The following year, Isaac married Alice Burnham (1894-1953), a teacher from Minnesota. Some years earlier, Isaac’s uncle had met Alice in a tourist office while visiting Jacksonville, Florida where she was teaching. Upon his uncle’s urging, Isaac went to Florida to meet her. They married in Minnesota in 1921 during a blizzard (Emma May Hunter, personal communication). With Isaac married, George and Mary vacated the farmhouse for them and moved to a house they owned on Griffith Street in the town of Salem. This arrangement was not to Mary’s liking; she wanted to live on the farm. So George built a bungalow for her across the road from the farmhouse and they moved back to the farm (Ruthanne Wright). This arrangement is reflected in the 1930 Federal census which shows the two families living in separate households at the farm. By this time, the younger couple had a one-year-old son, George B. Wright (1929-2009) By 1940 they had a 3-year-old daughter, Carol Jean, and Mary, now a widow, was again living in the farmhouse. (Federal Censuses, 1920, 1930, 1940). George A. Wright died in 1938, Mary died in 1942, leaving the farms with his two sons. In 1944, his son Herbert sold his brother Isaac his share of the farm (Deed 259/177) for $1. (The following is from interviews with Ruthanne Wright on September 23, 2015, and April 5, 2017 unless noted otherwise.) The farm had a few cows that stabled in the basement of the barn. As a teenager, George B. and his grandmother would herd them home from the fields using an automobile. The Wrights grew potatoes, as almost everyone did in Mannington. They would order “Irish Cobbler Seed Potatoes” from Maine (grown by L. S. Bean), and pick them up at the railroad depot in Claysville. In March, by the heat of a pot belly stove in the south aisle of the wagon house, they cut out the eyes, then put them in the cellar until planting. The central bay of the wagon house was the workplace for bunching asparagus in 3 lb. sizes. Their asparagus helpers were Black women named Kizzie and Hattie. Two help houses were located north of the farmstead on the opposite side of the road before the crossing of Horne Run. These may have been some of the several buildings mapped in this location from 1849 to 1875. th

Other outbuildings on the farmstead in the early 20 century in addition to the barn and wagon house included a chicken house west of the wagon house, a one-story gable-fronted building close and southwest of the wagon house, and a freestanding corncrib east of the wagon house on the loop drive into the farmstead (see historic photos attached to Building Form). In 1945, Isaac “Ike” Wright died, devising the farm to his wife and two sons. Young George had just graduated high school, and was planning to begin studies at Rutgers University that year. Despite his mother finding a “cowman” to look after the farm, he chose to put off his schooling for a year to manage the farm for his mother. He was back on the farm with a B.A. in agriculture after graduating in 1950. Three years later, Mary Wright died, and the farm was vested in the two children. Later in 1953, George married Ruthanne Horner, who grew up on a farm in Gloucester County. In 1959, George’s sister Carol sold him her share of the farm (Deed 392/173). George and Ruthanne raised five children, three girls and two boys, on the farm. In the 1950s, Raymond Sickler, a local contractor, added a long, one-story, cinder block milking parlor, what they called “the long barn,” to the west side of the main barn, connecting with the basement of the main barn, and extended the old frame milk house on the south side. The pasture for the expanded herd (50 cows) extended from the farmstead south to Sunset Drive, and they also grazed and stalled their cows on the neighboring farm of Sam Owen, who was married to a Wright cousin. During this period, milk collection changed from trucking milk cans down to a depot at “Pointers,” the intersection of Pointers-Auburn Road, Route 45 (Salem-Woodstown Road), and Kings Highway, two miles south, to tank collection by a tanker truck that came farm to farm. The Wrights ceased dairy farming in 1963, and George became an Agway store manager until 1968. Meanwhile, Ruthanne taught at Central Park Elementary School in Pennsville between 1965 and 1970. After 1968, they expanded their vegetable growing operation from their own farm of some 120 acres by renting up to 1000 acres

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SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

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ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Historic Sites #:

on scattered farms in Mannington, Quinton and Pennsville Townships. Their crops centered on peppers, but they also grew asparagus, peas, tomatoes, and acorn squash. Ruthanne’s daily job during harvest was to run samples of their produce to the farmer’s market in Vineland to get a fixed price for the load to be delivered later in the day. They hired, at first, Black, and later, Puerto Rican laborers. They housed a Black worker named Willy in a onestory, gable-roofed frame outbuilding that stood south of the Wagon House. Later, the building was enlarged for 8-10 Puerto Rican workers and dubbed the “Puerto Rican house.” The milk house on the south side of the barn was converted into a kitchen for their use. Ruthanne drove the help to the grocery store in lower Mannington. They built a large, one-story, metal-clad pole barn southwest of the house around 1980 to serve as a vegetable packing shed. The farm wagon was kept there, and a new well was put in to provide water for washing the vegetables. By 2006, George B. and Ruthanne Wright were planning to retire on the farm. They restored the Wagon House, and shortly thereafter tore down the collapsing barn, the long barn, the Puerto Rican house, a shed, and a corn crib. George passed away unexpectedly in 2009. Ruthanne sold the farm under a farmland preservation easement in 2012 to a young local farmer who resides elsewhere. The packing shed is now used to store large field equipment. The wagon house is used for general storage. Significance: The Zerns Wagon House meets Criterion C for architecture in its design as a local and statewide significant example of an integrally-designed form of the drive-in corn crib with side aisles, for storage of farm produce. Though partially rebuilt, it has sufficient integrity of location, setting, design, materials, workmanship, feeling and association to convey its significance. Eligibility for New Jersey and National Registers: Level of Significance

Yes Local

No

National Register Criteria:

State

A

B

C

D

National

Justification of Eligibility/Ineligibility: The Zerns Wagon House should be considered eligible by virtue of its age, its place within three state historic contexts specific to agriculture 1851 to the present, and its high integrity of framing, timber joints, flooring, foundation, and evidence of the specialized structures farmers devised to store the products of the farm. This building is a significant example of an important regional type of agricultural building that was termed “drivein corn crib” by Henry Glassie. Also called wagon houses, they are multi-purpose storage buildings that are gablefronted with two or more bays, usually three, and are made to store the products of the farm in corn cribs, granaries, and cellars. Perhaps because of the valuable stores, they are typically situated close to the farm house to facilitate surveillance. They vary widely in their design. Some examples accrue to their shape with a central unit and shed additions, others are built of a piece. This example was built of a piece, and may represent an evolution of design worked out over several generations, containing a central drive-in bay, two side aisles, a cellar, a granary loft, and a continuous roof slope. Human activity and the surviving historic fabric on this farmstead spans the historic contexts of Early Industrialization, Urbanization, & Agricultural Development (1775-1860), Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, & Urban Expansion (1850-1920), and Modern New Jersey (1945-Present).

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

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ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Historic Sites #:

For Historic Districts Only: Property Count:

Key Contributing:

Contributing:

Non Contributing:

For Individual Properties Only: x x x

List the completed attachments related to the property’s significance: Base Form Building Form, with photos Continuation form, with Historic photos

Narrative Boundary Description: The property consists of Tax Parcel Block 34, Lot 10 This parcel is part of the farm that Joseph Bassett devised to his daughter Lydia, and which she devised to her heirs, and which they sold to the Wrights, containing approximately 48 acres and containing the farmstead.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 15, 2017

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SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT, VOLUME II

Appendix II. Basset-Allen-Waldac Farm Ground Barn

23

REV. MAY 20, 2017


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM

Page 1

Historic Sites #:

Property Name:

Waldac Farm

Street Address:

Street #:

Prefix:

555 (Low)

Street Name:

County(s): Municipality(s): Local Place Name(s): Ownership::

Apartment #: (High)

(Low)

(High)

Suffix:

State Hwy 45

Zip Code:

Salem Mannington Township

39

Lot(s):

33

USGS Quad(s)

RD

08079

Block(s):

Mannington Hill Private

Type:

Salem

Photograph:

Description: Waldac Farm is an active dairy farm in rural Mannington Township. It consists of a Federal-period brick farmhouse, a wagon house, a shed, a dairy/hay barn and silo, a heifer barn, two cow barns, a dry cow barn, and four other silos. The farmhouse, wagon house, dairy barn, one silo, heifer barn and one cow barn are more than 50 years of age, and the rest post-date 1966.

National Historic Landmark:

SHPO Opinion:

National Register:

Local Designation:

New Jersey Register:

Other Designation:

Determination of Eligibility:

Other Designation Date:

Registration and Status Dates:

Location Map:

Survey Name: Surveyor:

Site Map:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

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Page 2

BASE FORM

Historic Sites #:

S S E SIIITTTE E

H H O U S E HO OU US SE E

D D A R Y B A R N DA AIIIR RY YB BA AR RN N

Bibliography/Sources: Delaware Valley Planning Commission, “Mannington Historical Sites Inventory” 2008; A Map of the Counties of Salem and Gloucester, New Jersey from the Original Surveys by Alexander C. Stansbie, James Keily, and Samuel M Rea. Phila: Smith & Wistar, 1849; Combination Atlas Map of Salem and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts and Stewart, 1876; Federal Censuses, 1830-1930, Ancestry.com; Historic Aerial Photography, http://www.historicaerials.com/ USDA aerial photos 1931, 1940, 1963, 1970, 1995, 2002, 2006; Ortho imagery. 1930, 1995/97, 2002. iMap NJ; Salem County Deeds, Wills, Mortgages, Miscellaneous Records, Salem County Clerks Office; Salem County tax maps and parcel data; Cushing, Thomas and Charles E. Sheppard, History of the Counties of Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1883; repr. Woodbury, NJ: Gloucester County Historical Society, 1974; Thomas Shourds, History and Genealogy of Fenwick’s Colony, New Jersey, Bridgeton, N.J.: G.F. Nixon, 1876; Hinshaw, William Wade, and Thomas Worth Marshall. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy. Vol 2, Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co, 1969. Halstead, Byron D. Barns, Sheds and Outbuildings: Placement, Design and Construction. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press, 1981; Familysearch.com, Salem County Probate Records (Wills, Divisions of Land); Cynthia G. Falk, Barns of New York : Rural Architecture of the Empire State, Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012; Thomas Durant. Visser, Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings Hanover: University Press of New England, 1997; personal communications with Asa, David and Jason Cadwallader, Jack Sobon, Historic American Timber Joinery: A Graphic Guide Timber Framers Guild, 2004; Additional Information:

More Research Needed?

Yes

No ( House and wagon house should be surveyed)

INTENSIVE LEVEL USE ONLY Attachments Included: Within Historic District? Survey Name: Surveyor:

Building

Structure

Landscape

Industry

Yes

Bridge

No

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Object

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

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BASE FORM

Page 3

Historic Sites #: Status:

Key-Contributing

Associated Archaeological Site/Deposit?

Contributing

Non-Contributing

Yes

(Known or potential Sites – if yes, please describe briefly)

THIS PAGE TO BE COMPLETED ONLY AT INTENSIVE LEVEL AND ONLY IF PROPERTY IS A FARM COMPLEX Historic Farm Name:

Waldac Farm

Period of Agricultural Use: Agriculture Type:

Source Ca. 1731 To Present Cattle ranching and farming Remaining Historic Fabric High Acreage: 166.5

Deeds, Owner

Farm Description: An active dairy farm, Waldac Farm lies along the south side of Mannington Creek and on the west side of State Route 45. The farmstead faces southeast at the end of an allĂŠe of aged white pines approximately 600 feet from the road. The farm is surrounded by cultivated fields planted in corn, alfalfa, and soy. A field on the south side of the barn is a cow pasture. The house stands at the end of the driveway, and the farm outbuildings lie along a northeasterly line approximately 750 feet long and parallel with the road. The two-story, late Georgian-style brick house has a side hall plan with a lateral two-story step-down wing (likely built as a kitchen), an added brick two-story gable-roofed ell, and a one-story brick shed addition. Historic wood-frame outbuildings include a wagon house with a gabled shed addition, a diary barn, a heifer barn, a one-story open front shed, and a chicken house. There are three more recent metal clad cow barns south and east of the old dairy barn. The farmers grow corn, soy and alfalfa for the cows, and make ensilage.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

April 24, 2017

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Page 1

BUILDING ATTACHMENT Common Name:

Barn

Historic Name:

Barn

Historic Sites #:

Present Use:

Cattle ranching & farming

Historic Use:

Cattle ranching & farming

Construction Date:

1792, ca. 1820, ca. 1860

Source:

deeds, style

Ca. 1890, 1938

Source:

deeds, owner

Alteration Date(s): Designer:

Unknown

Physical Condition:

Builder:

Unknown

Remaining Historic Fabric:

Style:

N/A

Form:

N/A

Type:

English barn, Ground Barn

Roof Finish Materials: Exterior Finish Materials

good high

Stories: Bays:

2 12

Standing Seam Metal Wood, Flush

Exterior Description: The Waldac barn is a two-story, timber-framed, gable-roofed, wood-clad building on a rectangular footprint of approximately 35 feet by 137 feet. The west and south elevations are clear of additions, but the north elevation contains a silo, a feed shed, a milk house, a rest room, a heater room, and an equipment shed. The east elevation is half-covered by the milking parlor wing and half-covered by a two-story open doubleshed roof over the milking parlor entry area, which is paved with concrete. The roof is clad with ribbed sheet metal panels and lightning rods line the ridge. On the south side of the barn is a concrete-paved barnyard. The ground around the west and north sides of the barn is bituminous-paved for vehicle access to the building. The principal faรงade is the west elevation, where the main human access to the barn is. West elevation: The west gable end faces the house and the driveway. A wide central door provides entry to the central corridor of the barn, and is closed with an overhead metal garage door. Flanking the central door is a sixlight window on the north side, and a sliding passage door and a six-light window on the south side. Above the central door is a swinging hay door in the loft level. The frame wall is supported on concrete-block wall five courses high above grade. The frame wall is clad with vertical board ship-lapped siding laid in two courses. At the gable peak is a pair of double swinging doors, above which protrudes a hay loading track under a projecting roof. The roof rake is trimmed with a plain board partially covered with a folded-over edge of roofing. At the north end, the elevations of the end wall of (the wider) Barn I, the concrete block shed-roofed feed house with a sliding door and stoop, the concrete-stave silo, the concrete block milk house and milking parlor are visible beyond. At the south corner is a downspout that empties into a pipe below ground. Further south, the two-story double-shed roof of the covered milking parlor entry is visible beyond. South elevation: The south elevation is characterized by many window and doors and two courses of vertical ship-lapped board siding. The frame wall bears on a concrete block wall at the height of the window sills from the west end to a point closer to the east end, at Bent 10 (see sheet 1 of the drawings), where it bears on a ground sill. This alteration in the wall took place after 1950. There are nine, six-light metal windows in two sizes (the larger ones dating from after the wall change), seven closed-over window openings (formerly wood sash tilt-in types), and six doors into the barnyard where heifers have access from a stall inside the barn. A K-gutter hangs from the entire length of the eave edge, discharging into four downspouts spaced along the wall. The roof is clad with ribbed sheet metal panels over an older wood shingle roof. The east and west ends of the roof are formed into pointed hoods that cover the hay trolley track. The double-shed roof wraps around the south elevation at the east end. The south elevation of the milking parlor has a concrete block wall with louvered vents above. Three doors open into the milking parlor, two for the cows, and one for humans. Further east is the outlet from the milking parlor which ramps down to a large opening to the exterior.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 17, 2017

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BUILDING ATTACHMENT

Page 2

Historic Sites #:

East Elevation: The east elevation of the barn is under the double-shed roof over the cow entry area. The gable end wall is clad with two courses of ship-lapped vertical boards and a course of plywood above the five-course concrete wall base. A sliding passage door opens to the center corridor of the barn. The east elevation of the milking parlor is concrete block with series of glass block windows, topped with a frame wall clad with horizontal aluminum siding. The east elevation of the exit ramp is concrete block topped with a frame wall clad with verticalribbed sheet metal panels. The milking parlor is roofed with ribbed sheet metal panels. North Elevation: Visible on the north elevation are the milking parlor wing, two small equipment sheds, a concrete shed addition, the milk house, the milk tank, the concrete silo, the feed shed, and the north wall of the diary barn. The concrete-block milking parlor has an asymmetrical gable-roof, and a frame wall clad with vertical-ribbed sheet metal siding atop a seven-course concrete block base. There are two large sliding glass windows in the frame wall. The gable-roofed milk house has 1930s concrete block walls and a glass block window centered in the north gable wall. Its gable end is clad with vertical wood boards and centered in it is a cased wooden louver (this gable end treatment is mirrored on the milk house south elevation). This change in materials suggests that the milk house may have been entirely wood at one time, and then upgraded to block to improve hygiene according to state regulations. At the west elevation of the milk house is a gable-ended wall clad with vertical ribbed sheet metal panels that accommodates the height of the 6,000 gallon Mueller milk tank, which protrudes to the exterior for two-thirds of its length on a concrete slab. Between the milking parlor and the milk house are two one-story shed additions: one frame with an exterior door, the other concrete with a concrete chimney rising from it, and one gable-roofed open shed sheltering milk cooling equipment. In the dairy barn wall are three six-light metal windows, a boarded-over tilt-in window opening, one uncovered opening, and a Dutch door made of battened plywood. In the loft level are five swinging hay doors, and one sliding hay door. To the east of the Dutch door the barn frame wall sits on a ground sill. To the west of the Dutch door, the frame wall sits on a seven-course concrete block wall. The feed shed has two six-light windows in its concrete block walls. The silo is constructed of vertical concrete staves clamped together with steel rod hoops, and roofed with a sheet metal dome. The hoop spacings increase with height. Interior Description: Three separate hewn timber frame barns are discernible within the entire old barn, and for th this report they are named in order of age. Barn I, the oldest barn, is the middle one, and it is dated May 26 1792. Barn II is on the west side of Barn I, built between 1792 and 1848. Barn III is on the east side of Barn I, and was built after 1848. Barns II and III were built as two-story barns, but Barn I began as a one-story barn, and was raised to two stories. There is no space between Barns I and II, but there is a nearly thirteen-foot wide space between Barn I and Barn III. The interior has two levels: a ground floor and a loft. The ground floor is divided into two main sections united by a central walkway and separated by a sliding door. The east section is Barn II (see drawings), formerly a horse barn and now containing heifer box stalls and a bull pen, and the west section is Barns I and III, a unified space, formerly the milking parlors and veal calf stalls, now used for heifer pens, storage, and an office. Each individual barn has four bays. There are fifteen structural bents and thirteen bays across the entire barn. Of the two levels, the ground floor is the most altered, whereas at the loft level the original structure is minimally altered and most clearly articulated. Ground Floor th Barn II extends from Bent 1 through Bent 5. At ground level, the hewn frame rests on a plank sill on a late-20 century concrete block wall, its posts, which once rested on a ground sill, cut off at a point just below the windows. The ground floor room is divided into the original four transverse bays, and a longitudinal walkway flanked by heifer box stalls on the north side, and a bull pen and a heifer box stall on the south side. The entire floor is formed of poured concrete. The box stalls are partitioned with a low, horizontal board fence and vertical boardand-batten doors. The four box stall doors define four, formerly separate stalls—three on the north side and one on the south side. The three northerly stalls have been opened into a single pen and extended into Bay 1 with a steel farm gate. On the south side, the single original pen in Bay 3 has been extended into Bay 2, enclosed with two steel farm gates. The bull pen is walled full-height with concrete block with an opening to the central walkway secured by horizontal steel bars. A heavy lumber frame with iron pintels on both sides once supported a thick door, which has been removed.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 17, 2017

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BUILDING ATTACHMENT

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The framing is open, and the board floor of the loft overhead rests on east-west longitudinal circular-sawn joists measuring 3x6 inches, spaced 24 inches apart, and lapped over north-south tie beams spanning the width of the room. The tie beams are hewn at Bents 1, 3, 4 (possibly an addition) and 5, and circular-sawn at Bent 2. It is likely that some were originally at loft height, but others had to be added to complete the loft floor. Under each interior th tie beam is an intermediate circular-sawn post (20 century) that supports the stall fencing. This barn was th previously configured as horse stalls with the original drive-through bay (Bay 3) up to the mid-20 century, each with the horse’s name painted on the tie beam above it but no longer apparent (Asa Cadwallader).There are two hay drop doors in the floor above with wood hatch doors, one over the north stall in Bay 3, the other over the walkway in Bay 1. The six-light windows in the exteriors walls are a manufactured steel unit with the brand name of Jamesway: “Air Lite – The Modern Farm Window.” Each row of 3 lights is hinged at the middle muntin and folds inward to open. One or both rows are held open with heavy wire struts attached to the top of the frame. The 3 windows on the south wall have 10 x 16 inch panes, and the six windows in the north and west walls have 12 x 17 inch panes. Five bare-bulb light fixtures light the room. Barn I and Barn III is one large room that is a former milking parlor. It ceased to be used for milking when the new milking parlor wing was built in 1962. Barn I extends from Bent 6 through Bent 10. Barn III extends from Bent 11 through Bent 15. Like Barn I, a loft floor lies overhead throughout, supported by floor joists lapping over tie beams and pierced by four hay drops. Three hay drops lie over the central walkway and are closed by sliding hatch doors. A fourth drop lies over the south end of Bay 8, over the heifer stall. The floor joists are 2¾ x 5¾ inches at the west end, and 2¾ x 7½ inches from Bent 9 to Bent 15. Twelve bare-bulb light fixtures light the room. As in Barn II, north-south tie beams support east-west lapping floor joists that support the loft floor across the th entire room. Within Barn I, however, all the tie beams are 20 -century additions. Barn I was originally a one-story barn, and its upper tie beam at each bent spanned just above the present loft floor (evidence of anything lower is gone). Barns II and III were always two-story barns, constructed similarly and had a number of lower tie beams at the right height to support a loft floor. Where they didn’t, new ones were added when these barns were configured with the full loft floor. On both sides of the central walkway for most of its length, stand wooden frames that support milking stanchions. They extend from the floor to the tie beams overhead. At the edge of the walkway are concave feeding troughs formed into the concrete floor. On the other side of the north row of stanchion frames a manure trough formed into the concrete floor survives. After milking ceased in this room, the south manure trough was filled in when that area was converted into one large heifer stall. The north row of milking stalls was converted to veal stalls, which are no longer used. There are three styles of extant stanchions that survive from before 1962 when milking ceased in this part of the barn. The wood frames were made to support the earliest type, of which only four remain in place at the east end of the north side. Oval in shape and made of steel, they are secured at the top and bottom by chain links to the wood frame. Along the south line of stanchion frames in four separate locations are two newer generations of stanchions made of steel tubing and retrofitted onto the frames. Here, heifers are restrained while they receive their inoculations. Partitioned with frame and drywall out of the northeast corner of the barn is an office entered via an aluminum storm door. Within the eastern end of the former north milking stall is a plywood enclosure within which is a closet for cow medicine and new heating equipment installed in 2016. West of that is a series of disused veal stalls that were built onto the stanchion frames with either 2x4 lumber or manufactured steel units. On these stanchion frames were mounted water bowls and feed buckets. One remarkable find in this room were two hewn and dressed tie beams at Bents 12 and 13. These beams are deeper than any of the others, at 7 by 13 inches, and are finished with chamfers with lamb’s tongue stops. This manner of beam decoration would not be expected in a barn built after 1848, but rather in a barn built during the th period of initial English settlement (late 17 century) through circa 1730. Bents 12 and 13 fall within a former hay mow next to the original threshing bay or drive bay (Bay 12), so they did not mark the opposing sides of the drive Survey Name: Surveyor:

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bay, which might be expected. It likelier that these beams were salvaged and re-used from an even earlier barn, th on this or another site, for this mid-19 century barn. If so, their length may have determined the width of the new barn. Thus, the several robbed post mortises on the lower surface of this beam may or may not apply to the original configuration of this barn. The tie beam at Bent 14 also has a series of robbed mortises on the underside of the beam which convey the former locations of original posts, others of which may be obscured by lumber added to the underside in two places. These posts may indicate original animal stalls or some other function in Bay 13. On the north side of this room are several additions. One is the milk house, built in 1938. From the barn, a centerbeaded vertical board sliding door opens into a concrete block connector to the milk house, which stands eight feet to the north. A concrete shed addition abuts the silo and protects the feed chute that exits the north barn wall from which feed drops down from the storage bin in the loft. From the barn, a sliding door with an attached swinging door provides access. A Dutch door made of plywood leads to the exterior between the milk house and the silo. Another concrete block addition provides a rest room and a heater room, both having panel doors. Loft Level: The loft is one open space, floored on one level, with all framing exposed. Most of the original hewn posts, beams, and plates are extant, with some removals and some additions where Barns I and III were widened on the north side, or cleared of tie beams that obstructed movement at floor level. All three barns have common rafter roofs without collar ties, and dropped upper tie beams, meaning that the uppermost tie beam is set from 1’0” to 1’-4” below the top of the post. All main posts contain lifting holes near the top of the post. Throughout the barn, the underside of a wood shingle roof on spaced nailers is evident. Hanging from the ridge is a steel hay trolley track. Barn II has four bays, measures approximately 42’-6” long and 30 feet wide, and was never widened. Major timbers are hewn, ranging 9-10 inches in section, with sash sawn and pinned braces and exterior nailing girts. Marriage marks were used. A second course of upper nailing girts were added later with nails. End posts are joined to the tie beam by a double-pinned central tenon with a diminished housing (the bottom of the beam bears on a one-inch shelf cut into the post), fitted with a tightening wedge through the post on top of the beam. This type of joint has been termed the “wedged dovetail through mortise and tenon joint,” an example of which was found in th Adams, Massachusetts built in the late 18 century (Sobon, 2002, 4-5). Since in this case the end of the tenon was inaccessible, the dovetail shape is assumed. Each end post contains two lifting holes, one 8-10 inches below the top of the post, above the tie beam, and the other below it at 28-29 inches below the top of the post. Bents 1, 2, and 5 are characterized by up-bracing from the end posts to the upper tie, and a central post upbraced on both sides. Bents 3 and 4 both have a lower tie beam from the exterior post to two interior queen posts, and are the opposing bents of the original threshing bay (see sheets 2 and 5 of the drawings). In both bents, the south tie is higher than the north tie by 1’-9”, and braces are lacking at the queen posts. At the exterior walls in Bay 3 are the threshing bay double door header beams spanning between the bent posts. The exterior posts of Bents 3 and 4 contain the upper door batten pockets of these doors. The timbers around this former opening are quite weathered. The rafters, pinned at the ridge, appear to be sash sawn from the same period, and bear with birds-mouthed joints upon the six-inch-high hewn wall plate. The wall plate is continuous from Bent 2 to Bent 5, and is scarfed with a double-pinned lap joint over Bent 2; this may say that timbers longer than 32 feet were generally not available. The flooring appears to date from three different time periods. From Bent 1 to Bent 3, the flooring is 5 ½ to 6 butted boards, and may represent the conversion of a full-height, 2-bay wide hay mow to a loft over animal stalls. From Bent 3 to Bent 4 (over the former threshing bay) are 7-inch wide tongue-and-groove boards. From Bent 4 to Bent 5 and continuing 5 feet into Barn I is 11 inch wide butted boards, which may represent an earlier lofted space over animal stalls. Barn I is distinguished from the other two barns by its one-story original height, second-story extension, bent design, presence of hewn up-braces and rafters, and one lifting hole instead of two. It shares with them the same Survey Name: Surveyor:

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number of bays and the same location of the threshing bay. Its original dimensions were 41 feet by 32 feet. An incised date of “May 26, 1792” existed on the original upper tie beam at Bent 8, facing Bent 9. The section with the date was cut out and saved by the Cadwalladers when that level of tie beams (all at roughly 2’-6” above the floor) was removed. All the bents of Barn I had the same design, versus the variable designs in the other two barns, that is, the threshing bay bents were not framed any differently from the others; they do not have the queen post design. However, the posts are more variable in dimensions than in Barn II, ranging from six to ten inches. There was one tie beam at each bent, which was a dropped tie beam, set at 1’-7” to 1’-10” below the top of the post, somewhat lower than in the other two barns. At Bents 6 and 7 the north half of the tie beams remain in place, and at Bent 8, a stub of the tie beam hangs at the south post. At Bent 9, the tie beam was totally removed, and at the end, Bent 10, a more recent sash-sawn replacement tie beam was installed (possibly due to weathering at the end wall). Other changes at this end, such as the replaced center post with smooth, modern-looking nailed bracing looks th 20 century. The raising probably occurred when the two barns were moved end to end, so that Barns I and II matched in height. The added framing consists of hewn posts, wall plates, with some sash-sawn tie beams, and sash-sawn, tenoned up-braces and nailing girts. The added tie beams are, in addition to their pinned tenons, secured to the posts with wrap-around iron straps. The original, lower tie beams also have iron straps, but it is not clear if they were original or a retrofit at the time of raising or later. The first three rafters on the west end are hewn, and were lengthened with a spliced piece on the north slope to accomplish matching the south roof slope of Barn II; evidently the original slope was flatter, and as a result, the north rafters needed to be lengthened in order to reach the new ridge height. That caused the north slope to be a few inches above Barn II’s roof. Barn I was expanded to the north by approximately three feet by the Cadwalladers sometime after 1938. At each th bent is a new nominal 6x6 wall post and wall plate, suggesting mid-20 century or later work. The original Barn I rafters still bear on the original north wall plate, and a new set of short rafters of nominal lumber extend the roof from the old hewn plate to the new one. The extant north wall is penetrated roughly six inches by the silo chute. The flooring in Barn I is almost all 5½-inch wide center-beaded (facing downward) tongue-and-groove boards th (early 20 century), except for about five feet at the west end, which are eleven-inch wide boards consistent with the east end of Barn II (Bay 4). The large eastern portion may date to the period of the connection of the barns and expansion of the dairying operation in 1938. A feed bin was constructed out of a 2x6 lumber stud wall and plywood at the north side of Bay 6 in 1968. It is filled by a delivery truck which hooks up to a duct which dumps the pelletized feed into the top of the bin near the roof. A wood chute in the feed shed below lets grain out for feeding to the cows. Barn III stands almost thirteen feet east of Barn I. It may have been built when Barns I and II were put together and Barn I was raised, because the raising posts and tie beams of Barn I and the posts and tie beams of Barn III are all reinforced with iron straps (as are those in the raised portion of Barn I). The intervening space was covered over, connecting Barn III to Barn I, in 1938. Barn III originally measured 40’-6” by 28’-7” and is more similar to Barn II than Barn I in that the threshing bay bents (Bents 13 and 15) both have two interior, or queen, posts with lower tie beams above the loft floor. They differ, however, in that the lower tie beams were set at the same height, and both ends were braced. It was expanded twice to the north, leaving the original hewn north wall in place. The first expansion was by 3’-8” which brought it even with Barn I’s original width and matched the roofs. A new post that was a variable 8x6 inch dimension was place on each bent line, and connected to the original post with horizontal struts. In order to match the roofs, the original rafters were utilized but altered. The south rafters were lengthened by disassembling the pinned joint at the ridge, and moving the ridge over and upward to match the ridge of Barn I. The lengthening was accomplished by sistering each rafter with a longer piece. Every other rafter was full-length, plate to ridge, matching the original in width (an estimated three inches) and the intervening rafter was sistered with a piece about two-thirds the full-length and an estimated two inches wide, a savings on material. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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The new rafters are butted and presumably nailed at the ridge. The original bridle joint mortise is plainly visible, along with the original ridge board. On the north side, the rafters were lifted off the original wall plate and set on the new wall plate. The original rafter tails and birdsmouth joints are visible above the second wall plate. The second expansion, roughly three feet to the north, was the same campaign as the Barn I expansion. The bents were lengthened with regular 6x6 nominal posts (post WWII), and up-braced from the post base to the upper struts with lumber. Additional short rafters extended the roof to the new wall plate. Silo: The 1938 silo on the north side of Barn I is 12 feet in diameter on the interior and is constructed of vertical, interlocking concrete staves 12½ inches wide and three inches thick. The staves are compressed together by steel rod hoops and clamps. A chute, also constructed of vertical concrete staves, runs up the south side of the silo next to, and protruding into, the barn wall by about 6 inches. Inside the chute is a series of rectangular openings into the silo, closed by wood board access doors fitted with a horizontal steel latching bar. The interior wall of the silo is parged and has a dark green coating. The silo is empty and no longer used. Sitting on the floor of the silo is a silo unloader. Mounted on the exterior wall of the silo, in the feed shed, is a winch connected to a steel cable which runs up the outside of the silo to raise and lower the unloader. Likely Sequence of Construction Build I: Grace Bassett or her tenant Alexander Ray built a one-story, four-bay threshing barn measuring 41 by 32 feet in 1792. Build II: A two-story, four-bay threshing barn measuring 42½ by 30 feet was built on the west side of Barn I between 1792 and 1848. (Probably David Bassett) Build III: Barn I and Barn II were moved together as one barn, Barn I was raised to two stories, and a new twostory, four-bay threshing barn measuring 40½ by 28½ feet was built thirteen feet east of Barn I after 1848 and likely before the Civil War. (Possibly Benjamin Bassett, Davis Bassett, or Samuel P. Allen, but most likely Allen) Built IV: The Cadwalladers connected Barn III to Barn I by covering the space between them and expanding Barn III to the north by 3’-8” in 1938. The ground floors of Barns I and III were improved for dairying. Horses were kept in Barn II. Build V: Barns I and III were expanded three feet to the north. Barn II was rearranged for keeping heifers. Setting: An active dairy farm, Waldac Farm lies along the south side of Mannington Creek and northwest of State Route 45 surrounded by other farms. The farmstead faces southeast at the end of an old allée of white pines approximately 600 feet from the road. The house stands at the end of the driveway, and the farm outbuildings lie along a northeasterly line approximately 750 feet long and parallel with the road. The two-story, late Georgian-style brick house has a side hall plan and a lateral two-story kitchen wing. Historic wood-frame outbuildings include a wagon house/crib barn, a diary barn, a heifer barn, a one-story open front shed, and chicken house. There are three more recent metal clad cow bans south and east of the old dairy barn. The farm is surrounded by cultivated fields planted in corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. A field on the south side of the barn is a cow pasture.

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Photographs

Figure 1. West and south elevations of the barn. The south elevation opens in to the barnyard from the animal stalls. The breaks in the roof and eave lines indicate the divisions between the three barns, which are from left, Barn II, Barn I, and Barn III. The roof hoods in the gable ends protect the ends of a hay track.

Figure 2. East end of the barn, looking north at the entry shed of the milking parlor.

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Figure 3. East elevation of barn, looking west. Door leads to the central walkway under the entry shed to the milking parlor.

Figure 4. East and north elevations of the milking parlor.

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Figure 5. North and west elevations of milking parlor, north elevation of barn and milk house.

Figure 6. North elevation of barn, milk house, milk tank, silo and silo shed, looking southwest.

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Figure 7. North and west elevations of the barn. Note widened north wall of Barns I and III. Barn I is in the foreground, unwidened.

Figure 8. Ground floor of barn looking east from west end in Barn II. Heifer stalls in foreground.

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Figure 9. Ground floor in Barn II looking east at bull pen and Atwood the bull. Beyond is the old milking parlor in Barns I and III.

Figure 10. Ground floor in Barn II, looking north. "Jamesway Air-lite� folding steel window.

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Figure 11. Ground floor in Barn I, looking east. Former milking parlor with original stanchion frames from 1938. Stanchions visible on right side are later replacements.

Figure 12. Ground floor in Barn III, sliding hay hatch in loft floor framing.

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Figure 13. Ground floor, Barn III, looking southeast at oldest dairy ventilating windows.

Figure 14. Ground floor, Barn III, looking west. The two tie beams in the foreground are decorated with lambs-tongue chamfers and may represent use of salvaged timbers when Barn III was built.

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Figure 15. Ground floor, silo shed, looking northeast at silo and feed chute. Beyond is the door into the barn.

Figure 16. Loft, Barn II, looking east from Bay 2. Bay 3 was the threshing bay, as defined by its two central posts and lower ties. The 1960s grain bin shows a left in Bay 6.

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Figure 17. Loft. Barn II, looking at southeastt corner. Note marriage marks, dropped ties, “wedged dovetail through mortise-and-tenon joints” at the tie beam ends, scarfed wall plate, and pinned wall girts.

th

Figure 18. Date of “May 26 , 1792” carved into removed section of tie beam (at Bent 8) from Barn I (Hannah’s Barn). Collection of Asa Cadwallader.

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Figure 19. Loft, at point where Barns I and II were moved together, and Barn I (at left), originally one-story, was extended upward to match Barn II's height. Note the robbed mortise in the post where the original Barn I tie beam was removed, the fallen hewn brace at left, an indication of earlier age, and the use of an iron strap at the upper Barn I tie beam (seen also in Barn III construction).

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Figure 20. Loft. Roofs of Barns I and II, looking west. Barn I rafters (foreground) are hewn versus sawn rafters in Barns II and III. When Barn I was raised, the rafters were reused. The underside of the most recent wood shingle roof is visible.

Figure 21. Loft. Barn II, looking south. Ney hay trolley still in place on the hay track hanging from the ridge. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 22. Loft, looking west from Bay 9 at the east end of Barn I (Bent 10). Note the weathering on the (formerly gable-end) tie beams, and the several hay shafts constructed in 1938. The grain bin in Bay 6 shows at right.

Figure 23. Loft, Barn III, looking west from Bay 12 (formerly a threshing bay), showing the two expansions of Barn III to the right of the hewn post. Note the robbed mortises in the hewn post where the threshing bay door header and up-brace were removed. Note the sawn brace.

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Figure 24. Loft, looking northeast from Bay 9 into Barn III. Note the weathering on Bent 11 (formerly the west gable end of Barn III), the double line of posts that expanded the north wall twice, the extant original wall plate, the iron straps at tie beam joints, and the queen posts and lower tie beams at the former theshing bay.

Figure 25. Loft. Barn III, looking south at Bay 12, showing alteration in roof framing to accomplish the widening of the north wall. The ridge was shifted northward, using rafter sisters, alternating full-length sisters with partial sisters. The open mortises of the original rafters, the underside of a historic wood shingle roof, and the hay track are visible.

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Historic Illustrations

1

2

3

Figure 1. Portion of David Bassett’s Division of Land survey map showing Mannington Hill vicinity in 1848 (Divisions Book E/558). The house and two barns are shown on Davis Bassett’s 50.33 acres of arable land. (1) House, (2) Davis’ barn = Barn II, (3) Hannah’s barn, Barn I.

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Block 39 Lot 33

Figure 2. Portion of David Bassett’s Division of Land survey map showing Mannington Hill vicinity in 1848 (Divisions Book E/558) superimposed on the tax map. Today’s tax parcel includes portions of Hannah Bassett’s and Samuel Bassett’s allotments and Heirs of Morris Hall.

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Single barn

Double barn

Wagon house House

Figure 3. 1930 aerial photo. There appears to be a long (doubled) western barn and short (single) eastern barn with an intervening space. Wagon house as it is today, pasture to the south, two orchards to the north, lane lined with allĂŠe of tall pines, garden plot behind the house, banked meadows along Mannington Creek to the east. The space is apparently corroborated by a painting by Mernie Hires (wife of Dr. Morris Hires) predating 1938 (see Fig. 4.) Imagery source: http://njwebmap.state.nj.us/NJGeoWeb.

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Figure 4. Painting of the barns by Mernie Hires, undated, but before 1938. Extant wagon house shows at left. The Hires painting shows a space between two barns occupied by a one story gable-roofed building. See Fig. 3 for comparison. The western barn was apparently shortened by the artist to fit her canvas. Courtesy Asa Cadwallader.

Figure 5. Low altitude aerial photo taken from an airplane circa 1955. The entire barn was still standing on its ground sills at this time (the concrete block foundation walls were not yet built). Courtesy Asa Cadwallader. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 6. Ney carrier No. 86 (n. d.) which hangs on the hay track. See Figure 21 in Building Form. (Source: https://haytrolleyheaven.com/asset/the-ney-mfg-co-rail-runner-ney29/ney29/)

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Photos of buildings not surveyed.

Figure 7. House built possibly 1818 by Joseph Bassett for his son David Bassett.

Figure 8. Wagon House and attached equipment shed. Shed is built of salvaged hewn timbers. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 9. Three-sided shed and chicken house.

Figure 10. Cow barns and silos.

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Chain of Title – Bassett-Allen Waldac Farm 555 Route 45, Mannington Township (Block 39, Lot 33) Grantor

Grantee

William & Nathaniel Hall (1) Thomas & Grace Smith (1) Elisha & Mary Smith Allen

Thomas & Grace Smith Mary Smith & Grace Sharp (by will) David Allen

David Allen

Elisha & Mary Allen

Elisha & Mary Allen (2) Elisha Allen (2) Chambless & Lydia Allen Joseph Sharp [Jr] Grace Bassett Joseph & Mary Sharp Joseph & Mary Bassett

Elisha Allen Chambless Allen Joseph Sharp Grace Sharp Bassett, widow Joseph Sharp [Jr] Joseph Bassett David Bassett

David Bassett

Davis Bassett

Davis Bassett Samuel P. Allen

Samuel P. Allen Caspar W. Acton & Jonathan B. Grier, Jr., Assignees Martin P. Grey

Caspar W. Acton & Jonathan B. Grier, Jr., Assignees Norman Grey et all (Martin P. Grey heirs)

J. Allen Ware

Deed book/page

Date

Acreage

Recited in C237 Recited in C237

1/26/1731 1758

200 200

Recited in C237; AI319 (3) AI321 (Recited in C237) Recited in C237 Recited in C237 Recited in C237 C237 U466 W285 YY486

8/7/1766

Moiety of 200

?

8/8/1766

Moiety of 200

?

? 1776 1782 3/14/1787 6/16/1817 6/7/1818 1/5/1843

ÂŁ200 $9,300 $12,500 $6,000

? ? 5 years 30 years 1 year 25 years 1 year

Will D/479 Div E/552 23/512 54/372

3/4/1844 11/27/1848 12/20/1858 3/24/1880

Moiety of 200 Moiety of 200 Moiety of 200 Moiety of 200 200 200 200 + 6 other small parcels 64.55

--

10 years

64.55 225

$9,000 $0.50

22 years

55/260

2/7/1881

207.20

$25,900

1 year

116/221

2/10/1911

$14,000

30 years

$25,500

9 years

$1

12 years

$11,100

6 years

$1

8 years

207.20 + 2 other tracts J. Allen Ware Thomas M. Crispin 150/238 12/17/1920 207.20 + 2 other tracts Thomas M. Crispin J. Allen Ware 203.489 7/1/1932 207.20 + 2 other tracts Executor of Jedediah Allen Ware Laura P. Cadwallader 228/234 2/9/1938 207.20 + 2 other tracts William P. & Marion L. 270/290 5/18/1946 207.20 + 2 other Laura P. & J. Augustus Cadwallader Cadwallader tracts (1) No deeds for the Halls or Thomas Smith in Colonial Conveyances; no will for Thomas or Mary Smith in Calendar of Wills. (2) No will for Elisha or Mary Allen in Calendar of Wills. (3) Elisha Allen AI319: Deed number not recited in deed C/237 but found in Colonial Conveyances

Price

Grantee Years Owned ? --

27 years


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History: The Cadwallader family has operated this active dairy farm across three generations. Quakers William P. and Marion L. Cadwallader settled here in 1938. William was from Yardley, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and married Marion Lawrence, a Mannington woman whose family’s multi-generational farm was near this one. William and Marion’s son Asa and Asa’s sons David and Jason work together today as Waldac Farm. This locale, along the Salem-Woodstown Road (Route 45) is historically known as Mannington Hill. The hill is a summit of 61 feet elevation about 1,400 feet to the southeast, rising 35 feet higher than the farm. Along the road in 1849 were 11 buildings (Stansbie, 1849), variously occupied by a blacksmith, a wheelwright, shoemakers, storekeepers, and a tavern, with a landing on the creek, and was considered to be the principal village in Mannington (Cushing and Sheppard, 439). Barely half a mile to the southwest was another hamlet called Welchville, the site of more blacksmith and wheelwright shops, a store, and the town hall. The brick farmhouse was reputedly built circa 1790 (Mannington Historical Sites Inventory, 3). In 1790, the property, a farm of 200 acres, was owned by Grace Bassett (possibly 1730-1828), a widow who had bought the farm from Joseph Sharp, who was her son by Joseph Sharp, Sr. (1709-1776) in 1787. The 200-acre tract goes back to a sale to Thomas and Grace Smith by William and Nathaniel Hall in 1731 (recited in Deed C/237). These were sons of William Hall the 1677 immigrant who was a major landholder in the colony, one piece of which was 1000 acres in Mannington. Thus, the establishment of this farmstead fits into the New Jersey statewide historic context of Initial Colonial Settlement (1630-1775). Thomas and Grace Smith’s 200-acre plantation passed to their daughters Mary Smith and Grace Sharp upon Grace Smith’s death in 1778 as moieties, or undivided halves (Honeyman, Vol. 34, 474). Grace Bassett’s purchase deed of 1787 for her sister’s moiety traces the titles, the deeds for some being otherwise unrecorded (C/237). Mary Smith’s moiety became her husband Elisha Allen’s upon her death, and upon his in 1776, it passed to his brother Champnys Allen. Joseph Sharp, Jr. purchased Mary Smith’s moiety from Allen in 1782 and sold it to his mother, Grace Sharp Bassett in 1787, thus consolidating both moieties into the ownership of one of the Smith sisters. Grace Bassett held the land for 30 years before selling it back to her son as a unified 200-acre parcel in 1817. Joseph and Mary Sharp sold it to Joseph Bassett one year later, in 1818. The brick house on the property has traits of both Georgian and Federal architecture, styles which generally date to before and after the Revolutionary War, respectively. The Flemish brick bond on the principal façade is not checkered with vitrified headers and there are no designs on other façades, so the house clearly departs from the post-medieval style so prevalent among Quaker-built 18th-century Salem County brick houses. Plain Flemish bond, however, was still used locally until about 1830. The striking belt course of a pair of protruding horizontal brick bands between the two floors and stepping down to the kitchen wing, and the rather short windows, are decidedly Georgian features, emphasizing the horizontal. A purely Federal style house would have more attenuated windows following taller interior spaces, expressing verticality. The classical modillions of the elaborate eave cornice can be Georgian or Federal, but express a high style not typical of this Quaker-dominated region. The semi-circular fanlight over the main front door is a common Federal feature, but the rectangular transom over the kitchen wing door is Georgian. It would not be unusual for a post-Revolutionary house in a rural area to express conservatism in its architecture, so this house, as a blend of styles, likely dates to the years following the Revolutionary War, and could be termed late-Georgian. A very similar house is the Jacob Fox house, standing one mile northwest on the north side of Mannington Creek, built in 1813. One of the three barns that make up the dairy barn was definitely built in 1792, as told by a dated beam (removed in 1938, salvaging the section with the incised date of May 26, 1792), so it was built while Grace Bassett owned it. But did she occupy the farm and did she build the house? In 1760 when her mother Grace Smith wrote her will, she lived on her 200-acre plantation, so a house and outbuildings were built between 1731 and 1760. After her death in 1778, it appears that Joseph and Grace Sharp did not occupy it, as Joseph died in 1776 indicating his residency in Pilesgrove (Honeyman, Ibid, 455, http://archive.org/stream/calendarofnewjer05newj#page/455/mode/1up ). The Sharps were an extensive, wealthy and enterprising family. Joseph had developed the Marlborough Iron Works in Sussex County, though they did

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not live there (Honeyman, NJ Newspapers 1775, https://archive.org/stream/ documentsrelatin31newj#page /50/mode/2up). Grace re-married in 1778 to Samuel Bassett at Trinity Episcopal Church in Woolwich Township, Gloucester County. The identity of Samuel Bassett, Grace’s second husband, is unclear, but this Samuel Bassett could be the one who had been condemned for marrying contrary to discipline in 1757 (Hinshaw, 54). The Salem Monthly Meeting consequently disowned Grace (Hinshaw, 54). It seems likely, then, that they lived in Gloucester County. Elisha Allen, upon writing his will in 1775, noted that his wife Mary’s moiety of 200 acres was occupied by William Oakford, that is, the plantation was tenanted (Ibid, 12) at that time. It was still tenanted in 1798, when Grace Sharp was listed as the owner of an 18x20 foot, story-and-a-half wood house assessed at $150, a comparatively low worth—at the 11th percentile of all house values. The house was occupied by one Alexander Ray, and Grace Sharp did not appear as a resident anywhere in the township (nor did Grace Bassett—for unexplained reasons, apparently she was going by her previous name) (Federal Direct Tax List, 1798). The house described in the list was likely the one built by the Smiths, and Alexander Ray probably built the barn. Therefore, the brick house was not built before 1798, and it seems unlikely that Grace would have built such a genteel house for a tenant’s use. Grace lived until 1828, and when she sold “all that certain Messuage or house and Plantation” to her son Joseph Sharp in 1817, she lived in Pilesgrove, her son lived in Sussex County, New Jersey tending to the industrial pursuits begun by his father, and the farm was still tenanted, this time by Benjamin Carter (Deed U/466). The extant brick house was therefore built after 1798. The possibilities are that Grace Sharp Bassett built it for her son sometime between 1798 and 1817, or that Joseph Sharp, Jr. built it in 1817, with a mind to sell an upgraded property the following year, or the next owner built it in 1818 or later. These events coupled with its similarity to the 1813 Jacob Fox house points to a likely construction date in the decade 1810-1820, and most likely in 1818 or later by Joseph Bassett for his son David (see discussion below under Joseph Bassett). The Bassetts The Bassett family has early roots in Salem County and is strongly associated with the Religious Society of Friends. A William and Joseph Bassett arrived in Salem in 1691 from Lynn, Massachusetts (Shourds, 45). Elisha Bassett (1659-1714), of unknown relationship to William and Joseph, and his wife Elizabeth Collins were born in Lynn, Massachusetts and died in Pilesgrove, Salem County, so they also emigrated (Maryland Harlow Family Tree, Ancestry.com, October 5, 2016). The influx of Bassetts into West Jersey may be due to the trauma the family experienced during the Lynn, Massachusetts witchcraft trials in 1692 in which eight Bassett family members or close relatives were tried and convicted of witchcraft. The Bassett ancestors had immigrated to the Massachusetts Bay colony in 1621 from England as Puritans, and these Lynn Bassetts were still Puritans before the trials but apparently converted to Quakerism as a consequence of this family disaster in 1692 (Friday, 101102). One local account puts them among a New England migration of Quakers to Salem County, so they evidently converted and immediately left Lynn for New Jersey. (Helen H. Thompson, 23). There were two early land conveyances to Bassetts in Salem County “near the head of Salem Creek” which were in Pilesgrove Township just southeast of present-day Woodstown. Samuel and Elisha Bassett both purchased tracts from Benjamin Acton—Samuel in 1698, and Elisha in 1700 (Colonial Conveyances, 29). Descendents built patterned brickwork houses known as the Samuel and Ann Bassett House in 1757, and the David and Mary Bassett House in 1755, both in Pilesgrove. The family was affiliated with the Pilesgrove Monthly Meeting until the 1780s when some members switched to the Salem Monthly Meeting (Hinshaw, 54-55). Many Bassetts defected to the Salem Hicksite Meeting between 1828 and 1849 (Hinshaw Vol. 2, 115). Joseph Bassett One descendent was Joseph Bassett (1765-1847), the son of Elisha, Jr. (1722-1777). Joseph and his wife Mary Thompson Allen (1768-1847) lived in Mannington Township. Their marriage was recorded on October 4, 1786 at the Salem Friends Meeting House (Hinshaw, 54).

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Joseph Bassett settled on his half of his father’s Mannington plantation in Haines Neck, a peninsula bounded by the Salem River north of Mannington Creek, the other half settled on by his brother David. Prospering, between 1803 and 1843, Joseph purchased 18 properties in 5 townships, 13 being in Mannington. His house still stands on a neck of land where Mannington Creek meets the Salem River. Living on the edge of the inland tidal flat of Mannington Meadow, he owned large portions of it and was involved in banked meadow farming, which no doubt contributed to his success. No less than 15 farms in Haines Neck were owned by his sons and other Bassett relatives in 1861 (Lake & Beers, 1860). Joseph Bassett, then residing in the town of Salem, made his will January 5, 1843, added three codicils on August 28, 1844, November 1844, and January 17, 1846, and died just before May 15, 1847 (Wills Book D/570). He left his wife Mary their house in Salem. On the day he first executed his will in 1843, Joseph Bassett conveyed by deeds lands to his sons Elisha, Joseph, David, and Benjamin “as being equal to their full shares of my estate.” When Joseph Bassett bought Grace Bassett’s plantation in 1818, he may have been planning to settle his son David on it. In 1818, David Bassett was 28 years old, and mature enough for his own farm. When David acquired the farm from his father in 1843, he was already occupying it (Deed YY/486). A practice of major landowners of the time was to acquire enough land to settle their heirs on sustainable farms, and then bequeath the properties to them. So, Joseph Bassett may have built the house on Waldac Farm in 1818 for David, as a fitting upgrade to a small, worn-out early eighteenth-century frame house, if it was not already erected by Joseph Sharp, Jr. or his mother Grace Bassett. Joseph Bassett also may have built the Joseph Bassett, Jr. house for David’s twin brother in 1820 (Mannington Inventory, #29, 10). Joseph, Jr. built a frame house in 1851 for his daughter Lydia after she married John Zorns (Woodnutt, Third Mo. 1851, S2) (see Zerns-Wright farmstead in this volume) David Bassett David Bassett (1790-1844) was one of Joseph and Mary Bassett’s nine children, and twin to their son Joseph, Jr. (1790-1867). David married three times, first to Vashti Davis, recorded 18 August 1823 (Longacre.FBC.GED at Ancestry.com), which earned him a disownment from the Salem Friends Meeting on January 28, 1824 for marrying contrary to discipline (Hinshaw, 55). Their children were William born ca. 1827, Davis born 1829, Hannah D. born 1830, and Samuel born 1833. Four months before David died he was received into the Salem Hicksite Meeting on 29 May 29 1844, along with his minor children Hannah, Davis and Samuel (Hinshaw, 144). Between 1828 and 1849, 17 members of the Bassett family, including possibly three of David’s brothers, were disowned by the Orthodox Quakers because they had joined the Hicksites. The Hicksite split in the Religious Society of Friends stemmed from a variety of rifts, including abolitionism, to which there is evidence that this branch of Bassetts was sympathetic (Sheridan, Marshalltown NR, 34). On the day Joseph Bassett set down his will (D/570), David, along with his brothers, received a deed to land not specifically described in the will. The January 5, 1843 deed (YY486), “in consideration of the natural love and affection which the said parties of the first part bear to their son the said David Bassett and in consideration of the sum of six thousand dollars…” conveyed to David the 200-acre Grace Bassett plantation, six other small parcels in the vicinity (probably tenant or artisan houses at Mannington Hill), and a ten-acre lot of meadow in Lower Penns Neck. Just one year later, on March 4, 1844, David Bassett prepared a will (Will Book D/479). His neighbors Maurice Welch, William A. Baker, and Joseph C. Sheppard were witnesses, and he appointed his twin brother Joseph Bassett, Jr. his sole executor. He appointed his brothers Joseph and Benjamin as guardians for his minor children, William, Hannah Davis, Davis, and Samuel. David and a subsequent wife, Ann C. Bassett, occupied the 247-acre “homestead farm” when he died on September 25, 1844 (Hinshaw, 128). He left his wife Ann a lifetime right “in lieu of her dower and thirds in and out of my estate” to the land, premises, and appurtenances in Mannington which were conveyed to him by James and Hannah Smith on January 17, 1842. This property could be one or both of the houses showing on the 1860 Lake & Beers map as “Mrs. Bassett” along the WoodstownSalem Road on the road frontage of the farm at Mannington Hill. After her death the executor was to sell that property in fee simple with a deed, and divide the proceeds equally among his four children. He devised all his

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other lands and real estate to be divided equally among the same. An Orphan’s Court session on Monday August 14, 1848 received the application of William Bassett, who apparently had turned 21, and guardians Joseph Bassett and Benjamin Bassett representing the three minor children, to divide the real estate of his father. At this time, Davis would have been 18 years old. The court appointed Thomas Sinnickson, Thomas Dickinson, and John N. Cooper (a surveyor) as disinterested Freeholders to determine the metes and bounds of each heir’s portion. By November 27, 1848, the surveyors submitted their land descriptions and maps to the court for filing (Divisions Book E/552). William received 350 acres of land, a 2-acre marl pit in Haines Neck, and a 3-acre improved lot at Mannington Hill. Hannah Davis Bassett received 84 acres of the “homestead farm” at Mannington Hill, along with a 2/3-acre improved lot at Mannington Hill and “all that certain Barn situate east of the large barn of the Homestead.” Davis received four parcels of the Homestead farm totaling 64.55 acres (50.33 acres of upland, 12.62 acres of meadow, and two house lots of 0.83 and 0.77 acres along the road). This included the farm house and “the large barn” and all other improvements except Hannah’s “Small Barn.” Samuel received 94 acres of upland and meadow out of the Homestead farm and a 1-acre vacant lot at Mannington Hill. Davis was the child bestowed with the greatest advantage—the home farm and farmstead already well-developed. The others were less advantaged. With 84 acres of improved land and meadow, a small house lot and barn, Hannah had the means to settle and farm near the home farm. William could settle on his house lot, but his land, without a local farmstead, was at a distance. The marl pit was a great economic advantage, however, positioning him to mine and sell valuable marl to local farmers or use it himself. Samuel was disadvantaged, however; he had only land with no house to live in. At the time of the division, Davis was still a minor and not ready to independently farm. Davis’ uncle and guardian Joseph Bassett decided that his daughter Elizabeth and her husband William Goodwin Woodnutt would occupy the David Bassett farm. Woodnutt was Bassett’s most highly esteemed son-in-law, who helped him manage the several family farms. The Woodnutts had married in 1843, and William’s father Jonathan Woodnutt was still on his own farm in lower Mannington, adjacent to Claysville on Mannington meadow. However, at the age of 17, Hannah was keeping house for Davis in the family homestead and continued to do so after the Woodnutts moved in (Helen H. Thompson, 23-24). In 1850, however, while the Woodnutts farmed the home farm, Davis was living in the household of his uncle and guardian Benjamin Bassett and his wife Mary, working as a farm hand (1850 Fed Census, Mannington). His uncle Benjamin was one of the most land-wealthy in the township, at $30,000 worth of real estate. Davis’ inheritance was reflected in his own $6,000 worth of real estate, which must represent his father’s legacy (this figure matches the price of the farm when it was purchased by his father David in 1843). According to William Woodnutt, however, Davis had decided to operate his farm by March 1849 (at the age of 20), so the Woodnutt’s moved out to occupy his cousin James M. Woodnutt’s farm, down near his father’s farm in lower Mannington. On March 8, Woodnutt agreed to rent James Woodnutt’s farm for 10 years at $400 per year. However, in January, 1849, he had also arranged to take the Bassett farm for another year, perhaps while Davis worked it as a minor (Woodnutt, Third mo. 1851; First mo. 1849. In 1850, Davis would have turned 21. During the years 1848 to 1858 Davis’ guardians, Joseph and Benjamin Bassett, the tenant William Woodnutt, or Davis could have added the third barn to the farmstead and joined the first two together. In 1849, Woodnutt was obligated to provide “improvements, rails and lime, or manure” as part of his rent (Woodnutt, First mo. 1849). Adding a barn would be considered an improvement. But since Woodnutt did not mention a barn raising in his diary, it is likely that the third barn was added either before his tenure beginning in 1848, or after his tenure on the Bassett farm ending March 1850. On October 1, 1858, at age 29, Davis was granted a certificate to the Medford, New Jersey Monthly Meeting to marry, and the following year, on May 27, 1859, his wife Martha B. Bassett was received into the Salem Monthly Meeting on certificate from the Medford Meeting (Hinshaw, 244). But their plans did not include staying on the homestead farm. Davis’ sister Hannah’s did, however.

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The extant house, and at least two, and possibly all three, of the extant barns fall within the state historic context of Early Industrialization, Urbanization, & Agricultural Development (1775-1860). The Allens Hannah married Samuel Pancoast Allen (1828-1901) from Gloucester County on February 6, 1851 at the home of Joseph Bassett (Hinshaw, 142; Woodnutt, Second mo., 1851). Samuel was 23 and a year earlier lived on a Harrison Township, Gloucester County farm with his parents, Samuel C. and Mary Ann Allen, brothers Collins, 25, and George, 11, and 6 native and Irish laborers and servants (1850 Federal Census, Harrison Twp, Gloucester Co.). Hannah met Samuel through her frequent visits to see a cousin in Mullica Hill (Thompson, 1941). The Allen family had had a long presence in Salem County and near Mannington Hill, where Elisha and Mary Allen once owned a moiety of this farm, and the Jedediah Allen house stands adjacent to the Bassett farm on the creek. The Allens, like the Bassetts, had a long association with the Religious Society of Friends. It is not clear where Samuel and Hannah initially lived, but it is likely that they set up householding in the David Bassett house where Hannah was already living with Davis, who was 22 at this time and still unmarried. Seven years later, expanding their holdings between April and December 1858, Samuel Allen purchased from Samuel and Davis Bassett their inherited divisions of the Bassett homestead farm, and from Davis a 40.5-acre parcel he had previously purchased from his sister Hannah (deeds 22/620, 23/168, and 23/514). With that, the Allens had reconstituted Hannah’s family homestead and farmed here for 22 years. If not Davis, then they added the third barn to the farmstead sometime after 1851. In 1860 they resided in Mannington with their daughter Anna V., two Irish servants and three Black laborers. His neighbors, probably renting houses and shops from them, included several tenants including two laboring Black families by the name of Giles, one a hostler, three White laboring families, and two blacksmiths and a wheelwright who no doubt manned the shops at Mannington Hill (Lake & Beers, 1861). Hannah’s mother, “Mrs. Bassett” owned two properties at Mannington Hill, and carried on a mercantile business there (Lake & Beers, 1861; Cushing & Sheppard, 439). By 1870, the Allens ranked at the 95th percentile of real estate value among landowners in Mannington Township (1870 Federal Census, Mannington). His $38,250 real estate value was far above the median of $3,000, and the mean of $10,135. The run of prosperity seemed to end in 1881, when Samuel Allen’s assignees sold the farm to pay his debts, which may have been a consequence of the poor harvests and the Long Depression of 1873-1879 (Barga, 2013). Martin P. Grey of Salem, a New Jersey Chancery Court Vice Chancellor, purchased it, but did not live there, so probably rented it out (1900 Federal Census, Salem; United States, Federal Writers' Project, 65). In 1895, Samuel P. Allen was still living in Mannington, so he may have been Grey’s tenant (1895 New Jersey Census, th Mannington). It may have been Samuel Allen who combined the two barns, complete with the late-19 century Ney hay trolley made in Canton, Ohio to improve the efficiency of loading hay into the barns. After Grey’s death in 1911, his heirs sold it to Jay Allen Ware (deed 116/221). Ware sold it to Thomas M. Crispin in 1920 for nearly the same price it sold for in 1881. As an unfortunate victim of the Great Depression, Crispin lost it back to Ware in 1932 (deeds 150/238, 203/489). Late in the Depression, after Ware died, the Cadwalladers purchased it from his heirs for a fraction of Crispin’s purchase price (228/234). The activity at this farmstead from the Allen, Grey, Crispin and Ware occupations falls within the state historic context of Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, & Urban Expansion (1850-1920). The Cadwalladers William and Marian Cadwallader moved to this farm in 1938 from Lower Makefield Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, and proceeded to operate a dairy farm. His mother Laura Parry Cadwallader had purchased the farm from the executor of the estate of Jedediah Allen Ware. She and her husband J. Augustus Cadwallader sold the farm to their son and his wife in 1946. Their son, Asa, who eventually took over the farm, attended a one-room school house nearby (Asa Cadwallader, personal communication). Soon after they arrived, they reconfigured the existing barns into one long barn. It appears from 1930 aerial

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photography that the two Bassett barns (Hannah’s 1792 barn or Barn I, and David’s pre-1848 barn or Barn II) were already combined into one long barn, probably for dairying, and the Davis Bassett/Samuel Allen post-1848 barn (Barn III) stood a distance to the east (see drawings). This arrangement is corroborated in a painting by a Mernie (Mrs. Dr. Morris) Hires some years before the Cadwalladers arrived (collection of Cadwallader family). Perhaps not with strict scale, the painting shows one barn (which would have been Barns I and II) and part of another (Barn III) with a space between them occupied by a one-story building, which may have been a milk house. All three barns had an identical plan—four structural bays originally built with a drive or threshing bay in the second bay from the east. All have evidence of large double doors on both side walls (visible at the loft level)— weathered door posts, a weathered door header beam, door batten pockets in the door posts, and holes where the iron strap hinge pintels had been driven into the door posts adjacent to the batten pockets. One barn, Hannah Bassett’s 1792 barn (Barn I), was originally one-story high, thus it was the “small barn” compared to Davis’ twostory barn on the west (Barn II) which are called out in David Bassett’s Division of Land (E/552). It had been moved up against Barn II, and raised to match its height, with a set of hewn posts and beams before 1930. Starting with a long barn and a short barn, the Cadwalladers created one even longer barn by removing the small addition and connecting Barn III to the already-connected Barns I and II with a roof and walls over the existing space between them. At the same time, they widened Barn III by approximately 3’-8” to match the width of Barn I. This work was accomplished by Ed Davis of the Davis Lumber Company in Salem. The east end of the long barn (Barn II) was a stable for work horses up until the 1940s, with the milking parlor occupying Barns I and III. The horse barn still had its drive bay. (Asa Cadwallader, personal communication). In 1939, a concrete silo was built next to the barn by Amish men. Sometime later, they expanded the same two barns by approximately 2’-10”, apparently to comply with state dairy regulations regarding the space required for two rows of milking stanchions. They built a new milk house on the north side. Predating the Cadwalladers, there were a nineteenth-century wagon house, a three-sided shed, and a chicken house northeast of the house, which survive. They moved a blacksmith shop from the road to the farmstead, but it has since fallen down. Other improvements the Cadwalladers have made include a second concrete silo in the 1960s, and three A. O. Smith Harvestore steel silos in 1979, 1980, and 1981. In 1950 they added a gable-front heifer barn and storage shed built by Frank Dilks and Loren Hackett. Their 300-gallon milk tank was replaced by an 800-gallon tank, then a 6,000 gallon tank, which sits mostly outside the 1938 milk house wall. In 1962, in a major upgrade, they built a new concrete block milking parlor wing on the northwest corner of the barn and installed a “Wisconsin Germania” collection system. This milking parlor was later expanded. In 1960, they added a cow barn on the east side of the dairy barn. In 1972, they built a dry cow barn for calving. They built another cow barn in 1992. They have expanded their landholdings from 171 acres to 600 acres. They grow their animals’ feed, consisting of corn, soy, and alfalfa. The Cadwalladers hosted barn dances in the Spring after much of the hay had been used up, which created dancing space. The ballroom-style dances took place in the east end with live music. The occupation of the Cadwalladers on this farm falls within the statewide historic context of Modern New Jersey (1945-Present).

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Significance: The Waldac Barn satisfies Criterion C for architecture in its designs, materials and workmanship as an English threshing ground barn with local and possibly statewide significance. Human activity on this farmstead spans the historic contexts of Initial Colonial Settlement (1630-1775), Early Industrialization, Urbanization, & Agricultural Development (1775-1860), Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, & Urban Expansion (1850-1920), and Modern New Jersey (1945-Present). The surviving historic fabric spans the latter three contexts. Eligibility for New Jersey and National Registers: Level of Significance

Yes Local

No

National Register Criteria:

State

A

B

C

D

National

Justification of Eligibility/Ineligibility: The Bassett-Allen-Waldac Barn is an extraordinary example of (1) the th th construction methods of Salem County barns spanning from the late 18 century through the mid-19 century, (2) th three, four-bay ground barns as a barn type not previously documented in the county, (3) a rare, one-story 18 century barn, (4) a rare dated barn, (5) the ways farmers adapted buildings they had to new uses, technologies, th th and state regulations in the 19 and 20 centuries, (6) how dairying affected the configuration of barns in the 20th century, and (7) a living example of an agricultural building that has been in continuous use across four centuries. It retains integrity of location, setting, materials, workmanship, feeling and association sufficient to convey its significance. It retains integrity of framing, timber joints, siding, flooring, and roofing from the various periods of use and change. Room arrangement survives from the 1938 changes. This combined barn contributes to an understanding of local and statewide agricultural history and architecture. For Historic Districts Only: Property Count:

Key Contributing:

Contributing:

Non Contributing:

For Individual Properties Only: x x x

List the completed attachments related to the property’s significance: Base Form Building Form, with Photos Continuation Forms with Historic Photos

Narrative Boundary Description: The property consists of Tax Parcel Block 39, Lot 33, which lies northwest of Route 45 and south of Mannington Creek.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


HEIFER BOX STALL

BAY 1 2 BAY 2 3 BAY 3 4

NO RT H

BAY 4

GROUND FLOOR PLAN PROJECT

NORTH

5 6 BAY 5 7 BAY 6

7'-712"

10'-11"

BULL PEN

8 BAY 7 9 BAY 8 10 BAY 9 11 BAY 10 12 BAY 11

HW

STANCHION FRAME FEED TROUGH

HD

13 BAY 12

REST RM

HD

14

NOTES: 1. ALL FLOORS ARE POURED CONCRETE

BAY 13

HEIFER BOX STALL STANCHION FRAME

HD HD

STANCHION FRAME

BULL STANCHION

136'-512" 19'-2"

LEGEND: HD 7'-103 4"

HAY DROP OVERHEAD OVERHEAD TIE BEAMS CONCRETE BLOCK WALLS

MILKING PARLOR (NOT MEASURED)

HW

HEATER RM

MANURE TROUGH CLOSET OFFICE MILKING EQUIP

STANCHION FRAME

FEED TROUGH

HEIFER PEN

HD 15

BARNYARD

IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

NEW JERSEY

D

SALEM COUNTY

W

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

BASSETT-ALLEN-WALDAC GROUND BARN

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

24'

15'-1"

1

26'-11"

555 ROUTE 45 (SALEM-WOODSTOWN RD)

COOLING

EQUIP

MILK

20'-312"

MILK HOUSE

34'-5"

SILO 12'-0" 14'-33 4"

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

FEED TROUGH

6000 GAL MILK TANK

35'-1"

4'-10"

FEED CHUTE

13'-612"

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

HD 37'-4"

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, MARCH, 2016

BENT# 1 28'-9"

19'-7"

30'-2"

42'-8" OF

SHEET

5


5 OF

2

SHEET

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

NEW JERSEY

94'-3"

SILO

FORMER DRIVE BAY

HS

BENT# 1

BAY 1

2

BAY 2

3

BAY 3

4

BAY 4

5 6

BAY 5

7

BAY 6

8

BAY 7

9

BAY 8

10

BAY 9

11

BAY 10

12

BAY 11

13

BAY 12

BARN II

BARN I

COVERED SPACE

BARN III

42'-614"

41'-012"

12'-1014"

40'-6"

14

BAY 13

15

LOFT PLAN NO

RT H

PROJECT NORTH

NOTES: 1. BARN I IS DATED BY A REMOVED BEAM FRAGMENT INSCRIBED "1792" BARN II DATES FROM 1792-1848 BARN III DATES FROM AFTER 1848 AND PROBABLY BEFORE 1860. 2. BARNS I AND II WERE MOVED TOGETHER AFTER 1858 AND BEFORE 1938 3. BARNS I AND III WERE CONNECTED AND EXPANDED AFTER 1938

LEGEND: HS

MISSING LOWER TIE BEAMS, DOOR HEADER HAY SHAFT

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, MARCH, 2016

136'-11"

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

FORMER DRIVE BAY

HS

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

HS

FORMER DRIVE BAY

BARN III 28'-7"

BARN I 30'-1"

BARN II 32'-1"

HS HS

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

HS

555 ROUTE 45 (SALEM-WOODSTOWN RD)

FEED BIN

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

3'-112"

3'-812" 2'-1012"

BASSETT-ALLEN-WALDAC GROUND BARN 5

12'-0"


BAY 1 2 BAY 2 3 BAY 3 4

NO RT H

BAY 4

LOFT OVERHEAD FRAMING PLAN PROJECT

NORTH

5 6 BAY 5 7 BAY 6 8 BAY 7

HS

HS

9 BAY 8 10 BAY 9 11 BAY 10

NOTES: 1. OVERHEAD TIMBERS SHOWN ARE THE UPPERMOST TIE BEAMS AND WALL PLATES.

12 BAY 11

HS

13 BAY 12

BARN I BARN II COVERED SPACE BARN III

42'-614" 41'-012" 12'-1014" 40'-6"

14 BAY 13

LEGEND: OVERHEAD TIE BEAMS AND PLATES HAY SHAFT

15

136'-11"

HS HS

FORMER DRIVE BAY

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

HS IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

555 ROUTE 45 (SALEM-WOODSTOWN RD)

SALEM COUNTY

HS

BASSETT-ALLEN-WALDAC GROUND BARN 5

3'-812" 2'-1012"

NEW JERSEY

SILO

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

BENT# 1 THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

94'-3"

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

FORMER DRIVE BAY FORMER DRIVE BAY 28'-7"

FEED BIN

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, MARCH, 2016

30'-1"

32'-1"

3'-112"

42'-812"

3

OF

SHEET

5


SOUTH ELEVATION NOTES: 1. HEIGHT OF SILO IS ESTIMATED. 2. ROOFING IS RIBBED SHEET METAL. 3. SIDING IS WOOD BOARDS. LEGEND: 1. CONCRETE SLAB 2. BITUMINOUS PAVING JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

555 ROUTE 45 (SALEM-WOODSTOWN RD)

SALEM COUNTY

BASSETT-ALLEN-WALDAC GROUND BARN

EAST ELEVATION

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

MILK TANK 5'-812"

NEW JERSEY

19'-103 4"

MILKING PARLOR 5'-63 4"

MILK HOUSE

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, OCTOBER, 2016

4'-114"

12'-914"

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

SILO

SILO SHED

4

OF

SHEET

5


SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT, VOLUME II

Appendix III. Stretch-Mulford Farm Carriage Barn Wagon House

24

REV. MAY 20, 2017


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM

Page 1

Historic Sites #:

Property Name:

Stretch-Mulford Farmstead

Street Address:

Street #:

Prefix:

640 (Low)

Street Name:

County(s): Municipality(s): Local Place Name(s): Ownership::

Apartment #: (High)

Quaker Neck

(Low)

(High)

Suffix:

Zip Code:

Salem Mannington Township

53

Lot(s):

46

USGS Quad(s)

RD

08079

Block(s):

Quaker Neck Private

Type:

Salem

Photograph:

Description: This farmstead faces south on Quaker Neck Road, approximately 800 feet east of the City of Salem boundary at Keasbey Creek. It is densely planted with trees, including exotics like Ginko. The farm house is composed of two houses of different periods lying with their ridges parallel to each other. The earlier house to the north (at rear of the other) has a hall and parlor plan, the later house in the front (circa 1859) has a center-hall, double pile plan with Greek Revival characteristics. The wagon house stands prominently in this farmstead, approximately 40 feet northeast of the farm house and facing directly into the driveway from the road into the th farmyard. A few feet behind the northeast corner of the wagon house is an early 20 century potting shed. th Standing on a line to the east is a late-20 century gambrel-roofed shed, and at the end of the same line is a carriage barn contemporary with the wagon shed (see CRS form in this report). National Historic Landmark:

SHPO Opinion:

National Register:

Local Designation:

New Jersey Register:

Other Designation:

Determination of Eligibility:

Other Designation Date:

Registration and Status Dates:

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM

Page 2

Historic Sites #:

Site Map:

Location Map: R R RTTT 444555

C C A R R A G E AR RR RIIIA AG GE E CA B B A R N BA AR RN N

S S E SIIITTTE E W W A G O N WA AG GO ON N H H O U S E HO OU US SE E

C C Y O S A E M CIIITTTY YO OFFFS SA ALLLE EM M

H H O U S E HO OU US SE E R R RTTT 444999

Bibliography/Sources: Delaware Valley Planning Commission, “Mannington Historical Sites Inventory” 2008; A Map of the Counties of Salem and Gloucester, New Jersey from the Original Surveys by Alexander C. Stansbie, James Keily, and Samuel M Rea. Phila: Smith & Wistar, 1849; Combination Atlas Map of Salem and Gloucester Counties, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts and Stewart, 1876; Federal Censuses, 1830-1930, Ancestry.com; Historic Aerial Photography, http://www.historicaerials.com/ USDA aerial photos 1931, 1940, 1963, 1970, 1995, 2002, 2006; Ortho imagery. 1930, 1995/97, 2002. iMap NJ; Salem County Deeds, Wills, Mortgages, Miscellaneous Records, Salem County Clerks Office; Salem County tax maps and parcel data; Cushing, Thomas and Charles E. Sheppard, History of the Counties of Gloucester, Salem and Cumberland, New Jersey. Philadelphia: Everts & Peck, 1883; repr. Woodbury, NJ: Gloucester County Historical Society, 1974; Thomas Shourds, History and Genealogy of Fenwick’s Colony, New Jersey, (Bridgeton, N.J.: G.F. Nixon, 1876); Hinshaw, William Wade, and Thomas Worth Marshall. Encyclopedia of American Quaker Genealogy. Vol 2, Baltimore: Genealogical Pub. Co, 1969. Halstead, Byron D. Barns, Sheds and Outbuildings: Placement, Design and Construction. Lexington, MA: Stephen Greene Press, 1981; Familysearch.com, Salem County Probate Records (Wills, Divisions of Land); Cynthia G. Falk, Barns of New York : Rural Architecture of the Empire State (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012); Thomas Durant. Visser, Field Guide to New England Barns and Farm Buildings (Hanover: University Press of New England, 1997); Jack Sobon, Historic American Timber Joinery: A Graphic Guide Timber Framers Guild, 2004 Additional Information:

More Research Needed?

Survey Name: Surveyor:

Yes

No

(House and potting shed were not surveyed)

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BASE FORM

Page 3

Historic Sites #:

INTENSIVE LEVEL USE ONLY Attachments Included: Within Historic District?

Building

Structure

Landscape

Industry

Yes Status:

Object

Bridge

No Key-Contributing

Associated Archaeological Site/Deposit?

Contributing

Non-Contributing

Yes

(Known or potential Sites – if yes, please describe briefly)

THIS PAGE TO BE COMPLETED ONLY AT INTENSIVE LEVEL AND ONLY IF PROPERTY IS A FARM COMPLEX Historic Farm Name:

Stretch-Mulford Farmstead

Period of Agricultural Use: Agriculture Type:

Source Ca.1840 To 1923 Oilseed and Grain Farming Remaining Historic Fabric Medium Acreage: 4.41

Deeds, Census

Farm Description: This farmstead is a four-acre remnant of a 60-acre farm first developed in the early nineteenth century. It faces south on Quaker Neck Road 800 feet east of the boundary of the City of Salem at Keasbey Creek. On it stands a Greek Revival-style house, wagon house, and carriage barn dating from the early to mid-nineteenth century. The house is a complex of two, two-story, side-wall oriented frame houses, one in front of the other, from different periods. It stands closer to the road than the two historic outbuildings, which are aligned facing the road on a circular driveway. The wagon house and carriage barn both contain remnants of vertical board-and-batten siding. A small frame potting shed from the early twentieth century stands behind the wagon house, and a late-twentieth-century gambrel-roofed frame shed stands between the wagon house and the carriage barn. Behind these outbuildings stands a 44x112 foot, one-story metal-clad pole barn built on the site of an earlier barn. The lot was subdivided from a 6-acre lot which existed as such since 1779, but formed a farm along with a 54-acre field on its east side purchased in 1867. These two parcels were carried in one deed until 1930, when the subdivision excised the farmstead from the larger farm. Farming probably ceased between 1923 and 1930, as the property became the country home of a DuPont chemist and then an attorney. The carriage house has been converted to a chicken house. The parcel contains a field in lawn on the east side of the farmstead. On the north is a large crop parcel which th used to be part of this farm. Tidal meadow lies to the northwest, and on the west side is an early 20 -century farmstead lying next to the meadow.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

Page 1

BUILDING ATTACHMENT Common Name: Historic Name:

Historic Sites #:

640 Quaker Neck Road Stretch-Mulford farm, Jonas Freedland property, Abner Penton property

Present Use:

Residential, permanent, single family

Historic Use:

Residential, permanent, single family

Construction Date: Alteration Date(s):

Ca. 1850

Source:

deeds, style, technology of construction

Ca.

Source:

Owner

Designer:

Unknown

Physical Condition:

Builder:

Unknown

Remaining Historic Fabric:

Style:

n/a

Form:

Double Pen

Type:

Carriage house/carriage barn

Roof Finish Materials: Exterior Finish Materials

good high

Stories:

2

Bays:

5

Asphalt shingle Wood, Flush; Wood, Board-and-Batten

Exterior Description: The side-wall entry carriage house is a two-story, gable-roofed, wood-framed outbuilding clad with vertical board siding and a fiberglass shingle roof on a 16-foot by 20-foot rectangular plan. It is painted red. It stands at or slightly above grade on a stone foundation visible at the northwest corner. South elevation: This principal elevation contains two braced board-and-batten passage doors and a shelf mounted between the doors. The siding is flush vertical boards butted at their edges. The rafter tails are exposed. One braced board-and-batten hay door hangs on manufactured strap hinges in the loft level wall on the east side. The passage doors hang on wrought iron strap hinges and are latched with wrought iron hasps of two different styles (see drawings). Both are trimmed with a one-inch protruding board cap. East elevation: This gable end has two courses of vertical board siding. The lower course of butted boards spans from the ground to approximately a foot below the eaves. This course appears to be replaced. The upper course has battens over each board joint, and may be the remains of the original siding. The roof rake is trimmed with a board that is shaped with a curve and chamfered, and matched the shape of the rafter tails. The corner board at the north end is cut at the same elevation as the siding, so may also be original. A lightening rod is mounted to the wall in the gable peak and extends above the ridge. There are two circular openings high in the gable end, with no apparent purpose. There is a sheet metal patch over an opening in the peak. North elevation: The entire north elevation is sided with butted boards in two courses with no battens, the upper one being 6’-5” above the sill. A sliding 6-light window is at the west end of the ground floor, a hay door hanging on manufactured strap hinges is at the east end at loft level, and there is an opening with a metal-framed screen over it near the ground at the east end. This may have been a chicken door. Below this opening is a long 2x12 board which may be serving as a patch, and above the opening is a rectangular plywood patch. The stiles of the window frame at their lower ends taper to a point in a decorative manner. West elevation: The entire west elevation is board-and-batten siding, but in three courses. The lowest course reaches 9’-6” above the sill and may coincide with framing changes or repairs to the wall. The middle course reaches from there to 19’-4” above the sill, leaving about three feet of upper course. The lower battens appear replaced, but the uppermost battens may be original. Along the ground is an 11-inch board covering the sill. At the north corner, the sill and stone foundation are exposed. There is a large hole in the siding at the peak, and a small one below it. The roof is trimmed with a rake board which is shaped with a curve at the eave.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BUILDING ATTACHMENT

Page 2

Historic Sites #:

Interior Description: The interior has an open, sash-sawn timber frame with cut joints and trenails, suggesting th early 19 century work. The floor is boarded east to west; boards range in width from 9½ to 13½ inches. They are covered in most places by ½-inch thick plywood. The west bay measures approximately 7’-2” wide, and the east bay measures 12’-9” wide. In the west bay is a ladder and loft floor opening in the northwest corner, a full-height partition wall of horizontal boards on the east side, and, aligned with it, a wood manger divided into a hay box and a grain box. A six-light, horizontally-sliding sash is framed in to the lower girt of the north wall between two mortises and pinned up-braces. Above the upper north girt, is another girt bearing on blocks, supporting the loft floor. The west wall framing, not including the corner posts, was replaced with circular-sawn posts and girts using cut th nails instead of joinery for the connections, suggesting late 19 century work. According to a robbed mortise at the south post and a remnant piece of girt at the north post, an original horizontal tie beam was removed and replacement girts were set about a foot below the original between intermediate posts. An upper girt supporting the hay loft is nailed into the corner posts, as is a door header girt at the south wall. Two overhead joists support the loft floor and bear upon the upper west girt over the intermediate wall posts and lap over the east partition wall adjacent a the joist from the east bay. A cantilevered joist bears on a timber lying on the upper west girt, heading off the loft access opening. In the partition wall are two drop-down feed doors hung on leather hinges that service the horse stall on the west side. The lower three boards of the partition wall, which also form the west side of the manger, are secured with cut nails, and have a whitewashed appearance. The four boards above them are without any finish, and are secured with wire nails. At the south end of the partition wall is a post with a robbed mortise at the same height as the one in the southwest corner post. This is not an original post, and may be a salvaged west wall post. A north-south upper beam mortised into the latter post forms the top of the partition and supports the perimeter girts and interior joists that support the loft floor. In this beam, visible above the manger, is a robbed post mortise. The southwest corner post contains two door batten pockets, and a pocket for a swiveling locking batten. The east bay contains a horse box stall with horizontally boarded walls, and a horse manger. The stall is partitioned to the height of the floor joists on the west, south and east, and a door once hung in a diagonal opening at its southeast corner. Within the stall, which measures 9’-8” east to west and 10’-10” north to south, are a wooden hay rack in the southwest corner, a wooden grain bin in the northwest corner, and chicken roosting boxes attached to the north wall and sitting on the floor at the east wall. The north-south beam over the partition bears on a one-story post to which it is nailed, at the north wall, and is mortised into the post at the south wall. Two robbed post mortises are visible on the underside of the beam. Four studs of varying sizes run from the north post to the southwest corner. The boards of the west wall vary in finish as discussed above, seen from the other side. The north center post has up-braces on both sides and a pair of upper and lower girts that mortise into the post with wood pins. A mortise containing the sawed-off tenon of the original middle tie beam is just below the level of the girts. It appears that this beam was relocated approximately 2’-3” west to form the extant partition. The wall below the lower girts (approximately the same height of the three lower west wall boards, about 2’-8”) is clad with vertical boards on the interior. Above the two north upper girts are another pair of girts, standing on blocks set at the post and nailed into the post, that support the loft floor. The top of an up-brace that rises from the th northeast corner post is visible next to the east partition. The east partition is framed with early 20 century 2x4 lumber studs. Outside the stall is an L-shaped space containing the exterior passage door, the manger, and a screened exterior opening in the north wall. On the south wall, there is a layer of interior horizontal boards laid over the exterior vertical boards, likely for insulation, extending from the floor to the lower girt. The north center post has one upbrace running easterly, but none running westerly, and never did. There is a robbed mortise opposing the one in the north center post discussed above. On the west side of the post there are two door batten pockets and a pocket for a locking batten. On the east wall, the same treatment extends up to the upper girt. A one-story center post, lapped over and spiked into the upper girt, contains four robbed mortises all about 4 inches high and 1 ¾ inch wide and spaced 11 to 13 inches apart. The passage door is framed into the southeast corner post, and appears to be an original opening; there is no evidence of a removed brace. Adjacent to the door on the east wall is a pocket formed by a wood gusset at the lower end of the brace. In this space a horseshoe was found. On a Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

Page 3

BUILDING ATTACHMENT

Historic Sites #:

nail on the upper east girt hang two English-style stirrups and a harness ring. Loft: The loft is an undivided, unfinished space. The joined, sash-sawn frame is composed of three bents running north to south. The west and central bents are similar with a tie beam approximately 1’-8” above the floor and another at the top of the posts just below the wall plates. The east bent is different, with a higher lower tie beam, at 2’-4” above the floor, and a dropped upper tie beam, at 11 inches below the all plate. All the posts are upbraced in both directions, and so the braces do not interfere with the loft floor. The north girts are at the same level in both bays, but in the south wall, they differ. In the east bay, the girt is level with the north girts, but in the west bay, it is lower by 1’-5” and is a heavier piece (5” deep versus 4”). This girt was the carriage door header. Both the west and central posts contain the upper batten pocket, and show a weathered edge. The upper end of the post supporting the moved tie beam below terminates at this girt. All of the original framing members appear to be intact. The roof framing appears to be a later period, being untapered, and butted and nailed at the ridge. Spaced roof lath from a wood shingle roof is extant, but now the roof is sheathed with particle board. The floor consists of one-inch thick butted floor boards 6 to 16 inches wide running north-south. The floor humps over the middle joist, sloping down to the north and south walls. At the hay drop in the northeast corner there is a shaft constructed from wood scantling that reaches above the eave. Both hay doors are braced and battened and fill the wall space between the plate, the girt, and the up-braces. One anomaly is the east lower girt, which is the only hewn piece. It contains half-dovetail tie beam mortises on its top surface in addition to stud mortises on both top and bottom surfaces; it appears to be a salvaged eighteenthcentury house girt or plate. Alterations include: a supplemental set of braces in the west wall, and iron straps tying the upper tie beams to the posts in the east and middle bents, suggesting repair or reinforcement. Possible Sequence of Construction: th First Build (Mid-19 century): The middle north-south bent marks the original bays. The carriage bay on the west was approximately 9’-8” wide with a double door in the south wall, and the stall bay on the east was approximately 10’-6” wide on the interior with a passage door in its present location. There would have been an earthen ramp to the floor level. A horse box stall measuring approximately 8 by 10 feet occupied the north half of the east bay. A hay loft covered the east bay, but probably not the west bay. A ladder accessed the loft, probably from the carriage bay side. Possible builders include Jonathan Freedland 1825-1841, Hill Smith 1845-1850 (most likely), Joseph Inskep 1850-1854, Christian Book 1854-1856, or Robert Stretch 1856-1867. th

Second Build (Late 19 century): The west bay was reduced, and the east bay was widened, perhaps to make more room for horses. The middle lower tie beam was moved two feet to the west by cutting the north tenon at the post, pulling the beam out of the south post, inserting the south tenon into a new south post, then setting the north end on top of a new post and nailing it down. New sash-sawn joists were lapped over the tie beam and new girts set on blocks and nailed to the posts around the perimeter to raise the loft about one foot and extend it over the carriage bay. This created more storage space for fodder. At the west wall a new tie beam was placed higher on the wall to support the joists. The ladder was moved to a new floor opening in the northwest corner. Bracing was added to the west wall in the loft, and iron straps were added to some of the tie beams. th

Third Build (Early 20 Century): With the advent of the automobile, the carriage bay was converted into a stable with additional horse stall for equestrian use, the double door was reduced to a single passage door, and the stall in the east bay was upgraded to have floor to ceiling board walls. A hay rack and a grain bin were constructed. The manger was built or moved to its present location. The roof framing was replaced. The owners rode with English tack, as evidenced by the stirrups found hanging on a girt. Most of the siding was replaced without battens. The building was electrified with knob and tube wiring. These changes may have been made by the Clough family who occupied the farm 1923-1952. th

Fourth Build (Late 20 Century): The stable was converted to a chicken house. Roosting boxes were added to the east stall.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 19, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

BUILDING ATTACHMENT

Page 4

Historic Sites #:

Setting: This farmstead faces south on Quaker Neck Road, approximately 800 feet east of the City of Salem boundary at Keasbey Creek. It is densely planted with trees, including exotics like Ginko. The farm house is composed of two houses of different periods lying with their ridges parallel to each other. The earlier house to the north (at rear of the other) has a hall and parlor plan, the later house in the front (circa 1859) has a center-hall, double pile plan with Greek Revival characteristics. The wagon house stands prominently in this farmstead, approximately 40 feet northeast of the farm house and facing directly into the driveway from the road into the th farmyard. A few feet behind the northeast corner of the wagon house is an early 20 century potting shed. th Standing on a line to the east is a late-20 century gambrel-roofed shed, and at the end of the same line is a carriage barn contemporary with the wagon shed (see CRS form in this report). th

There are three 20 -century houses adjacent on the north side of the road all on roughly 2-acre lots: one circa th 1920 between the farmstead and the creek, and another circa 1920 house and a late-20 century house to the east. Further on is a large gravel pit on what was once Joseph Hancock’s farm. There, at the road, on a subdivided lot, is the surviving Federal-period farm house and wagon house of Joseph Hancock’s “Homestead Farm.” On the other side of the road is an artistic circa 1920 bungalow built by an African American mason and sculptor of local note (John Morris Dunn), and a Federal period brick house on a farmstead. Lying to the east and south in this region between Keasbey and Fenwick Creeks, traditionally called Quaker Neck, are active farms which grow grains, vegetables, and orchard crops.

Photographs

Figure 1. Carriage barn in context, looking northwest. From left: house, wagon house, shed. Modern pole barn is beyond to the right.

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Figure 2. South and east elevations, looking northwest. Note surviving original board-and-batten siding in gable, hay door in upper south elevation, and two passage doors in south elevation.

Figure 3. East and north elevations, looking southwest. Note hay door at upper north elevation.

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Figure 4. West and south elevations, looking northeast. Note discontinuous courses of board-and-batten siding from repairs to lower wall.

Figure 5. Ground floor, looking north in carriage (west) bay. Note stall partition on right, ladder access to loft at north wall, and loft floor laying on raising girt and blocks at north and west walls. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 6. Ground floor, looking south in carriage (west) bay. Note feeding door in stall at left, manger at front at left, and robbed mortise in southwest corner post where an original girt was removed.

Figure 7. Ground floor, looking southeast into east bay above manger. Note center post (braced) with robbed mortise where tie beam was moved to the inserted post at right to enlarge the stall space. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 8. Ground floor, looking northeast at stall walls from carriage bay, feeding door, and manger.

Figure 9. Ground floor, east bay, looking north into box stall and aisle. Note loft raising girt and lower interior boarding at north wall, and interior boarding at east wall at right.

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Figure 10. Ground floor, looking west from east bay at manger and into carriage bay. Note lower course of interior boards for air tightness at south wall at left.

Figure 11. Ground floor, looking west inside horse stall. Note hay rack at left, feed box at right, and two different builds of boarding (lower 3 boards are older material). Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 12. Ground floor, looking southwest at ceiling joist and loft floor in stall. Joists lap over the tie beam cut from the middle posts and moved westward. Sash sawn wood was cut before the Civil War.

Figure 13. Ground floor, looking northeast at east wall. Note interior boarding for air tightness, nails for hanging tack, center post with robbed mortises for original stall plank partition, stirrups. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 14. Ground floor, looking north at north wall, horse feed box, loft raising girt, chicken roosting boxes, interior board wall, and chicken feed boxes. Note cut-off tenon in post where girt was removed.

Figure 15. Loft, looking south in west bay. The girt below the braces is the original double-door header. The tie beams at west and middle bents meet at the top of the post (not dropped ties). Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 16. Loft, looking southeast into east bay. Note the hay door in the south wall.

Figure 17. Loft, looking east into east bay. Note the dropped tie in the east bent, the iron strap at the northeast post, and the hay drop. The lower tie beam is a hewn salvaged piece from an earlier building. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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Figure 18. Loft, looking northeast into east bay. Note the hay door, the iron straps at the tie beam ends, and pinned braces and girts (pre-Civil War construction).

Figure 19. Loft, looking northwest in west bay. Note ladder access and secondary brace added late 19 century. Survey Name: Surveyor:

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th

Figure 20. Loft, looking southwest in west bay. Note secondary bracing added late 19 century, and original carriage door batten pocket in the post below the door header.

Figure 21. Loft, looking southeast at roof. Note butted and nailed rafters (Late 19th century) and spaced roof lath for wood shingles. Roof has been sheathed with flakeboard.

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BUILDING ATTACHMENT Common Name: Historic Name:

Historic Sites #:

640 Quaker Neck Road The Robert Stretch Farmstead, Jonathan Freedland property

Present Use:

Residential, permanent, single family

Historic Use:

Residential, permanent, single family

Construction Date: Alteration Date(s):

Ca. 1840 Ca. 1860, 1900, 1920, 1990

Source:

Deeds

Source:

Building fabric

Designer:

Unknown

Physical Condition:

Builder:

Unknown

Remaining Historic Fabric:

Style:

n/a

Form:

Gable front

Type:

Wagon House, Granary

Roof Finish Materials: Exterior Finish Materials

good high

Stories: Bays:

1½ 5

Asphalt shingle Wood, Clapboard; Wood, Board-and-Batten; Wood, Other

Exterior Description: South elevation: The south-facing wood frame wagon house consists of three sections: (1) a central, gable-roofed 1 ½ story frame building with a large wagon bay marked by a double-leaf wood door at the wagon bay, a passage door to a stair, and a central six-over six double-hung window in the upper level; (2) a shed-roofed aisle on the west side with a double-leaf wood door, a passage door to a corn crib, and an upper four-over-four double-hung window; and (3) a shed-roofed aisle on the east side with a double-leaf wood door and an upper four-over-four double-hung window. The doors occupy all the wall space at the ground level, but above them to the roof the walls are clad with wood clapboard. Many of the window panes are old, wavy glass and may have been reused from an early house. The gable roof, clad with 3-tab asphalt shingle, has a broken slope on each side where the side aisles are attached. The overhanging rake of the gable is a 5-inch board edged with a decorative chamfer. All of the doors are constructed the same way, as braced board-and-batten. The vertical boards are shiplapped, and the braces are traditionally notched into the battens to resist racking. Three doors (the crib passage, the west aisle, and the east aisle) are hung on reused hand-wrought iron strap hinges (secured not with rivets but nuts and bolts), so may therefore be replacements using the original hardware. The central wagon door is hung on th twentieth-century cast iron strap hinges, and the wagon house passage door is hung on 19 or 20th century steel mortise hinges laid flat. The east and central wagon doors and the main passage door are secured with wrought iron hasps that could be original to the building (see Detail B, Sheet 5). From the interior of both aisle additions, the formerly-exterior east and west board-and-battened walls of the central building are visible. Carved and chamfered rafter tails are exposed, and were on the exterior before the shed aisle roofs were laid on top of them. On both sides, the walls have three levels of siding that indicate the raising of the building by a half-story, and the covering of the bottom section from the ground to the original sill (see sequence of construction below). However, the two walls differ in the level of workmanship of the added upper siding, and evidences of the shed construction. On the west, there is clear evidence of a removed ledger that supported the upper end of the shed roof below the main roof eave from the rear or north wall to the original front of the south or front wall (about 5’-6” back from the present front). Also, the added courses of siding do not all match the original in width, and many of the battens are merely plaster lath instead of the typical full one-inch by 2 ½ inch original pieces found above the ledger. On the east side, however, the workmanship was more careful to match board widths and provide full size battens. This suggests the east side was an exterior wall longer than the west side, that is, the west aisle appeared earlier than the east aisle. East Elevation: The east side wall is clad with wood clapboard. Rafter tails are exposed, but these are false tails attached for decoration.

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North Elevation: The north wall of the east shed is clad with plywood, so possibly is a repair. At the central block and Period I west aisle, the wall is clad with board-and-batten siding. The north wall of the corn crib is clad with plywood. There is a central window in both ground and loft levels: a six-pane fixed sash at the ground floor, and a six-over-six sliding sash in the loft. Centered under the ground floor window is a screened vent to the crawl space that is timber-framed into the brick foundation. The east end of the north wall, behind the west side aisle, is covered by a collapsing frame shed addition on brick th piers which appears to be a mid-twentieth-century build but its function is not clear. An early 20 century potting shed standing opposite on the east may suggest a gardening function. The shed addition contains a brick chimney, so was heated. It has two salvaged double-hung windows on the west, two sliding windows on east, and a decorative diamond-shaped window on the north, along with a door. West elevation: The west side wall, at the corn crib, is clad with mitered horizontal boards spaced one inch from each other. The rafter tails match those of the east side.

Interior Description: Central bay: The ground floor is one room formed by three east-west timber framed structural bents built out of sash-sawn wood joined with cut joints and trenails, and a bay on the south end that is balloon-framed. The room is floored with 12-13-inch wide, one-inch thick boards laid east-west, and lacking wall or ceiling finishes. A sturdy stair case doglegs up the west side of the room in front of a passage door in the south (front) wall, and seemingly associated with it is a wooden box built-in to the wall. The loft floor joists run east-west. The upper floor framing in the center north of the middle has been altered to frame a floor hatch into the loft floor. The hatch headers rest on a central east-west beam joined to each wall plate in which is a robbed post mortise close to mid-span. Another beam mortised into the latter beam runs north, terminating in an unused nailed lap joint, but now hanging useless without the Build I south girt it once bore on. In both south posts are robbed mortises for the missing girt. This cross frame appears to have been for wall-tying purposes, and probably did not support a floor. The joists appeared later, running over top of them, to support the loft floor of Build II. The west front post has an additional robbed mortise below the plate which shows evidence of a diminished housing (the bottom of the beam beared on a one-inch shelf cut into the post), therefore is evidence of the framers using the earlier “scribe rule” for this building which is more associated with irregularly dimensioned hewn frames (Sobon, 2002, 3). However, there is no opposing such joint on the easterly south post, so this horizontal girt may have headed a door (or it was a reused timber). If so, the batten pocket, which is at the level of the missing girt, would have served a door of a different generation. A doorway opens into the west aisle in front of the stair, and another opens into the east shed near the rear wall. The original sill of the building frame is 1’-3” above the floor level, and the space between the sill and floor is covered with boards. How the sill is supported could not be determined for lack of access to the space, but it is evidence that the floor was originally constructed at that higher level, when it was a one-story granary, then lowered upon its conversion to a wagon house. A tie-ring is screwed to the east girt near the northeast corner of the room and may be evidence for the presence of a horse. Shelving of a recent origin stands at the west and north walls. Loft level: The stair rises through a former grain bin into the loft. The walls of the second build are finished with tightly-fitting, horizontally-laid unfinished boards that comprised the grain bids which are sealed along the floor with mitered 1¼ inch shoe molding and fitted with hinged board lids (implies an effort to secure the bins from animals). Two grain bins, with partitions running east-west, survive at the north end of the loft and are approximately 6 feet deep and 6’-6” and 4’-8” wide. There was a third one matching and located south of the 6’x66” bin. A wood lid catch, secured to a rafter with a screw with a leather washer, still hangs above the northwest bin. Sliding boards that formed the fronts of the bins are missing. The remainder of the floor around the bins was open, perhaps for spreading the grain out to dry. There is graffiti on the interior board walls, including the initials “J. O.” who might be the owner between 1907 and 1923, John Owen. The wall framing of the third build extension is exposed. The common roof rafters are tapering, sash-sawn, and mortised and pinned at the ridge and rest on the wall plate. Roof lath from a wood shingle roof is extant. Six-over-six wood windows occupy the center of each

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gable end. Floor boards run north-south in six sections following the alterations for floor hatch and the front extension (therefore the Build I floor is extant). Boards widths range from 11½ to 20½ inches in the oldest floor, 7½ to 16½ inches in the extension, and 6 inches at the hatch. There is no sign of any hoisting equipment over the hatch. West aisle: The structure has no interior finishes and the floor is earthen. On the east side is the board-and-batten wall of the wagon bay (described above), on the rear (north) wall the exterior vertical boards are exposed, along with two horizontal nailing girts, the rafter, and the sill. On the west wall of the drive bay is the crib wall, with its horizontally-laid ⅞ by 2½-inch crib slats from floor to rafters, with chicken wire laid over the lower 9 courses and the upper 8 courses of slats. It is underpinned with a brick foundation, as is the west wall of the main wagon house. There are separate sets of rafters over the drive bay and the corn crib, both topped with 1x2½ roof lath, 7 inches on centers, indicating the presence of a wood roof. Over the Build II drive bay, the rafters are hewn, and likely reused from an older building. Over the crib, the rafters are circular sawn. In the crib (Build IV), the exterior wall is studded with sash-sawn pieces of irregular sizes which empty mortises and the diagonal ghosts of siding, and appear to be recycled end rafters. At the north wall of the crib the exterior is sided with spaced horizontal siding consistent with that on the west elevation (see above). Laid on the interior studs of the north wall and the interior crib wall is chicken wire and rectangular wire mesh. The floor of the crib is four boards laid north-south. East aisle: The aisle walls have no finishes. The north wall is a recently built stud wall clad with plywood on the exterior. The east wall has its original circa 1900 studs, and the back of the exterior clapboard is exposed. On a board nailed the studs is the name “David Campbell,” whose parents John S. and Roberta Campbell owned this property from 1952 to 1986. Four sash-sawn tie beams measuring 3x6¾ inches span from a ledger secured with cut nails at the granary east wall and rest on the east aisle wall plate. Knob-and-tube wiring ran through the granary east wall to feed a missing light fixture on a tie beam. The portion of granary wall at the loft level of the front extension is without siding. In the floor space was found an old shoe, which may be a ritual concealment meant to bestow protection on the building. The granary east wall is described above, but most of it is covered by a pegboard holding shop tools. Possible Sequence of Construction: First Build (Circa 1840): The wagon house began as a one-story, board-and-batten-clad, gable-roofed granary that measured approximately 10’-4” x 9’-2” in plan and stood 2 feet off the ground on piers. Its north-south wall plates indicate that the rafters formed a parallel ridge and the building was gable-fronted, as it is now. The existence of batten pockets in both surviving original front posts suggest that there were two passage doors in the front wall at the corners. If so, the doors may have marked the existence of a passageway at rows of bins. Alterations have erased evidence of ground floor bins, but as there were two grain bins filling the west side in the loft, 2 rows of 2 bins would have fit comfortably between the doors on the first floor (see the drawing for a conjectural floor plan). The sash-sawn timber frame and use of cut nails would set this period as pre-Civil War. Second build (Circa 1860): They raised the roof a half story, also with sash-sawn joined timber, and built three grain bins in the loft. They inserted a central floor hatch to access the loft. At this time, they added the west aisle, but set the roof below the main roof eave on a ledger. They used hewn rafters salvaged from a colonial-period building. On both sides of the granary, they added a new course of board-and-batten siding above the original. They took more care on the east side to match board widths and carefully join boards and battens with mitered ends. The more weathered appearance on the east side suggests that no shed was built at this time, and it was exposed. The higher level of workmanship suggests that exterior appearance and/or weather-tightness was important to the farmer. Third build (Circa 1900): They converted the building to the traditional wagon house form that is locally so common. They extended the front wall south approximately 5’-6” with balloon framing, circular-sawn lumber, and wire nails. The builder duplicated the carved rafter tails, suggesting that the west shed roof stayed in place until later. It appears also that they did not extend the shed south along with the granary. They added the east aisle with 2x6 sash-sawn non-tapering rafters set on the upper wall plate adjacent to the main roof rafters (there is no sign of a roof ledger below the main eave as on the west side). A ledger at the main wall supporting tie beams is secured with cut nails, but where the battens were cut for the ledger, wire nails secure the batten ends. Thus this was a transitional time period for nail types, when both cut and wire nails were in use. They cut a door into the

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east aisle from the wagon bay. They lowered the granary floor 1’-4”, removed the bins, replaced the floor boards, and built a full brick foundation under the main block. They covered the crawl space under the granary in both sheds with a lower course of board-and-batten siding. They built a staircase to the loft, rising through the southwest grain bin, which eliminated it. They added a passage door in front of the staircase. There was probably an earthen ramp constructed to the wagon bay floor level. Fourth build (Circa 1920): They raised the west shed to match the main roof, extended it south to match the front of the wagon house, expanded it 4 feet west for a corn crib set on brick piers, and cut a doorway into the main block at the front. A new set of short rafters extended the existing roof. They made false rafter tails at both shed roof eaves, possibly in keeping with a Craftsman aesthetic in the 1910s or 1920s. They installed a knob-and-tube electrical system, which would have taken place prior to 1930, when that technology ended. Fifth build (Circa 1990): They replaced the wall framing at the north side of the east shed, and poured a concrete slab floor. The shed became a shop. Setting: This farmstead faces south on Quaker Neck Road, approximately 800 feet east of the City of Salem boundary at Keasbey Creek. It is densely planted with trees, including exotics like Ginko. The farm house is composed of two houses of different periods lying with their ridges parallel to each other. The earlier house to the north (at rear of the other) has a hall and parlor plan, the later house in the front (circa 1859) has a center-hall, double pile plan with Greek Revival characteristics. The wagon house stands prominently in this farmstead, approximately 40 feet northeast of the farm house and facing directly into the driveway from the road into the th farmyard. A few feet behind the northeast corner of the wagon house is an early 20 century potting shed. th Standing on a line to the east is a late-20 century gambrel-roofed shed, and at the end of the same line is a carriage barn contemporary with the wagon shed (see CRS form in this report). th

There are three 20 -century houses adjacent on the north side of the road all on roughly 2-acre lots: one circa th 1920 between the farmstead and the creek, and another circa 1920 house and a late-20 century house to the east. Further on is a large gravel pit on what was once Joseph Hancock’s farm. There, at the road, on a subdivided lot, is the surviving Federal-period farm house and wagon house of Joseph Hancock’s “Homestead Farm.” On the other side of the road is an artistic circa 1920 bungalow built by an African American mason and sculptor of local note (John Morris Dunn), and a Federal period brick house on a farmstead. Lying to the east and south in this region between Keasbey and Fenwick Creeks, traditionally called Quaker Neck, are active farms which grow grains, vegetables, and orchard crops.

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Photographs

Figure 1. Site, looking north at house and wagon house.

Figure 2. Site, looking west at house and wagon house.

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Figure 3. Site, looking east at wagon house, with shed and carriage barn beyond.

Figure 4. South elevation, looking north. Note broken roof slope.

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Figure 5. West and south elevations, looking northeast.

Figure 6. South and east elevations, looking northwest.

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Figure 7. East elevation, looking southwest.

Figure 8. Gable end window, left. East aisle window, right. Both retain historic wood sashes and glass.

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Figure 9. Ground floor, central bay, looking northeast. Note the lowered wall base under the original sill, and original tie beam and cross beam at top.

Figure 10. Ground floor, central bay, looking southwest. Note braced board and batten doors, original tie beam and Build I cross beam at upper right.

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Figure 11. Ground floor, central bay, looking west at staircase. Note built-in wooden box at west wall next to stair. To the left of the wall brace is the balloon framing of the south extension.

Figure 12. (Left) Ground floor, central bay, looking northeast showing detail of timber framing at corner post Figure 13. (Right) Ground floor, central bay, looking northwest showing central window.

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Figure 14. Loft, looking northwest at stair opening and board finishes at exterior wall and grain bin. Braced wall post at left is the framing of the half story extension of Build II.

Figure 15. Loft, looking southwest at grain bin and board finishes. Ends of the west aisle rafters are apparent at the wall plate, lapping the upper set of rafters. Build II post is at right.

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Figure 16. Loft, looking southwest at Build III balloon framing extension. The backs of the exterior boards are recycled floorboards (possibly from this building) as evidenced by its prior whitewash and ghosts of floor joists.

Figure 17. (Left) Loft, looking north at the roof ridge and the pinned bridle-jointed rafters. Figure 18. (Right) West aisle, corn crib at west exterior wall. Wall studs are recycled end rafters.

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Figure 19. West aisle, drive bay, looking north. Corn crib is at left, and central bay board and batten siding is at right. Note the three courses of siding and ghost of the former roof ledger.

Figure 20. West wall of central bay, looking northeast. Note the carved rafter tails of the central bay (once exposed), the recycled hewn aisle rafters mitered to fit on top, and the ghost of the former aisle roof ledger.

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Figure 21. East aisle, looking northeast at board-and-batten siding of central bay, added ledger and beams for aisle, and open framing into loft. Note the surviving whitewash at the upper wall that was protected by the roof overhang.

Figure 22. East aisle, looking southwest. Detail of board-and-batten siding. Added upper course of siding was mitered to the original siding when the loft was added.

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BUILDING ATTACHMENT

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Historic Sites #:

Figure 23. East aisle, looking southwest. Detail of central bay carved rafter tail and the adjacent aisle rafter, not mitered to fit on top as in the west aisle. This may indicate a different time of construction and carpenter.

Figure 24. East aisle, looking northeast. Detail of exterior wall studding, showing circular sawn studding, exterior siding, rafters and gaffiti left by a previous resident.

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Historic Sites #:

Photos of buildings not surveyed.

Figure 1. Robert Stretch House, 1859.

Figure 2. Early twentieth-century potting shed behind the wagon house.

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Historic Sites #:

Historic Illustrations

Figure 3. Joseph Hancock's 1841 Division of Land survey (DivE/382). At lower left is the 6-acre adjacent lot of Abner Penton which later became part of the Stretch Farm, together with the 54-acre Lot No. 4 of the survey, Hannah Hancock’s allotment. Dashed line represents the property line of the 6-acre lot. The creek labeled “Salem Creek,” is today known as Fenwick Creek.

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Figure 4. Illustration of a small barn suitable for a carriage very much like the Stretch-Mulford carriage barn. (Halstead, 1881: 39) This one, being later in the century, has a sliding carriage door versus the hinged double doors on the Stretch-Mulford carriage barn.

Figure 5. Floor plan of carriage barn in Fig. 4. (Halstead, 1881: 40).

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Figure 6. Drive-through three-bay corn crib, 1410 Auburn Rd., Woolwich Township, NJ. (Springate, 2011)

Figure 7. Corn crib/granary at the John T. Simmons farmstead, 515 Christiana Road, New Castle County, Delaware. (Center for Historic Architecture and Design, 1999)

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Chain of Title – Stretch-Mulford Farm 640 Quaker Neck Rd, Mannington Township (Block 53 Block 46)

Grantor

Grantee

Benjamin & Sarah Wynkoop Ebenezer & Ruth Miller Jonas Freedland Jonathan Freedland Abner Penton (by Sheriff) Thomas S. Smith Hill Smith Joseph P & Rebecca Inskep Christian & Susannah Book Robert Stretch Joseph G. Mulford Ebenezer S. Mulford’s Executor Rebecca B. Owens’ Trustee in Bankruptcy

Roy G. & Anne Clough Ira F. & Marion B. Doom Thomas E. & Anne S. G. Clough Roberta B. Campbell Judith N. Burke

Deed book/page

Date

Acreage

Ebenezer Miller Jonas Freedland (d. 1825) Jonathan Freedland Abner Penton Thomas S. Smith Hill Smith Joseph P. Inskep Christian Book Robert & William Stretch George C. & Joseph G. Mulford Ebenezer S. Mulford John Owens Roy G. Clough

K/155 Will C/223 XX/402 1/598 3/103 11/218 16/682 20/578 36/83 79/523 122/270 161/317

1/16/1779 2/21/1786 Proved 7/6/1825 12/29/1841 2/8/1845 9/13/1845 10/17/1850 3/24/1854 10/1/1856 11/14/1867 3/13/1888 11/2/1907 12/10/1923

Ira F. Doom Thomas E. Clough John S. & Roberta Campbell Judith N. Burke Lydia DeHope

194/91 232/271 312/266 668/138 1202/326

3/22/1930 11/29/1938 2/1/1952 4/30/1986 6/17/2005

? 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac 6 ac+54 ac 6 ac+54 ac 6 ac+ 54 +4.22 +2.52 +2.51 4.73 ac 4.73 ac 4.73 ac 4.41 ac 4.41 ac

Price

? £150 -$1,000 $400 $1,000 $1,300 $2,000 $3,000 $5,000 $7,350 $5,520 $18,000

$1 $1 $1

Grantee Years Owned 7 years 39 years 16 years 4 years 7 months 5 years 4 years 2 years 11 years 21 years 19 years 16 years 7 years

8 years 14 years 34 years 19 years 11 years


New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection Historic Preservation Office

ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Page 1

Historic Sites #:

History: This parcel has roots in a 6-acre farmstead that was deeded with a 54-acre farm between 1867 and 1930 (refer to the Chain of Title Chart attached). From 1786 to 1867 the six-acre parcel ran separately and was described as "formerly known as the Jonathan Freedland property, afterwards Abner Penton" (Deed book 16 page 682 [Dd16/682]). It became a 6-acre parcel in 1786 when Jonas Freedland purchased a subdivision of land from Ebenezer and Ruth Miller for 150 pounds sterling, a sufficient sum for undeveloped land (DdK/155). Jonas Freedland was a house carpenter and farmer who lived on Quaker Neck (Shourds, 97) and died in 1825. Jonas built a house and probably outbuildings, as told by his will in which he bequeathed to his son Jonathan "my house and lot containing 6 acres...wherein I now live" (WillC/223). Jonas Freedland’s buildings were thus built between th 1786 and 1825. Late-18 -century buildings would have been framed out of hewn and pit-sawn timbers, and this is too early for Gothic Revival styling. However, the salvaged hewn rafters used in the wagon house west aisle perhaps 100 years later and the salvaged hewn girt used in the carriage barn could very well have been taken from buildings that Jonas Freedland built. Jonathan Freedland lived on his inheritance for 16 years, but his occupation on this site 1825-1841, seems a bit early for the Gothic Revival siding found on the carriage house and wagon house, too. He sold the 6-acre "lot of land and premises," (implying buildings were on it) to Abner Penton in 1841 for $1000, a sum which also implies the existence of buildings (DdXX/402) . It lay, with the name of "A. Penton" on it, along the west side of a large farm owned by Joseph Hancock who died intestate in 1841 as shown in the Orphan's Court Division of Land survey (Divisions Book E, Page 382 [DivE/382]) dated November 27, 1841. Around this time Penton also bought up a number of adjacent Hancock parcels. Joseph Hancock's "House, Store, Grainery and lot " on Market Street in Salem was allotted to his daughter Elizabeth, so granaries (such as the core of the wagon house) were certainly around before 1841. Abner Penton lost the property together with a 2.51-acre meadow parcel in February 1845. In a Sheriff's auction, Thomas S. Smith, a speculator, purchased the "dwelling house, barn and lot" as well as the 2.51-acre meadow (Dd1/598). There were banked meadow lots along Fenwick Creek, which would have been highly valued for their agricultural productivity. Generally these lots were held by companies of farmers who shared in the expenses of construction and maintenance of banks and sluices which dammed tidal waters out but allowed drainage and occasional flooding to refresh the soil fertility. The meadow lots in this vicinity bordering Fenwick and Keasbey Creeks were apparently in a meadow called "Nathan's Creek meadow," as described in Joseph Hancock's 1841 division of land for a lot given to his son Chambless. Thomas S. Smith sold it the following September to Hill Smith (Dd3/103) for $1,000. Hill Smith was living here in 1850 as a 38-year-old carpenter living near farmers Andrew Griscom and Chambless Hancock in Mannington (1850 Federal Census). Griscom is noted as occupying the farm opposite on Quaker Neck Road in 1849, and Chambless would have been occupying the farm allotted to him by the division of lands of his father Joseph Hancock, shown as “J Hancock Est.” (Stansbie, 1849). In Smith’s household was the family of John Costill, a laborer, and his wife Hannah and sons Hill S., 2, and John, Jr, 8 months, who may have been his in-laws. Hill Smith’s real estate value listed in the census was $1,300, exactly the amount he sold the property for on the same day as the census, October 17, 1850. Being a carpenter, it could have been Hill Smith himself who either built the granary or raised it. He did increase the value of the property by $300 (enough to represent buildings), so Hill Smith is the likely builder of the carriage house and granary, and he would have done it with his own hands. Hill Smith sold his "premises" to Joseph P. Inskep, who four years later sold a "house barn tract or parcel of land and premises" to Christian Book, a German who manufactured soap on East Broadway in Salem. Book owned it only for two years, possibly as an investment, selling it to Robert and William Stretch in 1856. The Stretches were single brothers born in Woolwich Township, Gloucester County. They were farmers and resided together in 1850 in Woolwich with another farmer named William Hurff in a house that was probably Hurff's, near the house of their deceased brother Thomas Stretch (1850 Federal Census, Woolwich). All three men held real estate, William and Robert perhaps jointly owning and working their father's farm. In 1860 Robert

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Stretch at 50 years of age was living at the Mannington farmstead without his brother, who had moved with his brother to this farm but died in April 1857 (WillsE/478). In Robert's household was an extended family including Samuel Stretch, 70, a farmer also, who may have been an uncle (Robert's father's name was Joseph), and his deceased brother Thomas's daughters Elizabeth Stretch, 21, and Margaret Stretch, 20. Robert's wealth is noted as $5,000 in real estate and $18,380 in personal assets, which may represent in part his brother's estate, the entirety of which was bequeathed to him (1860 Federal Census, Mannington). As the farm house on this parcel is reputed to have been built in 1859, it would have been Robert Stretch who built it. The infusion of his brother's wealth may have triggered and enabled such improvements, such as the construction of or alterations to the granary and carriage barn. In 1867 at the age of 57 Robert sold the 6-acre farmstead to another pair of single brothers, George and Joseph Mulford from Cumberland County. The Mulfords also purchased the 54-acre farm parcel adjacent on the east that was Joseph Hancock's portion alloted to his daughter Hannah by the land division in 1841, then called "the Wright farm." In 1860 on that parcel a farm house and barn were still extant and occupied by "Mrs. Tindall," who was Joseph Hancock's daughter Hannah Hancock Tindall (Lake & Beers, 1860). The Mulford brothers may have shared the farm, each with their own home and outbuildings. Joseph Mulford was one of the more successful farmers in Mannington, with real estate holdings worth $18,000 in 1870, more than double the average of $7,000, and well above the median of $2,000. His residency was long, as well (21 years), so he likely contributed significantly to the provision and improvement of the outbuildings on this farmstead in the period 1867-1888. The th late 19 century was a time of greatly expanding agriculture in the region and prosperity translating into new and improved, and stylish, building types. Joseph sold the 60-acre farm to his younger brother Ebenezer in 1888, who stayed on it until he died in 1907. Together, the Mulford brothers' tenure was the longest of any for this farmstead-40 years. The circa 1900 conversion of the granary into a wagon house could have been Ebenezer Mulford's work. Ebenezer Mulford’s executor sold the farm to John Owens, a hotel keeper in Philadelphia, born in Stow Creek Township, Cumberland County (Dd122/270). His family farmed there until moving to Philadelphia in the 1870s. Along with his Irish immigrant father John Owens, he dug cellars for a living in 1880. By 1900 he was married to Rebecca Baker of Salem whose parents were Prussian immigrants. They lived at 200 Broad Street, the address of the highly regarded Bellevue Hotel built in 1881 by George Boldt, also a Prussian immigrant, who went on to build the Hewitt-designed 1904 Bellevue-Stratford Hotel. It seems likely they rented the farm, or perhaps it was a getaway from center city Philadelphia, a place of familiarity and kinship. They must have had an at least an occasional presence at the farm as John Owens' painted initials appear on the board wall of the loft; he may have been marking it on the occasion of the expansion of the granary into a wagon house if it was not Mulford’s work. The knob-and-tube electrical wiring (pre-1930) would have appeared during their ownership. Still at the BellevueStratford in 1910, John Owens died in 1915, leaving Rebecca with their 5 children under the age of 12. By 1923, she was bankrupt, and the farm, which had grown to 5 parcels totaling 69 acres, was sold to Roy G. and Ann Clough, Roy a chemist with the DuPont Company (Dd161/317). (Federal Censuses, 1860, 1870, 1880, 1900, 1910, Stow Creek, Philadelphia, Salem) The Cloughs did not live here, however, but resided at 95 West Broadway in Salem. It appears that they rented the farmhouse to DuPont dye works employees (1930 Federal Census). It is likely that 1923 marked the end of resident farming on this property. Between the Depression years of 1930 to 1938, perhaps as a way of keeping it, the property, as a new subdivision of 4.73 acres, was held by Ira F. Doom, a chemical engineer and likely a coworker and friend of Clough's at the DuPont Company who lived in Wilmington Delaware (Dd194/91). In 1938 the Dooms transferred the property to Clough's son Thomas, who was just out of law school (Dd232/271). At this point the property became a country house for the professional class. Fourteen years later, the Cloughs sold it to John S. and Roberta Campbell, members of the Salem oil-cloth manufacturing family which is today Mannington Mills (Dd312/266). Their son David painted his name in the east aisle of the wagon house.

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ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Historic Sites #:

The carriage house is in fair condition, currently used as a chicken house. The wagon house, still in good condition, is used for general storage and as a shop. It is most likely that the carriage house dates from before 1865 given the sash-sawn timber frame, the Gothic Revival style board-and-batten siding (Gothic Revival was appearing in domestic architecture in the town of Salem in the late 1840s), and the general trend for this type of building in the northeast states to appear in the 1840s. The construction of such a carriage house may imply that the barn was too crowded with cows, draught horses, fodder, and farm implements, and the wagon house had not yet gone through its conversion from a granary. Significance: The carriage house satisfies Criterion C for architecture with local significance as an unusual survival of a farmstead carriage barn or carriage house. Eligibility for New Jersey and National Registers: Level of Significance

Yes Local

No

National Register Criteria:

State

A

B

C

D

National

Justification of Eligibility/Ineligibility: The carriage barn represents a specialized building in a farm yard, separation of housing livestock, and increasing level of gentility on a farm. It is first one documented in Salem County. It is exemplary as the kind of purpose-built outbuilding that would house a family’s carriage and road th horse(s), together with their fodder. It represents a mid- to late-19 century trend of the specialization of farm buildings to segregate road horses from work horses and other livestock, and to provide a more convenient, functional, and upscale building for this purpose. The type, with a two-story, two bay, side entry design, is certainly less commonly found than threshing barns and wagon houses on farmsteads. In its alterations, it exemplifies how farmers responded to changing trends in agricultural and domestic needs th through the early-20 century by adapting their buildings accordingly. Having much historic fabric intact from several building states, it has high integrity and conveys its significance. Surviving historic fabric of the carriage barn spans the historic contexts of Early Industrialization, Urbanization, & Agricultural Development (1775-1860), Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, & Urban Expansion (1850-1920), and Modern New Jersey (1945-Present). For Historic Districts Only: Property Count:

Key Contributing:

Contributing:

Non Contributing:

For Individual Properties Only: x

List the completed attachments related to the property’s significance: Base Form

x

Building Form, with Photos

x

Continuation Forms with Historic Photos and Maps

Narrative Boundary Description: The property consists of the tax parcel, Block 53, Lot 46.

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Page 1

ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Historic Sites #:

History: See Eligibility Worksheet for the carriage barn.

Significance: The wagon house satisfies Criterion C for architecture, being a locally significant and exemplary of th a 19 century purpose-built granary that evolved into the popular form of wagon house with corn crib. It is exemplary of farmers responding to changing trends in agricultural technology and economy by adapting their buildings to serve their needs. Having much historic fabric intact from several building states, it has high integrity. Surviving historic fabric of the wagon house spans the historic contexts of Early Industrialization, Urbanization, & Agricultural Development (1775-1860), Immigration and Agricultural, Industrial, Commercial, & Urban Expansion (1850-1920), and Modern New Jersey (1945-Present). Eligibility for New Jersey and National Registers: Level of Significance

Yes Local

No

National Register Criteria:

State

A

B

C

D

National

Justification of Eligibility/Ineligibility: Purpose-built granaries go back to Roman and Medieval times. In England, surviving 19th century granaries are square, single-story timber framed structures that rested on a grid of "staddlestones," carved limestone piers that had a mushroom-shaped cap to exclude rodents, and pyramidal roofs. Being off the ground also aided ventilation. Granaries were always locked to prevent pilfering of a valuable commodity, and the use of bins versus bags made theft more difficult as loose grain was harder to steal. Location within the farmyard close to the farm house also discouraged theft by facilitating surveillance (Edward Green, "Granaries," http://www.buildingconservation.com/articles/granaries/granaries.htm, 12/12/2016). In America, freestanding granaries were one option that farmers had for storing grain, the other being a room or bin in the threshing barn. In the latter half of the 19th century, freestanding granaries were becoming the preferred option because of their ability to better protect the grain from vermin (Visser, 127-128). Typically they were oneand a-half stories high with a passage door in the gable end, a loft door above, and few if any windows (Visser, 126). Many were built to store oats for workhorses (Visser, 126). Most examples of surviving 19th century granaries in New York State are one-story wood frame structures elevated on piers, had tightly-fitting board walls, interior bins, one door in the gable end, and a vent placed high in the gable end to aid in drying the grain (Falk, 111). Wood granaries were going out of use by the turn of the 20th century with the advent of manufactured steel grain bins (Falk, 112). In Pennsylvania, "A granary's typical characteristics include the following: wood construction; tight boarding, thus few if any windows; gable end pass doors and entry doors; interior bins, partitioned from one another; interior walkway. Very often, the granary was elevated off the ground, as a means of deterring rodents" ("Granary," Pennsylvania Agricultural History Project Field Guide, http://www.phmc.state.pa.us/portal/communities/ agriculture/field-guide/granary.html, 12/12/2016). In the 1880s one agricultural writer stated that bins or granary floors be used to dry the grain laid out in thin layers, then shoveled into the bins for storage. Bins had 4 to 6 foot dimensions, consistent with those in the Stretch Granary. From the bins, 2x2 foot chutes allowed the grain to fall to lower floors or into a bagging station (Halstead, 177-183). In the Stretch Build II granary, the floor hatch located between the bins may have been fitted with some sort of chute and bagger. The original granary is consistent with the above description of granaries, both English and American. The evolution of a single-purpose granary into a multi-use wagon house may be unique, in that most additive wagon houses began as essentially drive-in corn cribs. Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

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Page 2

ELIGIBILITY WORKSHEET

Historic Sites #:

Though the granary grew into a fully developed wagon house over several building campaigns, each phase of alteration can be discerned and much historic fabric is intact because components were added versus replaced. Significant features include two surviving grain bins and associated fitted boards in the loft, a floor hatch, boardand-batten siding, an original timber frame, iron door hardware, a horse tie-ring, balloon framing of the extension, the wagon bay floor, the loft stairs, and a corn crib. For Historic Districts Only: Property Count:

Key Contributing:

Contributing:

Non Contributing:

For Individual Properties Only: x x x

List the completed attachments related to the property’s significance: Base Form Building Form, with Photos Continuation Forms with Historic Photos and Maps

Narrative Boundary Description: The property consists of the tax parcel, Block 53, Lot 46.

Survey Name: Surveyor:

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT JANET L. SHERIDAN

Organization:

Date:

May 20, 2017

DOWN JERSEY HERITAGE RESEARCH, LLC


7'-13 4"

GROUND FLOOR PLAN NOR TH

HR

GB

HB

HDR

SECTION B - B, HAY BOX

12'-914"

20'-414"

NOTES: 1. PLYWOOD SHEETS COVERING THE WOOD BOARD FLOOR ARE NOT SHOWN.

LEGEND: FD GB HB HD HDR HR L RB FEED DOOR (DROP-DOWN) GRAIN BOX HAY BOX HAY DROP HAY DOOR AT LOFT LEVEL HAY RACK LADDER ROOSTING BOX OVERHEAD FLOOR OPENING

IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

NEW JERSEY

1'-912"

SALEM COUNTY

HD

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

RB

640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

RB

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

GB

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

FD

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

HDR

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

L

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, NOVEMBER, 2016

RB

1'-812"

FD

2'-1012"

16'-314"

16'-412"

20'-5"

1

OF

SHEET

7


NOTES: 1.

GROUND FLOOR OVERHEAD FRAMING PLAN

NOR TH

LOFT PLAN NOR TH

LEGEND: FD GB HB HR HS L RB FEED DOOR (DROP-DOWN) GRAIN BOX HAY BOX HAY RACK HAY SHAFT LADDER ROOSTING BOX OVERHEAD

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

5'-214"

NEW JERSEY

5'-4"

HS

640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

10'-612"

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

9'-73 4"

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, NOVEMBER, 2016

5'-81 4"

L THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

2

OF

SHEET

7


7 OF

3

SHEET

HDR

HDR

L

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

HDR

L HD

HD

FD

HD

GB

HORSE STALL HORSE STALL

BD OR TIMB PTN

CARRIAGE BAY

HORSE STALL

HORSE STALL

FD

HR

NEW JERSEY

BD OR TIMB PTN CARRIAGE BAY

GB

THIRD BUILD, EARLY 20TH CENTURY

1. BUILDING WAS CONFIGURED WITH A CARRIAGE BAY ON THE WEST WITH A DOUBLE DOOR AND NO LOFT, AND A BAY ON THE EAST FOR KEEPING HORSES ON THE GROUND FLOOR AND FODDER OVERHEAD IN A LOFT. 2. NUMBER OF STALLS IS UNKNOWN, BUT THE LOCATION OF A PROBABLE STALL PARTITION IS SHOWN, PROVIDING A BOX STALL ON THE NORTH SIDE.

1. THE CARRIAGE BAY WAS REDUCED IN WIDTH BY TWO FEET. 2. THE HAY LOFT WAS RAISED APPROXIMATELY ONE FOOT AND EXTENDED ACROSS THE CARRIAGE BAY. THE MIDDLE LOWER TIE BEAM WAS REMOVED AND REUSED AT THE NEW DOOR POST, AND NEW JOISTS WERE LAPPED OVER IT. THE LOWER TIE BEAM AT THE WEST WALL WAS RAISED TO SUPPORT THE NEW FLOOR. 3. LADDER ACCESS TO THE HAY LOFT WAS CONSTRUCTED IN THE NORTHWEST CORNER.

1. THE CARRIAGE HOUSE WAS CONVERTED TO A STABLE. 2. THE CARRIAGE BAY WAS CONVERTED TO A STALL, WITH THE DOUBLE DOOR CHANGED TO A PASSAGE DOOR. 3. THE EAST BAY WAS SUBDIVIDED AND BOARDED TO THE CEILING. 4. A SEPARATE GRAIN BOX AND HAY RACK WAS BUILT INTO THE NORTH STALL WITH ACCESS DOORS TO THEM ON THE WEST SIDE. 5. MOST OF THE SIDING WAS REPLACED WITHOUT BATTENS. 6. ELECTRICAL WIRING WAS INSTALLED.

HDR

RB L

BOARD FEED DOOR (DROP-DOWN) GRAIN BOX HAY BOX HAY RACK HAY SHAFT LADDER PARTITION ROOSTING BOX TIMBER OVERHEAD FEATURE

GB

HD

RB

FD

HR

GB

FOURTH BUILD, LATE 20TH CENTURY

HB

NOTES: 1. THE BUILDING WAS CONVERTED TO A CHICKEN HOUSE. 2. ROOSTING BOXES WERE ADDED TO THE EAST STALL.

HISTORIC GROUND FLOOR PLANS NOR

HDR TH

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

LEGEND: BD FD GB HB HR HS L PTN RB TIMB

FD

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, NOVEMBER, 2016

GENERAL NOTES: 1. BUILD PERIODS ARE BASED UPON PHYSICAL EVIDENCE IN FRAMING AND NAIL TECHNOLOGY, AND RECORDS OF OWNERSHIP. 2. BUILD PERIODS ARE TENTATIVE AND REQUIRE MORE RESEARCH TO CONFIRM. 3. BOARD FLOORING WHICH EXISTED THROUGHOUT IS NOT SHOWN IN THESE VIEWS FOR CLARITY.

RB

SALEM COUNTY

IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

SECOND BUILD, LATE 19TH CENTURY

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

FIRST BUILD, MID 19TH CENTURY

640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

HDR

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

HDR

HDR

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

HB


SOUTH ELEVATION JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, OCTOBER, 2016

EAST ELEVATION 23'-10"

640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

15'-914"

14'-514"

NEW JERSEY

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

4

OF

SHEET

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NORTH ELEVATION WEST ELEVATION

9'-612"

15'-83 4"

19'-4"

23'-2"

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN 640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

BD

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, OCTOBER, 2016

6'-512"

PLYWD NEW JERSEY

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

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LONGITUDINAL SECTION A-A, LOOKING SOUTH SECTION C-C, CARRIAGE DOOR POST

PARTITION MORTISE, TYP 4

SECTION D-D, STALL PARTITION POST

14'-812"

NOT ACCESSIBLE 640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

FLOOR JOIST BLOCKING

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

9'-63 4"

LOCKING BATTEN POCKET

FLOOR JOIST

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

7'-33 4"

6'-912"

RAISING GIRT

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, SEPTEMBER, 2016

3'-13 4"

6'-214"

10'-412"

14'-212"

15'-43 4"

DOOR BATTEN POCKET, TYP 3 NEW JERSEY

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

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DETAIL F - WROUGHT IRON HASP DETAIL DETAIL G - WROUGHT IRON HASP DETAIL

DRAWN BY MARIA CERDA-MORENO, NOVEMBER, 2015 640 QUAKER NECK ROAD

SALEM COUNTY IF REPRODUCED, PLEASE CREDIT PROJECT NAME, NAME OF DELINEATOR, DATE OF DRAWING

MANNINGTON TOWNSHIP

STRETCH-MULFORD CARRIAGE BARN

DRAWN BY MARIA CERDA-MORENO, NOVEMBER, 2015

JANET L. SHERIDAN, CULTURAL LANDSCAPE HISTORIAN SALEM, NEW JERSEY

812"

SALEM COUNTY FARMS RECORDING PROJECT

DRAWN BY: JANET L. SHERIDAN, SEPTEMBER, 2016

112"

NEW JERSEY

THIS PROJECT WAS ASSISTED BY A GRANT FROM THE NEW JERSEY HISTORICAL COMMISSION, A DIVISION OF THE DEPARTMENT OF STATE, AND BY AN ORLANDO RIDOUT V FIELDWORK FELLOWSHIP FROM THE VERNACULAR ARCHITECTURE FORUM

114"

1112"

DRAWN BY MARIA CERDA-MORENO, NOVEMBER, 2015

DETAIL E - WROUGHT IRON STRAP HINGE

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Profile for Janet Sheridan

Salem County Farms Recording Project Report Vol II  

Study of four farm outbuildings on three Salem County, NJ farmsteads: a ground barn, two wagon houses, and a carriage barn.

Salem County Farms Recording Project Report Vol II  

Study of four farm outbuildings on three Salem County, NJ farmsteads: a ground barn, two wagon houses, and a carriage barn.