Arts University Bournemouth 2014
1:10 000 plan Poole is a coastal town in the South of England. The town gives its name to Poole Harbour, which is the largest natural harbour in the world. Throughout history people have related Poole to distinct merchandised culture. These days, Poole lacks common ground where people can gather, socialise, reflect and expand their knowledge. The town is fragmented into islands of specific functions. Massive engineering interventions took place in 1960â€™s. What should be the most important
part of the town is a busy road and bus station with little sense of place. Physical barriers affected the continuity of paths and squares resulting in an illconceived townscape. Poole offers many opportunities for architects to enhance and rethink the townscape. Most of the architectural projects created throughout undergraduate studies at the Arts University Bournemouth were located in Poole. As a result, the town was regarded on various scale.
COMPREHENSIVE DESIGN PROJECT Medium-scale urban intervention 2014
WRITER’S RETREAT Domestic scale building 2012
CURIOSITY SHOP Small-scale urban intervention 2012
BITTERSWEET MUSIC SCHOOL Medium-scale urban intervention 2013
DIALOGUES WITH FUTURE SCENARIOS Large-scale urban design 2013
THE CHAIR Product design 2013
THE BLUEVIEW TOWER High-rise building design 2013
THE POOL(E) OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC NEWTOPIA Extracts from the thesis 2013
Comprehensive Design Project
This project was part of year three curriculum. The brief required us to design a hybrid urban building, with public and private activities, including business and living accommodation. The project addresses broader issues of Urban Design and the placement of complex buildings within an existing context on a previous industrial site. The site is centred on the redevelopment of the historic Poole Quay. The design philosophy behind the scheme advocates Constructivist methodology in a contemporary context. The personality of hybrid is a celebration of complexity, diversity and variety of programmes. It is an opportunist building, which takes advantage of its multiple functions. The hybrid building looks for unexpected, intimate relationships, encourages coexistence and is conscious that unpredictable situations are the key to its own future. The ideal hybrid feeds on the meeting of the private and public spheres. Where public and private spheres overlap each other transition zones are created. Transition â€“ an in-between state, in Architecture could be defined as the connecting space between two or more spaces. Architectural spaces are incomplete without transition spaces. Transition zones should act as catalysts, preparing peopleâ€™s minds for change of environment, function, and ambience. This project interprets the idea of transition as an ambiguous state of the present in which the object and subject belong equally to the past and future. 4
Public Private Public Private Public
1:200 scale models
Final 1:500 scale model
1:1250 location plan
The leader of the Constructivist architects, Moisei Ginzburg, described the â€˜method of functional creativityâ€™ as a process where subconscious, impulsive creativity is replaced by a clear and distinctly organised method. Intuition is not eliminated thereby; it merely comes to occupy its proper place.
Plan axonometric view
1_Gallery 2_Market 3_Residential Unit 4_R&D + Offices
The site sits on the borderline of Poole Quay and the Old Town. The location at the juncture of rich Georgian heritage and the natural phenomenon of the harbour suggests an implementation of a new public square that binds different functions and activities into a unified living vessel. The new square will become the culmination point for The Quay replacing the current abrupt ending of this pedestrian route by a traffic junction. The proposal determines four major functions around the site: gallery, R&D laboratories with offices, market and residential unit. The landscape of the proposal integrates this new hybrid complex with the surrounding areas. The ground around the central pool with a tree is divided into zones. The pattern of the ground follows the aesthetics of the proposed buildings as well as the rhythm of the triangular structure of the market unit. 10
These zones are demarcated by different types of granite. The lines connect the landscape with already existing urban context. The long narrow gallery space is an ‘extension’ of the St. Clement’s alleyway that connects Poole Old Town with the site. The shape of the gallery is derived from the idea that a person follows a oneway path while visiting a gallery, which takes him through all exhibition spaces. It is an intuitional continuous pathway from the narrow St. Clement’s Ln, which terminates in a raised space opening views over the sea and Poole Quay. It is a place to visit when one would like to escape everyday routine. The precisely sculpted seamless design of the gallery creates interior space as a place for production. Narrow linear shape and angular complexities inside the space search for artists’ engagement with the space itself.
Cobbled dark granite paving
Ravens Wing Granite
Cloudy Gray Granite
Mottled Pink Granite
Brass strips dividing cobbled paving
The market unit encloses the site from the North and together with the gallery building create an open public square. The linear shape suggests continuous flow through the space. Internal podstructures are specially designed for growing plants and introducing â€˜Grab and Goâ€™ marketing in green food industry. Structural walls of the market are clad with long linear bricks creating thermal mass. The orientation and fenestration open the building to direct sunlight, however it is controlled with an overhang on the first floor. On top of the market, there is a shell of similar aesthetics with the gallery building, which accommodates an open restaurant/ food court in the seaside end and a medical centre in the other end.
1:500 cut section 1st floor plan. 1:500 4 1 5
1_Market 2_Gallery 3_Office lobby 4_Residential lobby 5_Utility room 12
11_Offices 12_Coworking area 13_Laboratory
1:500 section of the gallery 2nd floor plan. 1:500
6_Restaurant 7_Medical centre 8_Office lobby 9_Residential atrium 10_Gallery
1:500 South-East elevation
Linear Brick Cladding
Felted or smoothed render/plaster on concrete
Felted or smoothed render/plaster on concrete
Transparent & translucent glazing
1:500 South-West elevation
The residential unit is the tallest structure, therefore it is sited to the back of the square. All apartments benefit from direct sunlight. The atrium in the middle of the residential unit acts as an acoustic buffer zone between two apartments on the same floor. A ‘glass box/room’ protrudes from each apartment to the atrium creating private transition zones, where a person can enjoy the phenomenal properties of perforated light during daytime. During nighttime the atrium will be lit, illuminating the public square in front and acting as a ‘lighthouse’ for marine traffic.
Most of the workspaces do not benefit from direct sunlight, therefore the office unit is at the far end of the site. The office block is divided between 2 functions: co-working areas on the lower levels and laboratories (R+D centre) on above. Communal areas of both of these functions are connected with the residential unit via 2 bridges. This advocates a mode of living where people can work at home at time when it is the most suitable for them.
This project was part of year one curriculum. It has been revisited and improved over the course of time. The brief asked to design a retreat for a writer who wants to draw back from everyday life. A small house, about 60 m2, had to satisfy all the basic needs of a human being as well as adapt to the natural environment. The site of the building is a part of Holton Lee nature reserve, on the shore of Poole Harbour, England. It is a remote area where heathland meets woodland, saltmarsh and reed beds. The site has neither underground drainage systems nor electricity. Therefore, the building has to be fully energy selfsufficient.
6 1:100 Plan
1_Living room 2_Kitchen 3_Utility room 4_Lavatory 5_Bedroom (&bath) 6_Writerâ€™s room
The site of the Retreat is a flat area in heathland about 4 m above sea level. Ground conditions are feasible for inhabitation. The site is situated 1 km away from high water mark from the south and approximately 350 m from the east. The plan of the Retreat is strongly influenced by the sun path and wind direction to harness natural light, maximize solar gain and open the building for natural ventilation. The bedroom is oriented towards the north-east, benefitting from morning sun, whereas the living room is opened towards the south-west to fill the space with evening sunlight. The south-facing faĂ§ade of the living room is constructed with folding glass doors that could be opened full-length. The prevailing south-west wind suggests natural ventilation. The writerâ€™s room is raised from the ground. Due to its height, it has windows in all directions, providing the space with natural light throughout the daytime.
The plan of the Retreat emphisizes the division between private space and shared space. The hierarchy of different spaces is defined by the ceiling height and is evident both inside and outside the building. The narrative cut section of the Retreat represents the experience of a journey through the building. The entrance of the Retreat opens to the living room and kitchen. Behind the kitchen, there is a utility room and bathroom. These areas together constitute the shared space. On the plan, shared space is enclosed by straight solid walls from 3 sides and a curvy glass façade representing smooth flow betweem shared space and private space. The private space is formed by the bedroom and the writer’s room. It is enclosed by straight walls from all sides, suggesting a more intimate environment where one is able to think, focus and relax. The writer’s room is raised by half a metre and is accessable via a ramp. The ramp fulfils two roles: it provides disabled access to the writer’s room and brings a sense of sacredness. The writer’s room is the destination of the journey through the Retreat, as a result the most significant room.
2.1 1.1 2
The rainwater harvesting system is the only water supply system for the Retreat, therefore it has to provide all the fresh water needed for living. An average person in the UK uses 150 litres of water/day. Considering user awareness and low use appliances, 120 litres/day per person is estimated. The retreat will be inhabited for a 6-month period,1 month of which the writer has company. Accordingly, the estimated annual water consumption is (210 days x 120 litres/day) approx. 25,000 litres. Therefore, the size of the watertank has to be at least 25,000 litres. Is the area of the roof big enough for providing 25,000 litres of rainwater in a year? The effective collection area is 96.4 m2. Drainage coefficient for gravel is approximately 0.8 and the efficiency of the vortex filter is 0.9. The annual precipitation in Holton Lee is approximately 800 mm/ year. The volume of potentially collectable water is (96.4 x 0.8 x 0.9 x 0.8) 55.5 m3, equals 55 500 litres/year, which is twice the amount needed. It also suggests that retreat could be occupied throughout the year if a bigger water tank were installed.
1. WISY vortex filter
About 90% of collected water is diverted into the storage tank with wastewater and debris to soak away. The filter works because of gravity, hence does not consume any electricity. 1.1. Debris
2. 25,000-litre watertank 2.1. Trapped Overflow
3. Combined controller
Turns the pump on and off when required and provides dry running protection. 3.1. Toilet flush
4. UV disinfection system Removes bacteria. 5. 100-litre boiler
Water is heated with GSHP. 5.1. Kitchen tap
5.2. Bathroom tap
6. Ground Source Heat Pump
All energy for the Retreat is provided by photovoltaic panels and a ground source heat pump (GSHP). PV panels have to produce electricity for general domestic use as well as for running the GSHP. GSHP provides the resident with hot water and underfloor heating. PV panels will be installed to the roof of the car shed and the generated electricity is conducted to the main building.
Carport with monocrystalline PV panels on top of the roof
Average annual electricity consumption per person in the UK is 1,860 kWh (2007). Total domestic energy consumption per person is 8,430 kWh out of which 8,430 - 1,860 = 6,570 kWh is for heating. The coefficient of performance (COP) of GSHP is 4, which means that for 4 units of heat, 1 unit of electricity is needed. To run GSHP 1/4 x 6570 kWh = 1643 kWh electricity will be consumed. In total, PV panels have to produce 1,860 + 1,643 = 3,503 kWh. As an average, each kWp of solar PV produces 1,000 kWh per year and requires approximately 8 m2 of roof area (monocrystalline modules). 1 kWp = 1,000 kWh 1 kWp = 8 m2 Accordingly, 3,503 / 1,000 â‰ˆ 3.5 kWp 3.5 kWp is equal to 28 m2 of roof area. For these calculations it was estimated that the Retreat will be inhabited for a year. In reality some of the energy could be stored in batteries hence the area would be less.
BIM modeling Wall construction from outside inwards: 20 mm charred cedar cladding (Terunobu Fujimori technique. Durable and rotresistant) 20x20 mm horizontal battens 20x20 mm vertical battens 50 mm glass mineral wool insulation with air-tight membrane 150 mm glass mineral wool insulation Vapour barrier 15 mm internal plasterboard Roof construction:
Gravel 2 layers of hot applied bituminous waterproofing Firring 50 mm polyisocyanurate thermal insulation 100 mm polyisocyanurate thermal insulation Vapour barrier 15 mm plasterboard Floor Construction:
400 mm hardcore 100 mm polystyrene insulation 200 mm concrete raft with 600 mm edges DPM 50 mm polyisocyanurate insulation 50 mm concrete screed Strip timber flooring
This project was part of year two curriculum. This project started with an analysis of existing urban context of Poole according to Kevin Lynchâ€™s theory introduced in The Image of the City. Several physical and metaphysical features of the town were analysed and finally, an urban intervention was proposed that should improve the quality of the townscape. The town functions effectively during day time but lacks identity in night time. The streets are empty after 6 pm when last shops close. Proposed square should function approximately 24 hours and bring people closer to Poole Old Town. Sequence of site context images.
Georgian style brick building with decorated pediment and semicircular portico. Currently an office for Jacob Reeves Solicitors.
Cafe Nero has a semicircular glass faรงade that is surrounded and supported by 6 columns of Tuscan order.
Sketch of the proximity context 1:1000 figure-ground development
Lord Wimborne house is a Victorian style brick building, which now accommodates Wetherspoon pub.
1:100 site model shows the whole context of the proposal. Historic buildings endure the story of the town and provide continuity with the past and form a reference point for future development. The proposed retail building merges with existing context by its form but contrasts it by its material (limestone ashlar cladding).
The interior design of the shop was inspired by long arcades edging streets of Bologna (Italy) and the idea of having a central catwalk in the shop creating an alley towards the changing cabin. The 1:50 section scale model shows the scale of the hangers in relation to human size. 32
According to Adolf Loos, the exterior of the house should resemble a dinner jacket, a male mask; as the unified self, protected by a seamless façade, the exterior is masculine. The interior is the scene of sexuality and of reproduction, all the things that would divide the subject in the outside world. He liked to contrast the dignity of male British fashion with the masquerade of women’s. Exquisite limestone ashlar cladding symbolises male mask. The boxlike form creates a compulsive desire to see and to know, to investigate what is secret and reveal
the contents of a concealed space – the interior of the shop. The box itself stands as a representation of the enigma and threat generated by the female sexuality in patriarchal culture. The canopy contrasts with the modest façade of a retail store and makes the site become visible from High Street. The canopy is a modern interpretation of Parisian arcades that became places for the ﬂâneur. Modern ﬂâneurs - urban explorers, are the people who could bring continuity and buzz to the townscape.
1:200 section The proposed architectural intervention creates a glamorous square where, people could enjoy fashion and fashion shows in a newly built retail store. The square in front of the retail store and redesigned east faรงade of Lord Wimborne would become a place, where people want to gather and spend time. Part of the Lord Wimborne is transformed into lounges and cafes that are open day and night and enhance local nightlife. In addition, the square could be utilized for temporary structures for different events. The proposed intervention attempts to bring the core of the town closer to Old Town and Quay area to unveil the hidden beauty of Poole. 34
1:20 technical plan
1 50 mm natural limestone ashlar panel Rainscreen 100 mm Rigid foam insulation DPM 250 mm reinforced concrete (cracked interior finish) 2 180 x 250 mm reinforced concrete post (pigmented finish) 3 Double-glazed unit 4 Steel corner for shadow band
5 Recessed floor lighting
1:20 technical section 5
1 50 mm natural limestone ashlar panel Rainscreen 100 mm Rigid foam insulation DPM 250 mm reinforced concrete (cracked interior finish) 2 250 mm concrete parapet 3 2 layers waterproofing Cordek expanded polystyrene (EPS) DPM 75 mm reinforced concrete slab 210 mm steel profile 4 1000 mm granular fill 100 mm rigid foam insulation DPM 1500 mm (300 mm below th ground level) reinforced concrete slab DPM 18 mm floor tiles 5 Double-glazed unit 6 Steel flashing 4
7 Steel gutter
BitterSweet Music School This project was part of year two curriculum. The music school project started with an analysis of different typologies of buildings. Both historical and contemporary buildings were studied in order to provide a better understanding for the assignment. Subsequently, an initial program for the BitterSweet music school was proposed and further developed along with the immediate landscape. The site is located in the centre of Poole next to Lighthouse. Surrounding buildings and road junctions create an engineered space, not an architectural place. The music school should respond to that as well as enhance the overall creative environment of Poole Lighthouse. Acoustic construction became an important aspect of the design and was instructed by ARUP engineers in seminars and lectures.
The design development of the music school was executed with 1:200 scale models. Every other week a new scale model was made showing the latest concepts. 1:200 context site model was used as a design tool to analyse each model in its proper location. The final scale model shows the entire primary structural frame of the proposal with proximity landscape design.
1 225 mm concrete wall 40 mm air cavity 70 mm acoustic insulation 2 x12.5 plasterboard (with decorative finish) 2 Neoprene acoustic barrier 3 300 mm concrete floor slab DPM 2 x 20 mm acoustic insulation Plasterboard 50 mm concrete screed Plasterboard Timber flooring 4 Steel shoe 5 250 mm concrete slab 200 mm aircavity 50 mm acoustic insulation 2 x 12.5 mm plasterboard (decorative finish) suspended 40
1:20 wall ceiling technical detail. Box in box construction
4 2 1
4 1:40 technical plan of box in box construction
1:20 wall ďŹ‚oor technical detail. Box in box construction
The site for the music school was part of a flat car park. Lack of architectural integrity and historical refererence around the proximity context of the site encouraged an artistic approach to the topic. As a result, the building design was intentionally conceived as an object.
The structural fins are my own interpretation of the coastal town. The regular order also references to some of the surrounding concrete buildings. Critical evaluation What was experienced over the process is that the building as an object becomes the subject of the design process and starts to dictate future developments. However, symmetry is aesthetically appealing, some theorists say it is the loss of information. The context on two sides of the site should inform the design, not the building as an object itself.
-1 1:200 Plans
1:500 East elevation 42
1:500 South elevation
Dialogues with Future Scenarios
The Pool(e) of Socio-Economic NewTopia
Is architecture no more than a mere handmaid to global capitalism and international property market? Brief: All architectural design is to some extent a predictive speculation; a projective proposition. This unit challenged students to speculate on future scenarios for architectural and urban development in the light of current, emerging and possible future changes to the context. Response: The proposal elaborates on the absence of common ground in Poole as a result of the capitalist use of knowledge. In reaction to this a temporary use of property as an indispensable part of urban development will be introduced. The new town will be guided by three principles: mobility, flexibility and diversity. Both extremes, utopian and dystopian future are considered and depicted through architectural drawings. 44
Previously designed curiosity shop and music school are considered as tangible factors of the townscape. However, the music school design was improved and eventually redesigned to make it become a node in the new urban proposal. Most of the structures and paths created are metaphorical symbols to support and visualise the concepts discussed in the thesis. The title for the thesis was The Pool(e) of Socio-Economic NewTopia. The word NewTopia refers to the fact that actually no one knows whether our cities will become utopian or dystopian. The thesis for this project is the most constructive I have written over the course of my undergraduate studies, therefore it is partly presented in this portfolio. This project was part of year two curriculum.
1:5000 maps sequence of the new urban proposal
Dolphin Shopping centre
Bus station Car park Sainsbury
Music school Train & bus station
New ground material
1. In order to connect the High Street to Lighthouse and pedestrianize the area, several buildings have to be demolished. 2. The first structures to go under construction will be the music school, the new train & bus station and the market. These structures become junctions or nodes in newly pedestrianized urban environment. The train will go underground before the station and emerge again after the Dolphin Shopping centre. 3. The area around these three nodes will be divided into urban blocks by changing the ground material. An arrangement of the paths is inspired by curvy fins that form the structures of the music school, the trian station and the market.
4. Initially, these urban blocks will be allocated to local people in order to introduce temporary use of land. Temporary use of land is a form of inhabitation where landowners and local people can work out together the best solutions for common ground and hence for permanent structures. The small structure above is one example of a temporary pavilion.
Life of a city
Social life between buildings
Research by Design
The Chair: a Phenomenon that Fashions Architecture
This project is part of Research by Design unit in year 3 in 2013 at the Arts University Bournemouth. The core topic is a modern chair and chair design. The thesis for the project was titled The Chair: a Phenomenon that Fashions Architecture, which examines the intersection between the identity of a place and the identity of a person. An extract from the thesis: Solitude in Chair Every person has its own subjective reality that is challenged by objective reality and vice versa. The body, as the existential border between those realities, could be interpreted as the battleground where tensions between social codes and the self are met and eventually resolved. Since chairs are so physical and anthropomorphic, they could be vehicles for embodying these ideas. Once a person has found a chair of his own and the communication between him and the object is established, the chair starts to symbolize home. The discourse between the individual and the chair could only be understood by the user itself. Therefore, the discourse exists in solitude â€“ within one subjective reality. The shape of the chair itself suggests solitude as it can accommodate one person at time. And in solitude, man starts daydreaming.
The BlueView Tower Heron Tower Tower 42
The brief for the project required the design of a skyscraper in 24 hours for London, next to the Gherkin building. The tower was designed in collaboration with Andreas Beigel. The concept for this project is the idea of having balconies on each floor by offsetting the floor slabs.
The Pool(e) of Socio-Economic NewTopia Text extracts:
Space and place are ever changing historical entities. Space has a morphogenesis that varies from society to society and from era to era. The future of space is something which manifests itself nowhere more potently than in our cities. The 21st century global city will be defined by the duality of mass urban migrations and continued exurban sprawl, which provides innumerable challenges and opportunities for architects. The urbanization is driven by the neo-capitalist use of knowledge. Capital and capitalism have a strong impact on practical matters relating to space, from the construction of buildings to the distribution of investments and the worldwide division of labour. Marx (cited in Fraser, 2012, p. 60) pointed out: When we refer to ‘capital’ we are not talking about a thing as such, but about a set of social relations that are produced and reproduced in specific ways, and out of which is created a system of power (backed up by force) that privileges a small minority, at least in the realm of material possessions. The ‘system of power’ in this context is an aspect – a direct consequence of capitalism that many people are inclined to forget. Henri Lefebvre (Lefebvre, 1991, p. 10), a humanist, Marxist and existentialist, arguably one of the most significant philosophers for urban morphology states ‘This aspect is the hegemony of one class’. The ruling class maintains its hegemony by repressing society as a whole, culture and knowledge included. The hegemony is exercised over both institutions and ideas by all available means, and knowledge of space as well as creation of space are few of such means. It might be argued that functionalism was influenced by this economic beast of capitalism, but it resulted in
distinctly physically and materially oriented planning ideology where streets and squares disappeared from the new building projects and the new cities. Deserted planning contributed to the reduction of social and outdoor activities. Differentiation in function among dwellings, factories, public buildings and etc. but also between classes divided people into subgroups. Absence of common ground or social space between subgroups made them become isolated circles that started to lack of diverse cultural knowledge and identity. This in turn favors the ruling power, which has a better control over society. Fraser (2012, p. 60) questions: Is architecture no more than a mere handmaid to global capitalism and international property market? How should these social issues, created by capitalism, be dealt with when urbanization happens exponentially? Is capitalism going to dictate the social ground ad infinitum or will there be another system that contradicts it? Is it needed and what does it take to reconstruct the ‘medieval city’ with its diverse social activity? … Space is not just the physical framework of life, rather it is a basic social resource. Architecture is the design discipline that probably most directly deals with space and hence creates the foundation of social power. Lefebvre (1991, p. 54) states: A social transformation, to be truly revolutionary in character, must manifest a creative capacity in its effects on daily life, on language and on space...
Therefore, architectural approach to the functionless urban space could be the beginning point for proposing solutions to social segregation and classification. The 13th Venice Architecture Biennale, curated by David Chipperfield, was themed as ‘Common Ground’. Common space should belong to all those who live in it and who have the right to find there conditions for their political, social, economic and ecological fulfillment at the same time assuming duties and solidarity. This common territory exists outside current forms of cities. The Croatian exhibition ‘Unmediated Democracy Demands Unmediated Space’ in The Venice Biennale interpreted common ground (Pavelic and Pulska grupa, 2012, p.1) by stating that: We understand common as non-material value produced through differences, communication and social interaction... We understand KOMUNAL as the land where common value, once it is transformed from non-material to use value cannot be exploited and turned into exchange value. Pavelic and Pulska grupa (2012, p.1) stated 4 principles that a new city should be guided by: Right to mobility, flexibility of organizing, re-appropriation of tools, city of many ecologies This thesis sets three prerequisites to create potential new topos – mobility, flexibility, and diversity. Mobility means that all people should have equal rights to access potential features and benefits offered by the town. It does not merely indicate to access to existing structures and areas but also to have an equal right to occupy and create new places. That directly contradicts current neo-
capitalist city, where common values are extracted and turned into capital. The second aspect of flexibility means that common space should become adaptable for various activities and. Flexibility was already suggested in 1914 by Antonio Sant’Elia (1914, cited in Rainey, Poggi and Wittman, 2009, p. 201) in the manifesto of Futurist Architecture where he stated: Futurist architecture will be fundamentally short-lived and transitory. Our houses will last less time than we do. Every generation will have to make its own city anew. Current capitalist view imposes short-term profit extracted from property over long-term social goal. New approach of flexibility suggests temporary use of land as experimentation between developer and community before any radical change in townscape will be undertaken. The third principle of diversity is based on a knowledge, which states that the more diverse the system the more stable it is. Integration of various ecologies (including social ecology, mental ecology etc.) in public spaces allows people to function together and to stimulate and inspire one another. Mixing of various functions and people makes it possible to interpret how the surrounding society is composed and how it operates. Jan Gehl (2006, p. 101) states: What is important is not whether residences and services are placed close together on the architect’s drawing, but whether the people who work and live in the different buildings use the same public spaces and meet in connection with daily activities.
â€Ś By being in a diverse social environment, one has more opportunities to exercise human selfreflection or in other words introspections, the willingness to learn more about their fundamental nature and existence. Exercising self-reflection is one of the first things that a patient is guided towards in psychological counselling. Self-reflection is prerequisite for good mental health. Therefore, diverse common ground is and in future will be an important factor describing a successful city. The current capitalist city with disconnected routes and distant planning, resulting in dispersed townscape does not create proper environment for resultant social activities.
Boerefijn, W. (2000). Designing the Medieval New Town. [pdf] The Netherlands:Instituut voor Kunstgeschiedenis en Archeologie. Available from: http://www.urbanform.org/ online_ public/2000_2.shtml [Accessed 8 April 2013] Cullen, G. (1965). Townscape, London: The Architectural Press Fraser, M. (2012). The Future is Unwritten: Global Culture, Identity and Economy. ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN: Human Experience and Place: Sustaining Identity. Vol. 82 Issue 6, pp. 60-65 Gehl, J. (2006). Life between the buildings - using public space. 6th edn. Copenhagen: Danish Architectural Press. Leach, N. (ed.) (1997) Rethinking architecture - a reader in cultural theory. London: Routledge.
Lefebvre, H. (1991) The Production of Space. Oxford: Blackwell Pavelic, T. (ed.) and Pulska grupa (ed.) (2012). Unmediated Democracy Demands Unmediated Space. La Biennale di Venezia: Association of Croatian Architects (UHA) Rainey, L. (ed.) Poggi, C. (ed.) Wittman, L. (ed.) (2009). Futurism: an Anthology. [e-book]. New Haven: Yale University Press. Available from: http:// modernistarchitecture.files.wordpress.com/2011/09/ ebooksclub-org__futurism__an_anthology__henry_ mcbride_series_in_modernism_.pdf [Accessed 14 April 2013]