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Project report On

“The Study of Woven Fabric”

Project report On

“The Study of Woven Fabric” The project done by Akhil JK. Enrolment No: 1472 Diploma in Apparel Manufacturing Technology Jan 2004 – Dec 2004 batch

In accordance with the award of diploma in Apparel Manufacturing Technology, from Apparel Training and Design Center, Sponsored by AEPC, Ministry of textiles, Govt. of India.

Apparel Training and Design Center Bangalore - 22

Declaration The project entitled “The study on Woven Fabric� is done by referring various observations from manufacturers and collecting accurate and adequate information from various sources is true and accurate at its maximum extent.

Akhil JK

Index Chapter


Page no.

Pre – Amble



Fabric history






Classification of Fabric



Fabric Manufacturing methods



Weaves or Construction of Fabric



Finishing of Woven fabric



Fabric Defects



Quality check points



Fabric Terms



General terms in woven fabric







PRE-AMBLE. The universal slogan “Food, Cloth & Shelter” illustrate most importance to clothing next to food, otherwise cloth is one kind of primary shelter to be protected from weather. This may be one of the reason that stone age human adopted to wear barks / leaves of tree, animal skin (leather) etc.. The advancement of civilization man invented wearable cloth of comfort. It grove with taste, mood & likings of individual and to a large extend limited to the tropical condition of the place where they live. The term, which is dealt with our day- to- day life, is “fabric” from the ancient historical time itself human beings are care for their fabric selection. They select according to the color, design, or fineness and will be according to the end use. But in now a day the fabrics are cached with fashion and peoples are selecting their fabrics according to the style and fashion. So to say the roll of clothing further captured to enrich ones’ personality and in directly to display personal wealth. The purpose of clothing may be for any purpose everyone is an Ultimate consumer. Fabric is having so much importance to the day to day life every one either poor or rich, it is the necessity of the crew “to be clothed latest” and hence the usage is increasing day to day.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


Textiles have such an importance bearing on our daily lives that everyone needs to know something about them.

There are a few techniques for the manufacturing of good fabric. The care will be start from selection of right raw material, manufacturing of quality yarn/fabric to finishing. This project work is dealt with the study of fabrics and general terms in the fabrics and also with the structure as well as defects in the fabric.

The different sections studied are as follows.

History of fabric

Quality particulars

Study of fabric

Wet processing

Classification of fabric

Fabrics defects.

Industrial fabrics

Fabric check Points,

Fabrics manufacturing methods

Fabric terms

Weaves or construction of fabric

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


I. FABRIC HISTORY Tens of thousands of years ago, early humans learned to obtain fibers from wild plants, such as wild flax, hemp, and nettles. Such fibers could be spun into thread and made into cloth textiles. People began to weave fabric during the Neolithic Era, a period that began around 8000 BC. Evidence of early weaving comes from fragments of flax fibers found in Switzerland. In some cultures, people made cloth without weaving, by pounding sheets of bark to produce a soft, flexible textile. The development of agriculture led to the domestication of fiber plants, such as cotton, hemp, and flax. Simultaneously alternative sources of yarn invented from natural, animal, mineral, chemical sources. They are: 

Animal base - from sheep, rabbit, silkworm - wool, silk etc…

Mining of minerals - asbestos, glass etc…

Chemical - synthetics origin - Nylon, Polyester etc...

These fibers are converted into yarns by menace of spinning and then woven / knitted to produce fabric. The following is the history of the fabric, which is classified according to the manufacturing technology.

 History of weaving: Fabric can be made in a variety of ways, such as knotting, knitting, and braiding, but most cloth is made by weaving. Weaving is usually done on a loom that holds long threads (the warp) under uniform tension so that other threads (the weft) can be inserted over and under them. Many different types and patterns of weaving are possible, depending on the fiber used and the arrangement of the threads. Ancient Egyptians wove their earliest textiles from flax, which produced linen; in southern Europe, the earliest textiles came from wool; in China, from silk; and in India, Peru, and Cambodia, from cotton Fabric is woven with the help of machine called Loom. Weaving is an ancient technology to make cloth primarily for protection from weather and later on for wearing purposes. This technology is originated from weaving on handlooms. In the modern era, manufacturing of fabrics started with power looms and subsequently with hi-tech / sophisticated looms called shuttle less weaving machines. Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


I. 2. NATURAL FIBERS History of the principal natural fibers used in textiles for apparel and home fashion and the growth is as follows.



BACKGROUND AND PRODUCTION o Generally considered to be the oldest natural textile fiber.

5,000+ BC


o Fine linen was used as burial shrouds for the Egyptian pharaohs o Largest producer: Soviet States; other large producers include Poland, Germany, Belgium and France. Largest exporters are Northern Ireland and Belgium. o Worn by Egyptians earlier than 2,500 BC. o Eli Whitney's invention of the cotton gin in 1793 revolutionized the processing of cotton.

3,000+ BC


o The development of the power loom in 1884 brought significant improvements and variations to cotton fabrics. o Major producers: United States, Soviet States, China and India. Lesser producers include Pakistan, Brazil, Turkey, Egypt, Mexico Iran and Sudan.

3,000 BC


o There are 40 different breeds of sheep, which produce approximately 200 types of wool of varying grades. o Major producers include: Australia, New Zealand, Soviet States, China, South Africa, and Argentina. o Silk culture began about 1725 BC, sponsored by the wife of China's emperor. o Silk is made from two continuous filaments cemented together and used to form the cocoon of the silkworm.

2,600 BC


o The Chinese closely guarded secrets of cultivation and fabric manufacturing for about 3,000 years. o India learned of silk culture when a Chinese princess married an Indian prince. o The major producer and exporter of silk is Japan.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


I. 3. MAN-MADE FIBERS The history of U.S. Production of the principal man-made fibers used in textiles for apparel and home fashion



BACKGROUND AND PRODUCTION o The first man-made fiber. o The first commercial production of rayon fiber in the United States was in 1910 by the American Viscose Company.



o Using two different chemicals and manufacturing techniques developed two basic types of rayon. They were viscose rayon and cuprammonium rayon. o Today, only viscose rayon is being produced in the U.S





o The first commercial production of acetate fiber in the United States was in 1924 by the Celanese Corporation.


o The first commercial production of nylon in the United States was in 1939 by the E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. It is the second most used man-made fiber in this country, behind polyester.


o The first commercial production of acrylic fiber in the United States was in 1950 by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. o A synthetic substitute for wool fiber



o The first commercial production of polyester fiber in the United States was in 1953 by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. o Polyester is the most used man-made fiber in the U.S.



o The first commercial production of triacetate fiber in the United States was in 1954 by the Celanese Corporation. o Domestic Triacetate production was discontinued in 1985.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


o The first commercial production of spandex fiber in the United States was in 1959 by E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. 1959


o It is an elastomeric man-made fiber (able to stretch at least 100% and snap back like natural rubber). o Spandex is used in filament form.



o The first commercial production of an olefin fiber manufactured in the U.S. was by Hercules Incorporated. o In 1966, polyolefin was the world's first and only Nobel-Prize winning fiber. o The first commercial production of micro fiber in the U.S. was in 1989 by E. I. du-Pont de Nemours & Company, Inc. Today micro fibers are produced in a variety of synthetic fibers (i.e. polyester, nylon, acrylic, etc.)



o The true definition of a micro fiber is a fiber that has less than one denier per filament. Micro Fiber is the thinnest, finest of all man-made fibers. It is finer than the most delicate silk. o To relate it to something more familiar--A human hair is more than 100 times the size of some micro fibers o The first commercial production of lyocell in the U.S. was in 1993 by Courtaulds Fibers, under the Tencel¨ trade name.



o Environmentally friendly, lyocell is produced from the wood pulp of trees grown specifically for this purpose. It is specially processed, using a solvent spinning technique in which the dissolving agent is recycled, reducing environmental effluents. Courtesy: -, USA. Mr. Aswin

The above is the historical growth of fibers and fabrics from oldest to the latest.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


2. Fabric. Fabric is a three dimensional substance which can be used for manufacturing of cloths, apparels etc… the main property of a fabric is it must be “wearable” The term fabric denotes fibers or yarns that can be made to fabric by means of a variety of methods as follows.

1. Weaving 2. Knitting 3. Braiding 4. Felting


Woven fabrics are composed of longitudinal warp threads and transverse weft threads which are interlaced each one another; according to the class of structure and form of design that are designed. A warp thread individually produced with definite twist and strength and is known as end. While the terms pick and filling are applied to the weft threads but in order to distinguish one series from the other the warp threads are mostly described as ends and the weft threads as picks.

Warp Weft



Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


3. Classification of Fabrics The fabrics are classified as follows,


According to the method of fabric manufacturing the fabrics are broadly classified

as Woven fabric and no woven fabric.

1. Woven fabric

woven fabrics are those, which are produced by the technology of weaving with the concept of interlacement.

2. Knitted fabric

Knitted fabrics are those, which are produced by inter looping method.

3. Industrial Fabrics

Tarpaulin, canvas, fire retardant, heat resist, cut resist, felt, filter cloth, bolting cloth etc..

Woven fabrics are the one, which are produced by the method of weaving with the basic of interlacement of threads. The end use is infinity, but predominantly used for outer garment, bed linen etc..

Knitted fabrics are those, which are manufactured by other methods than weaving. These include Knitting. Knitted fabric or Hosiery are widely used for under garment, sport wear etc.

Industrial fabrics are the other classification as by the use of the fabric, which are used for industrial purpose only.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


Industrial Fabrics Woven cotton fabrics, initially had the major share for its industrial applications. The fabric made from man-made fibers gradually replaced this. Knitted fabrics and nonwoven has also become popular. It can be seen from the table that numerous industrial applications are possible where technical yarns are used. Experiments in this work are limited to few of industrial applications as below.

a. Tarpaulin fabric b. Canvas c. Fire retardant fabrics d. Heat resistant fabrics. e. Cut resistant fabrics. Etc…

a. Tarpaulin Tarpaulin fabrics are aimed to protect the cargo from water, dust, snow, etc… The essential property of a tarpaulin fabric is it’s water resistant. This feature is added to the fabric through a different treatment, which is given after it is woven. The fabric is highly impenetrable having higher tensile properties. Now a days the usage of tarpaulin is very high, which are mostly used in the transportation, covering of food grains in open yard, defense use as tent – the shelter in war field etc..

Conventionally the tarpaulin is made with two type of material. It is made by cotton fibers and then give the water-repellent treatments such fabrics are having huge weight and so very difficult to handle. To over come this now a days poly propylene coated materials are used as tarpaulin. But the main disadvantage is that the life time is short for light weight tarpaulins.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


b. Canvas

Canvas is also one of the most popular industrial fabrics. The advantages of canvas are as follows. The canvas has excellent covering, which guaranties very good dyeing characteristics and better UV resistance, considerably higher tenacity and lightweight. Canvas is also known as sailcloth.

c. Fire retardant fabrics Today’s environment the safety of human beings has become the prime necessity. This became straighter when person is exposed to adverse atmospheric conditions such as exposure to high temperature, flame etc‌ for these the fire retardant fabrics are being used. Fabrics made of cotton and other conventional fibers cannot fulfill the requirements of heat resistance and fire resistant properties of fabric. Some important properties are flame resistance, economic design, comfort during weaving, durability, easy maintenance and aesthetics although flame resistance is the most essential.


Effect of heat

Commodity fibers.

1. Cotton

1. Yellowing starts at 125 o C decompose at 155 o C

2. Silk


Decomposes at 200 o C

3. Wool


Decomposes at 185 o C

4. Polyester


Melts at 280 o C

5. Nylon

5. Melts at 215 o C

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


High Performance Fibers

1. E glass

1. No burning at 395 o C holds 75% tensile strength softens at 782 o C.

2. S glass

2. No burning at 395 o C holds 75% tensile strength softens at 900 o C.

3. Kevlar

3. Difficult to ignite, does not melt. Decomposes at 550 o C

4. Nomex

4. Does not melt. Decomposes at 421 o C

5. Teflon

5. Extremely heat resistant. Safely used at -227 o C to +338 o C, melts at 377 o C

6. Asbestos

6. Weight loss of 0.5% to 1% after exposure at 810oC

7. Trevira

7. Softens at 280oC to 290oC, melts at 3070oC

8. Basofil (melamine)

8. Shrinkage at 200oC maximum temperature resistance unto 260oC

9. Carbon

9. Heat distortion at 500oC

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


d. Heat resistant fabrics Clothing for fire-man, the people working in boiler, furnace etc‌ where the atmospheric temperature is very high require some specialty in terms of comfort to the body during wearing. Normally the fabrics being used for this purpose are having some specific uses, where it subject to extreme heat conditions,

1. Maximum constant protection against fire and heat. 2. High strength 3. High heat insulation 4. High abrasion resistance 5. Good durability 6. Comfortable in wearing

It is not possible to combine all these properties in a single product; a conventional type of yarn. The above requirements are partially fulfilled in glass fibers. Glass fiber is an inorganic fiber, which is very strong, but has poor flexibility and poor abrasion resistance glass will not burn and will not conduct electricity.


By the Application methods the fabrics are classified as follows i. Open width fabrics 1. Apparel Fabrics: - These are those fabrics which are used for the manufacturing of the apparels like Gents wear, Ladies wear and kids wear, etc. 2. House holed fabrics:- These are those used in the hose hold purposes like using as towels, table covers, curtains etc.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


ii. Circular Fabrics 1. Technical Fabrics:- these are the fabrics which are used in the technical usage on various fields as follows.

a. Sports: -

For the manufacturing of Sail fabrics, Balloons, Parachute fabrics, tents, fishing line ropes etc.

b. Home: -

Carpets, filling in mattresses, wipes, curtains, blinds etc.

c. Packaging: -

Sacks, Bags, flexible intermediate bulk containers, wrappings etc.

d. Protection: -

Cut and Abrasion, ballistic, impact, fire, gas, cold, weather resistant fabrics, etc.

e. Environment: - Filtration, insulation, treatment of oil spills etc f. Geo-textiles: -

Reinforcement, stabilization, separation, filtration and drainage protection fabrics etc.

g. Agriculture: -

Fishing lines, Nets, crop protection fabrics, ground covers etc.

h. Transport: -

Automobile application, aviation, marine transport etc.


Clothing: -

Interlinings, wadding and fiber fill etc.


Medical: -

Wound dressing, bandages, baby wipes, absorbent hygiene items, surgical items, protective fabrics etc.

k. Building: -

roofing, water proofing materials, thermal and sound insulating materials, fire walls, reinforcement walls etc.


Industrial: -

filtration product, conveyor products, industrial hose, abrasive products, etc.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


4. Fabric manufacturing Methods The conversion of yarn in to fabric can be achieved by any one of the following processes.

1. By the interlacing of threads - weaving 2. By looping of threads

- knitting

3. By felting

- Felting

4. By knotting of threads

- knotting

I. Weaving. Weaving is a process in which two sets of yarn warp and weft are interlaced with each other at right angle .The concept of "Interlacement" is used in the method of weaving. The fabric thus produced is known as a Woven Fabric. The instrument, which is used in the process of weaving, is known as "Loom"

Woven fabrics are composed of warp and weft threads that are interlaced with one another at right angles according to the type of design required. One set of threads are wrapped parallel in flanged beams called weavers beam and weft threads are directly inserted with the help of a carrier called shuttle in the case of ordinary / automatic loom and in shuttle less loom with the help of projectile / rapier / air-jets / water-jets etc.

(Fig) Projectile weaving systems Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


There are two type of fabrics are produced by the weaving operation they are plaited structure and ordinary woven structure. The plaited structure is produced as a result of diagonal interlacement of warp threads. And the principle adopted is only used for the production of narrow fabrics like tapes, laces etc‌ as the dimensional strength is low. According to the type of machineries used for weaving and method of interlacement the weaving systems are classified as follows.

Weaving systems Shuttle Weaving

Shuttle less Weaving

Conventional shuttle Multi Shuttle

Single Shuttle Under pick

Gripper Shuttle

Over pick





Rapier Rigid

Non / Automatic Collapsible


Jet Water jet

Air Jet



Guided Single nozzle

Multi nozzle

The conventional power loom is noisy, and generally inefficient to produce superior quality of fabric. Various alternative looms have been developed, most of which do away with the shuttle; hence, they are known as shuttle-less looms. Among the first invention that replaced the shuttle by a dart (small pointed missile generally used) and today it is known as gripper projectile loom.

Instead of carrying weft thread,

projectile gripper grips the thread from a large package and carries it through the shed from one side to other. Similarly, rapier technology developed (rigid rapier & flexible), rapiers to carry weft yarn from a large feed package through the shed. Another important Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


type of shuttle less loom is the jet loom, which uses a high-pressured burst of air or water to propel the weft yarn through the shed where no mechanical device is needed to direct the filling thread. The terminologies of these kinds of looms are called Air jet loom or Water-jet loom as the case may be. Water jet loom is mainly used for weaving polyester / nylon / polypropylene fabrics.

II. Hosiery or Knitted Structure. Knitting is a method of converting yarn into fabric by intermeshing loops, which are formed with the help of needles. There are two basic forms of knitting technology, weft and warp knitting. Hand knitting process is weft knitting, which can also be done by machine. In this process, work progresses width-wise, in a back and forth cycle. In each cycle, known as a course, a new row of stitches is formed. In each row there may be number of stitches depending upon the width of the fabric to be knitted. Each stitch of the row gets build-up intermeshing with the previously held stitches of the preceding row. The vertical row of stitches or chain of loops hanging vertically from the needles is wale.

Weft knitted fabrics can be produced in either flat or tubular form. Weft knitted fabric is generally highly elastic and highly drape-able, two attributes, which make it suitable for a wide range of apparel applications. Weft knitted fabric is porous and comfortable both for outer garments and undergarments. In contrast, warp knitting, which is done by machine, the work progresses length-wise, through the intermeshing of loops in the direction of wale. In this process all Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


the loops on the knitting needles in the row remain in the knitting mode. The main advantage of warp knitted cloth is that, unlike weft knitted fabric, it is not easy to unravel. However, these fabrics are not as elastic as weft knitted fabrics.

III. Felting.

Felting method can also produce a fabric but this cannot be classified with other textile fabrics, as felting comes under fiber structure.

In this method in the presence of an alkali the fibers are rubbed together thus to form a fabric and the resulting fabric is known as felted fabric. Ex: woolen blanket

This process is usually done in the case of wool and in certain varieties of synthetic fibers. On this process the fibers are subjected to heavy pressure under the action of heat (hot) solution of chemicals. It causes the fibers to interlock with each other and produce a thick fabric of moderate strength and durability. It can only be used as carpets, table covers, and such other uses where strength is not a primary importance.

IV. Knotting.

A fabric can also be made by the process of knotting, making of knots by the process of putting knots with the yarn. Fishing nets, sports nets etc‌ are having been made with this method. Though all the materials are not proper textile fabrics still it is mentioned as one of the methods of making fabric.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


5. Weaves or Construction of fabric Types of weaves have often been mistaken for types of fabrics. For example, satin is a type of weave, and does not denote fabric content. Satin is woven from silk, polyester, acetate, or even blends of fibers. Each and different fiber content contributes to the hand and drape of the satin fabric also a weave that is seen in brocade, damask, and tapestry. I once called a fabric store to find jacquard woven fabric only to be told that they didn’t carry natural fabrics. The correct answer would have been to ask what type of jacquard I was looking for. For applications where more than one fiber orientation is required, a fabric combining 0° and 90° fiber orientations is useful. Woven fabrics are produced by the interlacement of warp (0°) fibers and weft (90°) fibers in a regular pattern or weave style. The fabric's integrity is maintained by the mechanical interlocking of the fibers. Drape (the ability of a fabric to conform to a complex surface), surface smoothness and stability of a fabric are controlled primarily by the weave style. The weave or design may be repeated or seen as combined with other




Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


The following is a description of some of the more commonly found weave styles: Classification of weave I

Simple a. b. c. d. e. f.


Plain Twill Satin Perforated fabrics (Leno - Net leno, Mock Leno etc.) Stitched or Double cloth Backed Cloth

Modified weaves 1. Plain. a. Rib and cord effect b. Mat or Hopsack or Basket weave 2. Twill weave a. Rearranged twill 1. Cork screw 2. Satin b. Combined twill 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Zig zag or pointed twill Diamond twill Broken twill Figured twill Honey comb

Crepe Huck a back Bed ford Cord Pique a. Fine cut b. cross cut pique

7. Pile or plush weave a. Terry towel fabric b. Velvet ant Velveteen c. Corduroys Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


1. Plain weave. Each warp yarn passes alternately under and over each weft yarn (i.e. interlacement of warp & weft yarn at 900 angles, at regular interval). The fabric is symmetrical, with good stability and reasonable porosity. However, it is the most difficult of the weaves to drape, and the high level of fiber crimp imparts relatively low technical properties compared with the other weave styles. With course count yarns (high tex) this weave style gives excessive crimp and therefore it tends not to be used for very heavy fabrics.

1. a. Rib and cord effect In an ordinary balanced plain fabric the count of warp and weft, the number of ends and picks per inch and tension of warp and weft will be almost same. Using different quality & count of warp threads the rib or cord effect can be made. Warp rib weaves are obtained by extending the plain weave in warp direction, the rib formed are running across the width of the fabric. While the extension of plain weave in he direction of weft will also produce the rib running in the warp direction.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


Rib structural derivation of plain

1. b. Basket or Mat or Hopsack, Basket weave is fundamentally the same as plain weave except that two or more warp fibers alternately interlace with two or more weft fibers. An arrangement of two warps crossing two wefts is designated 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4 baskets etc., but the arrangement of fiber need not be symmetrical. Therefore it is possible to have 8 x 2, 5 x 4, etc. Basket weave is flatter, and, through less crimp, stronger than a any other weave next to plain weave, but less stable. It must be used on heavy weight fabrics made with course count yarns (high Tex) to avoid excessive crimping.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


2. Twill. One or more warp yarns alternately interlace over and under two or more weft yarns in a regular repeated manner. This produces the visual effect of a straight diagonal 'rib' to the fabric. Superior drape in moist condition compared to dry state. Twill weave have good strength next to plain weave & with a small reduction in stability. It has reduced crimp with smoother surface and slightly higher mechanical properties. Yarn quality & properties can be dominated on the fabric surface either on warp way or weft way.

Twill weave

Twill weave can be classified into the following. 2. a. Simple and Compound twill A twill weave can be constructed by employing one motif number is called as simple twill (egg. Drill, Denium-3/1, gabardine-2/1etc. ) which is constructed by employing more than one motif is termed as compound twill.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


2. b. Right and Left hand twill. As the name implies the right hand twill develops the twill lines in the right hand direction and the left hand twill in the left hand direction. 2. c. High and Low angled twill. In the normal twill fabric the twill lines are running in an angle of 45 o to the weft having equal number of ends and picks per inch (EPI & PPI). Comparatively more than picks per inch, the angle of the twill will be more than 45o, and it is called high angled twill. When picks per inch are more than ends per inch the twill will run at an angle of lower than 45o such twill is called low angled twill.


diamond twill

compound twill

2. d. Re-arranged twills Most of the ornamental weaves are derivatives of modified or re-arranged twills. They are constructed by the re arranging of the behavior of the yarns from normal twill weave called base twill. Two important weaves are obtained by this method and they are Corkscrew weave and Satin weave.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


i. Corkscrew Regular corkscrew weaves are constructed on odd number of ends. Warp corkscrew weave is obtained from a warp faced based steep twill and weft corkscrew is from a weft faced based steep twill.

ii. Satin or Sateen Weave Satin weaves are fundamentally twill weaves modified to produce fewer intersections of warp and weft. The ‘harness’ number used in the designation (typically 5, 7 and 8) is the total number of fibers crossed and passed under, before the fiber repeats the pattern. A ‘crow’s-foot’ weave is a form of satin weave with a different stagger in the repeat pattern. Satin weaves are very flat, have good degree of drape in high moisture. The low crimp gives good mechanical properties. Satin weaves allow fibers to be woven in the closest proximity and can produce fabrics with a close ‘tight’ weave. However, the style’s low stability and asymmetry needs to be considered. The asymmetry causes one face of the fabric to have warp yarn running predominantly in the warp direction while the other face has weft yarn running predominantly in the weft direction. Care must be taken in assembling multiple layers of these fabrics to ensure that stresses are not built into the component through this asymmetric effect. The best-known satin weaves are the crepe satin, peau de soie, sateen, and damasks. The word satin is derived from the name of the Chinese seaport Chuan chow, formerly called Zaytun, from which this type of fabric was first exported in the Middle.

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


Satin There is some more classification of twill they are as follows, Combined twill is the twill formed by the combination or mixing of two base twills alternately. Zigzag or Pointed twill is the twill that develops wavy lines in the design according to the wave they are said as horizontal and vertical zigzag. They are two forward twills constructed with the same motif, but in the same direction. In Broken twill the continuity of the twill line is broken at either regular or irregular intervals depending upon the direction in which the twill lines are running. Another modification is Broken and reverse twill some important category in this are known as HAWARD weave, HERRIGBONE and RICE weave. Harvard is a broken twill and reverse twill based on 2/2 twill. Herringbone weaves are based on even face twill.

The Diamond twills are the systematic modification of the normal twill weave. It is the union of a two zigzag weaves of opposite directions. Figured twill is another modification of normal twill weaves in it some spot figures are introduced in between the consecutive twill lines.

Diamond twill

Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


3. Leno Leno weave improves the stability in ‘open’ fabrics, which have a low fiber count. This is a form of plain weave in which adjacent warp fibers are twisted around consecutive weft fibers to form a spiral pair, effectively ‘locking’ each weft in place. Fabrics in leno weave are normally used in con-junction with other weave styles because if used alone their openness could not produce an effective composite component.

Cellular leno are produced by cross weaving principles the common ratio Is 2 : 2 leno and plain picks were introduced after every cross and open picks Net leno is commonly the doup styles in which the crossing ends are mostly floated on the surface of the fabric.

Mock Leno A version of plain weave in which occasional warp fibers, at regular intervals but usually several fibers apart, deviate from the alternate under-over interlacing and instead interlace every two or more fibers. This happens with similar frequency in the weft direction, and the overall effect is a fabric with increased thickness, rougher surface, and additional porosity.

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Mock leno

4. Pile or plush weave Pile fabrics are a variety of woven fabric that are having loops either on one side only or on both sides of the fabric. Pile fabrics are mainly classified into two according to the mod of formation of the loop they are warp pile and weft pile.

Pile warp Ground Warp

In warp pile fabric an extra series of warp threads are responsible for the formation of the loops, which, are called pile warp. The ground warp enables the form of the foundation fabric. These two series of threads are wound on separate beams and drawn in an alternate order. The pile warp is slack as compared to ground warp. In the weft pile fabric the weft threads are responsible for the formation of the loop. One series of warp and two series of weft are used.

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Pile fabrics are grouped into two; UN cut pile and Cut pile in cut pile the loops are cut after weaving. According to the formation of the loop, pile fabrics are classified as Terry pile and warp pile. Pile fabrics are Very absorbent and used for towels, etc. French terry cloth is looped on one side and sheared pile on the other. Longwearing, easy to launder and requires no ironing. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Better qualities have a close, firm, under weave, with very close loops Very absorbent, and the longer the loop, the greater the absorbency. When the pile is only on one side, it is called "Turkish. The main usages are for Towels, beachwear, bathrobes, and all kinds of sportswear, children's wear, slipcovers, and draperies.

a. Velvet or velveteen. Velveteen is a cut pile fabric with the velvet finish. Woven with a extra filling yarn with either a plain or a twill back (twill back is the Best). Warp yarns 80/inch - weft ranges from 175 to 600 depending on the desired density of the pile. Mercerized with durable finish, Strong and takes hard wear. Poor quality rubs off. Some of it can be laundered. It is warm. Comes in all colors, gradually piece dyed or May be printed has to be cut all one way. Press carefully Preferably on a velvet board, or tumble dry after laundering (no pressing needed) The main uses are in Children's wear, dresses, coats, draperies, lounge wear,

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b. Corduroy

Corduroy fabrics are made with same principle of velveteen. The pile weft threads are float on the face of the fabric regular intervals of warp threads so as to form the furrows in-between the floats. The foundation weave is plain or twill. The corduroy is mainly used as dress materials.

5. Crepe weaves This are the weaves, which are capable of imparting the roughness and irregular appearance, are known as crepe weave. Crepe fabrics are sometimes pointed twill derivative designs on both sides and are sold as the cheep material known as cretons. Mostly used for coverings, curtains and double hold purposes.


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6. Bedford cord. The Bedford cords are capable of developing ribs that run in the direction of warp on the face side of the fabric while the reverse side has a smooth and flat appearance. It can be seen that the bed ford cord weave normally repeats on two continuous floats.

Bed ford cord

7. Pique or welts Pique or welts are optional terms that are variously employed to distinguish a component structure of fabric having several modifications. In general outward appearance pique fabrics have very loose resemblance to the bed ford fabrics. However in pique the ribs run transversely across the width of the fabric. In both case the ribs are developed in the face side of the fabric.

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8. Double cloths: Double cloths are two sets of fabrics, which are interdependent weaves woven together with an extra set of yarns. These are thick, heavy with two surfaces sometimes with reversible. The properties are strong and interesting surface characteristic warns. The general uses are for blankets, curtains, garments etc.

Double cloth

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7. Fabric Defects The fabrics are having many defects as they are the products which are manufactured, the fabrics defects are mainly classified as follows.

1. Yarn Defects a. Broken filament b. Colored flecks c. Knots d. Slub e. Slubby wefts or warps

2. Weaving defects a. Broken ends b. Broken pattern c. Double end d. Float e. Gout f. Hole, cut or tear g. Lashing in h. Local distortion i.

Missing end


Oil or other stain

k. Oily or soiled ends or picks l.

Reed mark

m. Selvedge defects n. Slough off o. Smash p. Snarls q. Stitches r. Untrimmed loose threads s. Weft bar Apparel Training and Design Center, AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


t. Weft crack u. Piling and raising fabric defects i. Broken pattern due to defective piles ii. Pile less spots iii. Loose pile 3. Processing Defects a. Bleaching spot b. Blurred or dark patch c. Bowing d. Defects caused by hanging threads e. Dye bar f. Dye stuff stain g. Miss print or absence of print h. Patchy or streaky or uneven dyeing i.



Shading or listing

k. Uneven printing or tinting l.

Water mark

m. White spot n. Milling defects i. Mill rigs ii. Uneven milling 4. Embroidery defects.

The above are the classification of fabric defects. Among them the important fabric defects are described as follows.

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1. Broken filaments or missing end: There may be one or more missing ends in the fabric if the operator does not mend the broken ends immediately, these missing ends will occur in the fabric. This defect can be minimized by minimizing missing ends in the weaver’s beam and by providing an effective warp stop motion on the loom.

2. Colored flecks:

these are caused by the colored portions on the yarn which

may be caught from spinning or any other means it can be reduced by using proper yarn.

3. Knots: knots are the faulty knots, which the operators are making, while a yarn breakage occurs in the warp. By the usage of automatic knotters, this fault can be reduced.

4. Slub: slubs are the foreign matters or untwisted portions in the yarn, which can be caused by the defective slub catchers in the warping section. By usage of automatic slub catchers, this fault can be reduced.

5. Broken ends: These are the broken ends, which were woven to the fabric into a bunch. This is also an operator fault.

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6. Broken pattern: while weaving there were occurs some broken patterns in the weave, this may be due to the miss ordered denting of the warp or missing warp ends or may be due to defects associated with treadling mechanisms.

7. Double end: This id the formation of double ends in the position of a thread. This is caused due to miss ordered threading through male healds or may be due to faults related with healds.

8. Float: when there is no proper interlacement of warp and weft over a certain area of fabric, a float is formed. A float is caused when there is an adjoining ends in the region between the heild shaft and the fell of the fabric. By providing effective warp stop motion the problem can be avoided.

9. Gout: It is caused when the hardened fluff or foreign matter such as pieces of leather accessories, pieces of damaged pickers etc. is woven into the texture of the fabric. This defect can be remedied by preventing the foreign matter from falling on to the warp between the reed and fell of the fabric.

10. Hole, Cut or Tear: These are the torn areas on the fabric, which may be caused by the shuttle entanglement or other means. It is a serious fault on the fabric as it will destroy the fabric. Apparel Training and Design Center, AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


11. Local distortion: sometimes the warp or weft threads in the fabric may be distorted by any means may be by handling or getting distorted by other forces. This can only be avoided by taking care of them

12. Missing Ends: The ends or warp threads may be missed or absent in somewhere in the fabric. This is, caused by the missing ends from warping. Also there may be missed ends from threading section. Or by the operator doesn’t knot the broken ends.

13. Oil or Soiled: There may be oil or soil contents in the warp as well as weft threads which may be caught from the machine parts or from handling.

14. Reed Mark: When the wires of a reed are damaged or bent during the running of a loom. The space between those wires of and hence between the warp ends are increased. This increased space between the ends is clearly seen in the fabric as a missing end. This defect can be avoided by replacing or by straightening the damaged wires of the reed.

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15. Temple Mark: These are fine holes caused near the edge of the fabric. These temple marks are generally found in the case of light fabrics. This defect can be avoided by suitably selecting the temples for the fabrics to be produced. (Temples are the rollers, which are used in the selvedge area to catch the fabric width way in the loom so as to give the fell the correct with to the fabric.)

16. Jerky or Missing pick: It is a strip which extends across the width of the fabric and has the pick density lower than the required one. It is caused by faulty let off and take-up motions. Also if the loom is not stopped immediately after a weft break, few picks are liable to be missed in the fabric.

17. Starting Mark: It is similar to a jerky, because of mechanical faults in the loom such as loose fitting of reed, loose or worn out crank-arm etc. The starting marks will occur whenever the loom is started.

18. Defective Selvedge: When the tension of the weft yarn is more, it will drag the selvedge ends towards the body of the fabric, Now, as the reed moves forward for beat-up, it pulls the selvedge ends sideways such that the fabric width at the fell of the cloth tends to equal the reed space. Because of this. The weft yarn is broken in the selvedge so there is no interlacement of warp and weft in the selvedge and hence the selvedge becomes defective. This defect can be avoided by proper adjustment of weft yarn tension.

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19. Weft bar: It is a bar or band which extends across the width of the fabric. It is caused

(a) If the weft yarn is not regular or uniform (b) If there is more variation in the count of weft yarn (c) If there is shade variation in the case of dyed weft yarn. (d) If the difference in the blend composition is more in the case of blended weft yarn. This defect can be remedied by better process control to get the uniform and regular weft yarn.

20. Shuttle Smash: when many ends breaks due to shuttle trap, this defect will occur. There are many causes for the shuttle trap like wrong timing of shedding, soft picking, unbalanced shuttle, insufficient checking of shuttle in the boxes etc.

21. Weft snarls: These are small twisted loops of weft yarn which appear on the surface of the fabric. These weft snarls are caused if the twist in the weft yarn is too high and can be remedied by proper setting of twist in the weft yarn.

22. Weft crack: Weft crack are the missing portions created by the breakage of weft in the middle way of insertion in the fell of the cloth. This defect is caused by the improper strength of weft threads of more weak thin places in the weft. Can be avoided only in good quality production methods.

23. Box Mark: These are fine weft way dark or oily lines in the fabric. this defect will occur (a) If the weft yarn is trapped between the box front plate and the shuttle. And becomes oily. (b) If the balloon of weft yarn, formed during its unwinding

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from the pirn, touches the picker guide spindle and becomes oily. This defect can be remedied by tying a cloth piece to box front plate and keeping the shuttle box as clean as possible.

24. Bleaching Spot: These are small white spots seen on the dyed fabrics or bleached fabric. The fault is due to the excess accumulation of bleaching agents in to some areas. This is normally seen on cotton fabrics and it can only be avoided by ensuring the proper mixing of bleaching solution and ensuring the effective washing after the bleaching process.

25. Blurred or Dark Patch: These are the faults seen on a dyed or printed fabric, where the re are some areas will have blurred or bleeded areas or there may be some areas with dark patches. This fault is caused by the improper dissolving of the dyestuff. Can only be avoided by ensuring these dyes are dissolved.

26. Bowing and Skew ness: Filling yarn in woven fabric and courses in knitted fabric usually appear as straight lines perpendicular to the selvedge of the fabric. When there is a variation from the perpendicularity there occurs bias or Bowed condition. This can be included during cloth manufacturing, dyeing, tendering or finishing or other operations where a potential exists of uneven distribution of tension across the fabric width. Bows are more visually displacing in colored patterned fabrics than in solid colors. It can be avoided by ensuring accurate pressure in the calendaring rollers of the finishing machineries.

(Bowed fabric)

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27. Dye Bar: These are the shades of dye seen in the fabric which are dyed. And is caused due to improper timings of the dyeing machines.

28. Pilling: Pilling is a fabric surface defect characterized by little fiber balls clinging to the cloth surface and giving the fabric an unsightly appearance. These fiber balls or pills as they are called are formed during wear and washing, by the entanglement of lose fibers that protrude from the fabric surface, under the influence of rubbing action. These lose fibers develop into small spherical bundles anchored to the fabric by a few unbroken fibers. These are normally in woolen, knitted, polyester, nylon and acrylic have tendency to pill.

29. Snagging: Snagging is defined as the defect caused by pulling or plucking of yarns from a fabric surface. The snagging of a specific fabric is actual wear varies with the individual wearer. It is he normal phenomenon with knit wear.

The above mentioned are some of the fabric faults generally seen in woven fabrics.

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8. Quality Check Points. Most of the test methods in the garment industry are for fabrics. “Most fabric properties will remain the same when a fabric is made in to a garment� There for testing the fabric is quiet logical. Usually three to five tests (observations) of whatever property is under consideration are completed, and the average of those tests is considered as the representative value of that property.

The following are some important quality check points in the fabric.

a. Fabric Thickness: - As the fabric is a three dimensional piece it is important to check whether the thickness of the fabric is under control. For the testing of thickness in fabric a Fabric thickness tester is used and the thickness is reported in millimeters. Fabric thickness is mainly used for checking the conformity to the specifications, in the study of fabric properties such as thermal insulation, resilience, dimensional stability, fabric stiffness, abrasion etc. are related with fabric thickness.

b. Fabric Count: - The determination of fabric count measures the number of warp yarns per inch and the weft yarns per inch. Fabric count is the number of warp and weft yarns per unit distance while the fabric is held without tension and is free from folds and wrinkles. The determination of the number of threads is done with the use of a counting glass or a mechanical thread counter. The construction of a fabric is usually designed by a combination of numbers such as 100 x 60 this means that 100ends and 60picks per inch is the construction.

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c. Fabric Weight: - The weight of the fabric can be described in the following two ways. (1) The weight pr unit area in terms of ounces per square yard or grams per square meter. GSM

d. Yarn Crimp: - Due to the interlacing of warp and weft threads, a certain amount of waviness is imparted to the warp and weft threads in the fabric. This waviness is called crimp. Hence a apparent length of the thread is smaller than its straightened length. The influence of crimp on fabric properties are as follows

1. Resistance to abrasion:- the abrasion resistance of the fabric will be more , if the crimp in the yarn is more. The yarns with high crimp takes the act of abrasive action, this is because crowns formed as the yarn bends round a transverse thread, will protrude from the surface of the fabric and meet the destructive abrasive agent first.

2. Shrinkage: - when the yarns are wet, they swell and consequently say a warp thread as a longer bending path to take a swollen weft thread. The largest amount of shrinkage is that represented by increase of crimp.

3. Fault in fabric: - Variation in crimp can give rise to faults in the fabric, reduction of strength, the crimp variation is due to the improper tensions on the yarn during yarn preparation and weaving. Etc.

e. Fabric Strength: - It is a very important property because it enhances the durability of fabrics of garments. Generally it is tested under three different conditions depending upon the properties of fibres, fabrics or garments as well as their uses. For ex: Tensile strength is very important factor in fibres, yarns and woven fabrics. Tearing or Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


breaking strength is important for medium or heavy weight woven fabrics. Bursting strength is suitable for non-woven, knitted fabrics as well as lightweight woven fabrics.

a). Tensile strength: - the tensile strength or breaking strength is the measure of the resistance of the fabric to a tensile load or stress in either warp or in weft direction. b). Bursting strength: - Bursting strength is the strength of a fabric against a multi directional force or pressure. The busting strength measures the composite strength of warp and weft yarns simultaneously and indicate the extend upto which a fabric can withstand a busting type of force with the pressure being applied perpendicular to the surface of the fabric.

f. Air permeability: - Air permeability is an important factor in the performance of textile materials such as gas filters, fabrics for clothing, mosquito netting, sails and parachutes. It is directly related to the efficiency. Air permeability can also be used to provide an indication of the breath ability of weather and rain proof fabrics or of coated fabrics in general. Yarn crimp and weave influence air permeability.

g. Absorbency: - it is the ability of a fabric to take up a liquid. It is the term related to the warmth of the fabric. If a fabric is permeable to air but does not absorb water, evaporation of perspiration takes place from the skin and skin temperature falls. This is the phenomenon occurs while nylon fabrics are worn. Water proof fabrics are treated with waxes, fats or rubber to prevent the absorption of the water. Rubber is used to make water proof in ordinary

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raincoats, Tars or bitumen in tarpaulins, waxes in some tent coats, plastic is coated for rain coats. Etc… A water repellent fabric is one that it will resist absorption and penetration of water. A garment labeled as shower resistant will provide protection from light rain but will be penetrated by a heavy rain after 15 min. A garment labeled as rain resistant will provide protection for a few hours of exposure in a moderate rain.

h. Handle: - Fabric handle as the name itself implies it concerned with the feel of the material and so depends upon the sense of touch. Different type of materials will have different type of smoothness and roughness.

i. Drape: - Drape is the ability of a fabric to assume a graceful appearance. It is an important property of textile material which allows fabric to bend itself into graceful folds or pleats as a result of the force of the lay. A fabric is said to possess a good drapability when its duration is pleasant to the eye. It is the result of the interaction between warp way and weft way characteristics.

j. Color Fastness: - it is the property of the dye or print that enables it to retain its depth and shade through out the wear life of a product including washing, dry-cleaning, light, and perspiration.

•Is defined as a loss of colour or Transfer of Colour •It may occur due to poor binding of Dye to the Fiber •Degradation of the Dye •Some times Hue Shifts occur Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


a. Colour Fastness to Washing /Laundering Wash fastness – the resistance of the color of textiles to domestic and commercial laundering procedures towards loss of color and / or staining

Washing Fastness Tests 

The Fabric color loss and surface changes resulting from detergent solution and abrasive action of five typical home or commercial launderings, with or without bleach chlorine and or Non Chlorine, are roughly approximated by one 45-minute test.

Washing Fastness accelerated 

The test is conducted to also quantify staining that takes place on adjacent fabrics, as, in a typical home or commercial laundry the washing load will consist of all types of Fabrics, a fabric with poor wash fastness can extensively stain other fabrics in the wash environment

b. Colour Fastness to Light • Colorfastness to light is the resistance of a material to a change in its color characteristics as a result of its exposure to sunlight or an artificial light source. • Exposure to Sunlight radiation, Temperature and Humidity effects the performance of a colored textile material regarding fading and / or change of color. • Fading and / or color change is initiated due to photo- chemical processes of absorbed Ultra Violet and visible radiation and the interactions with temperature and humidity. c. Perspiration Fastness • Resistance of the Colour of Textiles to all kinds and in all forms to the action of Human Perspiration

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k. Selvedges: - The warp way strip, which forms the edge of a piece of cloth, is known as selvedge. It serves the following purpose: 1. To blind at least one of the extreme outer ends with the weft for preventing fraying of the cloth. 2. To provide extra strength in the region where the cloth is held by clips or abraded in subsequent finishing process or use;

3. To provide ends capable of withstanding the greater abrasion by the reed occurring at the edges of the warp; and 4. To provide space for ornamentation as in sari or dhoti or identification Types of selvedge: 1. Conventional selvedge: - On conventional loom, the conventional selvedge is formed because the shuttle contains enough weft for several picks and picking motion is arranged on both sides of the loom. The outer most threads are fighter double yarn/double drawn to withstand higher stresses. 2. Unconventional selvedge: - these are of the following kind a. Tucked-in-selvedge b. Leno selvedge c. Fused edges. a. Tucked-in-selvedge: - Tucked-in-selvedge can be formed by two different methods. With most common method the projecting weft tail is tucked in the next pick – a predetermined length (10-15 mm) into the next weave shed. This gives a firm and neat selvedge but its disadvantage is weft density is double at the selvedge. Selvedge weaves can be a 2/1 or 3/1 rib with two ends per heald and 2 fold yarns with about 20% finer than the body yarn count give excellent results. b. Leno selvedge: - The leno selvedge is formed by a device mounted on heald shafts or separately held on each side and are controlled independently from the main heald shaft. Fabric with leno selvedge has fringes, which is less attractive than the tuck-in selvedge when the fabric is sold across the counter. Leno selvedge, Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


which are most suitable for high speed weaving, are used on rapier, water jet and air jet-weaving machines, also it can be used on projectile weaving machines while weaving dense fabric (denim). Leno selvedges are normally with types full-cross and Half-cross leno selvedge. c. Fused selvedge: - This type of selvedge is also known as melt selvedge. The formation of this type selvedge requires outermost ends of thermoplastic filament yarns e.g. polyester, polyamide etc. With this method the edge ends are plasticized by mean of a heated wire stuck together to produce a firm neat edge, which does not curl up.


L Dimensional stability - Shrinkage

This test method is intended for the determination of dimensional changes in woven and knit Fabrics & Garments when subjected to automatic home laundering procedures commonly used in the home.

• Dimensional Change refers to any alteration in the Dimension of a product during finishing, manufacture or care. If the Dimension increases it is referred as GROWTH and Shrinkage is there is a reduction • Dimensional Changes cause size and fit problems, and many times cause appearance issues. • Relaxation Shrinkage IS the Dimensional Change that occurs when the materials is wetted and dried with out Tension • Residual Shrinkage Is the Shrinkage that is not removed in the first care cycle. • Heat Shrinkage Is the Shrinkage that occurs when the product is exposed to heat (Dry or Wet) • Progressive Shrinkage: IS shrinkage exhibited by a material each time it is cleaned

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9. Fabric Terms The following are some important types of fabrics.


Mull is a very fine, soft, plain-woven cotton fabric, which is bleached and finished. The count of warp and weft will be 100 x100 or 80 x 80. It generally used for dress linings.


A plain woven cotton fabric which made from hard twisted warp and weft yarns which is combed and gassed in order that the threads will be produce smooth and clean crisp fabric. It generally used for dress linings.


A plain woven fine warp rib fabric with fine warp and thick weft made of silk, wool and cotton. Cotton plies are usually mercerized. Warp count 2 / 80 and weft count 10.

Poplin has a more

pronounced filling effect than broadcloth. It is mercerized and has quite a high luster. It may be bleached, or dyed (usually vat dyes are used) or printed. Heavy poplin is given a water-repellent finish for outdoor use. It is originally made with silk warp and heavier wool filling. Some are also mildew-proof, fire-retardant, and some given suede finish. American cotton broadcloth shirting is known as poplin in Great Britain.


A plain, light, transparent fine white cotton fabric with a stiff and wiry finish. Count of warp and weft is 80s x 100s


A fine plain-woven fabric with bleached cotton. Close in structure and without much size. Used for under garments.

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A plain woven soft cotton fabric usually finished in white or cream color, woven with good quality of warp and weft. Used as curtains and in summer dresses.


A warp faced, mostly woven in 2x2 twill weave, which produce a fine steep twill effect. Lower qualities are made in 2x1 also. Count of warp and weft are 64 s x 2/40s and 42 picks per cm. largely used for rain proof over coatings.


A 3x1 twill fabric usually dyed the count of warp and weft are 16sx12s ends and picks per cm is 96 and 48


A cotton 2x1 twill fabric used for corsets (a tight piece of underwear worn by women to make themselves look thinner, especially in the past), boot lining etc. Count of warp and weft are 20 s x 20 s


Fabric having a pattern of very small and uniform spots with the result of combination of weaves and color.


tweed is a term applied for coarse wool fabrics with plain or twill design. Used as coatings.


Georgette crepe is a fine silk fabric with a crepe appearance due to the use of very hard twisted threads, which are arranged 2 and 2 of right and reverse twist in warp and weft. Mostly the design is plain.


A generic term for corded velveteen or corduroy with lighter structure used for ladies wears.

14. DIAPER CLOTH. It is a twill, dobby or plain-woven cotton fabric, which is very absorbent. Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


15. DUCK

A heavy, durable tightly woven fabric. Heavy weight drill is used in awnings, tents, etc. Lighter duck is used in summer clothing


A sheer to coarse plain woven cotton fabric. Muslin comes in "natural" color or is dyed

17. CANTON FLANNEL A four harness warp faced twill fabric in cotton. The filling yarn is a very loosely twisted and soft and later brushed to produce a soft nap on the back, the warp is medium in size. The face is twill. It is heavy, warm, strong and absorbent. Named for Canton, China where it was first made. Comes bleached, unbleached, dyed, and some is printed. The main uses are in Interlinings, sleeping garments, linings, coverings, work gloves


Cotton fabric with plain weave or dobby designs on plain-weave ground. It is made with dyed warp and a white or unbleached filling. Both carded and combed yarns used. Has a white selvedge. Some are woven with alternating white and coloured warp. "Faded" look. Has very soft colouring. Some made with stripes, checks or embroidered. Smooth, strong, closely woven, soft and has a slight luster. Wears very well, easy to sew, and launders well. If not crease resistant, it wrinkles easily. It Originated in Cobrai, France, where it was first made for sunbonnets. The main uses are in children’s were, shirt, aprons and all kind of sports were.


A plain woven cotton or woolen fabric where a Coarse, rugged yarn is used. Originally an un dyed woolen cloth spun into yarn and woven in the home, by peasants and country folk the world over. Has substantial appearance and serviceable qualities. It is made with irregular, slightly twisted uneven yarns. Has a spongy feel with a hand-loomed tweedy appearance. Genuine homespun is

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produced in a very limited quantity and much power loom cloth is sold as genuine homespun. Many qualities made - the best is an ideal rough-and-ready type of cloth. The main uses are in Coats, suits, separates and sportswear.

20. LAWN

Is a cotton plain woven fabric, the word lawn derived from Laon, a city in France, where linen lawn was manufactured extensively. It is Light weight, sheer, soft, washable. It is crispier than voile but not as crisp as organdy, Made with fine high count yarns, silky feel and are made with either carded or combed yarns. Comes in white or may be dyed or printed. When made with combed yarns with a soft feel and slight luster it is called nainsook. The main used areas of lawn are Underwear, dresses, blouses, night wear, curtains, lingerie, collars, cuffs, infant wear, shirting, handkerchiefs.


These are plain as well as dobby or jacquard designs woven in cotton or rayon or silk Originated in Madras, India and it is a very old cloth. Much of it has a plain coloured background with stripes, plaid, checks, or designs on it. Has a high thread count and fine. It is made with combed or carded yarns depending on the quality. Some is mercerized to make it lustrous and durable. Often the dyes are not fast and with each washing, colour changes take place. The main used areas are Men's and women's sportswear of all kinds, dresses, separates, shirts.


Cotton or some in rayon fabric woven with usually plain variation usually with 2 x 1 basket. The Warp has two fine yarns which travel as one and one heavier softly-spun bulky filling which gives it a basket-weave look. Better qualities are mercerized. Rather heavy. Usually is all white but some has a spaced stripe in the warp direction. It launders very well but soils easily. When made with yarn dyed warp and white weft, it is called oxford chambray. The

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one remaining commercial shirting material made originally by a Scotch mill which bore the names of four Universities - Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, and Yale. The main uses are mostly for men’s shirt also used for summer jackets, shirts, skirts, dresses, and sportswear.


Cotton or Rayon fabrics with sateen weave, 5 harnesses, filling face weave. The main characteristics are it is a Lustrous and smooth with the sheen in a filling direction. Carded or combed yarns are used. Better qualities are mercerized to give a higher sheen. Some are only calendared to produce the sheen but this disappears with sashing and is not considered genuine sateen. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Difficult to make good bound buttonholes on it as it has a tendency to slip at the seams. The main end uses are in Dresses, sportswear, louses, robes, pajamas, linings for draperies, bedspreads, and slip covers

24. TERRY Cloth

These are plain or jacquard or dobby combined pile fabrics made in cotton or sometimes in linen. It has either all over loops on both sides of the fabric or patterned loops on both sides. It formed with an extra warp yarn. Long wearing, easy to launder and requires no ironing. May be bleached, dyed, or printed. Better qualities have a close, firm, under weave, with very close loops. It is Very absorbent, and the longer the loop, the greater the absorbency. When the pile is only on one side, it is called "Turkish toweling". Towels, beachwear, bathrobes, all kinds of sportswear, children's wear, slip covers, and draperies are having the uses.


it is a very short filling pile woven fabric on cotton or sometimes in rayon Woven with a extra filling yarn with either a plain or a twill back (twill back is the best). Warp yarns 80/inch - weft ranges from 175 to 600 depending on the desired density of the pile, Mercerized

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with a durable finish. Strong and takes hard wear. Poor quality rubs off. Some of it can be laundered. It is warm. Comes in all colours, gradually piece dyed or may be printed. It has to be cut all one way. Press carefully, preferably on a velvet board, or tumble dry after laundering (no pressing needed). Children's wear, dresses, coats, draperies, lounge wear, separates uses this.


Whipcord is a twill woven fabric in cotton, rayon, worsted, or woolen Very much like gabardine, but the yarn is bulkier and much more pronounced. The twill is steep 63 degrees and goes from left to right (except for cotton). It is very durable, rugged and stands hard usage and wear. In time, it shines a bit with wear. Some times back is napped for warmth. So named because it stimulates the lash of a whip, The main usage are in Topcoats, uniform cloths, suiting, sportswear, riding habits. In cotton, it is also used for automobile seat covers and little boys play suits.


A plain woven with low count yarns. Originated in Calcutta, India, and is one of the oldest cottons. Rather coarse and light in weight. The patterns are printed on one side by discharge or resist printing. It is not always fast in colour. Sized for crispness but washes out and requires starch each time. Designs are often geometric in shape, but originally elaborate designs of birds, trees, and flowers. It is inexpensive, similar to percale. Very little on the market today, but the designs are still in use on other fabrics and sold as "calico print". The main uses are with Housedresses, aprons, patchwork quilts.

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10. General Fabric Terms 1


 The ability of a fabric to take in moisture. It is very important, which effects many other characteristics such as skin comfort, static build up, stain removal, water repellency, and wrinkle recovery



The right side or the better-looking side of the fabric.



A non-woven fabric made from wool, hair, and sometimes in combination with certain man made fibers, where the fibers are locked in a process utilizing heat, moisture, and pressure to form a compact material



The way the fabric feels when it is touched



A process of treating a cotton yarn or fabric, in which the fabric or yarn immersed in a caustic soda solution and latter neutralized in acid. The process causes permanent swelling of the fiber, resulting in a increased luster on the surface of the fabric, an increased affinity for dyes and increased strength


Selvage or selvedge

The tin compressed edge of a fabric which runs parallel to the warp yarns and prevents raveling. It is usually woven utilizing tougher yarns and a tighter construction than the rest of the fabric.



A lustrous, medium weight, plain weave fabric with a slight ribbed appearance in the filling direction. For formal wear taffeta is a favorite choice. It provides a crisp hand, with lots of body. Silk taffeta gives ultimate rustle.

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A crisp, light weight, plain weave cotton - like fabric, made with high twist yarns in a high yarn count construction. Normally treated with singing process, which is a process of removal of protruding fibers from the fabric surface.



Warp is the term used in woven fabrics to identify the yarns running lengthwise and is inter woven with weft yarns



Weft is the term used in woven fabrics to identify the yarns running perpendicular to the warp yarns.



Weave is the structure of the fabric or the way in which warp and weft are interlaced together to form a fabric.



It is the physical process, which sometimes occur in the surface of a garment. Pills are some small knots or knots of mixture of large number of small fibers accumulated at the surface of the fabric and entangled by the mild frictional action during processing or wearing. They are soft but firmly held on the surface of the material.

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Terms related with cotton fabrics.



Muslin is a sheer to coarse plain woven cotton fabric. Muslin comes in "natural" color or is dyed


Diaper cloth

Diaper cloth is a twill or plain dobby or jacquard woven absorbent fabric.



Is sheer, thin, white or printed fabric with lengthwise cords, stripes or checks



A strong twilled cotton fabric, used in men’s and women’s slacks.



A heavy, durable tightly woven fabric. Heavy weight drill is used in awnings, tents, etc. Lighter duck is used in summer clothing.



Cotton is plain or twill weave with a slight nap on one or both sides.



A soft cotton fabric with a nap on one side.



A sheer, lightly woven fabric similar to cheesecloth. Is also made in silk.



A lightweight, washable, stout fabric that is woven in checks, plaids or stripes.



A plain weave, soft, very light, combed cotton fabric with a crisp finish.

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A sheer to coarse plain woven cotton fabric. Muslin comes in "natural" color or is dyed.



A very thin, transparent cotton with a crisp finish.


Outing flannel

A soft, twill or plain weave fabric napped on both sides. Used for baby clothes, diapers, and sleepwear.



A shirting fabric with a lustrous, soft finish. It is characterized with narrow stripes and can be woven in plain or basket weave. Also a term used for wool fabric that has black and white fibers



A light weight, closely woven, sturdy fabric that can be found printed in dark colors.


Pima Cotton

from Egyptian cotton, is an excellent quality cotton fabric.


Polished Cotton

Is either satin weave cotton or a plain weave cotton that is finished chemically to appear shiny.



A plain weave fabric with a cross-wise rib.



A very strong, heavy canvas or duck made in plain weave.



A satin weave cotton fabric.



A lightweight cotton fabric crinkled into lengthwise stripes.



Sheer, very fine cotton that can be plain or decorated with dots or other designs.

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Terry Cloth

A looped pile fabric that is woven or knitted, Very absorbent and used for towels etc. French terry cloth is looped on one side and sheared pile on the other.



An all cotton pile fabric with short pile resembling velvet.



A strong fabric with a diagonal round cords that can also be produced in wool.

Terms related with wool fabrics.


Beaver cloth

A heavy woolen over coating, napped and pressed down to resemble beaver fur. This fabric is also a plush fabric that is used for hats



A fine wool made from worsted wool yarn.



An all woolen or worsted fabric with a velvety feel.



A light weight soft wool in plain weave, has a printed or woven design or flowers.



Usually Scotch wool is a soft, fine wool that is heavier than serge.


Chinchilla cloth

A heavy, spongy woolen overcoat fabric with a long nap that has been rubbed into a curly, nubby finish.



 Was originally a thick and warm homespun or tweed woven by Irish peasants in Donegal, Ireland. Donegal now describes the wool tweed that has colorful thick slubs woven into the fabric.

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 Fabric is a compact sheet of entangled, not woven wool, fur, sometimes cotton fibers. The felt is produced by processing a mat of fibers with moisture, heat, and pressure.



 Wool is a soft, lightweight fabric with a nap on one or both sides.



 A tightly woven wool twill with a high sheen. This fabric is excellent for tailoring and wears well.


Glen checks

 These usually seen in menswear and originated in Scotland. It is characterized by a variety of small, even check designs.


Harris Tweed

 A hand woven fabric from Scotland with a soft feel.


Heather Mixture

 Describes tweeds and homespun’s that have colors of heather and sand of the Scottish heather fields.


Herringbone wool

 A woven in a twill that is reversed at regular spacing, creating a saw tooth



 A loose, strong, durable woolen woven either by hand or machine with a coarse feel.


Hounds tooth check

 A four pointed star check in broken twill weave.



 A knit fabric that is usually knit in fine wool but can also be found in silk and man-made fibers.



 French for "wool".


Lambs down

 A heavy knit fabric that has a spongy fleeced nap on one side.

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. Linsey-woolsey

 A coarse fabric first made in Lindsey, England, of wool combined with flax or cotton.


Loden fabric

 A thick, soft, waterproof, windproof, wool used in outerwear that has a characteristic green color.


Mackinaw fabric

 A heavy double fabric in striking colored patterns.



 A heavy, tick, short napped fabric without a finish press or gloss.


Merino wool

 A soft and luxurious, resembling cashmere. This term is also used to describe the finest wool’s.


Oatmeal Cloth

 A durable, soft wool with a pebbled face.


Panama Cloth

 Plain woven worsted wool, sometimes resembling the texture of Panama hat.


Peter sham

 A very thick, waterproof woolen coating, usually dark blue, is used for men’s trousers or heavy coats.


Pilot Cloth

 A coarse, heavy, stout twilled woolen that is heavily napped and navy blue.Used by seamen


Poodle Cloth

 A made with a boucle yarn and resembles the Poodle dog.


Rabbit Hair

 Used in woven wool’s as a substitute for vicuna to give soft effect onfabric.



 Woven with warp and filling yarns of alternating white with black, brown, blue.

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 A twilled plaid design, originally Scottish.



 A rough textured wool, originally homespun and slightly felted. This fabric is sturdy with a mottled color.


Virgin Wool

 Is wool that has never been processed into fabric

Terms related with silk fabrics. 72


 A jacquard weave with an embossed effect and contrasting surfaces, Can also be woven with synthetic or man-made fibers.


Canton Crepe

 A soft crepe woven fabric with small crosswise ribs Similar to crepe de chine but heavier



 A satin weave silk with a crepe back sometimes called crepe backed satin.



 A transparent soft and light silk, also be woven of cotton or manmade fibers.


China silk

 Is a plain weave silk of various weights. This silk is the "hand" or touch that many people identify as silk. There are various weights of China silk from light, used for linings and many "washable silks" with the wrinkled look, to heavy for shirts and dresses.



 Is reeled from double cocoons nested together. The threads are uneven and irregular. Italian Doupioni is the finest, followed by Chinese Doupioni and Indian Doupioni. Doupioni is also seen in man-made fibers such as polyester, acetate and referred to as Doupioni. Silk Doupioni is most often found in men’s and women’s fine suits and also dresses in lighter weight silk Doupioni.

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 Soft ribbed silk with wider ribs than seen in grosgrain ribbon slightly glossy.



 Sheer crepe silk, heavier than chiffon and with a crinkle surface



 Raised woven designs, usually jacquard, with the appearance of puckered or quilted.



 Is sportier in appearance and created by short fibers, often from the innermost part of the cocoon. Has the look of hopsack but much softer.



 Similar to cotton organdy except it is made with silk and is transparent.



 A stout, soft silk with fine cross ribs looks slightly corded also called Padua soy.



 A plain woven, thin, naturally tan fabric that has a rough effect.



 Is sometimes called faille taffeta. It has heavy cross ribs.


Silk Shantung

 A Doupioni type of silk that comes from the Shantung Prov. of China


Silk Broadcloth

 A plain weave silk in various weights; crisper than china silk, used for shirting


Silk linen

 Has a nubby yarn in a plain weave. Weights range from light to heavy. It is different from Doupioni in that the nubby runs both lengthwise and crosswise the look of linen with the characteristics of linen.

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Silk satin

 A satin weave with a plain back


Tussah silk

 (Tussah means wild) a plain weave silk fabric from "wild" silk worms. It has irregular thick and thin yarns creating uneven surface and color. Wild silkworms feed on leaves other than mulberry leaves. Tussah silk is similar to shantung, with silk from the wild. Color is often uneven; usually referred to as "raw" silk.

Terms related with linen fabrics.


Butcher’s Linen

 Is originally a heavy, sturdy linen fabric used for French butchers’ aprons. This type of heavy fabric was also used for interfacing



 Jacquard weave, is a reversible rich weave, patterned in satin or plain weave



 Is a very fine damask table linen consisting of large floral patterns.

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C onc lu sio n




“Stu dy



Fabric� is aimed to provide su fficient information to the garmen t industry as well as to the stu dents who were interested to stu dy abou t woven fabric and this, I believes that this project can give some valu able information abou t the woven fabric and it is having the following details like Constru ction of fabric, Qu ality of fabric , fabric defec ts, finishing treatments giv en to fabric etc. Hope







effective tool for the garment indu stries dealing with woven fabric.


6. Finishing of Woven fabric 1. Wet Processing

Wet processing is the term regarding with all the finishing processes done to a finished fabric, as these process are done with the presence of water it came wet processing. The common processes are as follows.

a. Scouring b. Bleaching c. Dyeing d. Printing e. Finishing

Scouring is the process of removal of natural as well as added impurities essentially of water repellent qualities or characteristics as much as possible and makes the material highly absorbent without damaging it. Normally this process is done to cotton fabrics. Cotton fabrics contain impurities like fats, acids, waxes, and natural colouring matters, which are insoluble in water. These impurities are converted to soluble soap by treating the yarn with dilute alkali. Usually scouring is done with 2% to 5% mild alkaline sodium carbonate at high temperature for several hours.

Bleaching is the process of removal of natural coloring maters. Along with the impurities much of the colouring materials have removed by scouring, But the natural colouring matters could not be removed in this process, are however capable of being Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


converted it into colourless leucocompounds by means of nascent hydrogen, or oxidized into simple soluble compounds by nascent oxygen. And the chemicals used for the above purpose are known as bleaching agents and the process is known as a whole bleaching. Normally bleaching is for the white fabric as well as materials intended for dyeing or printing with light colours. The universal bleaching agent is hydrogen peroxide.

1. Dyeing The dyeing of the textile material is a process of applying a dye (colour material) so that the material not only changes their colour but also fast remains on the materials. The dyes can be classified into two groups. 1. According to chemical construction of dye. a. Natural dyes b. Synthetic dyes or Man made dyes

2. According to the mode of application a. Water soluble i. Direct dyes ii. Acid dyes iii. Basic dyes iv. Reactive dyes

b. Water insoluble i. Vat dyes ii. Azoic dyes iii. Mineral and metal complex dyes

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Direct dye Direct dyes are water-soluble and have affinity towards both the animal and vegetable fibers. Hence they are called substantive dyes. They are also known as saltcolours as common salt is mostly used to exhaust the dye.

The dyestuff is dissolved in cold water and boiled. The dye bath is prepared with a material liquor ratio of 1: 20 and 0.5% to 4% of dye solution and 05% to 2% of sodium carbonate. The dyeing is started at a 60oC then gradually raised to boiling point.

Temperature: - For most of the dyes the rate of dyeing increases with the increase of temperature.

Common salt: The common salt exhausts the dyestuff to the fiber surface.

Concentration: The amount of dyestuff present in the liquor will control the percentage of shade on the materials. Reactive dye Reactive dyes are recommended for the production of brilliant shades of good light and wet fastness on cellulosic fibers such as cotton, viscose etc. Selected dyes are also recommended for the dyeing of fast shades on natural wool and nylon. These dyes react with the fiber forming a covalent chemical bond and become one part of the materials according to their active groups the dyestuffs are divided into two groups. NaSO3 dye , Cold or medium brand

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In these two groups it has been same that in this case of mono chlorotriazine they will not easily take part in reaction with the fibers so to make them active temp, is to be given so these are called hot brand dyes and in the case of diazines structure temp is not required or 400C temp is given so they are called medium or cold brand dyes.

Application of Reactive Dyes:

Dyeing with cold brand: These dyes are water-soluble giving bright shades good light and washing fasten. Chemicals med are as following.












“ “

After dyeing is completed the material is removed, squeezed and washed with cold water and soap treatment is given and boiled for ½ hour.

(1). The M: L ratio is kept up to 1:20 the material is entered into the cold both and dye liquor is added into three installments and material is wormed for 30-40 minutes.

Dyeing with hot brand: These are of triazine dye group the dye both is set at

40 0C the temp is

raised up to 70-800C sodium salt and the Na2Co3 is to be added on proportional the treatment is to be continued up to ½ hour snipping of the colour can be dyed with sodium hydroxide or sodium per borate. Apparel Training and Design Center, Bangalore AKHIL. J.K. (AMT-A JAN 04 – DEC 04)


Basic dyes Basic dyes have no affinity towards cotton in normal soluble form. Hence to make them absorbent they are mordanted, then fixed and dyed.

Mordanting is done by using tannic acid (twice the percentage of shade) after the impregnation of material in the mordant in the bath. After the required time the material is treated with tartaremetic containing solution for fixing of color. After fixing the goods are treated in the dye bath at 60oC and is raised to 90oC for 1 hr. the dye bath is set with 1% 3% acetic acid.

Sulpher dyes Sulpher dyes are insoluble in water and have to be reduced with sodium sulphide to convert them in to water-soluble leuco compounds form. These dyes have good efficiency towards cellulosed fibers the reduced dye is absorbed in fiber and then it is-to be reconverted into the original water insoluble from.

Dissolving of dyestuff: the material is wet with Turkey Red Oil and (Na2Co3) required quantity of sodium sulphide is added and 10-20 parts boiling water is to be added –and the liquor is boiled for 10 minutes.

Dyeing: - the above prepared dyestuff is filtered and added to the dye bath at about 50 0C and temperature is to be increased up to 950 C and temperature is given for 1 hour

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Oxidation: - after the maximum examination of the dye stuff the material is taken out washed with hot and cold water and then treated with 1-2 % sodium di chromate or H2O2.some time material is exposed to air for oxidizing the main defect with the Sulpher dyed material is bronzeum this is due to the little use of Na2S or use of too much colour. The bronzeum can be removed by giving the treatment with sodium sulphide at 30 0 Cs to remove excess dyestuff from the fiber.

Stripping:- when the shade becomes darker then the desired shade is to be obtained by treating the dyed materials with sodium sulphite materials.

Vat Dyes They are water insoluble dyes so they have to convert into soluble form and can be applied on to the material have to be dyed. These dyes are used for costly materials where all round fasters is very important.

Trade names: - 1.cibauon (Ciba). 2. Novimon (IDI). 3. Novatic (ATIC) etc.

According to their method of dyeing vat dyes are classified as following

Washing temp 0

50-70 C NaOH-1.5-12 gm/lit.

dyeing temp 50-600C NaCl – 12 –24gm/lit.

Vatting: In actual practice a solution of vat dye is prepared by reducing the dyestuff converting them into sodium salt, which is known as Vatting. With the dyestuff solution little hot water and NaOH added them hydro solution is added in fraction the glass is kept for 10-20 minutes for complete dissolution of dyestuff.

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Dyeing: The well scammed material is entered into the dye-bath at 30-400C and dyeing is started the temp is gradually raised and required quantity of soda ash is to be added into the dye bath at about 30-400C and salt is added. Temp of the bath should be maintained through out the process. The material should kept immerse into the liquor through out the process.

Oxidation: The purpose of this process is to convert the leuco form of dye into original insoluble vat dye this is carried out after the dyeing is carried out by exposing the material into air for about 15 minutes when the reduced vat dye is oxidized into original vat dye. Hydrogen peroxide can also be used after oxidation the materials are washed soaped and washed.

Azoic colours or Naphthol colours Azoic colours are also known as Naphthol colours or ice colours. They are mostly used for beautiful shades, brightness and very good wet fastness. The colour formed is insoluble in water the only disadvantage is that these dyes are insoluble in water. The Naphthol has no colour when the Naphthol is reacting with base they produce colour by coupling.

Application: For obtaining the azoic shade a well-scoured material is first impregnated aw solution of Naphthol followed by its development with a solution of diazotized base.

Naphtholation of material : Naphthol are insoluble in water they should be converted into their soluble form by adding TRO and little amount of caustic soda temp is to be increased up to boiling which will give a colourless solution then Naphthol bath is prepared by adding required amount of water and salt and the treatment is continued for 15 minutes. After taking out from Naphthol bath the material will be squeezed properly for getting even shade on the dyed materials.

Developing process: then the material is impregnated in a base solution

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In actual practice the base is tested with required HCl and sodium nitrite is dissolved slowly, after diazotization is complete little acetic acid is to be added to prevent the Naphthol coming out in the base solution required amount of sodium chlorite 25gm/ltr is to be added solution developing bath. The base solution is taken into a dye bath and the Naphtholated and squeezed material is to be entered and after taking out from the dye bath soaped with 3-gm / lit soap and 2-gm / lit soda ash at boiling temp for 30 minutes. In order to strip the shade from the uneven dyed materials lisolamine ‘A’ 2% caustic soda 4% sodium hydro sulphite on the wt. of the material.

2. Printing.

Printing is a process by which designed patterns in desired colour are produced on a fabric or a textile material under different styles by using different methods. In printing it is possible to produce a required design in designed colour for as much replicas required without any change in the design of the colouring portion. The material may be of cotton, wool, silk or any synthetic fiber blend. Printing is the cheapest method of ornamenting the fabric and is very popular with its beautiful effects produced. An important feature of printing is that it enables fabric to cover up some miner yarn or fabric faults also. Depending upon the means employed deferent methods have been developed for printing. Some among them are,

1. Block Printing. 2. Stencil printing 3. Screen printing 4. Transfer printing etc.

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In block printing method, thick blocks of teak wood or metallic blocks are used. Colour in the form of thickened paste is applied to the raised parts of the block and stamping the block by hand or machine on to the fabric to be printed obtains the impression of the design. Each fresh portion has to be printed by separate application. The method is simple to operate and is slow therefore, has a low output it involves high labor.

A stencil is prepared by cutting out a design from a flat sheet of cartridge paper, metal or plastic with a sharp edge knife. For making prints the stencils are placed over the fabric positions and the dye is sponged or sprayed to get the prints. It is not possible to cut perfect circles or a ring or any other complete outline on a stencil plate, which if cut, would fall out of the pattern at once leaving a spot, hence to prevent this some form of a tie is used to link such shapes to the main stencil.



This method is mainly confirmed of wall hangings, decorative panels, curtains, bed spreads etc. any kind of colour can be used in this method.

In screen printing the ordinary stencil plate is replaced by a tightly stretched screen or thin silk gauze on which the pattern is printed on., so that the unprinted parts corresponds to the perforations in the cut parts of a stencil. It is possible to

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introduce circular and ring shapes. The method of printing is very simple as the colour paste is poured on the bottom end of the shallow trough of the screen and drawn over with two or three strokes of a squeegee with uniform pressure. Each screen is washed with a jet of water immediately after use.

Transfer printing is a revolutionary development in printing which is altogether different from the conventional methods of printing. It is a direct method of printing in which a sublimate dye is transferred from paper to a thermoplastic fabric under controlled conditions of temperature, time and pressure. Transfer printing is a simple process requiring only heat treatment for very short time. It involves two stages, first, the desired pattern is printed on a paper with ink made from disperse dyes, which are volatile. Second, the pre printed release paper is placed on the fabric and then heat under pressure is applied to the back of the paper where by the dye on the paper sublimes and diffuses into the fabric. The process are applicable generally and mainly in polyester fabrics. Nowadays this method is used for the manufacture of signboards.

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Woven Fabrics  

introductory study about woven fabrics , designs, fabric identification, common defects etc. ideal for students in fashion/ textile field