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From The Editor’s Desk :

Dear Readers,

Thank you for subscribing our Magazine. I hope our Magazine will fulfil all your expectations. We are working hard to provide valuable information about Aquaculture Industry in India and rest of the world. Your Valuable suggestions are welcome to improve our Magazine.

Since it is our First Issue, you may find some thing not fulfilling in a satisfactory level. But we are always trying to improve the qualities of the content and based on the readers expectations we are planning to improve or modify our quality constantly . Page |2

We are going to describe about the Status and Development of the Aquaculture Industry in India and rest of the World . Our Main Focus Area will be Aquaculture Hatchery & Farm Production Technologies, Bringing out the Potential & Alternate Aquaculture Species for the Emerging Global Market Demand .

Most of the Countries and People are not seriously attempting to get the Aquaculture Production by using their available Natural Resources, our responsibility is to find out and create awareness among them to improve and develop sustainable aquaculture technologies especially in third world countries and poor countries to generate more rural based employment opportunities, to boost the rural economic growth.

Through Aquaculture we can generate Employment, Economic Growth, Good Nutrition to the people, Ground water table improvement can be achieved by increasing the Freshwater Pond Aquaculture . To manage and improve the qualities of the Natural Reservoirs we can use Cage Farming Systems the part of the Profits can be used to improve the Natural Reservoirs .

I hope our aim and ambitions can be fulfilled by all your support and interaction. We always concerned about the Global Economic Growth through Aquaculture and create awareness about the Ecological Benefits of Aquaculture. Page |3

All the above can be achieved by all our readers support . So, kindly read and refer to your others to improve the reader base. Through that we can change the world in a positive way .

Thank you all ,

With Love,

(S. Jayakumar) Page |4


Introduction : Indian Sub Continent is having one of the richest Biodiversity in the world . Region wise cooking and eating preference also decides the Aquaculture Species Selection. Especially in North Eastern India like West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland, Tiripura, Megalaya, Sikkim Etc.,. In case of other northern states it is almost similar, when we explore in the southern states like Kerala and Tamil Nadu entirely different story. We will discuss elaborately about the unique nature of the Region wise fish eating Habits in India in the following pages.

Most Common Aquaculture Species of India : In India the most most common species cultured are as follows :

1. INDIAN MAJOR CARPS : a. Catla (Catla catla). b. Rohu (Labeo rohita). c. Mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala). Page |5 Page |6 Page |7 Page |8

2. CHINESE CARPS : a. Silver Carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix). b. Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). c. Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). Page |9 P a g e | 10

These are all the common species cultured in India in the Freshwater Ponds . P a g e | 11

North Eastern India : Most of the North East Indian States like West Bengal, Assam, Nagaland, Meghalaya, Tripura, Mizoram, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, prefer to eat mostly the Freshwater Fish Species . They are having different type of aquaculture and fish eating habits which will provide opportunity for new aquaculture species. we have to think about new scopes existing in North Eastern India for new species aquaculture which will boost the economy of the rural and poor people. It also encourage the water conservation by improving the groundwater table. How it is possible, when we provide opportunity for the poor through creating lot of Ponds in the village area, gradually, the stored water will bring up the groundwater table and help to conserve the groundwater, this is another ecological benefit of aquaculture business . We can achieve this kind of improvement within few years period .

Their Fish Preference is mostly Freshwater Fishes only, the major Aquaculture Species are known as follows : P a g e | 12

a. Indian Walking Catfish (Clarias batrachus) . b. Stinging Catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis). c. Climbing Perch (Anabas testudineus). d. Pangas Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). e. Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer).

Now we will discuss about the highlights of the above aquaculture species which are having high market demand in North East India. By doing this kind of Aquaculture the investor can earn up to 60 % Annual Profitability in their business.

General Information about the above Fish Species :

1. Indian Walking Catfish or Magur : It is brown in colour, typical barbles are there which will act as sensors . The average size they attain during the culture is around 200 to 250 grams . Which is the ideal marketable size . P a g e | 13

2. Stinging Catfish :

The Stinging catfish is named due to it’s sting through pectoral fins which will give severe pain for the victims . It is also having very tasty meat and medicinal properties . It is dark brown in Colour and very small in size . Above 50 gram is marketable size . P a g e | 14

3. Climbing Perch :

Climbing Perch is also a good species for the Northeast Indian Market . They are good climbers, they use their pectoral fin as walking leg and crawl on any surface . The ideal marketing size of this fish is 100 grams above . P a g e | 15

Highlights of the above three Fishes (Indian Walking Catfish, Stinging Catfish and Climbing Perch)

All the three species are omnivorous in nature and all are having accessory respiratory organs so that they are able to survive in high densities and low dissolved oxygen in the water. This feature will conserve our operational expenses like Aeration and frequent water exchange . P a g e | 16

Their meat quality is very good, tender and tasty flavour . So, these fishes are having good market demand and value . They also have medicinal value and good nutritional profile .

4. Pangasius Catfish :

It is one of the most popular species of culture in South Asia especially in Vietnam and India . Pangasius catfish will grow faster and attains one kg size within 6 to 8 month period. It is also air breathing fish, so they require only little dissolved oxygen in the pond water . The major advantage of this species is they will grow fast and in high densities without much aeration . We can get 5 times more yield than the conventional species like Carps . P a g e | 17

High Lights of the Pangasius Catfish :

Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus):

It is one of the most commonly cultured fish species in most successfully in all over India. The following features are the key factors for selecting the species. P a g e | 18

1. Most widely cultured fish species, recently MPEDA approved this species as the Aquaculture fish species and promoting the culture activity among the farmers. 2. Better survival rate during growing conditions more then 80% survival in common cases. 3. Since it is ‘Air Breathing’ in nature, huge biomass can be kept in a low volume of water body. Exceptionally better density than other commonly cultured fishes like Catla (Catla catla), Rohu (Labeo rohita) Mrigal (cirrhinus mrigala), which are known as Indian Major Carps (IMC) and Chinese Carps like Silver Carp (Hypothalmichthys molitrix) Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio). 4. Air breathing alone is not considered as highlighting factor, another major advantage of the Pangas fish is fast growing nature. The growth rate is more than any others Air Breathing Fishes like Murrel (Channa striatus), Climbing perch (Anabas spp) walking catfish (Clarias batrachus), River catfish (wallagu attu). 5. There is no cannibalism in normal growing conditions unlike other air breathing fishes like Murrel, walking catfish, climbing perch etc.,. 6. During high density conditions they perfectly adopted to live harmoniously and grow well. 7. Normally differential growth is the major factor which can trigger cannibalism in cultured fishes, in this case uniform growth and extremely low percentage of differential growth are added advantage to avoid cannibalism. P a g e | 19

8. Since their air breathing nature they used to travel towards surface water, in the Pond Culture they can conserve energy by reducing travel distance towards the surface. 9. Pangas catfish is one of the toughest species which can survive even low oxygen level water, varied water parameters and even low water quality levels when comparing with gill breathing fishes. 10. Another advantage of pangas fish is, it can also cultured along with Indian Major carps like Catla, Rohu, Mrigal and Chinese carp like Silver carp Grass carp and common carp. It is highly adoptable species for composite culture.

North West & North Central India : Even though the North Eastern India is having peculiar Fish Eating Habits all other states like North West, North Central and Northern States Like Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Uttarakhand, Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Jharkhand and Bihar, are in common Preference of Indian Major Carps, Chinese Carps and Pangasius (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus)Catfish. All these fishes are massively cultured and distributed . Apart from the North Eastern States all other north side states are having similar habits of consuming the above mentioned fishes Regularly. Apart from freshwater fishes marine fishes also consumed in most of the maritime States . Due to non availability of marine fishes in landlocked States they also have the easy access of the freshwater fishes which are cultured in the ponds. P a g e | 20

Asian Sea Bass (Lates calcarifer) :

Sea Bass is one of the delicacy fish in North Eastern States and all over India, other than that it is also having good demand in the Global market . Especially for making Bengali Chilly Fish Dish in Kolkata City . It can attain 750 grams to 1 Kg within 6 to 8 months of culture . P a g e | 21

Sea bass (Lates calcarifer)

1. It is one of premium quality fish which is having huge demand in both domestic and International markets. 2. Currently being cultured most commonly in India, Thailand, Indonesia, Philippines & Australia. 3. Since its Euryhaline nature it can grow both in freshwater and brackish water. 4. It’s finely textured meat and single centre bone attracts more customers and increasing demand. 5. It is one of fast growing carnivorous fish. Highly suitable for cage farming. It’s natural hunting instinct drives away its, food competitors and other foraging fishes. 6. They are adoptable for both artificial pellet feed and live feed like other fishes. So it is possible to grow them by using complete pellet feed or complete live fish or both. 7. Emerging frozen fillet market for this fish is ever increasing in the international markets. 8. Huge and well established market available in all over India especially in west Bengal region for making ‘Chilly Fish’ –a delicacy dish. Kolkata market always pay premium price to make this dish. 9. We can save 10-20% feed cost by live fish biomass. 10. Live fish export market is available in ‘Hong Kong’ which is for using in the seafood restaurants. The price for live fish is more than US $ 20. P a g e | 22

4. Milk Fish (Chanos chanos):

Milk fish is one of the potential aquaculture species, but so far it’s potential is untapped in India. Milk fish farming is well established few decades ago in Phillippines, Thailand, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia. The highlights of this fish is enumerated below. P a g e | 23


Milk fish is one of the fast growing fish species and an ideal candidate fish for Aquaculture. Their growth rate is better than Indian Major Carps (Catla, Rohu and Mrigal) and Chinese Carps (Silver Carp, Grass Carp and Common Carp).


It’s Euryhaline nature shows it’s suitability to grow in varied salinities and even in pure fresh water.

(iii) It is a beautiful fish with good growth rate. It is a voracious feeder of filamentous algae, so it can clean the net cages itself more often. This behavior also help us to reduce the feed cost by feeding Filamentous and Lab-lab algae. (iv) This species can live harmoniously with other species. So it can be compositely grown with other species like Tiger shrimp, Indian major carps, Chinese carps and white shrimp. It is omnivorous in nature and no natural instinct of attacking each other. (v)

It is also having specific market for Tuna Baits, so it is having both human consumption market and Bait market. So, it’s export market is also strong.

(vi) Wild seeds are available in plenty during the season (April to August). Any number of seeds can be collected along the bar mouth region of all Indian coastal areas. (vii) Hatchery produced seeds can be imported from the Philippines, where the commercial seed production is started. (viii) Normally this fish grows uniformly without any size variation which is not noticed most of the aquaculture species. Within 4-5 months they are capable of growing 1 kg and above. P a g e | 24

(ix) They can easily adopt themselves for Artificial Feeds and Natural Algal Feed. This quality can help us for their robust growth and easy adoptability for both natural and artificial diet. Normally in transparent water bodies, the commonly available algae called as “Lab lab� which can be collected and fed, which will reduce the artificial feed requirement atleast 10 %. (x)

They are having the habit of high speed jumping in the culture ponds during harvest or any other netting occasions. In cage farming system that type of problems can be solved due to its dense culture condition in the closed area. P a g e | 25

View of a Extensive Type Fish Farm in South India : P a g e | 26

Commonly Preferred Fish Species of South India :

Tamil Nadu : In Tamil Nadu the most Preferred Freshwater fish is known as Murrel or Snake Head Fish .

There are Two Major Murrel Species are commonly available in South India which are known as Striped Murrel (Channa striatus) and P a g e | 27

Spotted Murrel (Channa punctatus) . In these two species Striped Murrel used to grow fast and attain more than one kg within one year period . But Spotted Murrel will grow slowly and attain 250 to 300 gram within one year . Due to their High Cannibalistic Character in Aquaculture Ponds poor survival rate is the major Challenge for the Farmers .

Due to the tasty and tender meat quality it is one of the Premium fish in South India. It also have less spines . Normally is being sold upto Indian Rupees 600 per Kg in the Market . P a g e | 28

Kerala : In Kerala State of South India the most Preferred Aquaculture Fish Species is known as Karimeen in Local Language and the English name for that fish is Pearl Spot (Etroplus suratensis). P a g e | 29

Pearl Spot Fish (Etroplus suratensis):

Pearl Spot Fish is popularly known as ‘Karimeen’ in Kerala. It can grow upto 300 gram in culture conditions. It is one of the commonly available fish in back waters. It is also used as aquarium fish, since it’s brilliant colours, spots and markings. The advantages of the fish is as follows.


It is one of the commercially important fish in India. In Kerala, it is considered as delicacy. The common market price is Rs. 250 in whole sale market and Rs.400/- in retail market.


No cannibalism problems unlike sea bass, groupers, shrimps, mud crab etc., So it can grow harmoniously without disturbing each other.

(iii) The culture practice is going on some parts of Kerala. Pioneer Aquaculture Consultants succeeded commercial hatchery seed production in India and supplying quality seeds to the farmers, please contact us for more details . Please place the orders by sending your enquiries to the following e-mail id : (iv) It’s tender and tasty meat attracts more customers, Kerala Market Demand is increasing day by day . P a g e | 30


Apart from domestic market, lucrative export market also existing in middle eastern countries.

(vi) It can also be grown in composite culture with Milk Fish (Chanos chanos), Tiger Shrimp(Penaeus monodon), White Shrimp (Penaeus indicus). (vii) Since it is Euryhaline in nature, it can grow in varied salinities and even pure freshwater. (viii) No major disease out break noticed so far, it is an ideal species with low disease probabilities. (ix) Even small size fish can also fetch more price since it is traded in Aquarium fish market. (x)

Since it is having the habit of Algal feeding, it can always clean the pond by feeding the accumulating filamentous Algae.

The above Species are the most commonly cultured fish species of India, even some other species are also cultured , we will discuss more about them in the future issues .

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We need Qualified and Trained Aquaculture Professionals for our ongoing Projects in Asia, Africa and Australia, interested candidates please send your C.Vs to us :



Dear Aquaculture farmers Please send your Buying and Selling Requirements we will place your ads free . Please send us your messages to the following e-mail id : P a g e | 32


INTRODUCTION : This book is intended to give simple and user friendly information about the Fish Farming Techniques at the basic level . Fish farming is one of the best rural based part-time job which can offer good returns and fresh fish for your own consumption. It can also offer good recreation for your family and friends by doing Angling as recreation . The Fish Farming or Aquaculture Hobbyists and small scale Entrepreneurs can use this manual to start their Fish Farm setup and day to day operation . Here the Author categorized the Aquaculture (Fish Farming)Business as three categories which describes the basics about the Small level, Medium Level and Big Level Business opportunities in this sector.

I hope this information will be very useful for the readers and they can do their own fish farming activity independently with the scientific way . After reading this book The Reader can enjoy reduced Input and operational cost and also can make more productivity with shorter crop period .

This this book is written to provide basic knowledge To The Reader which can help them to operate their own fish farm or aquaculture farm sustainably with good profits in each and every crop . I hope the information provided in this booklet will be helpful for The P a g e | 33

Readers. For further assistance or help the readers can approach the author by mail . Generally the aquaculture or fish farming can be divided into two major categories they are as follows :

1. FRESHWATER AQUACULTURE : In Freshwater Aquaculture the Main Source of water is from Borewell or River or from the Natural Reservoirs . The Freshwater Aquaculture Projects Mainly rely on the availability of the freshwater resources. Also most of the aquaculture produces are having the domestic market only . Export Market is very limited when comparing with the Marine and Brackish Water Species . Most of the domestic Meat Market is filled with Broiler Chicken and Mutton or Lamb only. Most of the Places no Proper Fish Market is available. Even some small, medium town and Big Cities fish markets are there but they are un-organized . There is an untapped market every where exists for the fish farmers . Even in the natural resources the fish catching is coming down day by day . Mean time the demand for the fishes are increasing day by day . So there is an ever growing market is available for the fish farmers .

2. BRACKISHWATER AQUACULTURE : Brackish water Aquaculture is one of the growing sector across the globe. Which can transform the business opportunities in all coastal side villages . The main water source for this type of aquaculture is from the Creeks and Bore well supply from the coastal villages . Brackish water Aquaculture Farm P a g e | 34

Produced Products are Mostly having the Export Market . There is a vast potential for this business exists since the Market Demand is ever increasing and natural fish catches are decreasing day by day . So the scope for the above business are excellent . ( Marine Culture or Marine Aquaculture also another category which involves big investments in the Sea Water Pumping System, which is not ideal for Small Aquaculture Projects ).

Now we will discuss more about the main chapters in the following pages. The way main chapters discussed here is starting from proper site selection water resources water and soil analysis and other environmental requirements like topography, climatic conditions, flooding and water logging also considered. Apart from the above parameters the infrastructure facilities also to be considered, for example proper Road accessibility power facilities also taken into account .

1. HOW TO DO FISH FARMING : Based on our Investment Budget we can start the fish farming . Based on the investment we can say the project size as small scale, Medium Scale and Mega Scale . For example if you start with the size of 1 to 10 Hectare we can say it as a Small Scale Project. If the Farm size increases to 25 to 100 Hectare then we can say it as a Medium Scale . When it goes 100 to 1000 Hectares and above then we will consider it as a Mega Project . P a g e | 35

Normally the Mega Projects will be started with the ancillary units like Fish Hatchery, Feed Mill, Processing and Export Unit . Which will fulfil their input requirements and output marketing in a reliable way . First you decide what scale you are planning to start the Project and Proceed . a. Small Scale Aquaculture Project : To start a small scale Project you can do it yourself by reading books like this and get the training from the experts . For the benefit of the readers we are also conducting practical and online training for the new entrepreneurs periodically in our R & D Fish Farm located near Chennai city . We are also offering online training those who are interested can contact us for more details (E-Mail : and visit us at ). The Main Advantage of our Online Training is anybody can learn from anywhere at any convenient time.

b. Medium Scale Aquaculture Project : As I said above the Medium Scale Project Size is 25 to 100 Hectares . This kind of Project involves lot of Investment, Planning, Designs, Implementation and Management with updated technologies . So it is better to hire the Industry Expert to do the Project without fail and in a successful manner . For the benefit of the Readers we are offering consultancy services for the Aquaculture Sector. We are in this field since 1990 and successfully implementing several Aquaculture Projects across the Globe. We offer un-matched quality and performance to our clients ( Please visit us at : and send your P a g e | 36

enquiries to our E-Mail : ). Before Selecting the Project Site you have to take the local market demand and requirement of the specific varieties of the fishes and based the market needs you can start the production . When you are planning to invest your money on a new type of business it is also necessary for the study about the local and nearby market potential . Even making some agreement with the bulk buyers also good . All depends on the Production Capacity and Volume of Marketing Channels.

c. Mega Scale Aquaculture Project : The Mega Scale Aquaculture Project is 100 to 1000 Hectares and above size . Which involves lot of investments, Planning, Design, Technology Implementation and Management. Since the Project size is big, we have to plan well and organize the core units in a perfect manner. It is always better to have all the major inputs like Fish Feed and Seeds with our Production Units . The quality and timely supply of these inputs plays vital role on the Production Cycle. Apart From that you can also save lot money on buying the bulk quantities of these inputs from the out side sources . Which will increase our Profitability by making additional profit centres . If we have the additional production capacity we can also sell our seed and feed to the nearby farmers. Also we can buy the harvested materials from them and use it for our Processing and export requirements . Next whatever we are producing we can market it is as a value added products with our own Processing Plants or Manufacturing Units. We can target either export market or domestic market with our own Market Chain . For the benefit of the Readers we are offering the above consultancy services in Aquaculture P a g e | 37

Sector . We are in this field since 1990 and successfully implementing several Aquaculture Projects across the Globe. We offer un-matched quality and performance to our clients ( Please visit us at : and send your enquiries to our E-Mail : ). P a g e | 38 P a g e | 39



Aquaculture Magazine  

This Magazine Describes about Fish, Shrimp and Mud Crab Farming business. Very useful for Aquaculturists, Employment Page also available, Fa...

Aquaculture Magazine  

This Magazine Describes about Fish, Shrimp and Mud Crab Farming business. Very useful for Aquaculturists, Employment Page also available, Fa...