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SLEAM e-Learning INTERMEDIATE Communications


'Intermediate Student's Book

New

English Course

Liz & John Soars

Oxford University Press


Contents

LANGUAGE INPUT

Unit

Grammar

Vocabulary

Postscript

1 What a wonderful world!

Au\i1iaQ .erbs

Sound~ ,md ~pellm~

St.xial c\prc$ions -"era mimi' f /IIr wl/nd lUll IIlllst be]okl/lf{.' p 14

pO

do. Pt', h(lrl' '<Immg Ihe tenses

Question, and negatives Short answers

2

Happiness! p 15

Pl't'SCnt lime Prn,ent SimpI(' and Continuous Actin" and ,tale \-erm

'''''k

/;1I(Jl'

Present pas,i\{'

1111'(1/

f{rt'at

Ii:!

lell

Silent kllcrs kJ/u m:

f"

plZ

Sports and leisure aeti' illes rIm /('1/111$ lr"'

5111111111111'<'

'umbers r...lone~.

fr.l.:tion, d('l;lm,l1s.. phonc numbe~

po:'n,:~ntagn.

til' ".'mNC$

dale'

p 22

r

~J

--------------------------------113 Telling tales

.>\rl. mUSh'; and htcnttul\'

PISI liml"

p 24

Past Simple and ContinUOUs

Past Slmpk and Past Perf,:cl

•h"I',/'r

"r,h, tIm \'crb'> and noun, Ihal g" together

Pasl pa,SI\C

p<lllll

IJ

Gi, jog opinions IUlul dl" IUI/lll1l1k <If If/(' pfm? 11 IW.I I'<>rill!!' P 34

portrml

p29

SlOp and Check I

Teacher's Book p J36

4 Doing the right thing p 35

"odal \crbs (1) Onligation and (knnission filII.

IruI"!' /II, a!foHH/'(I

IIIlI.Il, IIIIISIII'I, "llOuld

AdJlXlj\CS Ih,ll describe people pml! /lwl Irieudl\' pJ9 Word fonn,ltion IlehaH' hdlim'JlII" "ll"lIngCl'

s/I"all,!:<'

Requests and olTers Could I'(}/I. ? Call .\YJII ? !'f{ •.. 51/(/111 . p-l-l

p42

5 On the move p45

6 Likes and dislikes p 56

Future forms and 1rill

,uorm

II/ml'('r

Prcs,cnt Continuous

"hi{fl' P 50

I'.'(';im:

Questions "'jth like

Do rOil like It'll,? 111,,1/\

,~he

like:'

\erb parterns "<lIlT tu (Iu

rUJ<Jr nI"rlmg

Stop and Check 2 Teacher's Book p 138

2

Contents language Illput

rhe weather

~Oill,~ 10

th.1t gIl log':lher /1/// p.:op/t· hi,\/ori" lun 11 rich Ivue! p 59

Word~

Travelling around Using puhlie transron RL"quesls in a hOlel

p 55

Signs and soundb1lt:s Dry fit WI Oll~l' /111 jlt\/ 'ookil)l:. thllllk

p64

roll


SKILLS DEVELOPMENT • Reading

• Speaking

• listening

• Writing

'Wonders of the modern world' p 10

Informatioll gapThe life of a Time,I' journalist p 9

A group of people talk about their wonders of the modern lVorid T.6

Correcting language mistakes in an informallettcr

Discussion - What's the mosl imporlum invention'! p 12

'Sister Wendy. TV Slilr" - the nun who is also a TV star p 20

Discussion - What's important 10 you in life'? Clothes? Travel? p 21 Talking about your favourite sports p 22

pll

Symbols for correction p 13

Three people talk about theiT favourite sport or leisure activity T.15 p22

Descriptive wriling (I)

Describing a person Adverbs of degree quire yOllng Wilier IIl1raetire

p22 'The writer, the painter and the musician' (jigsaw)

p 30

Talking about your favourite poem, piece of music, or painting p 29 Exchanging informillion about a famous writer. painter and musician p 30

A 1I'0rid guide to good manners' how to behave properly in dilTerent parts of the world p 40

Talking about school rules p 3i

'If it·s Tuesday we must be in Munich· - American tourists in Europe p 5I

"In search of (good) English food· - a history of English food p 60

The holiday that wasn't" a frightening holiday experience T,23 p 33

Adverbs s/lddell!)' h01H11Tr

P 33

Nationality stereotypes p 39

School days long ago p 37

Discussion the rules of etiquelle in different countries p4l

Entertaining friends in three difierent countries T,29 p42

Arranging to meet p 49

The geography of the British Isles T.36

Class survey - favourite holidays p 53

Writing a narrative My \1"0/:<"( holidlly

A weather forecast

T,26

Filling in a form p 43

Sending a fax

p 54

T.37

p 50

Talking about food. cooking and restaurants p 61 Exchanging information about capital cities p 62

Two English people talk about living in New York: an American gives her impressions of living in London (jigsaw) T.46 p 62

Descriptive writing (2) Describing a room p 63 Relative pronouns 11'110.•rllich. r/wi.

lI'herc. whose

p64

Skills Development Contents

3


LANGUAGE INPUT Unit 7 The world of work p 65

Grammar

Vocabulary

Postscript

Present Perfect Simple Present Perfect vs Past Simple

Multi-word verbs fook a(ler liS

On the tekphone /){/ rOll \1'11111 Ii/hold:'

Present P",rfecl

8

Imagine!

p 76

pa~sile

Condiliunab First conditional Second conditional

Zero conditional Time clauses \'hcli as SOO/l

9

Relationships

p 86

1/1'

i\lod:l1 \-erbs(2) Probabilit) (present and past) /IIIII'! h, nlli{hl

('(//(1

could

I I'"

hlil'/! he!!/l

Wi'll 011 Ihe fighl

p 72

CUll fluke

II lI1e,I,llIge 7

L~a\'ing

a message answer phone p 75

Base and strong adjectires

hig hugi:' P 82 \1tX1ifying

a(herh~

refJ" hig absolulelyenor/llol/s

011

an

Making suggestions Lel's go shopping.' You (Jug/II 10 ask fiJr

a pu)' rise, p 85

p 82

Character adjectin's wc!ahle

Agreeing and disagreeing Soda f.I

cas\'-glJlIlg

Neirhcr do 1-'

pOl

P 95

hil\"(' KIJlU'

Stop and Check 3 Teacher's Book p 140

10 Obsessions p 96

Present Perfcct Continuous Simpk I'S ContinuOlh Present Perfect vs Past Simple Time expressions

Compound

nOl1n~

100 /I)/lcll

pO.H O/PCI'

1/01 ('IIol/gh

dinillg p 103

roOIll

Indir~el tju~stiuos 1 dO/l'1 klwlI' 111Ial'

........hlJ fil"I'-5.

Verh~

and nouns that

go together 1I-hi.llle

Que..tion lag~ II's (1IMel.\' day. i,\'II'1 it?

The soup '.I 100 sufi}: p 106

l'il1(1' f 11'11 schoof un/il I 1111'/ jlli'k

11 Tell me about it! p 107

Complaining

poslnml

II

lillie

Idioms drop IOII1COlle (/ lim:

Informallanguag..: /lillen'quid Wfwt's up wilh him:'

p 115

pilI

12 Two weddings. a birth and a funeraJ! p 116

Reported speech Rl.:portl.:d ~tiltefllents and questions Reponed

comll1and~

Words .:onneel<:d with birth. marriage and death h(/II!!)'lIwilli pram Practice of the phonetic script p 120

Saying sorry PordOIl? E.\TflS(' /III"

Social silllatiolls p 125

Stop and Check 4 Teacher's Book p 142 Tallescripts p 126 4

Contents Language input

Grammar Reference p'142


SKILLS DEVELOPMENT

,---

• Reading

• Speaking

_ Listening

_ Writing

'The modern servant' the nanny. the cook and the gardener (jigS~IW) p 70

Exchanging information about the lives of three modern servalllS p 72

Thomas Wilsona retired man talks 10 his granddaughter about his life T.51 P 73

Formal1cllers

Song - "Who wanls to be a

Words that join ideas

Roleplay - l:hoosing a l:afCer p72

A leller of application p 74

Discussion - retirement p 74 'Who wants to be a

millionaire? We do!' - the ups and downs of winning a fortune p 80

Maze - you\'c won £5m.

Where will yOllr life go from here? p 82 Discussion - Which charily would you give to? p 83

millionaire'?' p 80

T.57

Linking devices and comment

adverbs in an inform<llietter

(l/rhollgh

Three charily appealsWhich one would you give

to?

(KtuaN)'

hOlrCl'er 11II)'1r(J)'

p84

T.59

p 83

The man who planted trees' - a short story by Jean Giono, which shows how the actions of one person can change the \vorld p 92

'Death cigarettes? You must be joking!' - an intervicw with the man who markets a cigarette called Dearh p 100

Quiz - What sort of person arc you? p 91 Class survey about brothers and sisters p 91

Discussion - the right to smoke? p 102 Exchanging information about t\\'o collectors p 104

Two people talk about

Sentence comhination Describing a person and a place p 94

their families - one from a large family, the other an only child T,6S p 91

Collectors and their collections Uigsaw) T.7S p 104

Beginning and ending leiters, formal and informal

'The forgetful generation' a radio programme T,83 p 114

Producing a class poster p 113

Two people give statements to the police Uigsaw) T.88 p 119

Correcting language mistakes in an illforrnalletter p 124

p 105

Gucssing game p 104

-You ask .. , we answer!'questions and answers from a science magazine p 112

'David Copperfield' - an extract about the day of David's birth from the novel by Charles Dickens p 121

Information gap - Madame Tussaud's p 108 Stories of forgetfulness p 114

Discussion - What are the customs connected with births, weddings and funerals'? . p 120 The day I was born! p 120

Apilendix I -Irregular \'erbs p 157

For and against - living in the city whm is 1I10re 011 thc plus side p 114

A poem - 'Funeral blues' by W H Auden T.90 p 123

Appendix 2 - Verb patterns p 158

Index p 159

Phonetic s~'mbols (inside back

COWl')

Skills Development Contents

5


What a wonderful world! Auxiliary verbs Social expressions

Test your grammar 1 Make questions with you from the sentences.

Example I come from Australia. (Where?)

PRESENTATION Auxiliary verbs 1 Answer the questions in the quiz.

General knowledge

QUIZ a I live in a flat near the centre of town. (Where?) b I speak three languages. (How many?) c I'm learning English because I need it for my job. (Why?) d I've been to France, Germany, Sweden, and the United States. (Which countries?) e I was born in Dublin in 1961. (Where? When?) f I've been learning English for three years. (How long?) 9 I have two brothers and a sister. (How many?} h I've got ÂŁ10 in my pocket. (How much?) i I went to the cinema last night. (Where?) I'm wearing jeans and a jumper, (What?)

1

a 1876

2

3

In pairs, ask and answer the questions about you. Tell the class about your partner.

2 Make the statements negative. Example t smoke.

4

5

' \ I don't smoke.) a My mother works in a bank. b It's raining. c t went out last night. d I'm learning Russian. e We've got a dog. f I had a shower this morning. 9 English is spoken in every country in the world. 6

Unit 1

What a wonderful world!

When did the modern Olympic Games start?

6

b 1888

c 1896

How long does it take for the sun's rays to reach Earth? b 8 hours c 8 days a 8 minutes What was Neil Armstrong doing when he said, 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind'? What doesn't a vegan eat? If you are buying things with rupees, which country are you in? Where were the first books printed? a Germany b Egypt c China


2

T.l

Listen and check your answers.

3 Find an example of the folJowing tenses .in the quiz, Present Present Present Present

Simple Cont.inuous Simple passive Perfecl Simple

PRACTICE 1 Grammar and pronunciation

Past Simple Past Continuous Past Simple passive

Correct the factual mistakes in sentences a-k and givc the right information.

T.2a

Example The sun rises in the west.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar question

It doesn't rise in the westl It rises in the east!

- When do we use the auxiliary verbs do, be, and have? Think of tenses, negatives and questions,

4 Write some general knowledge questions. Ask the class.

a b c d e f

g h

7

J k

In which religion are the gods Brahma Vishnu and Siva worshipped?

First listen to the sentence stress in the example.

The Pope comes from Australia. The teacher's wearing a swimming costume. People drive on the right in Britain. My mother has got ten sisters and brothers. We went to Iceland on holiday last summer. I had a huge breakfast. It'll snow t~omorrow. -......~ We're learning Chinese. I live in a palace. Champagne is made in Scotland. Cats and dogs can swim. T.2b

Listen and check your answers.

l

8

2 Write questions for the answers. Example How many books did )'0/1 read on holiday? Four.

Which record album has sold more than any other?

9 10

11

2

What does VIP stand for?

a What last night? I stayed in and watched television.

Why didn/t Ben Johnson get the gold medal for the 100 metres at the Seou I Olympics?

b What sort of books reading? I like horror stories and science fiction. c been to America'? Yes I have. I went there last year. I really enjoyed it.

What was Abraham Lincoln doing when he was assa ss in ated? How many times has Brazil won the World Cup?

13

How many wings does a butterfly have?

14

If you are eating sushi what exactly are you eating? l

?

d What the teacher She's helping Maria with this exerci e. e

your father do'? He works in a bank. f Why your homework last night? Because I didn't feel well.

g How'long it take you to come to school? It takes me about twenty minutes. I come by bus.

h What doing next \"ieekend? I don't know. I haven't got any plans yet. _ _ _ _ _ _ you a CD player at home? o. I haven't. Just a tape recorder. In pairs, ask and answer the questions about you.

What a wonderful world!

Unit 1

7


2 is or has? T.3 Say if 's

Listen to the sentences. They all contain's. = is or 's = has.

Example She's got a BMW 11m Peter's waiting near the door.

4 Stand up! Ask three students the following yes/no question~ Add one or two qucstions of your own. Put a tick (.I) or a cross (X) in the columns. Give short answers in your reply. S1

S2

S3

is Do you playa musical instrument?

3 Short answers I

T.4a

Does anyone in your family smoke?

Read and listen to the breakfast conversation. Have you got any pets?

Dad Emma

Dad Emma

Dad Emma Dad

Emma Dad Emma

Morning! Did you sleep well? Yes. Do you wunt any breakfast? No. I'm not hungry. Oh. Have you fed the Cal? Yes. Has the post come? No. OK. Are you going to be late tonight? No. I'll be back at the usual time.

Can you cook? Are you going out tonight? Did you watch TV last night? Have you been to the cinema recently?

... ..

4 Reading and tenses Read the text about The Times newspapcr. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tcnsc. Thcre are examples of active and passive sentences. Example Tile Times is printed (print) six days a week, from Monday to Saturday.

2

T.4b Listen to a similar dialogue. What's thc difference? We use short answcrs in spoken English because yes or on its own can sound impolite. Practise the dialoguc using short answers.

I/O

3

T.5

Answer the questions you hear with a short

answer. 8

Unit 1

What a wonderful world!


The Times, symbol of tradition and establishment THE TIMES is one of Britain's oldest and most influential newspapers. It (a) (begin) its life in 1785. It (b) (Wut) by John Walter. In those days it (c) (cost) two and a half old pennies. In the nineteenth century, The Times (d) (develop) a reputation for accurate repOiting and independent editorial views. Now it (e) (sell) over 650,000 copies a day. It (f) (publish)

LANGUAGE REVIEW

5 Speaking Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you some information about a journalist called Charles Hendrickson, who has worked for The Times and other newspapers. You will not have the same information as your partner. Ask and answer questions to complete the information. Example Student A Charles Hendrickson was born in ..... (When?). He went to school in Paris and Geneva.

in London, along with its sister newspaper, The Sunday Tilnes, which (g) (have) at lea t ten sections and takes all week to read! 'The Times (h) (have) an excellent reputation for over 200 years,' aid its editor, who (i) (work) for the paper since 1980, 'and now we (j) (try) our best to continue that tradition'in order to produce a newspaper for the tWenty-first century.'

Student B Charles Hendrickson was born in 1940. He went to school in ... (Where?).

Auxiliary verbs The auxiliary verb' do. he and hCll'e arc u ed to cxprc s various grammatical functions. for example to Coml question' and negatives, and to lorm ten 路es.

do Do. does and did are used to form the question and negative in the Present Simple and the Past Simple. J Vhel'e do )'OU Il'Orl() WhaT does she do? Why did .1'01/ go (O Paris?

I dOI/'t like the rain.

He doesl/'t \I'(mt to go home. We didn't Imy anything.

be Be is used ,,vith -ing f, rms and past participle forms make continuou and passive verb forms. She's 1l'earil/g ne1l' vhoes.

10

The Till1es is jJublished in LOildol/. I was bol'll ill India.

H hat were you doillg this 1IIOI'nill~:)

I've been learnillg English for three .rears. .

IVy

n/()I/e)'~\'

been stolen.

!ulI'e

Hare is used to make perfect verb form, [-[lII'e ]'Oll ever seen a allOst? She's been waiting/or tIro hOllr..

m

Grammar Reference: page 142.

What a wonderful world I

Unit 1

9


Wonders of the modern world

• READING AND LISTENING Pre-reading task 1 In the 2nd century Be a list was made of the most impressive and beautiful man-made objects in the world. These were called The Seven Wonders of the World.

by Ann Halliday

Match each picture in the box with its name. How many can we still see today? The Pharos, lighthouse of Alexandria The Hanging Gardens of Babylon

a

The Statue of Zeus at Olympia The Colossus of Rhodes

The Pyramids of Egypt The Tomb of Mausolus

.J

The Temple of Diana

b

/

.1

d

·...

• ••• • ••• • •••

I

I DON'T believe that today's wonders are similar in kind to the wonders of the Ancient World. They were all buildings and statues. In the last two centuries we have seen unprecedented technical and scientific achievements. These are surely our modern wonders. Here is my list.

2 What do you think are some of the greatest wonders of the twentieth century? Don't just think of buildings!

Reading

-,

1 In the tex\. the journalist. Ann Halliday. describes what are for her fhe seven wonders of Ihe modern world. Read about them.

2 In what way does she say modern wonders arc diITerent from ancient wonders? Put them in order, I -7, according 10 which )'ullihink is the most important (I the most important. 7 the least important).

=

D computers D medical science D the Olympic Games

o we are still here

=

o space travel o holidays D agriculture

Discuss your decisions as a class. 10

Unit 1

Whal a wonderful world!

1 Computers They have already revolutionized the way we live and work. But it is early days for computers. We don't know how much they are still changing the world. More compUler wonders are yel to come.

2 Space Travel Only a few years before men were walking on the moon, repulable scientists declared that it was impossible. But in 1969 Neil Armstrorrg stepped oul of his space capsule and made his famous slatement: 'That's one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind'. 3 Medical Science Surely nothing has done more for the comfar! and happiness of mankind than the advance of medical knowledge! How many millions of people have benefited from the humble aspirin? How many lives has penicillin saved? Average life expectancy in Europe has risen dramatically over the last hundred y~ars, from about 50 years in 1906 to about 75 years today.

s

10

lS

20

2S


Majorca 4 Holidays Yes - holidays! In faci there have always been holidays - in ancielll Rome there were more than 150 a year - but a holiday used to mean simply a day when you didn't work. Now holidaymakers travel to all pans of the world. Perhaps you don't like so many tourists in your country, but you mUSI agree that a phenomenon which sees the population of Greece treble in summer, and which sends office workers and shop assistants to Spain, Turkey, or the Caribbean is a wonder of the world.

Comprehension check

5 The Olympic Games It is true that the Olympic Games are now

commercialized and there is greed and dnlg abuse. However, it is a competilion in which every country in the world takes pan. Every four years, for a brief moment, we sec these countries come together in peace and friendship. We feel hope again for the future of mankind. 6 Agriculture In 1724, Jonathan Swift wrote, 'Whoever makes (\-'10 blades of grass or two ears of corn grow where only one grew before serves mankind better than the whole race of politicians'. In Europe our farmers have done this. [n 1709, whole villages in France died of hunger. 'ow, in Europe we can't eat all the food we produce. If only the politicians could find a way to share it with those parts of the world where there is still famine.

ÂŤI

45

50

Here are seven more statements tTl<lde by Ann about her choice of wonders. Which statement goes with which wondcr? Discuss your <tn~yers with a partner. a Surgcons can perform the most amazing operations. b We see people from warring countries shake hands. c Small children can program them. sometimes more easily than adults! d No government dares to use stlch weapons. e Maybe visiting onc country a day is not your idea of the best way to see the world! f We produce enough to feed the world. g Progress in this area is slower now. Not as much money goes into research as in the 1960s.

Language work 55

Complete the following with the correct auxiliary verb in the positive or negative form. Check your answers with the tex!.

2 3 4 5

Computers already revolutionized the way we live and work. We know how much they _ still changing the world. Only a few years before men walking on the moon, scientists said that it was impossible. How many lives penicillin saved? A holiday used to mean a day when you _ _ _ _ _ _ work.

6 The Olympic Games commercialized.

now

Listening T.G You will hear three people giving their ideas of the wonders of the modern world.

1 We are still here

The last wonder of the modern world is simply that we are still here. We have bombs that could deslroy the world bm we have nOt used them. This is surely the greatest wonder of all!

60

Make a list of the wondcrs they mention. - What is good about each wonder? - Are there any problems with it? What a wonderful world!

Unit 1

11


¡SPEAKING Discussion What machines are important in your life? In pairs., put the inventions in order. Which do you think is the most important? Which has changed the world the mOSI? Mark them I for the most important down to 10 for the least important.

o the telephone o the car o the television D the plane o the space satellite

o the atom bomb o the space rocket o the computer o the fax machine o the washing machine

e lu:! or lun good food

wood

stood

f leu or liP ache

take

weak

g II:JI or Ie:>!'! dear hear

pear

ncar

h laul or lau/? knows cows

owes

rose

T.7

break

Listen and chcr;k your answers.

Silent letters There are many silent leiters in English words.

lj~t'en

~rite

taI'k

J'nife

2 Work in groups of four. Try to persuade the olhers that your order is the right one!

Cross out the silent letters in the following words. a sign e rcceipt I salmon

3 Talk together as a class. What mher machines would you add to the list?

b honest c half d comb

J cupboard k whistle I answer

f knee g Iron h lamb

2 Here are some words in phonetics. Write the words.

â&#x20AC;˘ VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION

Careful! They all have silent letters. Example Iklanndl = climbed

Sounds and spelling

f

English spelling. as you probably know, is not logical! Words which look as though they arc pronounced the same al'el/" pronounced the same.

mear Imi:tl and great Igrcltl home Ihouml and sOllie ISAml knoll' In:Jul and 11011' Inaul

b Iboml

Example lu:1 or lut? boot fool

shoot

sui I

a li:1 or len bread

head

read (past)

rcad (presenl)

b 13:1 or h:n work

fork

talk

walk

c 1.,,1 or l:Juf? done phone

son

won

d leI or lerl? paid

played

said

12

Unit 1

made

What a wonderful world!

g /hn:tl

c l'sa:nwld31

_

h flnoh<tl

d I'ail;mdl

I

e Inokl

J l'gra:nmo:1

T.8 2 In the following lisls of words, three words rhyme. but one is dilTerent. Underline the one that's dilTerent. The two vowel sounds are given~to help you. There is a list of phonetic symbols on the inside back cover of this book.

I'for~ml

Isal'kol;xl31/

Lislen and check your answers.

II lo.e poem! Can you read the poem?

_


T

Tense

P

PunCtuation

Wo

WW

wrang Word Grammar

Word Order Word missing

Prep

Preposition

Sp

Spelling

Rcad Ihe letter and correct the rniSfakes.

11 tr-=lt

faNIMv.>

~NW6

~ 10Af"ff

2 Write

'. a similar IClIcr 1

. I,mguages? of ? . magme you are' leu . . art. of music?)', a Student (of er fO a fnend givin . In another town W. g some of yo", . rile a ncwS. What a

1'0'0 d

n &r1u' WOrld/

Unit 1

13


Social expressions

2

T.9a Listen and check your answers. Memorize some of the dialogues. Close your books and practise them in pairs.

3

T.9b Listen to the sentences. Reply. using one of the lines in column B. You will have to change some of them a little.

I When we're talking and chatting, we use a lot of idiomatic expressions! Example (Hurry up, we're late!

~ Hang on a sec. I'm just going to the 100.

4 Choose some of the dialogues and continue them.

Match a line in A with a line in B.

b

"

e

f)

r

c

Of

g

a

d

)

h

j

1

J

2

k

6

/In

A

a b c ...d e f g h I

J k

Sorry I'm late. I got held up in the traffic. Bye, Mum! I'm off to school now. Have you heard that Jenny's going out with Pete Boyd? How long did it take you to do the homework? I don't know about you. but I'm fed up with this weather. Who was that I saw yOli with last night? I'm tired. I'm having next week off. Right! Let's go for a ten-mile jog in the park! Let me buy you a drink. Shall we meet this afternoon al 3.00? What a fantastic coat! Was it expensive?

'B t 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II

14

No. no. It's my round. What would you like? That's a good idea. The break will do you good. Me, too. I'm just longing for some sunshine. Never mind. Vou're here now. Come and sit down. Ages. What about you? It cost an absolute fortune! Really? I don't know \Vha! she sees in him. Sorry. I can't make it then. What about a bit later? Take care, my love. Have a nice day! Vou must be joking! Mind your own business!

Unit 1

Whal a wonderful worldl

Example A B

What a ftmrastic coal! Was il expells;I'('? 11 cost all (Ibsolute fOr/line. Bur the material's beautiful, and it's got a silk lilling. A Where did you get if? B I sail' if ill fhl' lI'inlJoll' of tllm new shop in town: YOI/ kl/oll~ it's called 'Chic'. A Yes, I kilO\\' il. They hare some lovely Sluff. dOIl'1 they?


Happiness! Present states and actions Active and passive Numbers

Test your grammar Look at the pairs of sentences. Which one is correct? Why? She speaks five languages. She's speaking five languages.

PRESENTATION (1) Present S i m p l e ' I What do you think is the happiest time of a person"s life: when yOll are a child or an adult?

2 look at thaI man! He wears such a funny hat. Look al that man! He's wearing such a funny hat.

3 Don't take that book back to the library. I'm reading it. Don't take that book back to the library. I read it. 4 They have two daughters and

two sons. They're having two daughters

and two sons. 5 Do you understand Spanish? Are you understanding Spanish?

2 A market research organization did a survey to find out who arc the happiest people in Britain! They interviewed over 5,000 people. Here are the results of the survey. At what time in their lives are British people happics!'! When are they least happy? Why do you think this is?

The best years of our lives 50% 40% 30%

20% 6 We're thinking opera is boring. We think opera is boring. 7 English speaks all over the world. English is spoken all over the world.

10% 0%

Ag,

15-19

20-24

25-34

35-44

45-54

55-64 Happinessl

65+ Unit 2

15


3

1.10

Read and listen to the text.

he a

-est pe son -n Bri a-n

The happiest person in Britain today is a professional married man between the ages of 35 and 54. He lives in the south of England but not in London. He owns a comfortable, detached house and has two children. What does he do? He has a steady job in an office in London. After a hard day at work, he rela.xes in front of the television or watches a video. He doesn"t go out every evening, but two evenings a week he meets friends for a drink in the local pub. He owns a pet, usually a dog, and takes it for a walk every day after work. He spends on average ÂŁ120 per week.

Mr Happy! John Smith aged 45, an accountant from Surrey

Where does he go? At the weekend, he regularly eats in restaurants, goes to see shows, and plays a sport (usually golf). Most weekends he puts on a pair of old blue jeans, and potters in the garden. He usually goes on holiday abroad more than once a year. What does his wife do? His wife is happy, too, but not quite as happy. She runs the home and has a job, but she doesn't earn as much as her husband .

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - What tense are all the verbs in italics? Why? - Why do the verbs in the text end in -s? - Which auxiliary verb is used to form questions and negativ s in the Present Simple?

PRACTICE

e How much ... per week? f What ... do at the weekend? g How often ... holiday abroad?

Speaking j Ask and answer questions about John Smith. Example ... married? ( Is he married?

(:..re you married?

~

a Where jive? b What do'? c How many children ...? dHow ... relax after work? Unit 2

Listen and check your answer.

2 Ask and answer the same question with a partner.

~ Yes, he

16

1.11

Happiness!

is.)

~

~ No, I'm not)

3 John Snuth's lifestyle doesn't seem \fery exciting. - Why do you think he is so happy? - Why is his wife Ie s happy? - Do you think men are generally happier than women in your country?


2 Listen again. Complete the sentences with the exact

PRESENTATION (2)

words Roger uses. a In summer I /lsf/ally 5.30 in the morning.

Present Simple and Present Continuous Active and passive I

b

T.12 Look al the photograph of Roger Dromard, also aged 45. and listen to him talking about himself. Answer the questions.

home at about

;l small van, and I my tools and equipment in that.

e It's autumn now so I _ _ _ _ _ leaves.

d

all the gardens and

_ _ _ _ _ lots of daffodils and tulips.

e After work I ahlÂĽlYS _ _ _ _ _ in a hot bath.

f f /lsI/ally (Fiona)

_ home and

our evening meal because she home from work after me.

g At \veekends \ve often into the country and io antique shops and antique sales. h We a television! Everybody ______ one these days but we _ I

- What's the best thing that ever happened to him? What was his job before? What does he do now? Where does he live? Is he married? - What does Fiona do? Docs Roger earn more than Fiona? - What is Roger's hobby? What is Fiona's hobby? Does Roger play any sports? Are there any problems with his job? - Does he orten eal oul in restaurants? Is Roger's life like John Smith 's? Is he happy? J1

1 old radios and Fiona old cookery books.

J l'vejust bought two 1930s radios and I them and them. k I

[nel'l'r

any sports. much in autumn and winter so I much at the moment.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

b

- What tense arc thc vcrbs in sentences a and b? Why? Find some more e,'';:<Imples of this tense. - What tense arc the verbs which complete sentence c? Why? Find some more examples. What part of speech are the words in italics? Which tense do they (nearly always) go with?

3 Look at the picltlres. Describe what's happening. Example Roger $ cUlling the grass. He s wearing shorts.

Happiness!

Unit 2

17


PRACTICE

3 Discussing grammar

1 Note-taking and speaking

'~----------------,

Write notes about John Smith and Roger Dromard uncler the headings. John Smith Work

Home & Family

Leisure

Roger Dromard Work

â&#x20AC;˘

Action and state verbs Some verbs are used in both simple and continuous tenses.

She usually drives to work but today she isn't driving, she's walking. These are called action verbs. 2 Some verbs are not usually used in the continuous tenses. These are called state verbs.

f like black coffee. (NOT *I'ffi--l.i.k.ing black coffee.)

Talk to a partner. How many similarities and differences can you fmd?

Do you know the answer? (NOT * A-re-yeu k-ReWing-the answer?)

2 Dialogues

Work in pairs and discuss your answers.

T.13 Read and listen to the dialogue. Then work in pairs, and read and memorize it. A B A B

What do you do? I'm an interior designer. J decorate people's houses, and give them ideas for furniture and lighting. And what are you doing at the moment? Well, I'm not working on a. house. I m working on a hotel. I'm designing a new dining-room for the Hilton.

2 Work in pairs. Make up similar dialogues with some of the jobs below. 3 Ask each other about your own jobs or studies.

a film director

an architect

a mechanic

a football manager

a ski instructor

an artist

Ten of the verbs in the box are not usually used in the Present Continuous. Underline them. go understand believe like agree enjoy cost want listen to think (= opinion) mean know play love tell

2 Put a tick (.I) if the sentence is right and a cross (X) if it is wrong. Correct the mistakes. Example I don't understand English newspapers. .I What are you wanting to drink? X What do you Ivan! to drink? a Jim isn't wanting an ice-cream. He doesn't Uke it. b We're enjoying tbe course very much. We're learning a lot. c I'm understanding you but I'm not agreeing with you. d Do you think that Vanessa plays golf well" e I'm sorry. I m not knowing the answer. f I'm not believing you. You're telling lies. g They know the car costs a lot of money but they want to buy it. h She listens to a French song but she doesn't understand what it is meaning.

a journalist a traffic warden a travel agent an actor

a plumber

a farmer


3 Complete the following pairs of sentences using the verb in iwlics. Use the Present Simple for one and the Present Continuous for the other.

a come Alec and Mary are Scottish. They from Glasgow. They'll be here very soon. They car.

by

a

c think that all politicians tell lies. I about my girlfriend. She's in New York at the moment. d /lot enjoy We . loud. We

e

Example (travel) Every hour the planet Earth trare's 66,620 miles around the sun. Eleven earthquakes are [cit (feel) somewhere in the world.

Look at what happens in just 60 minutes! 1

The world's population-

2

ÂŁ75 million weapons.

3 4

Your heart

this party at all. The music is too going to big parties.

lr(lfCh

Be quiel! I I always

my favourite programme. it on Thursday evenings.

f see

John's not at home. He the doctor about his sore throat. - - - - I Sorry.

Why They're plastic!

Your hair 0.18796 mm.

_

_

(grow) by 9,300.

(spend) on all kinds of

(beat) 4,800 times. _

(grow)

5 12,540,000 cans of Coca-Cola (drink).

6

916,500 McDonald's hamburgers (eat).

7

17,465 botlles of whisky _ _ _ _ (produce) in Scotland.

8

1,426,940 letlers (send).

9

The Pentagon in Washington

the problem but I can't help you.

g smell. Mmmmm! Dinner

good. What is it? you

h lise (Careful!) This room usually big meetings. But today it

those roses?

for for a pany.

4 Present Simple active or passive? Which of the sentences are active and which are passive? a b c d

One hour is 60 minutes, which is 3,600 seconds. A lot can happen in that time! Read aboui some of the things thai happen all over the world. Put the verb in brackets into either Present Simple or Presenl Simple passive.

_

b have Lisa can't answer the phone. She bath. She two new pairs of jeans.

2

I use this room as a study. This room is used for meetings. We feed our cats twice a day. But the dogs arc fed just once a day.

(receive) 8,300 telephone calls.

10

ÂŁ556,000 worth of goods Harrods department store.

11

12,000 passengers Heathrow airport.

12

166 Volkswagen cars

(sell) in

(pass) through

(make) in Germany.

Happinessl

Unit 2

19


LANGUAGE REVIEW

â&#x20AC;˘ READING AND SPEAKING

Present Simple

Pre-reading task

The

Prc~cnt

Simple is used:

to c\prcss an action which happens again anti again, tlwt is, a I,ahil, It is often found with these time c.\.prcssiolls:

always e\'ery day sometimes ne\er

WhcH do you think the life of a nun is like? What do they always do. sometimes do. and new,'/" do?

2 Which of the following do you think are imponant to nuns?

llsuall}

sport clothes prayer food and drink children solitude hotels travel gardening reading television singing money

! sometimes walk

/(J lfork He 11511U/ly Il'eurs a ~I/il.

2 10 express a fact which is always true, or true for a long time. I come/rom Argentina. lie wurk.\' ill {/ bank.

Reading Look at the pictures of Sister Wendy. - What does she look like? What is she doing in the pictures? I

2 Now read the text. Which of the

Present Continuous The Present Continuous is used:

things in the box above does she mention?

to express an activity that is in progress now.

/'m 11',./'/,,;.: a pO,l1eard 10 myfriend. TlIOIIIW.

;Jj' listellillK 10

Ihe leacher.

2 to express an activily around now but not necessarily happening at this moment. rill rcm/i"g a good honk

(If

Sister Wendy, TV Star!

the mOil/em.

He's study;IIK 10 hl' WI aCCOII//(allI.

State Verbs State verbs arc not usually used in the Present Continuous. Ilere are some state verbs:

like want believe remember know need have think (opinion)

understand hop<

own (possession)

Passive The uses of the Present Simple and the Present Continuous are the SlIme in the passive. Champagne is lIIade ill France. My ellr is .~el"l'iced el'ery six 1II0/1/l1s. -\1.1' ellr is beillg sen'ieell (Odll),

CI..

20

Grammar Reference: page 143.

Unit 2

Happiness!

ister Wendy Beckell has been 'I think God has been a nun for nearly 50 years, very good to me,' since she was 16. Most of the time she lives in solitary confinement in a caravan in the grounds of a Carmelite monastery in Norfolk. often 110t speaking to anyone 5 for 22 hours a day. But every few months she leaves her caravan and travels round Europe, staying in international hotels and eating in famous restauraIHs. Why is she leading this double life? How does a nun who has devotcd her life to solitude and prayer become a visitor to the Ritz? SiSlcr Wendy has a remarkable other life. She writes and '" presents an artS progranune for SBC television called 'Sister Wendy's Grand Tour', [n it, she visits European an capitals and gives her personal opinions on 15 some of the world's moSt famous works of art. She begins each programme with these words: '.For over 20 years I lived in solitude, Now I'm :w seeing Europe for the first time. I'm visiling the world's most famous art treasures:

S


Comprehension check I What do these numbers in Ihe text refer to? 16

22

20

95%

50

1,200

2 Are Ihe following statcments true (.I) or false (X)? Correct the false ones.

She speaks clearly and plainly, with none of the 25 academic verbosity of art historians. TV viewers

30

35

010

<5

!'>O

S5

60

love her common-sense wisdom, and Me fascinated 10 watch a kind, elderly, bespectacled, nun who is so obviollsly delighted by all she sees. They are infected by her enthUSiasm. Sister Wendy believes that although God wants her to have a life of prayer and solitary contemplation, He has also given her a mission 10 explain art in a simple manner to ordinary people, She says: , '!lhink God has been vcry good 10 me. Really ! am a disaSler as a person. Solitude is right for me because ,'rn nOt good at being with other people. But of course' enjoy going on tour. I have a comfortable bcd, a luxurious bath and good meals, but the joy is mild compared with the joy of solitude and silent prayer. I always rush back to my caravan. People find this hard to understand, 1 have never wanted anything else; 1 alll a blisshllly happy woman.' Sister Wendy's love of God and art is llHltche<1 only' by her love of good food and wine. She lakes delight in poring over mCllUS, choosing a good wine and wondering whCther the steak is tender enough for her to cat because she has no back teeth. Howcver, she is not delighted by ber performance on television. '1 can't bear to watch myseU on television, 1 feel thnt I look so silly - a ridiculous blackclothed figure. Thank God we don't have a television ,1t the monastery. 1 suppose J am famous in a way, but as 95% of my time is spent alone in my caravan, it really doesn't affect me. I'm unimportant.' Sister Wendy earned ÂŁ\.200 for the first series. The success of this resulted in an increasc for the sccond series. The money is being used to provide new shower rooms for the Cnrmelite monastery. _

a Sister Wendy spends a lot of time alone. b She travels to arl eapilals all over the world. e Her television programmes are popular because she meets famous art hiSlorians and interviews them. d She believes Lhat God wants her to lead this double life. e She doesn't enjoy being alone in her caravan any more. f She only eats plain food and she doesn'l drink alcohol. g Some of her teeth are missing. h She loves watching herself on lelevisiol1, The other !luns at the monastery always watch her programmes on television. J Sister Wendy is using the money she has earned to . nnpro\"c the monastery.'

Language work I Complete the interview with Sister Wendy. I (a)

'

SW When I was sixteen. Goodness. that's neady fifty years ago! I (b) SW

I SW

I SW

[

In Norfolk. In a Carmelite monastery. Well, not actually in the monastery but in the grounds. I have a caravan. (0)

?

,

No, I don't. Just in Europe-that's far enough! ?

(d)

I don't really know. I'm not sure why they're popular. r feel that I look so silly, but perhaps people find it funny to watch a silly old nun! (c) ?

SW Yes, I do. Of course I do. The lours are really interesting and everybody enjoys a life of luxury llOW and then. I love good food and drink. but you know, I'm happiest on my own in my caravan. , I (r) SW

I SW 2

T.14

No. I dOIl't! I look ridiculous. I never watch if I can help it!

00

?

I'm using it to help the monastery. Some new shower rooms are being built. That's good, isn't it? Listen and check your answers.

Discussion Work in groups. Look at the list in Exercise 2 of the Prereading task. Which of them are important to yOIl? Why? Happinessl

Unit 2

21


â&#x20AC;˘ VOCABULARY AND LISTENING

4

Sport 1 Make a list of as many sports anti leisure activities as you can think of. Use the pictures to help you.

T.15 Listen to three people talking abollt their favourite sport or leisure activity and make notes under the following beadings.

Which sport or activity arc they talking about? How often do they do it? Where do they do il? - What equipment do they need? abc

0

- Which picture goes with which spon? Why do they like i1'! Are Ihey good at it? 5 Work in pairs. Ask and ans\ver questions.

Whm spons do )'0/1 do? Where? Holl' often ... ? Are )'0/1 good fll

?

.WRITING Describing a person 2 Write in play. go, or do. There arc three of each.

____ tennis

exercises ____ jogging

mhlctics

football

volleyball

fishing

:lcrobics

skiing

Can yOll work Olll the rules? 3 Choose some of the sports Qr activities from your list and fill in the columns below. Use yOllr dictionary to look up any new \vords that you need.

I Think of someone in your family. Write three sentences about them. Read your senlences aloud 10 (he rest of the class. 2 Which relative did you choose? Why did you choose that person? Did you write about their character. appearance. or both? 3 Look at the photograph and read the description of Aunt Emily. 4 Go through the text again and underline like this:

sport/activity football

play

goalkeeper

foot bailer referee

place

equipment needed

stadium football pitch

ball boots

-,--_-,----,-_ the parts \vhich describe her physical appearance _______ the parts which describe her character .......... the parts which describe her habits 5 Find the follov"ing words (I. = line): quite (I. 3) a little (I. 7) rather (I. 7) very (I. 10) extremely (I. 13) How do they change the meaning of the adjectives which follow them?

22

Unit 2

Happinessl


OStSC1ipt

My aunt

Numbers 1 Read aloud the following numbers. 15

50

406

90

19

850

1,520

36

100,000

72

247

128 5,000

2,000,000

When do we say and?

2 Practise Ihe llumbers. Money -£J.il0 S400

50p £9.40 £47.99 5,OOOFF I,OOODM

Fractions !4 J!. lj)

[2\12

Decimals and percentages

f all my relatives, I like my Aunt Emjly the

She's Ill)' mother's youngest sister. She has never married. and she lives atone in a , small village Ilcaf Bath. She's in her late fifties, but she's still quite young in spirit. She has a fair complexion, thick browll hail" which she 5 wears in a bun, and dark brown eyes. She has a kind face, and when yOLl mcet her, the firse thing yOll notice is her lovely, warm smile. Her face is a little wrinkled now, but I think she is still rather attractive. She is the son of person you can always go to if you have a problem.

O

10

15

beSt.

he likes reading and gardening, and she goes for long walks over the hills with her dog, Buster. She's a very active person. Either she's making something, or mending something, or doing something to help others. She does the shopping for some of the old people in the village. She's extremely generous, but not very tolerant with people who don't agree with her. I hope that I am as happy and contented as she is when I'm her age.

Use a tactful way to describe someone who is: a rude c mean e cruel b boring

d ugly

17.25 100'%

Dates 1995

1939

15/7/94

30/10/67

50%

1789

Phone numbers 0186587676 01715864431 0044 925 270992

S

6 She's 'nol very tolerant' (1.13). This is a nice way of saying she is 'intolerant'. Sometimes \ve try to be polite by not using a negative adjective. We can say not ,'cry + the opposile adjective.

6.2 75.7%

3

T.16a Read the numbers in Exercise 2 aloud. Listen and check your answers after each line.

4 iT.16b Work in pairs. You will hear five short conversations. In each one there are some numbers. Write down the numbers you hear. Discuss what each number refers to with your partner.

f stupid

7 Who is 'you' in lines 6 (x2) and 8 in the text? 8 Write a similar description of a member of your family in abollt 200 words. Include the following: - your opinion of the person - physical description - their character, habits, likes and dislikes. Happinessl

Unit 2

23


Telling tales Past tenses Active and passive Giving opinions

PRESENTATION (1)

Test your grammar 1 look at the three sentences. What is the difference in meaning? a When Sylvia arrived home at eight o'clock, Tim cooked the dinner. b When Sylvia arrived home at eight o'clock, Tim was cooking the dinner. c When Sylvia arrived home at eight o'clock, Tim had cooked the dinner.

Past Simple and Past Continuous 1 Look at the pictures. They tell the story of one of Aesop's fables. What can you see" What call yOll guess about the story? 2 Read the story. Put the verb in brackets into the Past Simple. They are all irregular. Complete the moral of 'The Bald Knight' al the end.

2 Match a picture with a sentence in exercise 1.

O .

~

nee upon a time, a long time ago, there was a knight who, as he 6A..r W (grow) older, 20)1 (lose) all his hair. He SPot 짜If/' (become) as bald as an egg. He didn't want anyone to ~e his bald head, so he 80 1fJJtl- (buy) a beautiful, black, curly wig.

5

~ ne day some lords and ladies from the castle invited him to go hunting with them, so of course he U1 (put) on his beautiful wig. 'How handsome I look!' he /0(1 h t (think) to himself. Then he S et (set) off happily for the forest.

O

24

Unit 3

Telling tales

P

t

10


3 The following sentences have been taken from the slory. Read il again and decide where they fit.

a ... as he was dressing in front of his mirror. b He was riding along, singing merrily to

himself, when he passed under an oak tree and ....

c They were all stilliau hing when they

arrived back at the castle. 4

T.17

Listen and check your answers.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - What tense are all the underlined verb forms in Exercise 3? What is the difference in meaning between the following two scntcnccs? He laughed \r1/1.'1I he fell off /zis horse. He was laughing when he fell off /zis horse.

PRACTICE 1 Grammar Underline the correct verb form in the following sentences. a While he rode/lms riding in the forest he IOSI/was losing his wig. b When I arril'ed/lms arriving the party was in full swing. Paul dallced/was dancing with Mary, and Pat and Peter drank IlI'ere drink jllg champagne. c When I [illishedlll'asfinishillg the ironing, I cooked/ Ims cooking dinner. d How fast did fhey fr(1\'clhl'cre 'hey lrarelling when their car hadlwas harillg a puncture?

e

A police car pmsedhras passing liS on the molorway when we didll\-ere doillg 80 miles per hour.

f I fOokhras wkillg a photograph of him while he aIel lras eating an icc-cream. g He didll'/likehmsll'/liking the photo when he s(l1l'1 was seeillg it.

h I'm sorry I Il"ukehras I\"llking you. What dreamingldid )'0/1 dream about'!

1I"('r('

)'011

2 Pronunciation T.18 You will hear twelve regular verbs inlhe Past Simple. Put them in the right column, according to the pronunciation of -cd.

IV

" However, a terrible thing happened. His wig COl/ and fEL? (fall) off in full view of everyone. How they all laughed at him! At first the poor knight [ r ~ I) (feel) very foolish but then he 37f'1V (see) the hmny side 20 of the situation, and he started laughing, too. he ~ght never vett-t- (wear) his wig agam.

Idl

s- h ;.

J

iJdJ

(catch) on a branch

T

THE MORAL OF THIS STORY IS: WHEN PEOPLE LAUGH AT US, IT IS BEST TO .â&#x20AC;˘.

Telling tales

Unit 3

25


3 Speaking

4 Life stories

I Read what Sylvia did yesterday.

Work in pairs. Join a line in A with a word in B and a line in C to make your own story about the lives of a grandmother and grandl:'Hher. Read your story to others in the class. B

A

6.30

woke up

6.45 -

7.15

packed her suitcase

7.30 -

8.30

drove to the airport

9.20 - 10.15 11.00 - 12.45

flew to Edinburgh

when while during

fo'

they returned to Britain. they were living in Hong Kong. the Second World War. they were working abroad. the summer of 1991. five years. their marriage. over forty-five years. they were working together in Malaysia.

had a meeting

1.00 -

2.15

had lunch

2.30

4.45

visited a school

6.05 -

6.45

wrote a report on the plane

8.30 -

9.00

cooked a meal

9.30 - 11.00

They met and fell in love They got married They had their first son They lived in Hong Kong They had live more sons They sent their sons to boarding school They lived in six different countries They were happily married My grandfather died

c

T. 19 Listen and check the true story of their lives. How diITerent is your version?

PRESENTATION (2)

listened to music

Past Simple and Past Perfect 2 Work with a partner. Ask and nnswcr questions abollt what Sylvia Il'(fS doillg ilt the limes below.

T.20 Close your books and llstcn to the slory. Is it the same as yours?

Example

2

What was she doing at 6 o'clock in the morning?

3 Read the story and complete the moral at the end.

She was sleeping.

7.00 am 8.00 am 9.45 am

11.30am

1.30 pm 3.00 pm

6.30 pm 8.45 pm 10.00 pm

3 Write a similar list aboul what you did yesterday. Ask and answer questions with your partner <lboul different times of the day. Example What were you doing at 7 o'clock in the evening?

~ 26

I Look at the pictures. They tell the story of another of Aesop's fables. What can you see? What do you think the story is about?

Unit 3

I was having dinner.)

Telling tales

The Farmer

and his Sons o

0째 T

here was once an old, dying farmer (1). Before he died he wanted to teach his three sons how to be good farmers. So he called them to him and said, 'My boys, before I die I wimt you to know that there is a great treasure buried in the vineyard. Promise me that you will look for it when I am dead.' he sons promised and (2) they began looking for the treasure. They worked very hard in the hot sun (3). In their minds they pictured boxes of gold coins, diamond necklaces and other such things.

T

( 5

10


4 Where do the following sentences fit in the story? Put a number 1-6 in the boxes. as soon as their father had died, 0 who had worked hard in his vineyard all his life 0 what their father had meant by the great treasure, 0 and all the time as they were working they wondered what their father had left for them 0 e They felt that all their hard work had been for nothing. 0 f Soon they had dug up every inch of the vineyard. 0 a b c d

5 Listen again and check your answers.

• Grammar questions - Whal tense are allihe underlined verb forms in Exercise 4'1 - Which sentence is Irue? a The SOilS looked for the trellSure when/heirfalher was dying. b The SOliS looked for the treasure when their father Iwd died.

- What is the ditference in meaning belween a and b?

PRACTICE 1 Discussing grammar Work in pairs and discuss your answers. Discuss the difference in meaning between the following pairs of sentences. a When I arrived at the party, they Irere drinking champagne. When I arrived at the pany. Ihey'd dmnk the champagne. b When I got home. Ihe children lI'elll to bed. When I gal home. Ihe children fwd gOlle 10 bed. c They thanked Iheir teacher for everything she lI'as doing to help them pass the eX<lm. They thanked Iheir teacher for everything she'd dOll£' 10 help them pass the exam. d He told me that they were srayi1/g lit Ihe Ritz Hotel. He told me that they fwd s/ayed at the Ritz Hotel. 2 Join the sentences using the conjunction in brackets. Change one verb into the PaSI Perfect. Example The children went to bed. We watched television. (Arter)

After lfJe cfJifdrenfwd gone 10 bed. we Iwltched felel'isiQn.

(4) But they found not a single penny. They were very upset. (5) But then the grapes started to appear on the vines and their grapes were the biggest and best in the neighbourhood, and they sold them for a lot of money. 15

N

ow they understood (6) and they lived happily and wealthily ever after.

THE MORAL OF THIS STORY IS: HARD WORK BRINGS •..

a (look an aspirin. My headache disappeared. (when) b He drove 200 miles. He stopped for a break. (after) c (couldn't pay for my ticket. A thief slole my wallet. (because) d She passed her driving test. She bought a car. (as soon as) e I didn't go to haly. Ilearnl Italian. (until) f He didn'ltcll the policeman. He took the money. (that)

g We didn't tell Anna. George rang. (that)

Telling tales

Unit 3

27


2 Dictation and questions Ask yOUf tcacher questions about the gaps in the following text. Write in the replies (he teacher gives you to complete the story.

Example Last summer Wanda and Roy went on holiday to

(Where?).

C;;'WO-;;:hc-.-',.-d:::;"d""'h:-.-'Y-O-'O-o17 Last summer Wanda and Roy wen! on holiday to (1) (Whm路?). Evcrydaythey (2) and (Whal?). One morning they ....-eTC swimming (3) (Where?) when a huge wave (4) (Whot/do?). Wanda

was vcry upset because (5) (Why?). The next day lhey were sunbathing (6) (Where?) and Wanda was wearing (7) _ (W}l(ll?) when suddenly there was another huge wave. which (8) (Whl/lldo?). She \\us furious. but then she looked down lind to her amazement she saw (9)

_

(I V/WI?).

3 Stress and intonation I Student A SlUdcnl 8

Read OUI a statement from your list. Answer Student A with the correct response from your list.

Student A I went to the airport but I couldn't catch the plane. I was homesick while I was living in New York. I met my boyfriend'slgirlfriend's parents last Sunday. My grandfather had two sons from his first marriage. I told everyone the good news. As soon as I saw him I knew something was wrong, Student B Hadn't they heard it already? Oh dear! Had you forgotten your passport? Really? I didn't know he'd been married before. Ohl Hadn't you met them before? Oh dear! What had happened? Poor you! Had you never lived abroad before?

2

T.21 Listen and check your answers. Pay panicular aHention to the stress and inlonation.

3 Change roles and practise the conversations again. Choose one or 1\\0 and make them into longer conversations.

LANGUAGE REVIEW Narrative tenses The Past Simple

The Pasl Simple the past.

Unit 3

Telling lales

used to express a finished action in

l~( p/IlJed /etmi.f yes(erdll.\: S/U' ....all' P('u'r /aJ( SUl/dllY lIIId ,IIey went lor a lrall.. , rill'!' me' illl98() bill/hey didn't I1li1rr)" /Il1till993.

1 It is ;llso uset! to

Il'hell

Ill'tU II

I wore

tI

exprc~s a

past habit.

('hild II'(' went to Spain el't'IY .\"IIlIIlIIer.

ulliform at ,\(11001.

The Past COlltinuQu!t

The Past Continuous is lIsed to express an activity in progr~ss in the past. The events of a story are in the Past Simple. but descriptions and intcrrupted activities are in the Past Conti1l\lous. II hell Ire arril'ed. ht' was maki"g Jome coifee. II h(路// II'(' tlrril'cd hf! mude .'l'OII/(' cofji:e.

lt II'US nli"illg (Illd

l/tt' li'a~ feeli"g

miSl!mhle u'hnl suddellly

slU! sail' Pe/a ami ~h(' smiled tl'i{aill. The Past Perrect

The P.bt Perfect IS u..ed (0 Ill<lke ckar that one action the pa~t happened before another action in the pasl. II !I('II

W('

1I11tll Irt'

l.w 28

IS

tlrril"cd hOll/e Amltl had gon~ 10 I>t't/. ttrr;I'(路d hOIl/(' Amm "'~n' 1(1 ht路t!.

Grammar Reference: page 145.

III


• VOCABULARY

• READING AND SPEAKING

The writer, the painter a.nd the musician Pre-read; n9 task 1

T.22 You arc going to read about the lives of three famous people, Agatha Christie. Pablo Picasso, and Scott Joplin. - Why were they famous? - Look at and/or listen to their mosl popular works. Do you know any marc?

Usc your dictionary to look up any new words.

Look at the nouns below and write them in the corn;."'C1

column.

composer Oil painting

poem author painter instrument band palette

tune

chapter

orchestra

brush play

detective story drawing novel

bugle

sketch

biography

banjo portrait fiction pianist pop group

LITERATURE

MUSIC

2 Which of the following verbs can go with the nouns in Exercise I? read write compose play paint conduct hum tune

play in

draw

3 Complete each of the following sentences with a verb in the right tense and a noun. many famous _ a Agatha Christie

b I couldn't put the book down until I last

the

c J don't know the words of the song but J can _ _ _ Ihc _ d The only

I can

unusual of his e Picasso oCien girlfriends. of Princess Diana _ f The by the journalist. Andrew Morton. g Listen! The show is starting. Can you hear lhe _ _ _ _ ? They their instruments.

h My brother is a soldier. He the army

• Guernica 1937 by Pablo Picasso C Succ••• ion Pi<:...o/()A.CS 15196.

the bugle in

_

\ Before I painted the picture I _ _ _ _ in pencil.

,.

is the piano.

a quick

4 Work in groups. Do you have a favourite book or poem, piece of music, or painting? Why do you like it? Think about it for a few minutes then compare your favourites with the rest of the class.

The Entertainer ... by SCOl! Joplin

2 Discuss the following questions about the people. - What nationality were they? - Which century were they born in? ~ Which one do you know most/least about? Telling tales

Unit 3

29


Reading Work in three groups.

GroUI) A Read about the writer. Group B Read about the painter. Group C Read about the musician. Read your extract and answer the questions about your person. Try to guess the words underlined (rom the context. Then usc your dictionary 10 check the words. I 2 3 4

Where was she/he born? When was she/he born? What do you [cam about her/his childhood? Which people played a part in her/his career?

5 What do you think were the most important events in her/his life? 6 What do you learn of her/his works? 7 When did she/he die? 8 Which of the following numbers or dales relate 10 your person? What do they refer to'? 50 1882

7'1920

6,000 1926

11 1937

13 1952

14

4,680,000

When you have finished, find a partner from each of the other groups ami go through the questions together. comparing information.

In 1914, at the beginning of rhe war, she had married Archibald Chrisrie bur the marriage was 35 unhappy. It didn't last and they divorced in 1926. That year rhere was a double tragedy in her life because her much-loved mother died. Agatha suffered a nervous breakdown, .0 and aile night she abandoned her car and mysteriously disappeared. She went missing for 11 days and was eventually found in a hotel in Harrogate, in the Norrh of England. â&#x20AC;˘ 5 It is interesting to note that ir was while she was suffering so much that she wrote one of her masterpieces, The Murder of Roger Ackroyd. Agatha desperately wantcd solitude 50 and developed very 0trer feelings towuds the media becausc the newspapers had given her a hard time ..... A scene from The Mousetrap, which ovcr her breakdown and Agatha Mat)' Clarissa Christie is opened in London on 25 November disappearance. She was determined possibly the /lIor/d's l1Iost famoHs 1952 and is still running today. detective story writer. She wrote 79 55 never to let rhem enter her private life IIOVeiS and several plays. /-fer sales again and she bul'icd herself in her work. On 25 November 1952 her 5 outnumber those of William play The Mousetrap opened in During World War I, while she Shakespeare. However, behilld her 4,680,000 words was a painfully shy 20 was working in a hospital London. Today. over 40 years later, it dispensary, she learned abour wonum wIJose life was often lonely &0 is still running. It is the longest running show in the whole world. and uJlhappy. chemicals and poisons, which proved very useful to her in her later She enjoyed a very happy second 10 She was born in 1890 in Devon, the third child of Clarissa and marriage to Max Mallowan, an career. She wrote her first derective archaeologist. Her detecrive skills 25 novel, The Mysterious Affair at Frederick Miller. and grew into a Styles, in 1920. In it she introduced 65 werc a help ro him in his cxcavarions beautiful and sensitive girl with waist-length golden hair. She didn't Hercule Poi rot, the Belgian detective in Syria and Iraq. By successfully staying who appeared in many subsequent out of the limelight she 15 go to school bur was educated at novels. Her orher main detective ultimately found happiness with her home by her mother. Her father died beloved husband. She died peacefully 30 \vas an elderly spinsrer called Miss when she was U ;\Od both she and 10 in 1976. her morher were grief-stricken. Marple. 30

Unit 3

Telling tales

"

"

"


traditional painter. He was always breaking the rules of artistic tradition and shocked the public with his strange and ~o powerful pictures. He is probably best known for his 'Cubist' pictures, which used only simple geometric shapes. His paintings of people were often made up of triangles and squares with their ~s features in the wrong place. His work changed our ideas about art, and to millions of people modern art means the work of Picasso. Guemica. which he painted in 1937, records the bombing of 50 that hUle Basque town during the Spanish Civil War, and is undisputedly one of the masterpieces of modern painting.

The Painter

5

10

15

On 25 October 1881 a little boy was born in Malaga. Spain. It was a difficult birth and to help him breathe. cigar smoke was blown into his nose! But despite being the younge~t ever smoker. this baby grew up to be one of the 20th century's greatest painters-Pablo Picasso. Picasso showed his truly exceptional talent from a very young age. His first word was lapiz (Spanish for pencil) and he learned to draw before he could talk. He was the only son in the family and very good-looking, so he was thoroughly §:@ilt. He hated school and often refused to go unless his doting parents allowed him to take one of his father's pet pigeons with him!

Apart from pigeons, his great love was art. and when in 1891 his father. who was an amateur artist, got a job as a drawing teacher at a college, Pablo went with him to the college. He often watched his father paint and sometimes was allowed 25 to help. One evening his father was painting a picture of their pigeons when he had to leave the room. He returned to

;ro

Picasso created over 6.000 paintings, 55 draWings and sculptures. Today a 'Picasso' costs several million pounds. Once, when the French Minister of find that Pablo had completed the picture. Culture was visiting Picasso, the artist and it was so amazingly beautiful and accidentally spilt some paint on the 30 lifelike that he gave his son hiS own 60 Minister's trousers, Picasso apologized palette and brushes and never painted and wanted to pay for them to be again. Pablo was just 13. cleaned, but the Minister said, 'Non! Please, Monsieur Picasso, Just sign my From then onwards there was no trousers!' stopping him. Many people realized that 35 he was a genius but he disappointed 65 Picasso died of heart failure during an those who wanted him to become a attack of influenza in 1973.

The c5'l1usician Ever sinu it was the musical theme in thefilm 'The Sting: there arejew people who have not !!!pl!ÂŁd theirftctto the hit piallO tllne, 'The Entertainer'-the mostjamous composition ofthe American musician, Sco/tJoplill. s Scott was born in Texas in 1868, into a poor but musical black family. His father, who was a freed slave, played the violin, and his mother played the banjo and sang. Scott played the violin and bugle but his f.wourite instrument lit), was his neighbour's piano. His f.'1ther worked extra " "' ~ 10 hours to buy him a batteted old grand piano, and soon Scott was playing by ear negro tunes, blues, and spirituals. Music flowed naturally from his fingers, and he quickly bccame the taJk of the town. 15

20

Scott didn't learn to read music until he was 11, when an old German music teacher spotted his talent and gave him ftee, fOtmal piano lessons. He learned to play the works of such composers as Bach, Beethoven, and Mozart as well as his improvised music. Thus when he started to write music, his tunes were a wonderful mixture of classical European

and Mrican beat. This unique stylc was known as Ragtime, and was playcd cverywhere in the USA in the carly 1900s by 25 both black and white musicians. In 1882, when Scott was 14, his mother died and he left home to seek his fortune in St. Louis. In the 1880s, St. Louis was noisy and bustling with life. The waterfront of the Mississippi Rivcr was full of gangsters, gamblcrs, and 30 sailors. The sound of music was cvcr}'\vhere-black, white and mixed. The hot steamy nights were filled with blues, working songs, banjos, and honky tonk pianos. Scon was soon playing Ragtime piano in cheap bars on the waterfront. 35 This was a rough, tough area of the city where arguments over girls, whisky, and money were settled with fists and guns. Scott grew up very fast and his musical talent continued to develop. All in all he wrote about 50 piano rags. ~o SconJoplin died in 1917. Today he is the

undisputed King of Ragtime, thanks to his narural ability, his unusual musical education, and the popularity of the film,

The Sting. Telling

tales

Unit 3

31


Comprehension check

Note-taking and discussion Choose 01/(.' of the mosl famous writers. p"imers or musicians in your country and write some notcs about himlher. Discuss your notes with a partner.

Read the other IWO extracts quickly. Help each other with any new words. particularly those words which are underlined in your lext. 2 Here are some answers about all three people. Write in the questions. a \Vhal

?

She was beautiful and shy. with long. golden hair.

b Why

-

Is he/she alive or dead? What is/was he/she? What works do you know? Do you like hislher work? Why? Why not? What do you know about his/her life?

?

â&#x20AC;˘ WRITING AND LISTENING

To help him breathe. after a difficuh birth.

cHow

?

By \\orking extra hours. d Why

')

Because they ga\1: her a hard lime over her breakdown and disappearance.

c When In 1937.

?

r

?

Adverbs in a narrative Work in pairs. Think about the worst holiday you ever had. Write some notes about it. then swap information with your partner.

2 Look at lhe top of page 33 and read about Jack and

Where

To St. LOllis.

Liza's holiday. Put the words on the right into the correct place in each line. and make any necessary changes to the punctuation.

Language work I 'The J\4ousel/'(tp'

WllS lI''';tlell

In the sentence above.

In/S

by Agalha Chri.Hie.

ll'rillen is an example of the

Past Simple passive. Find some morc examples of this ill the texts on pages 30 and 3 Land pllt a box D around them.

lJ:J

Grammar Reference: page 144.

2 Put the auxiliaries \\'os, fwd. or didn't into the gaps. a Agatha Christie _ _ _ go to school.

educated at home. She

b She found in a hotel in Harrogate. after she _ _ _ been missing for I I days. stop wriling while she c She from a nervous breakdown.

_ suffering

like going to school unless he d Pablo Picasso _ _ _ allowed to take one of his father's pigeons wilh him. e His father paint again after Pablo completed the picture of the pigeons. f Some paint trousers when he

spilt on the French minister's visiting Picasso.

g Scali Joplin left home after his mother 32

Unit 3

Telling

lales

_

died.

The

holiday


J

USI after Christmas two )'cars ago. J:lek and Li7.3

decided to go away for New Year. The}'

didn't want to slay in 11 hotel with crowds of people and the)' weTe delighted when they saw an advertisement in the Sunday Timcs for a holida)' nat in a "ilJage near Oxford. It was no ordinar)' flat. It was on the top floor of an old TUdor mansion. The)' booked it and on New Year's E"c they set ofT in the car. It was raining and f~7.ing cold. They weN! happy and excited.

Thc~

hud been drh ing for three hours \I hen they saw the house in the distance. It looked magnificent" ilh lall chimneys and a long, wide drh路e. The:" dro\"c "I) 10 the huge front door. went up the steps. and knocked. Nothing happened. The)' knocked again. The door opened and 3 small. "ild.looking, old lady slood there.

3

suddenly somewhere

so relllly

Howe\'el' immediately Although heavily

1'7jJ.

""'''l'

finally , incredibly /

/

",.

loudl)' more loud I)'

T.23 Listen to Jack and Liza talking about what happened next and complete this part of the story.路 The old lady was wearing... I She was carrying ... :3 The house was .. When she ....'as leading them upstairs ... When they so.l\\ the rooms they couldn't believe their ey

4 Read the end of the story. Put the words on the right into the correct place.

,

that wasn't

-=~

hen thc~' gOI outside again lhe rain had turned to SIIOW. Thl'y ran to the car, laughing. The)' felt lhat lhey had been released from a prison and now lhey wanted to be wilh lots of people. They dro\'c 10 the next village and as midnight was slriking, lhey found a hOlel wilh a room for the night. 'Hal)PY New Year!' cried Jack, as he kissed Ihe surprised recepiionisl on both cheeks. 'You p;$"'a\'e no iden how beautiful )'our hotcl is!,

W

h~'sierically

desperatcl)' fortunately jusl

Write the story of your worst holiday in about 250 words. When was it? Where was it? Who were you with? Why was it bad?

"I


Giving opinions I What do the words in iudies refer to in the sentences below'!

a II was so boring I fell asleep in the first act. b I didn'l like his last Olle, but 1 couldn't put his latest Ol1e down until the last chapter. c II was excellent. Have you seen il yet? Ii stars Anthony Hopkins and Emma Thompson. d She's usually very good but I don't think she was right for this part. e I think they spoil them. They always give (hem whatever they want. f If W'dS a good break, but the weather wasn't very good. g They were delicious. John had tomato and mozzarella topping and I had ham and mozzarella. h II was really exciting, especially when Smith scored in the closing minutes. 2

Example Student A

Student B

~ went to Peter's party.~ ~ Oh! What was it like?) Great! I really enjoyed it.

T.24 The following questions are all asking for opinions. Match them with tbe opinions given in Exercise I. Did you like the film? What did you think of the play'! Did you enjoy your pizzas? Do you like Ben Brown's novels? What do yOll think of their children? What was your holiday like? What did you think of Hannah Smart? What was the match like?

D D D D D D D D

Listen and check your answers. Practise some of the questions and answers with a partner. 34

3 Write down some things you did, places you went to, and people you met last week. Work with a partner and ask for and give opinions abOllt them.

Unit 3 Telling tales

<

I met Maria's Sister)

(What did you think of

her~

She's lovely. I liked her alaI.


Doing the right thing Modal verbs (1) Requests and offers

PRESENTATION (1) Test your grammar 1 Look at the sentences.

can

You

must should have 10

go.

can, have to, and allowed to 1 The teenage years can be difficult for both parents and children! What sort of problems can there be?

2

2 Make the sentences negative. Make them into questions. Make them into the third person singular (He/she ... ),

Which verb is different?

T.25

Listen to Megan and Laura, aged 14 and 15.

What arc some of the things they like and don't like about being a tccnager? ]

Complete the gaps.

"b You You

go out to work.

c

go out with your friends.

You

d I always where I'm going.

c We

)

f You g Adults

h We We

J We

)

pay bills. tell my Mum and Dad

do the housework. buy what you want. worry about bills. wear a stupid school uniform. wear make-up. chew gum!

Listen again and check. Practise saying the sentcnces.

4 Laura's parents are called Malcolm and Barbara. What are some of the things they hare to do. and some of the things they dOIl'f hal'e fO do?

)

Examples Barbara doesl/'/ hal'e /0 llwk fllll-timc, Malcolm has 10 dril'e Ol'('r (I thousand miles

(I

ll'l'ek.

- Who do you think has all easier life. Barbara or Malcolm? - What about YOII/' family? - Is there a division between what the men do and what the womcn do ill your family'?

Doing the right thing

Unit 4

35


3 Make questions using JIlII'(' ro or had 10.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

Example We had to get up very early to catch the bus. What time did you hllre 10 gel up?

- Pullwl'<' 10 or dOli" hm'e 10 into the gaps.

Children Adults

go to school.

'0

a My mOl her has to go abroad alaI. How orten

1

go to work. study for exams.

b I have to leave tomorrow morning, What time

1

c We had to wail for ages. How long

?

go schooL but they go to work.

Old people Teenagers

Which sentence in each pair below is correct? a You don't have to drive on the right in llritain. You lllustn't drive on the right in Britain. b You don', have to go to England to learn English. You mustn't go to England to learn English.

d I have to take my car to the garage. Why

e Peter had to stay in bed for a week, Why _ _

2 Signs

PRACTICE

What do the following signs mean?

1 Grammar and speaking

Examples

1 Put the sentences into the negative, the question. and the past. Example We can smoke,

1

You call" smoke ill here. YOI/ aren', al!OIred 10 smoke ill here.

We call" smoke. Gall Ire s/IIokd

~AJ'~f~~~ )~ You

We could smoke.

fUlI'e 10

ShOll' ),our passporl.

a

I have 10 go. b She has 10 work hard. c He can do wl1al he likes. d We're allowed to wear what we Walli.

'Browsers~

b

2 Look at the chart. Make truc sentences aboul you and

W'--welcome

your family. A

B

I

My parents My father My mother My sister My brother My grandparents My husband/wife My girlfriend/ boyfriend

has to have to doesn't have to don't have to had to didn't have to

c go out to work, get up early in the morning, do the shopping. keep my room tidy. do the cooking, take the dog for a walk,

do the washing. do the washingup.

Compare your sentences as a class. Are/were your parents strict? Can/could you do what you want/wanted? 36

Unit 4 Doing the right thing

c

NO "SKATEBOARDING'¡

1


2 T.28a Jim is going to travel with his friend, Anthony. Listen to them talking about their trip.

3 Listening and speaking

Ithink we should take our travellers' cheques in

American~d~O~II'~'~'~. ~-!~~:::--=~o;o~~

T.26 You will hear Bert Atkins, who was born in 1919. talking about his school days. Check these words in your dictionary: to knit

a cloth

a slate

chalk

What does he say ahout the following? knitting paper and pencils

chalk and a slate the 'Big Boys' school

exams walking to school a bike leaving school talking in class

writing lines homework

Listen again, and read the Tapescript on page 130 at the same lime. 2 -

Work in groups. Talk about JOur school rules. What aren't/weren't you allowed to do? What do/did you have 10 do? What punishments are/were there if you do/did something wrong?

Use I tllink ... should or I don'! tllink ... should to make more suggestions. Take an idea in column A, and match it with a line in column B. A

a ... take plenty of suneream. b . buy a book called See the World on $25 a Dav. e . put 100 much in our backpacks. d take anything valuable. e go to Australia first. f go to Indonesia by boat. g . wait too long before we go. B

PRESENTATION (2) must and should I T.27a Jim is going to backpack around the world for a year, but his mother is \vorried. Listen to them. Mum

Jim Mum Jim

You must write to us every week! Yes, Mum! I will. You mustn't lose your passport! No. Mum! I won't.

o We might lose it. o I've got some friends there who'll put us up. D I want to get started. o It'll have some good ideas about where to go and D

where to stay. It'll be really hot.

o We won't be able to carry it all. o It'll be cheaper than flying. T.28b Listen and check your answers.

Work in pairs. Make similar dialogues between Jim and his mother, Use the cues and must or /nus!n'!. -

look after your money go out when it's dark make sure you eat well phone us if you're in trouble

T.27b

talk to strangers drink too much beer have a bath regularly go anywhere that's dangerous

Listen and check your answers.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions You must look afler your //Ioney. We should lake lral'e/lers' cheques.

Which sentence expresses strong obligation? - Which sentence expresses a suggestion? - Who is more forceful. Jim's mOl her or Anthony? Doing the right thIng

Unit 4

37


PRACTICE

3 Roleplay

1 Giving advice Give advice in tbe following situations. Usc I fllil/k ... should or I dOIl'r fhillk ... should.

Example Peter's got a very bad cold. 1 t!tillk he shollld go

10

bed.

I clOIl"f {frillk he should go to '!'Or/.:.

a I've 10SI my cheque book and credit c<\rds. b Tony wants to drive home, but he's had too

much 10 drink. c (In a restaurant) Ugb! My soup's cold! d [never have any money! c Jenny and Paul are only sixteen. but they say they want to get married. f I"m really fed up with my job.

Do you have any problems? Ask the class for advice!

2 must or have to? Read the Language Review on page 39 before yOll do this exercise. Which sentence on the right goes with the sentence on the left? EX<lmple I lllust have <I drink of wll\er. ............ The do('(or told lIIe 10. I have to drink lots of water. ----------... 1'/I1/'eoll)' rhirslr

Work in pairs. Student A You arc going \0 slart a new job. Student B You are a work colleague. Decide what the job is. Ask and answer questions about the responsibilities. hours. breaks. etc. \ : What time do I have to start? ) Do I have 10 wear a uniform?

a I must do my homework tonight. b I have to do my homework tonighl.

2 a We must go to Paris some lime. b We have to go to Paris next

I'm telling myself Lhat it's import<lnl. This is why I can't come out with yOli. Sorry. Another boring business trip. Yawn! It would be really nice!

3 a I must weHr something nice to the disco. b Men have to wear a shirt and tie to go into a posh restaurant.

4 a You must register for next term before Thursday. b You have to register for next term before Thursday. 5 a I must water the plants today. b You have to water this plant daily.

Unit 4

'\::When do we have a break? )

4 Correcting mistakes

week.

38

No, but you should look smart.

Doing the righllhing

It's the rule.

I want to look good.

There is a grammar mistake in each of the following sentences. Find it and correct it!

a Do you can help me a minute? It says on the noticeboard.

One student is talking to another, I haven't done them for ages. It needs lots and lots of water.

b What time have you to start work? c I must to go now. Bye-bye. d We no allowed to wear jeans <It school. e We no can do what we want. f 1 mustn't do the washing and ironing because my motber doe~ it for me. g You can't smoking in here. It路s against the rules. h My mother have to work very hard six days a \veek.


READING AND SPEAKING

LANGUAGE REVIEW Modals to express obligation I

.\/III'!

Pre-reading task

cxpn:sst.:s a strong ohligati\)ll,

Work in pairs.

.--11/ ri,-iwl'I III/HI r{'I'0r! {O Recepriol1. YOlllflll\tll" .\/ell!thillgl'.'

11\

Look at the cartoons. What n<ttiollalitics 'Ire the people? What makes it easy for you 10 identify them'!

1I11/1!!"'-I"

:1 Hare

til expresses a general obligation based on a or a rule.

SI/nt's

JllIl'/,

to

ll't'll" {/

\Ia/n//III !Ial' (0 lir;r"

la\\

I/II/Iol"m.

/I

,1I(lIN/llllmi/('\' II Ireek ill his II/h.

.~ Sometimes 11I//.\-/ and !Jore III arc similar. j II///\t go 11011'. Clteeria.' f "//I'e to go /lOll'. Ch('('rio.' Somctimc'> lherc is a dllTcn:m:c..I/u.\/ is per:-.onal. We use 1/1/1.\'( \\hcn I\e express our pcrsollOil fecllngs. and say \\hal Ire think i<; Important or nCCCss:ll).

a

b

)im "'/In lrot/.; fllmlcr (I am telling. you \\hat to do.) IlIIlIst lra,lh my hai,. It '.\ dirTl: (I am Idling myself that it\, nCl'CSSar).)

I/"re 10 is impersonal. It nprcsscs a general obligation based on \\hat another person tclb us to do. II (' l/{lI'/~ to Ireur tI .\lIIpid /lnifo/'m. (It .... a 'ichool rul~.) I hm'/!

ttl

IlIk('Ihi.\ lIIedicilu' do"l't lilll(·.\

/I

duy

lTht: doctor "aid.) -I JllIl'e 10 is used to form the question, and the p;1-.t and

future. Do .mll IU/I'I! 10 lrork /illl-lillle." I luul tv gu "I' In".!" cul"/y 1111('11 I B'(lS (/I school rou'fllu/1'(' to 11'01'1.. hard if .\"O//llWIlIo go 10 /fll;rcn;IY 5 S!Jould e\presse'i what is right. or a good idea. It e"prcsses ad\ice, or a mild obligation. }i}/f sllOlIltll(('1 III(}/"{' 1!.\"£'I'ci.\1'. /I'lIr dOIl'f yOIl pili.\" II!IIIIIS? }ou ShOIlItlIl't ('(II so lIIall,l' .nl'et'H. Th('I"I'(' hod fo/' r(mr leelh.

Negatives I/U\{II'/

and

dOli" hurl' 10

e"press v<.,;ry dilTerent ideas,

wk" dmg.\ (This is a strong obligation }()// 11I11S,,,'t

7i.'(,1/a,<{('r.~

(There

is

I/Of

c

2 What is the stereotype English man or woman'! What do you Ihink is the stereotype 1'01' your nationality? Do you believe in siereolypes?

3 Which adjectives in the box do you think go with Ihe nationalities below? Use your dictionary to check new words. hard·working easy-going punctual friendly reserved emotional lazy outgoing hospitable sociable formal casual enthusiastic quiet tolerant talkative sophisticated well-dressed fun-loving respectful humorous serious nationalistic romantic

American

Japanese

French

Italian

tll do something,)

dOIl't hul'/! to go ml/ III Iwrk.

JlO

obligation. but they clin ir the)

\vant.)

Modals to express permission and he ullOll'ed f(l are useo to e.\\)['es') rermission . .·lI/olI'('d 10 IS P;I\SI\e. 11"(' ('(tfI'fllllOke 01' (-/tell gill//.

CIIII. (·(II/'r.

11(' IIr/!,,', alloll'/'{/ to hu.\" uhlir

LL

11(' 11(/111

Grammar Reference: page 147.

Is your nationality on\:: of those above'! If so, which adjectives did you choose? If not. choose some adjectives which you think go with your nationality, Doing the rig hI thing

Unit 4

39


Reading Look at the title of the article. Do yOll think the article will be seriOliS or light-hearted? Why'! First read Ihe article quite quickly. All the nationalities on page 39 arc mentioned.

Write down onc thing about cach nationality that you can rcmcmbcr. 2 Share what you have writtcn with other students in the class.

A World Guide to

ood Manners

How not to behave badly abroad ~

5

Travelling to all corners of the world gels easier and easier. We live in a global village, but how well do we know and understand each other? Here is a simple test.

• The Germans like to talk business before dinner; the French like to eat first and talk afterwards. They have to be well fed and walered before they discuss anything. Taking off your jacket and rolling up your sleeves is a sign of gelling down to work in Britain and Holland, but in Germany people regard it as takjng it easy.

35 •

Imagine you have arranged 10

a meeting at fOUf o'clock. What time should you expect your foreign business colleagues to arrive? If they're Gennan, they'll be bang on time. If they're American. they'll probably be 15 minutes early. If they're British, they'll be 15 minutes late. and you should allow up 10 an hour for the Italians.

When the European Community began to increase in size. several guidebooks appeared giving advice on international etiquette. At first many people thought this was a joke. especially the British, who seemed to assume that the widespread zo understanding of their language meant a corresponding understanding of English customs. Very soon they had to change their ideas, as they realized that they had a lot to learn about how to behave with their foreign business friends. 15

40

25

For example:

30

• The British are happy to have a business lunch and discL'ss business mailers with a drink during the meal; the Japanese prefer not to work while caling. Lunch is a time to relax and get to know one another, and they rarely drink at lunchtime.

Unit 4

Doing the right thing

by Norman Ramshaw ~

American executives sometimes signal their feelings of ease and importance in their offices by pUlling their feel 011 the desk whilst on the telephone. In Japan. people would be shocked. Showing the 'Iii:io. - soles of your feet is the height of bad mannerS. It is a social insult only exceeded by blowing your nose in public.

• .0

',.--.;;'1

.5

50

55

60

The Japanese have perhaps the strictest rules of social and business behaviour. Seniority is very important, and a younger man should never be sent to complete a business deal with an older Japanese man. The Japanese business card almost needs a rulebook of its own. You must exchange business cards immediately on meeting because it is essential to establish everyone's status and position.


Comprehension check When it is handed to a person in a superior position, it mllst be given and received with both h<lnds, and you must take time to read it carefully, and not just put it in your pocket! Also

the bow is a very important part 70

75

of greeting someone. You should not expect the Japanese to shake hands. Bowing the head is a mark of respect and the first bow of the day should be lower than when you meet thereafter. The Americans sometimes find it difficult to accept the more formal Japanese manners. They prefer 10 be casual and morc informal. as illustrated by the universal 'Have a

Read the article again and answer the questions. Discuss the questions in pairs.

2

3 4

5

6 7

nice day!' American waiters have a one-word 80

imperalive 'Enjoy!' The British. of course, are cool and reserved. The great topic of conversation between strangers in Britain is (he weather- unemotional and impersonal. In America, the main topic between strangers is the search to .... find a geographical link. 'Oh, ~ really? You live in Ohio? I had an ~ .; ..d uncle who once worked there.'

.- .-

• ,J

'When in Rome, do as the Romans do. ' Here are some final tips for travellers.

90

• In France you shouldn't sit down in a cafe until you've shaken hands with everyone you know, • In Afghanistan you should spend at least five minutes saying hello. !l5 •

100

In Pakistan you mustn't wink. It is offensive.

• In the Middle East you mllst never use the left hand for greeting, eating, drinking, or smoking, Also, you should take care not to admire anything in your hosls' home. They will feel that they have to give it to you. • In Russia YOll must match your hosts drink for drink or they will think you are unfriendly,

105

8 9

Which nationalities arc the most and lcast punctual? Why did the British think (hat evaryone understood (heir customs? Which nationalities do IIot like to eat and do business at the same time? 'They (the French) have to be well fed and watered.' What or who do you normally have to feed and water? Look at the pictures. What nationality are they? How do you know? All American friend of yours is going to work in Japan. Give some advice about how hefshe should and shouldn't behave. Imagine you are at a party in (a) England (b) America. How could you begin a conversmion with a stranger? Continue the conversations with your partner. Which nationalities have rules of behaviour about hands? What are the rules? Why is itllot a good idea to ... ... say that you absolutely love your Egyptian friend's vasco ... go to Russia if you don't drink alcohol. ... say 'Hi! See you lalerl' when you're introduced to someone in Afghanistan. ... discuss politics with your American friend in a McDonald's.

Discussion Do you agree with the saying 'When in Rome, do as the Romans do'? Do you have a similar saying in your language? 2 What are the 'rules' about greeting people in yOllr country? When do you shake hands? When do you kiss? Whal about when you say goodbye? 3 Think of one or two examples of bad manners. For example. in Britain it is considered impolite to ask people how much they earn. 4 What advice would you give somebody coming to live and work in your country?

• In Thailand you should clasp your hands together and lower your head and your eyes when you greet someone. • In America you should eat your hamburger with both hands and as quickly as possible. You shouldn't try 10 have a conversation until it is ealcn.

Doing the right thing

Unit 4

41


• VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION

3 Rewrite the sentences, llsing the word in italics in a different word class.

Word formation

Example had a long disC/lssion about politics.

We

I Look at the entry for the \vord Ilholograph in the

Wl' discllssed polirics for a long time.

Oxford WordpOIl'er Dicliol1ary.

us

-etphotograph f'f.Jut:XJro:f -gndl (~liso illfurm(d photo) 1I0WI[C] a pictlJre lhal is taken with a camcr;l: I(J (ukl' 1/ pilof() o (/ COIOlif piullograph 0 Tilis pholO is (/ bir OUI offot'lis. 0 la

photographer If;"logr~r*v 110111I

phOtOgT<lphs. ph otographi C',f:lut:l'gr:dJkl II//) connecte<! wilh photographs {'/flll/mu-n/.

Imdy phOlOgraph oj YOlj . . . Look a1 ncgalh'c and slide. photograph l'l."b [I") to \ilkI' 11 photogmph of Sblslh.

photography IfJ'togrJrtl 110111I lUI the skill or process of taking photographs: wildlife photography.

Notice how different parts of speech (noun and verb) and words formed from the headword (photographer.

photographic, photography) are given in the same entry. Is this the same in your dictionary? Look how the stress is shown: Ndut~ro:tI. Practise snying the wonJs in phonetic script.

2 Complete the charts with the different parts of speech. The missing words are all from Ihe article A World Guide to Good Manners. Mark the stress. Usc your dictionary 10 help yOll with the pronunciation. Verb

She

Noun

,

_

b How high is that wall?

\Vhat's the

or photOgraphy: photographic

lum.' (/ pllOlO (.'Il/(/r[(,'11 0 71/11/ 's (I

a She gave me some adricl' about which clothes to wear.

Ie) (I person who [lIkes

_

c Children should never speak to Sfrtlngl.' people. Children _ d I felt that there was someone watching me. 1 had e We had a lot of difficult)' in finding Ihe way here. It was _ f My son's behaviour at the party was very bad. My son

h The shock made my hair turn white. I \vas so

• LISTENING AND SPEAKING

ar rangement

~,/n'ffU/U/'P rJ:,'tYtrttJ

di'scussion

1 Have you ever been a guest in someonc's house in a foreign country? When? Why? What happened?

ad'vise feel deal

2 ac1ceptance

tip admi'ration

Adjective

'foreigner shock high re'spectful 'difficulty

!'{1=

~~.' ••.':.. . .•' \\ ._ -!J . . . .(

-

T.29 You will hear three people describe how they entertain guests in their country. Sumie is from Japan, Rosa is from Spain, and Leslie is from the United Slates. Listen and take notes under the following headings: - the kind of invitation. formal or informal - the time of day - the preparations thai the host or hostess makes - the presents that people take - the food and drink served

3 Work in small groups. Compare information. What similarities and differences are there?

re'serve strange of'fence

42

Unit 4

Doing the right thing

_

g There are a lot of foreign people in town at the moment. There arc

meet

Noun

------,

4 What happens in yOllr coumry? Is it usual to invite people to your home for a meal? What are such occasions like in your home?


.WRITING

2 Forms do not usually ask questions. but lhey ask for information. Match a line in A with a question in B.

Filling in a form 1 Most people hate filling in forms! What occasions can you think of when you have to fill in a form'? What sort of information do you have 10 provide?

A

8

I First name

a Where do you Jive? b What do you do? c Where afC you living

2 Surname

3 Dale of birth

allhe moment? d Are you married or

4 Country of origin

single?

5 Present address

e What's your first name?

6 Permanent address

... - " ,<-II " ' - _ . - " ' - -

-.::".:..-==:::::;,. <-,--

f How much do you earn <l year? g When were you born? h What's your surname? Where were you born'?

7 Marilal status

--. .....

8 Occupation

~

,

9 Annual income

----- ... ....-

3 Forms ask you to do certain things. Do the following:

;...:::::z-:E:.--==f-"":';;-~-~-:::;;-=-

Write your name in block capitals.

Sign your name.

_

Delete where not applicable. I am a student/an employee/an employer. Put a cross if you are male. Put a tick if you are female.

-1

4 Fill in the form. 11 is an application form to open a

bank account.

Applicant

Title MrD Ml'sD MissD MsD Surname 1 I First name(sll:============ 1 Date of birth

0

D

I

I

I

I

I

1

L

D

D

D

D

Widowed

0

Residential details

I

Country of ori':g-'--in-;I======='--------I Present address

Marital Status Single Married Divorced No. of dependent children

Post code

Rented D

OwnedD

I

Where do you reside?

I

With parents

L=::.-.:=;== 1

D

With a partner

0

AloneD

Permanent address (if different from above>

Employment status Employed fUll+timeD Employed part-time Self-employed Unemployed Retired

1========= I

Income details Annual income

Telephone no. (homel L=========

Signature ~I=0;===;;==;-------Date 1I I , I

When did you move to this address? IL-',--,-I-,'-'.I--'-'e-I

D

1======'1---;;Po:::,:::tc:::o-:;de::ll==== Telephone no. (work)

1

_

D

1.=ÂŁ

0 D

_

Doing the right thing

Unit 4

43


Requests and offers

Roleplay

1 Match a line in A with a line in B. Who is talking to

Work in pairs. Make up a dialogue for one of these situations using the prompts given.

who? Where are the dialogues taking place? A

a Could you flll it up, please? b Could I have the bill, please? c It's a present. Do you think you could giftwrap it for me? d Two lagers, please. Can you tell me the code for Paris? I'll give you a lift if you like.

e

r

g Would you mind opening the window? h Could I have extension 2387. please?

B

D Halves or pints?

o Not at aU. It's very stuffy in here. o One moment. I'll just look it up. o Sure. Shall J check the oil as well? o I'm afraid the line's engaged at the moment. Do you want to hold? Certainly, sir. I'll bring it straight away.

D D Yes. indeed.

o

2

I'll just take the price off. That's great. Would you drop me at the station?

T.30 Listen and check your answers. Practise the dialogues. paying parricular attention to intonation and voice range.

QJ Grammar Reference: page 148. 3

T.31 Listen to the six dialogues. Answer the questions.

a Where are the people? b What is the relationship between them? (parent and child; customer and shop assistant) c What exactly are the words of the request?

44

Unit 4

Doing the right thing

- A is a customer in a restaurant; B is a waiter. Prompls: table near the window; menu; wine list; ordering; clean fork; dessert; bill. A is going on holiday very soon; U otTers to help. Prompts: pack; confirm night; passport; travellers' cheques; look after cat; water plants. - A is cooking a meal for twenty: B offers to help. Prompts: prepare the vegetables: check the meat; set the table; do the washing-up; open the wine.


On the move Future forms Travelling around

PRESENTATION (1) Test your grammar

T.32 Read and listen to the joke. Underline the verb forms that refer to the future. What is the difference between them?

going to and will I John always writes himself a list at the beginning of every day. What's he going to do today? What's he going to buy?

A Penguin Joke!

Example He's going to/ill up the car wilh petrol.

One day a man and his wife were walking down the street when they came across a penguin.

T\tul'\~ -to 0.0 petrol e-\ec:ho'eity -bill plQt\e +ickei"s f,.or)\

'Oh!' exclaimed the man. 'What a surprise! What shall we do with it?' 'I know,' said his wife. 'We'll ask a policeman.' So they found a policeman and explained what had happened. 'Mmm,' said the policeman, 'I think the best thing is to take it to the zoo.' 'What a good idea!' said the woman. 'We'll go there straight away.'

\

-the travel a~el\t i'tIe Iih"ar y Q

ha'''路a..r

-the d~

(0,. a Walk

1hirljs ~ b_lAY s~t:tV"

+ea cheese rO~hMrt-

2 Gtvo~~os ~?ples W\e(ot'\

--.-

\ \ \.

-

/

The nn1: morning the policeman wa walking down the same street when he saw the couple again with the penguin. 'T thought I told you to take that penguin to the zoo,' the policeman said. 'Well, we did, said the man. We tOok it to rhe zoo and we all had a really good time. So this afternoon we're taking it t.o the cinema, and this evening we're going to have a meal in a fish re tamant.'

2

Read and listen to the dialogue between John (1) and Anna (A). T.33

J

I'm going to the shops soon. Do you want anything?

A No, I don't think so. Oh, hang on. We haven't got any sugar left. J

It's all right. Tt" on my list. I'm going to buy some.

A

What about bread? We haven't got any bread.

J

OK. I'll go to the baker's and I II buy a loaf.

A I 11 be at work when you get back.

A

I'll see you later, then. Don't forget Jo and Andy are coming round for a drink tonight. Ah, right. Bye.

J

Bye. honey.

J

On the move

Unit 5

45


â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

3 I think I'll ...

I'm going to huy some (SlIgar). I'll htl)' a loaf

Use the prompts in A to make sentences with /Ihillk ... Il'ill, Match them with a sentence ill B.

- Why docs John usc diO'crent fulurc forms? What's the difference betwecn Ifill <lnd going 10 to cxpress a future intcntion?

Example I think Jeremy wilt really \\Iell recelllly

- We don't usually say going 10 go or going ra ('Ollie. Find thc examples in the dialogue where these forms arc avoided.

A a b c d e

PRACTICE 1 Dialogues

Example some stamps

COI/Id )'011 gel some stamps? OK. I'll go to Ihe posr offici' and buy 501l/e.

a newspaper - a bottle of wine - a joint of beef - a film for her camera

rhe /I1{/fc/z. He's heen playing

Jeremy/win the match iI/be a nice day tomorrow I!pass my exams you/like the film we/get to the airport in time ... you/get the job

B

John said, I'll go 10 Ihe baker's and I'll/my a lo(!{. Look at the list of items. What would Anna ask? What would John say?

Anna John

\fill

- some shampoo a tin of white paint a video some felt-tip pens

2 Listening T.34 Listen 10 the conversations. Say what's going to happen.

D

But we'd better get a move on. ~ He's been playing really well recently.

D D D D

The forecast is warm and dry. You've got all the right qualifications. It's a lovely story, and the acting is superb. I've been revising for weeks.

2 Now make sentences with I dO/l't think ... will with the words from A in Exercisc 1. Match thcm with 11 scntence in C. Example I dOli" I!link Jeremy will will r!le marcll. He lIaSI/'1 pracli.~e(lfo" age.~.

c

D D D

There's too much traffic. I haven't done any revision at all. The forecast said rain and wind.

~ He hasn't practised for ages.

D D

You're too young and you've got no experience. It's nOI really your cup of tea.

Example A Have you seen the air tickets? ~ They're going to catch a Plane.) B Yes. They're with the travellers' cheques. A And do you have the address of the hotel? :::(They're going to stay in a hotel) B No. rvejust got the name. Do we need the address? A No. Maybe not. The taxi driver will know. B What about the milk? Have you cancelled the milk? They're going to be away A Yes. No milk for a fortnight. Right? lor two weeks. 13 That's it. Well done. 46

Unit

5 On the move


J Make true sentences about

.1'011,

Example I/balh tonight llhink I'll hme a bath tonight/ I d01l'1 lhink J'fl hare a bath rollight.

- itJrain tomorrow - Ilgo shopping'this afternoon - libe a lllillionaire one day Ileal out lonight we/have a white Christmas the tClH;her/give us a lot of homework

4 Grammar

PRESENTATION 12) Present Continuous

15

;100 -10.00 , ar 11.00,

ff2lvI Wl I""eli ~-"L-:=-iOiltt V~igrJcr'-

-""-"-0

Underline the correct verb form in the sentences.

_ 'D-Seein~,cea.J~

2.00 2, -iii flilolfi:~-

Example 'Oh. dear. I'm late for work: 'Don't worry. 1'111 going 10 giw!l rt/ gil'e you a lift.'

-

a '1' ve got a headache.' .Have you? Wait a minute. I'll gelll'm goillg ro gel you an asplfln ..

-

Nina Kendle works in the fashion business.

b 'I(s Tony's birthday next week.' 'Is it? I didn't know. J'lIsend/1'1II guing to ~"t:1/(1 him a card.' c 'Why are yOli putting on your coatT 'Because J'fl take/rill going 10 'ake the dog for a walk.' d 'Arc you and Alan still going out together'!' 'Oh. yes. We'll ge/lI/a/"riedIWe'/"e going 10 gl'llIIarried next year.'

Friday

Look at her diary lor today. Imagine it is 9,30 in the morning. - Where is she now? - What's shc doing? What arc her plans for the rest of the day'! 2

T.35 Listen to a telephone cOllversmion between a businessman, Alan Middleton, and Nina Kendle's secretary,

e (a telephone conversation)

'Would you like to go Out for a drink tonight'!' 'l'1I11'{1/(1II1'1II going 10 wafch the football on television.' 'Oh! I didn't know it wa~ on.' 'Come and wHtch it with mer 路OK. J'fl comell'm going 10 come round at about 7.30.' f 'Did you phou, Peter aboul tonight?' 'No, I forgo!. I'll do/rill going 10 do it now, What's his number'!'

On the move

Unit 5

47


3 Look at the conversation between Nina Kendle's secretary (S) and Alan Middleton (A). Try to complete the gaps. S

Hello. Nina Kendle's office.

A Hello. Could I speak to ina Kendle, please? This is Alan Middleton. SOh, I'm afraid she's out at the moment. She (a) _ _ a factory. A 1 see. What time (b) she _______ back in the office? S

S

PRACTICE 1 Roleplay Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you a role card. Study the information on it carefully. Have telephone conversations similar to the one between Alan Middleton and Nina Kendle's secretary. Remember the following expressions. (COUld I speak to ... ?

r ,(

I'm not sure. 1 don't know how long she's going to stay there.

(What time will ,.. be baCk?7"'-

All right. What about lunch-time? Is she free then?

( Is ... free at lunch-time?

Just one moment. 1 (c) No, she (d) _ designer.

check. lunch with a

;~

Erm ... Well, she (e) here in her office at 2.00.

_

a customer

A Ah! So when's a good time to try again? S

Any time after 2.30. Definitely. She (0 - - - - - in her ofTice for the rest of the afternoon.

A OK. r (g) - Thank you. S

fi'11 check. No, she's

)'"

(>

(When's a .good time............ \!o try agall1? ./

'<--.-/ ::::, She'll be ... ")

0'11 phone back ... 7~ ~~That's fine ... ) 2 Discussing grammar Work in pairs ancl discuss your answers. Underline the correct verb form.

A Arc you sure? S

<At about ... )

<~~aving/seeing/gOing...

A Till what time? Do you know? S

I'm afraid ... )

phone back then.

That's all right. Goodbye.

Example I must hurry because I'm going/I'll go to the doctor's. a Are you doinglWil1 you do anything tonight? Would you like to come round for a game of cards? b

Look at the Tapescript on page 131 and check your answers.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - What tense are the verbs in a, d and e? Which refer to the present? \Vhich refer to the fu ture? - Why are these sentences with lviII, not going to? J'li check. I'll phone !Jack then.

... Read the Language Review on page 49.

48

Unit 5

On the move

c ;1 've just booked our summer holiday.' 'Realiy? ~Where are you going/lvi/I you go?' 'We golWe 're going to Spain.' d 'There's a good film on at the cincl11.a tonight. Arc you interested')' 'Yes, I am. 'Great! I'll seelJ'm seeing you outside the cinema at 7.30.' e Do you think iI's raining/if 'II rain this afternoon? f 'We're havinglWe hal'l.' a party next Saturday.' 'Who are you going to il1l'ite/do you iI/rite'?' 'Just a few friends. Can you come'!' 'I'd love to. but !'II go/I'm going away for the weekend. Thanks, anyway.'


LANGUAGE REVIEW

3 Arranging to meet

Future forms will

Will expresses an intention or decision made HI the moment of speaking. I'll gil'e .1'011 m.l' plum!' /lilli/her. Ring me 10llighl. I'll check her diul'." ror you, 1'1/ phD,,拢, bac/... lafer.

Man) languages

expn:~s

this idea with a present tense.

but 路I-givc. "" cheek and "'I phone arc wrong.

:2 The most common usc of Hill is to refer to the future. It c'pres~cs a future fact or prediction TO/llol'r{)ll' will he IIW'/11 (/Ild .WIIIIY Il"hfl! {illle wil/\hl' he b(/ck.' 1'111 SlIrl' .1'011'11 pa.u .1'0111" eX(/III. goillg ro

Imagine it is Friday morning. You need {O arrange to meet someone over the weekend. First. fill in your diary. What are you doing this weekend? When arc

you free?

II e're going to hfll'l' (/ holida)' ill Sici~1' this slimmer. \/1' "(/lIgJIlC/":~ goil/g TO stlltl)' /1/I)(lem langllages III Bri.HoI l/I/i!wsity.

Friday morning

Goillg to expresses an intention or decision thoughl about hejo/"e the moment of speaking. It expresses a plan,

afternoon

evening

1 We usc going {v when we can see e\"itkncc now that something is certain to happen. Look

{/I

those dOl/d.\; It ~~ going to mill.

Present Continuous

Saturday mormng

afternoon

evening

The Prescnt COlllinuolls can be used to express a future arrang..:mel1l bct\\ccn people. It is common \~ith \erbs such us go. COlllC. see, risil. //Iel!t, hal'e (;1 party). '('(/1'('. Pal tlnd Pel('r {I/'e coming/or {j /IIcal fO/ligh,. I' (> 'j'e },ul'il/g salll/oll for slipper. Sometimes there is little or no difference betwcen a future intention (1t(Jil1~ 10) and a future arrangcmcnt (Prescl1! Continuous).

Sunday morning

afternoon

e\'ening

We're goillg to W'l' (I play tOlligh,. We're sedllg {/ pIal路 tonight.

CL

Grammar Reference: page 148,

2 Work in pairs. First decide why you want to meet. Is it for business. or to go oul together somewhere? Consult your diary and try to find a lime and a place 10 meet. On the move

Unit 5

49


• LISTENING AND VOCABULARY A weather forecast 1 Look at the map of the British Isles. Draw a line between the Bristol Channel and The Wash. 1.36a Listen to the description of the main geographical features of Ihe British Isles. - What can we find to the north of the line? - What can we find to the south of the line? - Malch the numbers on the map to these places: the Pennines

SCOTLAND 3

the Welsh Mountains

the Scanish Highlands

2 1.36b Listen to the second part and take notes abo lit the following areas and places. the South West the Midlands the North East

the South East the North West Scotland

East Anglia Wales Ireland

NOR,-THERN

~

em?

c;;p i

windy storm raining

North Wesl

REPUBLfC

OF

Unit 5

The Wash

C~

Midlands • Birmingham

ENGLAND

;,..\.

• Ca'rdiff

8ris/of Chall"et

fog

cloud cloudy

South West

stormy foggy

~Dartmoor sunshine

It's

It's rainy.

It's

It's

The wind is ___

It's

5

It's showery. It's It's It's It's

Manchester

\

hoI

wind snowy rain

-7 IVA LE"

It's

On the move

liverpool.

2

j;

The sun's shining.

!FOG IIJJD®'ir

• Dublin

fRELAND

freezing boiling cold warm

Noun

9

Lake District

,,-

Adjective

U

North East

.-",

Verb

CJ ,,"" ''

50

misty blowing sunny

/'

'-t•../ '-,

4 Complete the chart with a word from the box, snowing snow shower

r

.

chilly

_ _ _ _ _ IO·CI

)

!jJ,ELAND Belfast

,..:>

1.-

3 Put the adjectives to do with temperature in the right order.

It's

Cb~ e

Read Ihe Tapcscripl on page 131. Check any new words.

_ _ _ 1100'C)

• Edinburgh

Glasgow.

mist

Thames

East Anglia

london

South East

Brighton

T.37 Listen to a weather forecast for the British Isles. Mark all the map what the weather will be like tomorrow. Usc the symbols in Exercise 4. Write the temperature next to the symbol.

6 Work in pairs. Write a weather forecast for where you are. Read it to the rest of the class.


â&#x20AC;˘

LISTENING AND READING

Pre-listening task I Discuss the following questions.

2

T.38

Read the introduction and then listen to the

American family. Put a lick (.I) in the box if they mention what's in the piclUrc.

- Do you get many foreign tourists in your country? - What do they come to see? What do they come to do'!

- What afC Ihe most popular towns for them to visit? What arc the most popular places? Which countries do the tourists come from? 2 YOll are going to listen to, and then read. an interview from a German newspaper. It is about some American

tourists in Europe. It's title is 'If it's Tuesday ... we must be in Munich'.

"If it's Tuesday ... we must be in Munich" Americans do it faster. Kiithe Faller. a German journalist, meets a family on the Express Tour: seven countries in twelve days. Breakfast in Paris, lunch in the Alps and dinner on the banks of the Rhine.

What type of holiday docs this describe?

Listening I Look at the pictures. Which do you recognize? Where can you find them?

3 Why is the holiday called the Express Tour? Whieh countries have they already visited? Which are Ihey going to visit? Where is the family now?

On the move

Unit 5

51


Reading

GARY Wcllno. it isn't a problem. You sec. we have a bathroom on lhe bus.

Now rcad the article and answer the questions. - Who arc the members of this American family? - Who do you think is enjoying the holiday most'? - Who is Ilol enjoying it so much? Why?

70

- How many Americanisms can you find in the article? Example Yup = Yes

"If it's Tuesday we must be in Munich"

•••

Ruf"ie Schumacher, aged 68, and l1er husballd Bob, 72, from Mary/mId lTave never been olll of the us before. They are with tl1eir SOli, Gary, and his wife Gayle. I JIIet them ;11 MUllich, iI/ a cafi, two thirds of & their way rOl/ud a lightning WIll/raJ tOllr of Europe. Can I ask a few questions? RUTHIE No problem. It's our pleasure. Isn't it, Bob? BOB Yup. 10 OK. What did you think of the Munich Glockenspiel?

You always see tourists standing in front of it for

hours, just watching and waiting. GAYLE The Glockenspiel? Yes, you know, the clock with those little wooden figures that play music and 20 dance round. Here in Munich, on the Marienplatz. RUTHlE Did we see that. Gary? GARY Oh, yeah. this morning. It was real interesting. You Europeans probably can't undcrSl<lIld it. but for liS. something like that is real-life history. 30 GAYLE In America. if something is a hundred years old. that's prelly old. But in Europe everything is juSt so much older. RUTHIE All those castles. Do yOli remember all those 52

Unit 5

On the move

castles we S<1W when we went from Munich to Bonn in that boa!? 40 GARY That was Heidelberg to Bonn. RUTHIE You know, I can [rdthe hislOry every time I look up from the sidewalks. I always say to Bob, 'Bob. if only the streels and slOnes could talk'. WelL I've galien goose bumps now JUSt thinking about it. 50

Do you feel that it is possible to get to know the real Europe in such a short time? GAYLE Of course. We're seeing so lIluch. Seven countries. 3,500 miles. So many towns. il'SjllSI wonderful. Bcsl vacalion ever!

60

Yes, but sometimes you don't have time to get off the bus and walk round the town. You had to see Paris from the bus because you only had two hours. Isn't that frustrating?

80

GARY All your souvenir spoons. MOlll collects lhese little calfee spoons which have a picHire of the city on them. So what about the people? BOB Please. dOIl't remind What do you think of 110 me of the stress we've hild Europeans? over those damn spoons. I RUTHIE Well, everyone can tell you: London. Paris, wc've met has been real Lucerne. Bonn ... nice. real friendly. RUTHIE Now, now ... BOB That's no surprise. don't get worked up aboul They are all waitcrs and it, Bobby. I think it's real chambermaids. Everybody is interesting tu go shopping in friendly if Ihey are waiting all these countries. It·s a for a tip. cultural experience.

Are the people you've met in Europe different from Americans? GARY Vup. Americans are much more materialistic. Look at the store opening limes. We wanted to buy a cuckoo dock in Lucerne, but we couldn't gel one because 00 it was lunch-time and the store was dosed for lunch. These people consider their break more important than just money, mOlley. money.

100

So what's happening on the rest of the trip? GARY This afternoon we're driving through Allslria, bUI not SlOpping, on our way 10 Venice. GAYLE So tomorrow we're going un a gondola. and lhen doing a few museums and galleries. We're going to 130 have a few days in Italy. I'm really looking forward 10 seeing that tower in Pisa. What's it called? 121)

The leaning Tower of Pisa. So have you picked up any souvenirs? Where else are you going in RUTHIE 011 yeah. I bought Italy? some dothes in London and RUTHIE The itinerary is some lace from Brussels. And Venice. Pisa. and a morning I'm going to buy some crystal in Florence. W("re going to in Venice. I got a leather bag 140 see that David thing-you today in Munich. Did I forget know. the painting by anything? Michelangelo.


h Bob is fed up with Ruthie because she is always looking for souvenir spoons. I The next stop of the tour is Vienna. J They're going to have just one aftcrnoon in Italy. k None of them knows very much abollt the places they arc going 10 visit. They arc catching the plane home from Florence.

2 Find three occasions when people correct each other in the interview. Who corrects who? About what?

Language work Complete the following questions and answers. Example 1-1011'

long does

I!I" 101/1'

{asr?

Twelve days. a

ever _ _ before? No. this is the first time they've visited another country.

b It's a statue, actually. But I make that six countries. tell me, where exactly have What's the seventh? RUTHIE After Italy we're you been already? Which cities? 160going to SI)ain, 10 I"'adrid, GARY Well. we started ill .md from there we're flying london, then Brussels and back 10 the States. on 10 Paris, . \50 GAYLE The other way How will you feel when round, w,1sn't it? you get back? GAR\' No. I'm sure it was RUTHIE Prell)' cxhilarmed. Brussels first, then Paris. GAR\' Yeah, and From thert' Wt' went 10 exhausted. Lucerne, then lip 10 Bonn, GA\'LE But excited, 100. and now we're in Munich. BOB I'll JUSt feel poor.

Comprehension check Read the text again more carefully. Check any new words ill your dictionary. Are the following statements true (.I) or false (X)? Correct the false ones. II

b

c d

e f g

The Schumacher family often go abroad for their holidays. Munich is over haIr-way through their tour of Europe. They"re going to see the Glockenspiel tomorrow. Ruthie gets a strange feeling when she walks through the Streets of old towns and thinks about all their history. The interviewer asks a question about the toilets in Paris. They bought a cuckoo clock whcn they were in Lucerne. They think Swiss people arc only interested in money.

interview lake place? In Munich.

e When - c - c - - -

---

,

,

They sa\v it this morning. d

---------- ? Some clothes.

e

in Venice? Some crystal. f Why '! Because she thinks it is a cultural experience,

g What arc they doing this afternoon?

in Italy?

h How long A few days.

----,

The Statue of David.

_ _ _ _ _ _ home from? J Where Madrid. k How Uob when he gets back to the Stales? Poor.

Class su rvey Stand up and ask three students the follov..路ing questions. What sort of holidays do you like'? relaxing in the sun?

- sightseeing? - an activity holiday?

- a holiday abroad/at home? - a holiday like the Schllmachers'?

Compare ;mswers with the rest or the class.

On the move

Unit 5

53


WRITING

HOTEL PLAZA

Janet and Peter Cooper 8 Fast Lane Chcsswood Herts WD5 8QR tel 01923284908 fax 01923 285446

Sending a fax 1 Janet Cooper wants to go to Spain on holiday with her family. She decides to fax the receptionist at the Hotel Plaza in Alicante to see if they have the acconunodation she requires. Look at the information on this page. and fill in the first part of Janel's fax. She will get all the information on one page. The code for Spain from the UK is 00 34. 2 Write OLlt the words of Janet's fax message in the correct order.

This lu..x wy hotel is situated on the water's edge ofone of the most beautiful beaches in Spain. For reservations and enquiries: PHONE FAX

(6) 527 21 56 (6) 527 15 02

FAX TRANSMISSION From

Page 1 of

To

Date

For the attention of

To fax no From fax no

Message

b

in

c

ten hope stay leaving 7 August

d

and husband like double balcony a preferably a

e

two require Our a daughters twin room

g

you

28 July

We

this

54

Unit 5

On the move

Alicante

to on

We

nights My with

We

understand

Could?

confirm

available if for know

me have

grateful if you could of the

I tell

forward

arriving

teenage

that

possible 7 with

I

like

are

for

room would

sea view rooms to

k from

would

on

all en-suite bedrooms

h a

Yours faithfully

some

rooms reserve

are your

hotel at your

to

a

let dates be

have

Is

it

you Please these rooms

would also me room each price

look

you

to

hearing


3 T.39

Listen and check your ans\vers.

4 You are the receptionist at the holel. Write a reply to Janel. either by leiter or fax. Thank ht:r for her enquiry. S<lY you are pleased to confirm her reservation for the rooms she wants. and for the dates she wants.

Tcll her that all the rooms have an ell-suite bathroom, and all the rooms have a sea view. - The rooms are 2\.000 pesetas per room per night. End the Icuer saying thaI you look forward to welcoming her and her family to your hotel. - Finish with YOllrs sincerely. Reception.

Travelling around I Here lire some lines from conversations on different kinds of transpon. Where docs each conversation take place? Choose from the box.

'"train

bu, plane

taxi ferry

underground

2 Match a line in Exercise I with a reply. a b c d

c f g h

T.40 Listen and check your answers. Practise some of the conversations with a partner.

Excuse me, I think you'll find those seats facing the front are ours. Two to the British Museum, please. And cOlild you possibly tell us when it's our stop?

Can you take us to Euston Station. please?

That's all right. you can keep the change. Excuse me, are we landing on time?

Look! YOIl drive and l"Il navigate from now on! Right? Yes, of course. Hop in! Would you mind getting me a sandwich as well? I'm terribly sorry, We didn't notice that they were reserved. Yes. We're beginning our descent soon. Well, the forecast is good, so it should be very smooth. One pound eighty, please. Just sit near me and I'll give you a shout. The Jubilee Line to Green Park. Then change to the Victoria Line. Thanks a lot. Do you want a hand with those bags?

I'll get a couple of coffees from the buffet car.

Roleplay Work in pairs. You are in a hale I. A is the receptionist. and B is a guest. The guest has several requests, and phones Receplion frOIll his/her roOIll. Change roles after 3 conversations. Example There are no towels. A B

No, no! He said turn left at the pub, not right!

Hello. Receptioll, Call J help your

Yes, please. There are 110 100rels ill Illy rOOJII. COlild ),ou send some lip, please? A Certainly. nl see to il straight alt'ay. B Thanks. Bye. Usc these situations for B. - You'd like some tea and a sandwich in your rOOln. - You want the telephone number of the rdihV'dy station. - You want Reception to recommend a good place to eat. - You can't get the television to work. - You want to be woken at 7.00 in the morning and have breakfast in your room. - You want to order a taxi to take you 10 the airport.

On the move

Unit 5

55


Likes and dislikes Like Verb + -ing or infinitive? Signs and sound bites

Test your grammar ,

In the following sentences, is like used as a verb or a preposition?

a How do you like your coffee, black or white? b I'm just like my father. We're both tall and thin with black hair and brown eyes.

e Don', you think thaI Pedro looks /ikeTom Cruise?

d What would you like to do tonight? e 'We went to that new restaurant last night.' 'Really? What was it like?' 'How do you tie a tie?' 'Let me show you. Like this.' 9 'Shall we go home now?' 'If you like.'

2 Match a sentence with a picture.

D They stopped to talk to each other. D They stopped talking to each other.

,

b

56

Unit 6

likes and dislikes

PRESENTATION (1) Questions with like 1 In I3ritain. some school children go on exchanges to another country. They stay wilh a family for (wo weeks. and then the boyar girl of the family comes back to Britain for two weeks. Does this happen in your countr)/!

2 Read the conversation between Anna and Nina. t\\'o schoolgirls. Put one of the questions from the box into each gap. What does she like doing? How is she? What's she like? What does she look like? What would she like to do?

Anna Nina Anna Nina

My French exchange visitor cante yesterday. What's her name? Marie+Ange. What a pretty name! (I) .)


Anna Nina Anna 111 a

Anna Nina

Anna

ma Anna

She' really nice. Tm sure we'll get on really well. We seem to have a lot in common. Why do you say that? (2) ? Well, she likes dancing, and so do 1. And we both like tennis and listening to music. That sounds great. I saw you vvith someone this morning. Was it Marie-Ange? (3)' ? She' quite tall, and she's got long, dark hair, No, it wasn't her, then. low we're all going OLlt tomorrow, aren't we? Shall we go for a pizza, or shall \ve go to the cinema? (4) _ ? I'll ask her tonight and tell you tomorrO\v. By the way, someone told me your mum's not very well. What's the matter? (5) ? Oh, she's OK. She's had a bad sore throat, tbat's aIL but it's getting better now. Oh, it's not too bad, then.

T.41 Listen and check your answers. In pairs, practise the conversation.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar question

a b c d e

atch the questions from the box in Ex rcise 2 with the definitions belov,,'. Tell me about her physical appearance. Tell me about her interests and hobbies. Tell me about her because I don't knO\v anything about her. TeJlme about her health. Tell me about her preferences for tomorrow evening.

PRACTICE 1 Questions and answers Match a question in A with an an wer in B. A a b c d

What does he like? What's he like? What does he look like? How is he?

B

D D D

o

He isn't very well, actually. He's got the 'flu. He's really nice. Very friendly and open, and good fun to be with. He likes swimming and skiing, and he's a keen football fan. He's quite tall, average build, with straight brown hair.

2 Listening T.42 Listen to nine short descriptions of people or things. Write an appropriate question for each . Example Description Gosh! Haven't you ever tried Indian food? It's absolutely delicious. Really rich! rt can be hot, but it doesn't have to be. Question

~What's

Indian food like?)

Tn which questions is like used as a verb, and in which i it a preposition')

3 Descriptions In pairs, ask and ans\ver the following questions. a b e d e I' g

What sort of things do you like doing? How are your parents? Who do you look like in your family? Who are you like in terms of character? What are you like as a person? What's your school like') What does your teacher look like? Likes and dislikes

Unit 6

57


PRESENTATION (2)

PRACTICE 1 Grammar and listening

Verb + -ing or infinitive?

When one verb is followed by another. different patterns are possible. Put the \crbs from the Presentation text in the correct box.

I Read the Jetter and underline the correct verb form. Example We've decided gail/gllO go/go to Kenya for a holiday.

1

verb + .ing

2

3

verb + person + infinitive with to

4

2

T.44 You will hear sentences with the verbs below. Add them to the correcl box in Exercise I. Example The tcacher told me to do my homework.

Box 3

I promised to do il carefully. Box 2 tell manage like ask

promise need refuse continue

hate forget can't stand

agree choose finish

3 Look at the list of verb patterns on page 158 and check your answers,

2 Discussing grammar Work in pairs and discuss your answers, In the following sentences. two vcrbs arc possible and one is not. Underline the verb that is /lor possible,

BI!~t ,,'19htg

a My fatller I promised

2 didn't mind

to mend my bike. 3 tried

b She I asked

2 wanted

her son to turn down his music, 3 made

SIIlU'ÂŁ711

e refuse 2

T.43

Listen and check your answers.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar question Read the sentences. Laslnigh! [was watching {derision when lite phone rang. I slopped watching relC'l'isioll. I slopped to aflSII'er fhe pholle.

What is the dilYercncc between SlOp + -ing and SlOp +

the infinitive? 58

Unit 6

likes and dislikes

going on long walks. 2 can't stand 3 adore

d We I need

2 'd love

e She I wanled

me do the cooking. 2 made 3 helped

r

10 go shopping. 3 enJOY

working for the bank twenty ycars ago. I started

2 stopped

3 decided

2 Change lhe sentcnccs in Exercise I llsing the verbs you underlined,


LANGUAGE REVIEW

VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION

Asking for descriptions

Words that go together

I WillI!".\' LOllt/onlike:! mt::ans 'Tdl me about London bCC,IllSC I dOll'[ know anythin~ about it', It is a n:ry general quc'illon. \\h:11 il IS asked about .1 person. the illl'i\\cr can refer to character or appearance or both.

Use your dictionaries to look up any new \vords, Look at the follmving groups of words. Which four of the surrounding words in each group cannot go with the noun in the centre? cosmopolitan

reserved

W/utf\ Perl'I'/ikt'? I/e's III/ill' 1£1//. lI'irll.lhorl blolld h(/il:

rural

young

rich high

rude antique

.\1/{' look lik/'? 5"11,,\ rery prelly Shc's ,~()/ lOll,\!. block hllil; /lilt! dark, mr,l(e";OIl.l' eyes.

3

People

busy

Towns

old

young

tall

£10£'\'

capital

elderly

boring

II hill doe.\' sh(' look like." asks for a physical ucscription. What

sociable

bored

Jie'.ll'm!/.l'lIife, YOlI'd /ike hilll. "I

modern

expensive

starving

wealthy

overcrowded

crowded disgusting

sophisticated

tasteless

delicious boiled

asks abollt their health and general happiness. It does not ask for a description. 1-1011' IIrc .1'0/11' /)OI'CII1.1'."

tasteful plain

fresh rich

Food

tasty

fast Holl' (Ire YO/l" p(JI'eurs? They'refil/l', ,halik,', \/.1" 1II0,her fwd 1I {'Oft!. bill she '.I' beuer /f(m:

frozen

wealthy

starving

disgusted

vegetarian

home-grown

Verb patterns We usc

~me

after some \cTb".

2 Put a suitable adjective from Exercise 1 into the gaps in the following convcrsations. If necessary. use their comparative or superlative fOfms.

I dOI/'/milUl coohillg hill Ilwre i!"OlIillg.

We tlSI:: tnt:: mliniti\t: after some \t:rbs. "(' IriedlO sare sOll/e Il/Oitel' bl'ullI.sl' fle('tled to blly a 1J('1l' em: .\/1" mOlher llskNlme 10 ritly lip, tllld Ihell toltl me 10 f.:0 fU !Jet!. 11'('

\/lIkl' and lei arc followed by the mfiniti\e without 10.

Slit, m(ttle me gu Iv het!. me remllill" II llhilc.

There

IS

hill

slle let

a list of verb patterns on

page 158.

IJ:J

Example Billy's only two so he's

Ihe l'ol/lIgesl

in the family.

a 'What is Anna's brothel' like'!' 'Well, he is certainly . dark and handsome. bll\ J didn't than she is!' enjoy mecting him at all. I-Ie is even b 'What was your meal like'?' 'Ugh! It was <l\vful. The pizza was but we still couldn't cat it!'

_

. We were absolutely

c 'Did you have a good time in Amsterdam?' 'Exeel1ent. thank you. There's so much 10 do. It's a really city. And there are so many people from allover thc \\!orld. i(s e\lcn _ _ _ _ _ _ than London.' d 'Mmm! These courgettes are yourselves?' 'Yes, we did. All our vegetables arc

. Did you grow them _

Grammar Reference: page 149,

3

T.45 Listen and check your answers. Work with a partner and practise saying some of the dialogues. paying particular attention to the intonation, Likes and dislikes

Unit 6

59


~

READING AND SPEAKING

In search of~

Pre-reading task Work in pairs. Do you know any typical meals from the lollowing countries?

France

Turkey

India Switzerland

Spain America

Italy Mexico Greece

by Verona Paul and Jason Winner

England

1

What do you think inlluences a country's food? What innuences the food in your Coulltry? 2 Read these quotations abollt English food. Do all the people have the same opinion about English food? ~ "It takes some skill to spoil a breakfasleven the English can"' do it!" J K Galbraith, economist

'On the Continent people have good food; in England people have good table manners.' George Mikes, writer and humorist

'If the English can survive their food, they can survive anythingr George Bernard Shaw, writer

'Even loday, well-brought up English girls are taught to boil all vegetables for at least a month and a half, just in casc onc of thc din ncr gucsts comcs without his teeth!' Calvin Trillin, American writer

3 The British have in fact always imported food from abroad. From the time of the Roman invasion foreign trade was a major influence on I~ritish cooking. English kitchens, like the English language, absorbed ingrediems from all over rhe world-chickens, rabbits, apples, and tea. All of these and more were successfully incorporated into British dishes. Another important influence on British cooking was of course the weather. The good old British rain gi,路es us rich soil and green grass, and means that we are able to produce some of rhe finest varieties of meat, fruit and vegetables, which don't need fancy sauces or complicated recipes to disguise their taste.

An anonymous French chef

Reading Read the text quickly. Match a paragraph 1-5 with a summary below.

60

Unit 6 Likes and dislikes

ow come ir is so difficult to find English food in Engltmd? In Greece you eat Greek food, in France French food, in Italy Italian food, but in England, in any High Street in the land, it is easier [Q find Indian and Chinese restaurants than English ones. In London you can cat Thai, Portuguese, Turkish, Lebanese. Japanese, Russian, Polish, Swiss, Swedish, Spanish, and Italian-but where arc the English restaurants?

2 It is not only in restaurants that foreign dishes arc replacing traditional British food. In every supermarket, snles of pasta, pizza and poppadoms are booming. Why has rhis 11<lppened? What is wrong with the cooks of Britain that they prefer cooking pasta to potatoes? Why do the British choose to cat lasagne instead of shepherd's pic? Why do they now like cooking in wine and olive oil? But perhaps it is a good rhing. After all, this is the end of the 20th century and we can get ingredients from all over the world in just a few hours. Anyway, wasn't English food alw:lYs disgusting <lnd tasteless? Wasn't it always boiled rodeath and swimming in fat? The answer to these questions is a resounding 'No', but to understand this, we have to go back to before World War II.

'English cooking? You just put things into boiling watcr and thcn takc thcm out again after a long while!'

- Historical and climatic innucnccs on Uritish cooking - Thcrc's cverything exccpt an English restaurant. The legacy of World War [I Where there is hope for the future The British love aITair with international cooking

H

4

However, World War II changed everything. Wartime women had to forget 600 years of British cooking, learn to do without foreign imports, and ration their lise of home-grown food. ...


English food .... The Ministry of Food published cheap, boring recipes. The ioke of the war was a dish called Woolton Pic (named after the Minister for Food!). This consisted of a mixture of boiled vegetables covered in white sauce with mashed potato on the fOp. Britain never managed to recover from the wartime ;mitude to food. We WCTC left with a loss of confidence in our cooking skills and airer years of

Ministry recipes we began to believe thnr British food was boring, and we searched the world for sophisticated, new dishes which gave hope of a better future. The British people bccnmc tourists at their own dining tables and in the restaurants of their land! This is a tragedy! Surely food is as much a pan of our culture as our landscape, our language, and our literature. Nowadays, cooking British food is like speaking a dead language. Ir is almost as bizarre as having a conversation in Anglo-Saxon English!

5 However, there is still one small ray of hope. I~ritish pubs arc often the beSt places to cat well and cheaply in Britain, and they also increasingly try to serve msty British food. Can we recommend to you our twO favourite places to cat in Britain? The Shepherd's Inn in Melmerby, Cumbria, and the Dolphin Inn in KingstOn, Devon. Their steak and mushroom pie, Lancashire hotpot, and bread and burrer pudding are three of the gastronomic wonders of the world!

2 They say thai the British .. a eat only traditional British food in their homes. b don't like cooking with foreign il1grediell1~. e buy lots of foreign ingredients.

3 They say that the British weather ... a enables the British to produce good quality food. b often ruins fruit und vegetables. c is not such an important innucnce on British tood as foreign trade.

4 They say that World War II had a great influence on 13ritish cooking because. a lraditional13ritish cooking \vas rediscovered and some good cheap recipes were produced. b people had limitless supplies of home-grown food. c people started to believe that British food was boring. so after the war they wanted 10 cook mort: interesting and international dishes. 5 They say that ... a British tourists try lots of new dishes when they are abroad. b nowadays it is very unusual for British people to cook British food. e literature and language are more culturally important than food.

6 The writers' final conclusion aboLlt British cooking is that a there is no hope. b you will only be able to get Brilish food ill expensive restaurants. c you will be able to get more good traditional British dishes. especially in pubs.

Discussion Do you agree that food is as much a part of a country's culture as its landscape, language. and literature?

2 Which arc your favourite places to cal in your country? Why?

Language work Work in pairs. Study the text and find the following. One example of like used as a verb and of like used as a preposition.

Comprehension check Read the article more carefully. Choose the best answer. a. b or c. The writers believe that British cooking ... a has always been very bad. b was good until World War II. r: is good because it is so international.

lWO

examples

2 Two examples of the pattern, adjective + infinitive. I(s impossible to l('{Im English.

3 Examples of verbs that are 101l0wed by an -illg form. l/m'l! lelmlillg English. -l Examples of verbs that are followed by nn infinitive with 10. f ll'UI/t 10 IC(lnt lfo!it/ll.

Likes and dislikes

Unit 6

6'


LISTENING AND SPEAKING New York and London Pre-listening task Look at the picture of New York and London. What do yOll know abOllt the cities? Have you been there'? What did you do? What did you think of these cities?

Listening

Comprehension check

Work in two groups.

"Vhat do they/does she say about the following things'?

Group A

BOB AND SHEILA

1.46a Listen to Sheila and Bob talking about when they lived in ew York.

Bob Clnd Sheila spent tl\'O )lC'ars /iving in Nell' York because of Bob's 1II0rk as a banka Neirher of lhem had /i"ed in a big cit)" before, They nOll' lire back ill England. in a sl71allrillage outside London.

Group B 1.46b Listen to Terry, She is an American who lives in London.

Terry TomsclUl /(Ilks about her experience of lilling and 'Forking in England, \I,here she has been for the pas! c{ellen years.

1 -

People What are they like? What is important to them? What do they like doing? Where do they live?

2 -

Shops What are they like? Do they like them? What time do they open?

TERRY

3 Work and holidays 4 Transport - What do they mention? 5 General opinions - Is it a good place to live? Why?

Speaking Find a partner from the other group. Compare your information. 62

Unit 6

Likes and dislikes


â&#x20AC;˘ WRITING AND SPEAKING Describing a room I Think of your favourite room. Draw a plan of il 011 a piece of paper. Write down why you like it and some adjectives to describe it. .

2

T.47 Read and listen to the description of a faVNlritc room. Usc your dictionary to look up any new \\ords.

3 There are four mistakes in the picture. What are they?

I {ike il because if i.I".

Myfavourill: roolll is ...

Show a partner your plan and talk about why you like the room.

My favourite room My FAVOURITE room is our

kitchen.

Perhaps the kitchen is the mOSI

important room in many houses, but it is particularly so in our bouse s becausc it's not only where we cook and eat but it's also the main

meeting place for family and friends. I have so lllany happy memories of 10

15

20

25

30

35

times spent there: special occasions such as homecomings or cooking Christmas dinner; troubled times, which lead to comforting cups of tea in the middle of the night; ordinary daily events such as making breakfast 011 dark. cold winter mornings for cross. sleepy children before sending them off to school. then sitting down to read the newspaper with a steaming hot mug of coffee. Whenever we have a party, people gravitate with their drinks to the kitchen. II always ends up the fullest and noisiest room in the house. SO WHAT does this special room look like? It's quite big, but not huge. It's big enough to have a good-sized rectangular table in the centre. which is the focal point of the room. There is a large window above the sink, which looks out onto Mo apple trees in the garden. The cooker is at one end, and above it is a wooden pulley, which is old-fashioned but very lIseful for drying clothes in wet weather. At the other end is a wall with a large notice-board, which tells the story of our lives, past. present,

It always ends up the fullest and noisiest room in the house. and future, in words and pictures: a school photo of Megan and Kate, a .0 postcard from Auntie Nancy in Australia, the menu from a takeaway Chinese restaurant, a wedding invitation for next Saturday. All our world is there for everyone to read!

.5 THE I'RO:-<T door is seldom used in

our house, only by strangers. All our friends lise the back door, which means they cOllle straight into the kitchen and join in whatever is 50 happening there. Thl;' kettle goes on immediately and then we all sit round the table. drinking tea and putting the \"rorld to rights! Without doubt some of the happiest times of 55 my life have been spent in our kitchen. _

Likes and dislikes

Unit 6

63


4 The relative pronouns It'llich and Ivhere are used in the text. Find them and underline them. What does each one refer to?

Qj Grammar Reference: page 149. 5 Link the following sentences with the correct relative pronoun: \I'ho, wllich, tlzat. \I 'here, whose. a The blonde lady is my wife. She's wearing a black dress. b There's the hospital. My sister works there.

c The postcard arrived this morning. It's from Auntie Nancy. d T passed all my exams. This made my father very proud. e Did you meet the girl? Her mother teaches French.

6 Write a similar description of your favourite room in about 250 words. Describe it and give reasons why you like it.

Signs and soundbites Where would you ee or hear the following?

A table for jaw: please.

DRY CLEAN ONLY

PAY AND DISPLAY

Government health warning Tobacco seriously damages your health

[

VACANT

Coming next on Capital-traffic news and the weather

The management accepts no responsibility. Coats and other articles left at owner's risk.

J VISITORS ARE REQUESTED TO KEEP TO THE PATHS

No, I'm just looking, tJumk you.

SERVICES 20 MILES

KEEP OUT OF REACH OF CHILDREN

FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY /

Is service included?

ÂŁ-----..._---------

Yours faithfully, Veronica Vazey

64

Unit 6

Likes and dislikes

Don't forget to give my 10vl:' to everyolle CIt home.


The world of work Present Perfect active and passive On the telephone

Test your grammar 1 Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions. a What do you do? b How long have you had your present job? c What did you do before that? d

PRESENTATION (1) Present Perfect Simple I Read the job ad\ocniscmcnt. Does this job interest you? Do you have any of the necessary qualifications to apply?

WORLDWATCH Business journalist £35,000 p.a. This international business magazine, with 23,000 readers worldwide, requires a journalist to help cover political news in Europe. The successful applicant will be based in Geneva and should:

{7 V (;:>

• •

DO you live in a house or a flal7

• •

lx

~ ~~(.~.j e How long have you lived there? f When did you move there? 9 How long have you known your

have at least two years' experience in business journalism be fluent in French and German, and if possible have some knowledge of Spanish have a degree in politics have travelled widely.

Please write with full CV to David Benton, WorJdwatch UK Ltd, 357 Ferry Rd, Basingstoke RG2 5HP

2

WORLDWATCH

1.48

Nancy Mann has applied for thejoh and is being interviewed. Lislen to the interview. Do you think she will gel the job?

teacher? h When did you first meet your

teacher? Have you ever been to America? If so, when did you go?

2 Tell the rest of the class about your partner. 3 There afe three tenses used in the questions. What are they?

The world of work

Unit 7

65


3 Read the first part of Nancy's intervie\v. Put the correct auxiliary verb do. did, or ha\'e into each gap. T 1

1 N

1 N

you work for at the moment, Ms Mann') 1 \vork for the BBC World Service. And how long you worked for the BBC? r __ been with the BBC for five years. Yes. exactly five years. And how long you been their German correspondent? For t,vo year. And what you do before the BBC? J worked as an interpreter for the ED. \11,/110

PRACTICE 1 Biographies

Li ten to the first part again and check your ansvv"ers.

• Grammar questions Does she still work for the BBC? Does she still W'Ofk for the EU? - Explain why Nancy says: f work for the BBe World S·erl'iN'. /'I'e worked/or tlion /01' jive years. f worked as an inrerpreter/or the EU

Here are some more events from Nancy Mann's life. Match a line in A with a time expression in B to tell the story of her life. Put a letter a-k in the box.

4 Read and complete the second part of Nancy's interview with did. \I'(/S, or huve.

I

I N

I N

A

a b c d e f g h

She was born She went to boarding school in England She studied French and German She hasn't spoken Spanish She's worked in both eastern and western Europe She worked in Brussels She's worked for the sse She hasn't worked abroad She married for the first time j She's been married k She married for the third time

As you know, this job is based in Geneva. you ever lived abroad before? Oh yes. yes J _ And when you live abroad? Well, in fact I born in Argentina and 1 lived there untill was eleven. Also, I lived and worked in Brussels for two years when I _ working for the EU. That's interesting. you travelled much? Oh yes. yes indeed. I travelled all over western and eastern Europe, and I also been to many parts of South America. AIld \vhy you go to these places? Well, mostly for pleasure. but three years ago 1 went back to Argentina to cover various political stories in Buenos Aires for the BBe.

B

o for the last five years. o three times. o

Listen and check your answers.

from 1970 to 1977.

[£] at various times in her life.

• Grammar question

o when she was twenty-one . o when she was at Oxford University.

- The interviewer asks:

@]

in Argentina in 1959.

D

for two years, from 1989 to 1991.

Have you erer Iivecl abroad? When did you lil'e abroad?

o o

ancy says: f'1'e been to many parts 0/ South America.

D

last year. since her son was born four years ago. since she was in Buenos Aires three years ago.

... three years ago f weflt back to Argentina ...

Why are diITerent tenses used? 66

Unit 7

The world of work

2

T.49

Listen and check your answers.


3 Work in pairs. Write similar tables of your own life. Ask your partner to match the events and the times to tell the story of your life. Correct any wrong times.

PRESENTATION (2) Present Perfect active and passive

2 Time expressions

1 Read the newspaper headlines. Cheek an new words.

Pm/i'll', since, in, or ago into each gap. a b c d e f

g h ]

a

1961.

I was born

three years. _ I passed my driving test fifteen years I've had a car 1983. Now I've got a BMW. I've had it two years. I met my wife 1985. We've been married nine years. Our first daughter \vas born six years _ 1990. We've lived in the same house

DANGEROUS PRISONER ESCAPES

I \'v'ent to university

b

c

have be meet leave

eat drink write read

win lose drive ride

d

forget sleep hear see

bring make give find sing go (Careful!)

Kidnapped baby found

us CAR WORKERS

3 Have you ever ... ? The following verbs are all irregular. What is the past simple and past participle?

Floods bring road chaos

\

MADE REDUNDANT

2 T.50a Read and Ii ten to [he radio news headlines of the same stories. Fill in the gaps with [he exact words you hear.

2 Work with a partner. Choose from the list and make dialogues like the example. Example be/America?

RADIO NEWS HEADLINES

A Hare yOIl el'eI' been /0 America? BYes, J have.lNo, J haven't. I've nel'er been there. A When did you go? B Tll'o veal's ago. J H:eJ1{ /0 Disney!and )jIilh III)' fami~y:

a The murderer Bruce Braden from Parkhurst Prison on the Isle of Wight. b After the heavy rain of the last few days, floods _ _ _ _ _ _ chaos to drivers in the West Country. c Amy Carter, the kidnapped baby from Leeds, _ _ _ _ _ _ safe and well in a car park in Manchester. d Two thousand car workers from a US car factory redundant.

have/an operation?

win/a competition?

be/on TV?

lose/your job?

write/a love letter?

hear/an opera?

ride/a motor bike?

see/a horror movie?

have/an English breakfast?

forget/an important birthday?

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

try/iced tea?

sleep/in the open air?

drive/a van?

sing/in a choir?

- Which of these question can you answer? Which can't you answer'?

read/a book in a foreign language?

meet/anyone famous?

3 Tell the class as much as you can remember about your partner.

Who has escapedFO//1 prison'! What has brought chaos to the West Counlry? Who has found Amy Carter~ Who has made the car lI'orkers redundant'! - What is the difference between the verb forms in Exercise 2'? The world of work

Unit 7

67


3 T.50b Listen to the nevvs items and fill in the gaps to complete the stories. What other information do you learn about each one? a Last night, the murderer Bruce Braden _ _ _ _ _ from Parkhurst Prison. Prison officers his cell empty at six o'clock this morning.

PRACTICE 1 Here is the news! \Vork in pairs. Here are some more headlines from newspapers. Make them into radio ne\A'S headlines. Examples

Plane crashes in Colombia A Boeing 727 /ws crashed i/1 1he mOU/l!ains of Colombia near Bogol(./.

DANGEROUS PRISONER RECAPTURED The Inurderer Bruce Braden has been I'ecaptureclneal' Parkhursl Prison.

a b c d e [

famous film tar leaves $3,000.000 to her favourite pet Priceless painting stolen from Louvre Seven people killed in train crash Princess runs away with gardener President forced to resign Sporting hero fails drug test

2 Choose t\\IO or the headlines and vvrite the full stories. Read your news to the rest of the class. b Early this morning, floods

chaos to many roads in Devon. Drivers left their cars and to work through the flood water.

c Late last night, the kidnapped baby Amy Carter, ____ safe and well in a car park in the centre of Manchester. The car park attendant _ _ _ a noise coming from a rubbish Amy vvrapped in a bin and he warm blanket. d Two thousand car workers from the General Motors factory in Detroit redundant yesterday. The management _ _ _ _ them no \yarning. The men v,'ere shocked and furious when they the news yesterday evening.

3 \I\'hat s in the news today'? \Vhat national or international stories do you know?

2 Giving personal news What about your personal nevis? What have you done today'? This week'? 1 hi year? Ask and ans\ver questions with a partner. Example have/breakfast? (Have you had

breakfast?>.,,~{Yes, I have.

/--No. I haven't. I never') ./

".,,~at breakfast! ('

r-

~.'-,

I What did you have? './

/"

- Which tense is used in the full stories in Exercise 3 above? Why? - Which tense is used in the headlines in Exercise 2 on page 67? Why? 68

Unit 7

The world of work

"\

'~ Cornflakes and toast.)

Today

This week

This year

travel/by bus?

go/cinema?

have/a holiday yet7

(Careful!)

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

I've just had it)

do/any work?

do/any exercise?

move/house f

have/a coffee break?

playja sport?

have/your birthday yet?

have/I unch yet?

watch/TV?

take/any exams?

do/any exercise?

wash/your hair?

apply/for a new job?


LANGUAGE REVIEW

3 Discussing grammar Work in pairs, Read the follo\ving sentences, Discuss where the words can go. Sometimes there arc several possibilitics.

I just a b c d c f g h

yet

,already

ever

never

The Present Perfect The Present PerlL"'Ct relates past time has three main u,>cs.

I

I've washed my hair. Have you played basketball? He hasn't learned to drive, They've finished the exercise. Shc's learned a foreign language, We 've mct your tcacher. Have they finished doing the washing·up? Has it stopped raining?

present time. It

To express unfinished pasl. {'rf! !in,d !I('I"C lor lire n'/I"_\. (I staned living here live years ago and I stilllivc here.) H t' ',\ b('f!" l/ l('mile,. sill£'(' ht' I\'ClS III 't'il I.I·-Olle • :"oiOT • He is tt teacher SlIlce ... 1

To expft:ss an cxpaiencc that harrened some time in your life. It IS the c:\pcricnce that is important. 110t when it happened. /'n! bee"

2 Underline the correct verb form. a The Prime Minister of Italy has Y(',~igll('dllwsbeen resiglled and a new prime minister has elecledllws beell elecled. b The hal ian people 101d/II'ere /Old of his resignation on television yesterday evening. c I lost/hare 10SI my glasses, Did TOil see/Hare JOII seell them anywhere'? d 'Where has Liz gOlle/did Liz go on holiday?' 'She's in Paris: e 'Where "as Liz gone/did Liz go on holiday?' 'She went to Paris: f 'Did John ever go/Has John ever been to ParisT ·Oh. yes. Five times.' g A huge earthquake !las hir/}uH been hil ccntral Japan. Nearly 1.000 people !Jure killed/hare been killed. II happened/has happened mid-afternoon yesterday.

10

10

11/_l/mlin I

\1'('//1

Ihl"c(' years ago_

'/1m'f' .1'01/ erer !il'ell iI/ Frallce?" }('.I". / hUl'e, I /ired

l"el"('.Imm /1)93 .~

10

11JII5.

To express the pn:-;clH imparlance of a past c\-em. usually a reccllt e\-enl. It is often used \\ hen gi\ ing news. Ihe poIii'£' IUlI'e ll'(lmetll!lt' pllMic 1111I1 Ihe IIIlIll il dlll/gaol/.I.

/"'e 10M my ('I"1'dil n/l'll. /fOI't!

rOil .~et!1I i(l

The Present Perfect passive The uses of the Prescnt Pcrfect are the s,lme ill the passi\c. TH'o mil/ioll ml"s hm'e been prOflllced.1"O .Iar (Unfinished pas!) .//UI'(,

yOIl {'\'('I"

h('ell ",mle rl't/lImlllllf?' . Yo.

IM,I

Tellr.

1Il'1l'/:

r"flnk

xoodness." (Past experience) '//Ul'l' YOII"l'(/rd? /'I'e heel/left £4.()f)(} hy

Illy ~n'{1/ Wllll.'"

(Present importance)

a. • READING AND SPEAKING Pre-reading task Close your eyes for a few minutes. Imagine it is one hundred years ago and you arc very rich, - What is your life like? Where do you live? What do you do? - Do you have any servanls? How many? What do they do for you? - What do you know about thc lives of your servants? Where do they live?

Grammar Reference: page 150.

2 Work in small groups and discuss your ideas in your group. Share your ideas with the rest of thc class. 3 \Vhat about now? Do many people have servants? Have you ever worked in anyone else's home? In what ways are servants today different from years ago?

The world of work

Unit 7

69


Reading

2 Read your arlicle again. Which of the rollowing multi-word verbs can you lind in your article? Underline them,

The modern servant the nanny, the cook, and the gardener YOll are going to read abollt three modern servants. Di\ide into three groups. Group A

Read about the nanny.

Group B

Read abollt the cook.

Group C

Read abollt the gardener.

Read your article and answer the questions. Use your dictionary to help with new words. Discuss your answers with your group. a What and who influenced her/his choice of career? b What did her/his parents want her/him to do? c What was the parents' attitude to the choice of career at first'! d Has the parents' altitude changed? If so. why? ern what ways do the parents think that times have changed since they were young?

bring up (1) bring up (2) carry on drop out fall out get on with get over give up go Ihrough grow up look after make up (1) make it up (2) pick up

pUloff be taken aback take after turn out take over

The nanny

A

the Norland Nursery Training College, She and her mol her talk about her choice or career,

5 OIl

Amanda

15

20

25

i\Iy sister Charlotte was born when I was se\'CD and my mothcr decided shc nccded a naDDy to look after us, So \\'C got Alison. She was vcry young, se\"(~ntccn I think, and wonderful. I adorcd her. She only worked part-time wlth us before she started her training at Norland College, She had to dress us in the morning and takc me 10 school. After school she made us delicious teas and read us slories in bed. On Chl.dolte's birthday she organized a filntastic party, When/\lison lert, we had a lrained nanny \l'ho lived with us ;lI1d worked full-time, She lI'ilS clIllcd Nanny Barnes by everyone, including Illy parents, She was older and quite tradltlonol unci wore a ulllfonn,lt was thcn that I realized that I wanted to be a nanny. I have always got on well with 70

Unit 7

The world of work

mention (in conversation) continuc leave.. not complete (<I college course) quarrel and no longer be rriends have a good relationship with recovcr from (an illness, a shock) SlOp (a job, a habit. e.g. smoking) expenence change rrom child to adull lake care of invent

be friends again after an argument learn unconsciously (e.g. a language) postpone

be surprised resemble

be in Ihe cnd lake control or

thoughllt was Just a childish phase I \\'lIS l,'Oing through, but illVrlsn't, They thought I would follow in my fathcr's footsteps and study law. But I didn't. Thcrc wcre somc terrible rows but I didn't go to univcrsity, tleft school and spent u ycar working at Ludgro\'c School. wherc Prince William used to b'(). Then I started my training course at Norland Collcge. I finished the course last month and l'vc applied for the post of nanny to twIns aged six months. Mummy and Daddy weren't angry for long, we made it up beforc I went to collegc, and thcy have encouraged me elicr since.

manda Peniston路Bird. 21. is the daughter of a judge and hHS just completed a Iwoyear training course to be <I nmllly

10

look after. cdueate (a child)

35

~

.S

Amanda's mother

'My father wanted me to be a solicitor. ,

30

children, I hal'!: always enjoyed taking Cllre of my sister and younger cousins, I told MtWlmy very firmly that I wanted to be a nanny when I grew up. At the time she laughed. I know that she and Daddy

Her fllliler is still a wee bit disappoimed tlwl she didll'llnke ajrer Ilim ami sllldy la\\" bUl / think 50 lI'e're both proud. and also plmsfl[, that she has mellie 11er 011"1 decisions in life ami doue so \Vdl. We hllW broll!1llt/wr l~/l to be /1/1 indel'flldem think"" so lI'e can'l comphlill. Bw:rytllil1g hilS ltlmed owfol' the fx>sf. IllIld II llmmy wilt", 1 55 \\IllS II dtlid bUI I /h'ver fllOlIyltt of bd,tg om' m!l,~~If. Imt tlliles have dlll!1yed 1111/1 'Itmmyillg' hilS III'en sodl/lly lIL'CCjlllliJll' for a 10llg time, 11 WIlSll'f )l~st PrI'lceSS Dill/Ill \\'110 made il fllslliolll1iJlel I!O


The cook

30 cookery course for fun. and I \\~11 for a month 10 a hotel in Torquay. I enjo}'ed il50 much.! knew I couldn't pul off telling my parents any longer, so I broughlthe subject up one night Ol'ef dinner, i\tllrsttherc \I~IS 3S silence, and then my falher asked me why, I explained th'lt cooking was like painting a picture or wTiting a book. E\'Cr)' meal Willi an act of creation. ! could see that my father was noc convinced. but he didn't gel angry. -0 he Just patled me on the shoulder and smiled. My mother kissed me. And 1I0W Ihat I ha\'e opened my own restaurant, [ think lhey are "cry proud of me. HO\\'e\'Cr, my grandfather (on my father's Side) is not so kind, he thinks 45 I'm mad 10 ha\'e gi\'CI1 up fanning.

iles Mildmay, 24. has been a professional cook for three

G

rC.1rs. His f<lther. George. owns

a two-hundrcd-acre farm in Oemn. 5 The family have farmed in Dc\'On for

O'i'Cr three hundred years. Gilcs'

10

)'oungc... brol.her Tobias is studying farm management at Exeter University. Giles and his f,lIher talk about his choice of career.

Giles I think I\-e always been interested in bxI. My grandparents (on my mother's side) Ih~ in a huge old manor hoose III lincolnshire 15 Illld they hild iI wooderful cook. She made fantastic standard English food; her roast beef

'My grandfather thinks f'm mad!'

ilnd Yorkshire pudding was out or Ihis world. r used 10 love going dowll to the kitchen and 20

watching her work. and I picked up a lot 0( cooking tips from her. I realized thai I wanted

to be a cook when I was about 12. I wenl to a boarding school and wben other boys chose IOdo sport. I chose cookery. By the time I was

The gardener ugo Gmntchcslcr. 26. h.ls been a gardener and a tree surgeon for four years. He went to Oxford University to study s nrchneolog)~ but he dropped OUl after just one term. His fnther. Hector, is a surveyor and his 1ll01her. Gcmldine. is an interior designer. Hugo and his mother talk 10 about his choice of career.

H

25

J 5. J had taken OI'Cr the cooking ilt home for my parents' dinner partlcs. and I had started to make up my own recipes. I knew my parents would IlOl: approo.'C of cooking as a ca~. so I decided to introduce them slowly to the idea. Iiold them Ihat I wanled 10 do a

Giles' father 1 know 11,m lilllfS "aI't dlll/Iyed. bm / was brough/up with a bllt/a mul (I cook 10 look nfter /!Ie, 11/1/1 1 MI'er 1l'I'Illl1ear Ihl' klld,(/l. / so \Vas tllkm I/back m first wllrn Gllrs /lmw/ltKrd \\>I!Il1 lIt wall/rd 10 do, llis gro,IIdfalJll'r sll/l l,aSIl', gollJl'tf it. bUI Ills molllÂŤ and l/1rt dtligllted dUll Ire is doi/lg SOllltlhlll9 III' mioys. NO\\'Il00ys (Wyallt wilh a job I1WI tllf'y trljoy is 55 \,(fy Illcky.

Hugo \"hen I was 11, we mm'Cd to a large Tudor 35 bUl Hlso bee'HlS(: a 101 of my uni\'erslly bouse in Easl Anglia which had three acres friends ha\'e found it difficult to find good of garden. We had a gardener who Ii\-ro in jobs or hil\~ been m;lde n.'1Iundanl. 15 a Uule cottage at the end of our dri\'e. I used Sometimes people are quite taken aback to spend hours 1\'<ltching him work and ",hen Ihe)' find oUlth;ltthcir gardener went lalklng to him, I think I picked up il lot -010 unil'ersity. but J think It makes thcm <Ioout gardening without realizing it. respect my opinion more when I'm helping because one summer, when I was still at them phm I heir gardens. 20 school. I took a Job CIt a g'lrden centre and I knew <Ill the names of the p1allls. and I Hugo's mother could gi\'C people ad"kc. Then I ",cnllo His fallrer /ll/d , \I'trt SlJ dtUg/IIN II'lIrn he unil-'('rsity and il \\~"S a disasler. Afler a term ~s 1\'(11I10 Oxford, bIll "'lrell he gm'! It up so SOOt! I told my parents Ihal I was going to gi\'C it Ill' Iwrr \'try, \'(ryanyry. Hi' /1I0IlY/lt //lummi 25 up and go back (0 work in the g;lrden lillxmr \I'IIS not lire mrrtr for our only WI!. We centre, They were rurlous. lI'e h;ld a terriblc fell Olll for 1Il01l/11s, HrcfOr rtfusrd 10 aI/ali' roll', and they didn't speak to me for Ilugo illlO till' 1r01lSt, /llld 1\'( /1/1 ft/I IIlOrQljg/lly months. But I knew It was a waste of lime so //liStmhll'. HilI our daughltr wid us 1101 fO to carry on siudying archaeology, and the 1I'0rry btrol/St Hugo would ~ u millionnirr by 30 !Doment J started gardening ag.1in, J knell' Ilrt 111I11' lit wasjmy_ AllyllTlY, nY'\'(" "!Ilk it I'd made the right decision, !\'C cnjO)l.'d up 00"' 11't' (lin sa Iww /Ulppy 111' is. 1"1'1'11 e\'Cf)' momenl of Ihe last fOUf years and my IIIOll91r lit has/l't brromt II mil/ioll/lire !Jrt! parellts ha\'c learnt to accept what I do. not 55 Tillll's Ir/ll't' dUlI/grd 11I111 III/ kill/Is of /leoJl/e /10 only because tht')' cun see holV happy I am, 1111 kimls of 1I'0rk. 11I/11 I think lhe world's 1/ bcUrf pillet' fur if!

'My parents were furious.'

The world of work

Unit 7

71


Comprehension check Find a partner from each of the other two groups. Go through questions a e in Exercise I on page 70 together. Compare and swap information ahout the

people.

• VOCABULARY Multi-word verbs There are many examples of multi-word verbs in the reading texts.

2 Read the other two articles quickly. Are the following statements true (.I) or false (X)?

SI//! needed (( 1/(fIlIIY to Inok afte,. 1/05. I told 11Iy parents Ibar {was going {() gi\'t.' il lip. IWllnled /0 be a nal/ny when { gj'(~1I' up.

a Only Giles and Hugo were influenced by the servants

L.6

in their families when they were children. b Amanda wanted to be a nanny because she liked the

uniform. c Giles wanted to be a cook because the meals were so bad at boarding school. d Hugo did well in his holiday job because he had learnt a lot about plants from the gardener. e All of the parents were very angry when they were told about the choice of career. f Hugo's parents were the least angry. g All of the parents have become friends with their childrcn again. h Giles' grandfather has not forgiven him for becoming a cook. I Some of the children have regrcned thcir dedsion not to go to university. J Hugo has already become a millionaire.

Grammar Reference: page 151.

Use your dictionary to do Ihcse cxcrcises. I Meaning

In the following groups of senlences one meaning of lhe multi-word verb is literal and /n'O are idiomatic. Say which is which. a The plane 10 Hong Kong has just Taken of! b Take that vase off the lable. It's going to fall. c I·Ie's very famous now. His popularity rcally took ojfwhen he made that film.

2 a I'll bring you up some water when I come 10 bed. b Have you brought lip the queslion of borrowing the money? c They brought /lP six children with very little money.

3 a Her health has really picked lip since she movcd to a sunny climate. b Can you pick up my pen for me? It's under your chair. c I picked lip a little Italian when Buongiornol I was v...orking in Rome. Come ti chiami?

3 Show each other which multi·word verbs appear in your article. Discuss lheir meaning. Which ones appcar in morc than one article?

Roleplay Work in groups of thrcc. Students A and B You are the parents of C. One of you is a doctor and the other a lawyer, and you would like C to follow one of these professions, but C has other ideas. Explain to C why yours are such good careers. Student C A and B are your parents. They want you to become a lawyer or a doctor, but you have different ideasl You want to be one of the following (or choose one of your own): a dancer a mUSICian a poet an explorer a model a jockey an astronaut Talk together. and try point of view.

72

Unit 7

10

persuade each other to see your

The world of work

4

a It took me a long lime 10 gel orer the operation. b Mario doesn't speak much English so il was difficuh to gel OIW to him what I wanted. C Can you help me geT Ol'er this wall? The gate is closed ..

5 a I looked up Bob's number in the phone book. b The new manager is very good. Sales have really looked lip since he came. c We looked up the tree and there was the cal on the top branch.


Discussion What is the usual retirement age for men and women in your country? What kind of thing do people like doing when they retire? - Are attitudes to retirement changing? - \Vhat do you think is the best age to retire? - When would you like to retire? What would you like to do when you retire?

WRITING Formal letters 17 Hillside Rei Chesswood Hens. WD3 5LB Tel 01923284171 Fax 01923 286622

Read Nancy's letter of application to Workhv{[tch. Put one word into each gap. Compare your answers with a partner. 2 Look at

Thursday 17 January

ancy's letter again.

- In what other ways can you begin and end formal letters? - In 'what ways can you begin and end informal letters? Where is Nancy" address written? - Where is the address of the company she's writing to? - In what other way can you write the elate? - Where does Nancy sign her name? Where does she print her name? There are three paragraphs. What is the aim of each one? 3 Write a letter of application for the following job in the Dail} !v·ews.

TRANS-GLOBE COACHES

David Benton Worldwatch UK Ltd 357 Ferry Rd Basingstoke RG2 5HP Dear Mr Benton I saw your for a Business Journalist in today's Guardian newspaper. I am very in the job and I think that I have many of the necessary _ I politics and modem languages at Oxford University. I am in French, German and Spanish. I have widely in Europe and South America, and I worked as a business journalist for the BBC the last five years. I enclose a copy of my curriculum vitae. I look forward ____ hearing from you soon. Please let me know if you need more information.

want Yours sincerely

In • Europe • the Far East • North and South America Have you got good interpersonal skills? Can you speak two or more languages? Do you want to see the world? Please apply with CV to The Personnel Manager Trans-Globe Coaches Victoria Square London SWl 6VC

74

Unit 7

The world of work

~'"('~~ Nancy Mann


3 Notice these common expressions on tbe telephone.

On the telephone 1 All the phrases below are from lypical telephone calls. Match a line in A with a line in B. A a Hello, this is Chesswood 285120. I m afraid I m not at

b

c d e

f

home at the moment, but please leave your name and number after the tone and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. I'm afraid Mr Barrett s in a meeting. Can I take a message? Shall I ask Miss Jackson to give you a call when she gets back? Good morning. Payne and Stracey Advertising. Hello, Mrs Barrett ... I'm afraid Mr Barrett son another line at the moment. Do you want to hold or ... ? Oh hes free now. I'm putting you through. Hello. Is that Sandra?

B

D D D

D D D 2

Good morning. Can I have extension 321 please? No, I'm sorry, it isn't. She's just gone out. Can I take a message? She'll be back in a minute. Hi, Annie. This is er ... Pete here. Pete ealy. Er ... I need to speak to you about next weekend. Can you give me a ring? Erm ... I'm at home, by tbe way. It's ten o'clock now and I'll be here all morning, er ... until two o'clock. Yes, thanks. Bye. Thank you very much. Frank? It's me. Diana. Yes, please. This is Pam Haddon. He rang me earlier and left a message on my answer phone and 1 m returning his call. Can you tell him I'm back in my office nmv? Yes, please. I'm sure she's got my number but I'll give it to you again. just in case. It's 01924561718.

a A Hello! B Hello. Could I speak to Barry Perkins please? A Speaking. (= I am Barry Perkins.) BAh, hello. This i Jane Gardener. (NOT *-ÂĽ1fl- ... or * Here is ... ) b A Can I have extension 366, please? B Hold the line. please. I'm putting you through. c A Can 1 speak to Mrs Barrett. please? B I'm afraid she's out at the moment. Can I take a message? A Yes. Can you ask her to give me a ring? I'll give you my number. d A Can I speak to Nfl' Bray, please? B I'm afraid his line is busy at the moment. Would you like to hold? A No. I'll phone back later.

Leaving a message on an answer phone 1 It can be difTicult to leave a message on an answer phone! You have to think quickly and speak clearly and you have to pretend that you're talking to a person, but of course you're talking to a machine!

Help! ÂŁ---t-H_e_lp..-.' ,~_.n

-:;i/f':

Help.'

HOW

to leave a message on an ansvver phone! I

introduce yourself ~ ~ ~ ~ Hello. This is ...

My name is ... give the day and time

T.52 Listen and check your answers. Which sound more like business calls?

~ ~

~ ~ ~ ~

It's three o'clock On Monday afterooon. I'm ringing. ,. to let you know that ... to find OLlt if ... because I need ...

request action ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Could you Iring me back?

help me? give your number ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ My number is ...

You can get me on .,. I'm on 784 567 until fi ve 0' clock. end

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Thanks a lot. Goodbye.

2 Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you role cards. Act out a telephone conversation! The world of work

Unit 7

75


Imagine! Conditionals 1ime clauses would Making suggestions

PRESENTATION (11

Test your grammar

1 look at the pictures. Put the words under each picture in the right order to complete the sentences.

First conditional and time clauses

a I usually get the bus to school, but ...

get

I

j( up

late

lift

me

Dad

gives

a

;,

my

T.53a Jim is going to ny to Istanbul. and then he's going to backpack around the world with his friend. Anthony. His mother is vcry worried! Listen to their conversation. Put the words from the box in the gaps,

b I've got my driving test next week, and.

will you do 'II ask

won't get won't do

'II be get

'II get 'II be

Mum Oh, dear! I hope everything will be all right. pass

test

the

~(

buy

car

a

You've never been abroad before.

Jim

;f c I don't have any money at all, but .

million

round travel

won I I'd the world

a

;i

76

Unit 8

Imagine!

OK. I can anything

Mum

But what money?

Jim

We

Mum

Oh. What about if you get lost?

Jim

M urn! If we lostJ we someone the way, but we because we know where we're going!

pounds

2 Which situation ... is always true? . expresses a future possibility? . is possible but improbable?

Don't worry, Mum. I look after myself. Anyway, I with Anthony. We stupid,

Mum

if you run out of

a job of course!

Oh. All right. Bm what if

Practise the dialogue in pairs.

,

lost


2 Make similar dialogues about other things that Jim's mother is worried about. Usc you and f.

Will)"

Oh dearl What you do if you get

PRACTICE 1 Completing a conversation

Don't worry, Mum.

Joc (J) is saying goodbye to his wife. Sue (5). \vho is going for a job interview. Put if. lI'hell, or as soon as into each box. Put the vcrb into the correct tense.

I'l ...

food poisoning?

get food poisoning - lose your passport - mect a girl who yOll fall in love with - get sunburnt - arc homesick are mugged

- don't like the food - don't understand the language - don't get on with Anthony

J

Goodbye, darling! Good luck with the interview!

S Thanks. l"ll need it. I hope the trains are running on time. I I the trains (be) delayed, I _ _ (get) a taxi. I II (be) late for the interview, I (be) furious with myself!

Just keep calm! Phone me when you can.

J

S I will. t interview, I

3 T.53b Listen to the next part of their conversation. Put the verb into the correct tense, Mum Jim Mum Jim Mum Jim

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - Which sentence expresses a future possibility. and which a future certainty'! If Ire /"III! 0111 OIIIIOIICY. In'" gel a job. Whell \\"c ger ro a big cily. I'll selld you 1I POSIC(I/'(J.

\I'e gel

D D

lI'e

Wilel/ Ire 'II go . As SOOIl as

o As

H'e

(IITire.

SOOIl as 11'("11 arril'e. ...

==J

When you you've got the job?

S

They (scnd) me a lctter in the nexi few days. I I they (oOer) me the job, I _ _ _ (accept) it, and I II accept it. we (have to) move house. You know that. don't you?

J

Sure. BUI wc'll worry about tbatlater.

S

OK. What are you doing today? I can't remember.l II

(know) [I

(gct) to the (look) in my diary. I don't think office, I I'm doing much today.

I

S

Don't forget to pick lip the children _ _ _ (get) back from work.

J

I won't. You'd better go now.! _ _ _ (not hurry). you

S

OK. I

J

Bye, my love. Take care, and good luck!

T.54

I you

I you (miss) the train.

(see) you this evening. Bye!

Listen and chcck your answcrs.

2 In pairs. ask and answer questions about Joc and SlIC'S cOIl\'crsation. Example What ISuc/do/ifItrains/dclaycd? W!lm \fill Sue do if lite lmills arc delayed? SlIe'lI gel a laxi.

- Tick (.I) the one that is right. Cross out (X) the one that is wrong.

o {l los!, . o II \j'e'll get lost, ... o Whe/1 go ...

(come) out of the (give) you a ring.

J

J

But how willi know that you're all right? When we (get) to a big city, r _ _ _ (send) you a postcard. Oh. But Jim, it's such a long flight to Istanbul! (arrive) in Mum! As soon as we Turkey. I (give) you a ring! I (be) so worried until I _ (hear) from you. It'll be OK. Mum. Honest!

II

a b c d e ]' g

How/shc/fcel/ifllatc for the interview'! Whcn/Suc/phonclJoe? Whcn/know/iflshc's got the job? What Ishe Idol ifIt hey/ofTer her the job? What Ithey/havc to do/if/she/accept/job? What IJoc/clo/ when Iget lortiec') What Ihappcn/if/Sue/not hurry? Imagine!

Unit 8

77


PRESENTATION (2) Second conditional and would I Is there a national lottery in your country? How much can you win? In Britain you can win more than £10 million a week! T.55 Look at the pictures and listen to some people saying what they would do if they won £2 million. Try to guess wbo says what and write a number in the box. Write notes on what they would do with it. Practise somc of the sentences.

2 Complete these sentences from the interviews. a 'I

on a boat trip around the world.' so bored. 'Oh,l _ _ _ _ _ _ . 1 ] ______ fly. I t so much quicker!' b '[ taking things easy for a bit, but then 1 to just gct on with my life, 'cos I'm very happy, really. with what I've got.' Practise some of the entences with lI·ollld. otice the contraction it'd ht;)d/.

• Grammar questions

PRACTICE

- Read the example below. Do we use the past tense forms had and II'mild to refer to past time, or to ShOVi unreality'!

1 Discussion

If I had £2 mil/ioll, 1 would go round the IForld.

- I'd rallter (= I \vould rather) same as J'd prefer to ,..

+ infinitive means the

1 dan', like studying. I'd rather be outside playing tennis. - 1 wouldn't mind + noun or -ing means 1 would (quite) /ike ... [wouldn't mind a cup of tea, 1 wouldn't mind hal'ing {/ fell' weeks 78

Unit 8

Imagine!

ofl work.

What would )'ou do with two million pounds? Work in groups. Ask and answer questions. a b c d

What". buy? Ho\v much ... give away? Who ... give it LO? ... go on holiday? Where.,. to'? What about yow' job? ... carryon working or ... give up your job? e ... go on a spending spree? I' How much, " invest? g .,. be happier than you are now?


2 Various conditional forms 1 Matc.h a line in A with a line in B and a line in C.

a b

c d

e f

9 h

A

B

C

If Tony rings, If you've finished your work. If I'm not back by 8.00, If you've got the 'flu, tf you're ever in London. If you go to Australia, I'd buy a word processor If I had more time,

don't wait for me. t might do an evening class. you have to have a visa. you must give me a ring. tell him I'm at Andy's. you can have a break. you should go to bed. if I could afford it.

It would be really useful for work. He can get hold of me there. Keep warm and have plenty of fluids. But you must be back here in fifteen minutes.

1.56a Listen and check your answers. Pr<lc!ise some of the sentences. Look at the lines in A nnd B. What arc the dilTerelll possible verb forms'!

!\-----------, Notice that when we have a conditional sentence with two present tenses, it expresses a situation that is always true, Ifmeans when or whenever. This is called the zero conditional,

If you boil water, it evaporates, 2 T,56b Vou will hear some questions. Say if they are

examples of the first, second or zero conditional. In pairs, practise thc qucstions and answer them.

We could go out somewhere. I'd love to be really good at photography. You can get one from the Embassy. Go without me. I'll join you at the party.

LANGUAGE REVIEW First conditional First conditlonal ~lll(>nce~ c\pr~s~ real possibilities, Notice that we do 110t usually usc Ifill in the il clause. II I see {/ nin' j/lmpa ill Ihl' shops. I'll huy II. II"//(/t 1\';11.1'0/1 do if rOll dOli"1/(11'(' enough 111/)11('.1"1

Second conditional Second conditional sentences express unreal or improbable situations, We usc past ten"e form:'. to sho\\ 'unreality' and di"tancc from the rresent. II"h(/1 would yOIl llo

U rOil WIll' II ,f!hmI:'

1/111'1.'1'£1 Prim£' ,\linl,He!: I'd il/creal'l' iliCOllle Iln.

3 Dialogues with will and would Work in pairs. Look at the following situations. Decide if they are .. ... possible: .,. imaginary and probably won't happen. Ask and answer questions about \vhat Irollld do in each situation.

yOll

u'ill do or

1.30th lIrst <lnd second conditional sentences refer to the present and future. The diOcrcnce is not about time but probability. If Iwi/l the lennis m(/lch. I'll ... (I think it"" (lO""ible) 1(111'011

1..'5 millio/l,

I'll ...

(but I don"t think it"lI happenl

Zero conditional

Example There's a good film all TV tonight. (Possib/(') fIIh(l/ will yOIl do if there's a goodfilm on TV tonight?

lero conditional sentences refer to 'all timc', 110t just the

I'l/lratch il.

q I real! 1U0 IIII/ch.

You find burglars in your flat. (Imaginary) fIIh(l/ would JOU do if )'011 ji.ullld burglars' in YOllr .lIar? rd phone Ihe police

II

a You can't do this exercise. b c d e f g

The weather's good this weekend. A good friend invitcs you out tonight. YOll arc the president of your country. YOLI don't have any homework tonight. Your teacher gives you c,\tra homework tonight. You can speak perfect English,

present or future. They express a situation that (ruc. I(mcans 11111'11 or 1I'!1('IIr'\"('r, .1"111/

IS

al\\<I)s

I gelll hem/mh£'.

tirol' llll egg, il hj"cakl.

Time clauses We

do no! usual!)

1"1/ girl' yOlf l/ ring

lhC

llBI in tllnc dall',es,

"dim' I KO {f.\

1(/0" c/.I

1I11t'lI

lL

I Kl'f

/Jelc!.:

I k,wlI' Ihl' lillie I!lllte Imill.

Grammar Reference: page 152. Imagine!

Unit 8

79


• READING AND A SONG Pre-reading task I Look at the title of the magazine article. It is based on

a well-known song from <119505' American musicaL T.57 Listen to one or two verses of the song. What dOli" the singers of the song want to do'! What do they

want to do? The lapescripl is on page [35.

2 The article is abollt people who \vin huge amOllllts of money in a [onery or on the football pools. and how this alTecls tbeir lives. Which of the following do you think are good suggestions (.t) or bad suggestions (X) for such people? If you

Will

a 101 of money....

... you should give up work. ... you should buy a new house. ... you mustn't let il change you.

... it's a good idea to keep it a secret. you should give money to everyone who asks

for it. ... you should go on a spending spree.

D 0 0 0 0 0

What suggestions would YO/l give to someone who has won a lot of money? 3 The words in A are in the article. Match a word in A with a definition in B. A

B

a sum of money you receive unexpectedly to fantasize an aim, a reason for doing something a feeling of discontent because a jigsaw someone has something that you want a windfall to spend money foolishly on small, useless things to imagine, to dream a purpose to fritter away a picture cut into pieces that you have to put together again money envy

5

Nearly all of us have fantasized about winning the big prize in The National Lottery. We dream about what we would do with the money. but we rarely stop to think about (1)---"~

For most of us. our way of life is closely linked to our economic circumstances. The different parts of our lives fit together like a jigsaw: work, home. friends. hobbies. and the local pub make our world. This is where we ix':long and where 15 (2) . A sudden huge windfall would dramatically change it all and smash the jigS'1W. For example. most people like the idea of not having to work, but winners have found that without ~ work (here is no purpose to their day, 20 and no reason (0 get up in the morning. (3) _ _ _ _ _ _ in a wealthy neighbourhood but. in so doing. you leave old friends and routines behind.

25

Read the article. The following sentences have been taken out of the texl. Where do you think they should go? a b c d e

They were furious! we feel at home It is tcmpting to move to <l bigger house 'nothing but miscry' what the money would do to llS! f it seems fantastic! g most of their money will be frittered away h if you lent him some money.

There are many stories abollt people who can't learn how to be rich. In [989, Val Johnson won £850.000 on the pools. Immediately, she went on a spending spree that lasted for four years and five marriages. She is now penniless and alonc. 'I'm not a happy person,' she says. J5 'Winning money was the n10st awful thing that happened to me.'

JO

If:

40

Unit 8

Winners are usunlly advised not to publicize (heir address and phone number. bUl charily requests and begging letters still arrive. If they arc not careful, (4) on lawyers' fees to protect them from demanding relatives. guards to protect their homes and swimming pools, and psychotherapists to protect their sanity!

People who get it wrong

Reading

80

The National Lottery creates a millionaire every week in Britain. Maybe this turns you green with envy, but what is it actually like to wake up one day with more money than you can imagine?

Imagine I

Then there is the story of Alice Hopper. who says that her £950.000 win four years ago brought her (5) . She walked out of the factory where she worked. and left a goodbye note for her husband on the


TO BE A MILLI<DNAIRE? kitchen table. She boughl herself a villa in Spain. and IWO bars (one a birthday 'preseot for her eighlcen-year-old son). After three months, her son was killed while driving home from the bar 011 the motorbike which his mother had also 5 bought for him. She found the bars more and morc difficult (0 run. She now sings in a local Karaoke bar 10 earn money for groceries. 'I wish [ was still working in the faclory: she says.

'It won't change us!'

.0

Thai'S what all winners say when they talk to reporters and television cameras as they accept the cheque and the kisses

from a famous film star. And some winners, like Malcolm Price, really mean it. He refused 1O change his

.5

£;

way of life when he won £2.5 million. The

next Saturday night, he went to his local pub as usual. and as usual he didn't buy his friends a drink.

(6)

" DavId Coldwell 5plash.s out w,th Joanna lumley

[gJ A final thought 90

When you next buy your lottery ticket. or do the football pools, just stop for a minute and ask yourself why you're doing it. Do you actually want to win? Or arc you doing it for the excitement of thinking about winning?

. He, too, is a lonely man now.

Imagine you are an average family and you have just won £1 million. At first (7) . Just by picking up the phone you can get the toilet seat fixed, and thc Icak in o the roof repaired - all the problems that have been making your life miserable. 'But. it won't change us. darling,' you say to your wife. 'Yes, it will!' she insists. 'I want it to change us. It will make life better! It'll be brilliant!' 5

.. Paul MaddISon and Milrk Gardlnor e..lebrat" w,th thl .. W,VIS

Already the children are changing. JUSt this morning they were ordinary. contented kids. Now they are demanding computer games, CD players, motorbikes ... 'Hold on!' you shout. 'Let me answer the door:

It is your neighbour, with a bunch of nowers and a loving smile on her face. 'Congratulations!' she shouts. 'I was o wondering if you could lend me ... ' You shut the door.

In the first week you receive two thousand letters advising you how to spend your money, either by investing it or giving it to good causes. Your son comes home with a music system that is bigger than the ~ 5 living-room. your sixteen-year-old daughter books a holiday to Barbados with her boyfriend, and your wife buys a Rolls-Royce. 'But darling,' you say, 'we haven't received one penny of this money yet! What about the broken toilet seat? What o about the leaking roof? What about meT '1 haven't forgotten you,' says your wife. 'I've bought you It racehorse!' The next day you get a begging letter from a mall who won the louery a year ago. He tells you how he spent £2.000.000 5 in three weeks. He says (8) • he could start his life all over again. You begin to think that winning a fortune brings more problems than it solves! You realize that you are quite fond of the broken toilet seat and the leaking roof after all.

Comprehension check Look back at the suggestions in the Pre·reading task. Have you changed your mind about any of them? 2 Answer the questions. a Does the magazine anicle talk more about the positive side of winning a lot of money, or the negative side? b How can a large amount of money affect. ... our \vork? ... our home? ... our friends'! c How does the article say money can be 'friltered away'? d The following groups are mentioned in the article: charities. relatives. lawyers, security guards. psychotherapists. Which of them is speaking in the following lines? 'Tell me about your relationship with your father.' 'Twenty pounds will feed a famity for a month. Please give generously.' 'Now, John, you know you've always been my favourite nephew.' 'Sorry, sir. You can't go any further without permission 'I strongly advise you to take them to court.' e Give three facts each about the lives of Val Johnson. Alice Hopper. and Malcolm Price. Why are they all mentioned? f In the imaginary family that has won £1 million. who S<lys, ·It won't change us'? Who says. 'I want it to change us'? g Wbat do the children want to have? What docs the neighbour want? h Who in the family doesn't buy anything? What do the others buy? Imagine!

Unit 8

81


.VOCABULARY

What do you think? I In what way is our life like a jigsaw? 2 How docs winning a large amount of money smash the jigsaw'? 3 Why do we need work in OUf lives? 4 In the siory of the family that has won 拢1 million. what is the joke about the toile! seat'? 5 What does he mean when he says. 'It won'! change us'? What does his wife wanl to change? 6 What for you are the answers to the questions in the last paragraph of 'Who wants to be a millionaire?'?

Base and strong adjectives Some adjectives have the idea of l路ery. Look at these examplcs from the article on pages 80-81. a huge windfall it seems j(lIItastic

It'll be brillialll!

2 Put a base adjective from the box next to a strong adjective.

Vocabulary Find a word or words in the text that mean the samc as the following definitions. They arc in the same order ,IS they appear in the text.

a not often b very big

g a time when you go to the shops and spend a lot of money

c break violently

h having not a penny basic things to eat like bread, sugar. vegetables J a hole through which water gets in

d area around your house

c asking (for something) vcry strongly f keep (something) safe. defend

I

good bad cold frightened funny tasty angry tired pretty/attractive interesting hot surprised clever dirty Base adjective bi~

SPEAKING A maze Work in groups and read the role card below. Congratulations! Or is it? You have won five million pounds. What are you going \0 do with it? Talk together until you all agree on what to do next. Your tcacher willlhcn give you H card with more information. and another decision 10 make. Carryon talking until you come to the end. The aim is to spend your money wisely without going mad!

Congratulations! ~

You have won

拢5 MILLION! Nowyou have to make some decisions. Are you going to keep your win a secret, or will you go to a big London hotcl to receive )'our chequc from a famous film star? or course lhe press will be thcre, and your photo will be in all the ncwspapers.

82

Unit 8

Imagine!

hllge means reI)' big

fantastic means reI)' good brillianl means rery good

"you want to remain anonymous,

go to

@ If you want to go to the hotel and the press conference,

go to

@

Strong adjective enormous. huge boiling exhausted freezing delicious fascinating horrid, horrible, awful, terrible. disgusting perfect, marvellous, superb, wonderful, fantastic. brilliant filthy astonished, amazed furious hilarious terrified beaUliful brilliant

We can make adjectives more extreme by using adverbs such as very and absolutely.

Their house is very big. But their garden is absolutely enormous.

Carefull We cannot say 'absolutely big because absolutely only goes with strong adjectives, and we cannot say 路VefVenormous because enormous already means very big. The following adverbs can be used: very tired quite good really cold

absolutely exhausted absolutely freezing really wonderful


3

T.58 Listen to the dialogues. Complete them, using an adverb and an adjective. Exan1ple (What did you do last night7?~ We went to the Cinema.) (What did you

~ee?"'7

(was it good?

'7

4 Make up similar dialogues. Talk about: a person. a meal. the weather, a book, an exam, the news.

<Murder in the Park. )

/1 thought it was absolutelv brilliant,

~

but Pete was realiV terrified. There so much blood!

~was

â&#x20AC;˘ LISTENING Pre-listening task Have you ever given money to charity, or worked for a charity? 2 Look at the list of charities and charitable causes below. Which do you think are the most and least deserving? - a charily that helps old people with food and housing - a hospice for people who are dying of an incurable disease an organization that encourages people to sponsor a child in the Third World - a charity that helps homeless people in cities - cancer research - a charily thai helps people with HlV or AIDS - a group that believes we should not exploit animals in any way at all

Listening T.59

Listen to three charity appeals and fill in the chart. Who or what the charity tries to help

Some of their successes and/or problems

Amnesty International

,fillt\

.:'t'

{J~

;'J

How the charity helps

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals

Drought and Famine in Africa

.

What do you think? Imagine Ihal you have ÂŁ5,000 that you want to give to charily. Who would yOll give the money to? How would you divide it? Think about what yOIl would do. and then discuss your ideas with a partner. Imagine!

Unit 8

83


WRITING Words that join ideas 1 Some words and expressions are used to make a comment on whal is being expressed.

2 Some words are used to join ideas and sentences.

Example

Examples 'Ah. 11011', Peter.' COllie orer here!'

George was rich. He wasn'! a happy man. George was rich. hilt he lram', a !Iappy mall.

'1\11)' lIalllc's Jack, acwlllly.' (AclUa//y = I'm going to give yOli some extra information that you didn't know. or that you got wrong.)

A/though George II"OS rich, Ite II'([SI1'( {/ happy moll. George lras rich. flowel'e!', he lram', a !Iappy man.

3 In the letter. choose the words that ht best. Nearly <111 the words have appeared in this unit. The letter is written by Jacky, who is married (0 Joe and h<ls two children, Samantha and Polly,

l.v!ml WI flll}111 journey yOIl had.' You I/1I1St be exhlllM'ted! AnyU'lly, )'0/1 're here 1101l' so leI's 1101 lrorry rillY more, (Anyway = let's change the subject and talk

about something else.)

16 Cassandra Gardens, London N16

J

hope l(O('/U all Ivett. We'u aU uUi61l( 6((Sll' la)

11..011.. (b)

I

UGnfortu,",ately, eoera y,

}IOlll Vetl(

(d)

t.lleu's (fJ

sttaltfie to

it'g" 106, mid 111m/be she /"ilt

at east

I

I so because

, '/ .'S oud'rol to I00 k.t "pUt, It

~o((y, 11)1,0 hag ~illt1.fllf IlltUlafied to ~iJld gOllle

itS 11Ot. a VI!?II fiood 106, 6ut le) I'h',refore

Soml!thill? bet.te? ill t.he 6HfUU, SIll'. hilS miles a/t.ay, (e)

I ~;:~xamPle

I"," 0pecially I only nearly

I III1VI.'

to(.md

S'ollleNhe?e

rjoe a'id lin' (4t at home.

I J101,(Se to outsl!lves, tile

(g)

(h)

I

because but

11)1..'

SaHutltthlt hm: some {lltetl!stil1j So (j)

:;ot OIL It.efl IlewS',

(i)

Nit

'lIitll

I :~~;il.

he? 6oIrff?{elld, ~etet, We llli.'U

Slle passed he? 6iJllt( e).'rilJls. rOI! III!.md (rist 'llcek,

r,{Hle

to dedde. She doesn't have a60Y67il!1td tit the

!1.llflt g t/h.' HUltU?

".ith

theH,!

the jMdoi In)

I ~:~:~~: of

q./1l!1/'U 60th

(m)

I :~~~~~:

I enough prett ,,! pretty enoug h .

tAe ".etlthf7, I"'/Iich hilS

Unit 8

Imagine!

that g e'lol{~h 06

H1Y

II/.'II'S,

1M viII:;

j do ilppudflte cOlllil1:;

HIOHU"lt,

(I) ,

'Joe's 6i1le, bU.t lie

~eli t/!.ni6le.

(0)

either. too.

d1.0}\l flU It0U.

I ~C:~~~Yhile

all? W/lrit ri7l!

lfOU.

J

(k)

up to?

I ~~t

dOIl't 1.11011.'

l1fl~'I't bel'Il ,tMe to do

60? the Pri9t ~O~t'l{j/'t. Jt.'g u}lbelieIJfl6le, iSIi't it?

84

IfeMs at

JI Jlim, ltlld t Jlelt S'eelilcd to be /vl!(l-sHited.

o~

(p)

6ltlt a60f,(f tivl!

I ~~:eu::~. Ij)(~ h'ld fI sHlfill6aÂť1ily cde67tltio'l. She does}I't k'lo}v !vhflt sIll.' 11,)llllt$1 to do lfa,

sill? h,ls plelitlf

ill

fI~u? 24

I soalthough

llOmt to" tidl( house at die /.'lId 0t a dm(. BI( tIlt /wllf' ~o(lLl lias 6?okol 1(1' vt'/y souy,

else to (ive - a slJIall

~iJld

Illuch

it Ilfl'o' Milled "Ve?l! dtllf


4 Change the sentence using the prompts.

ostSC'lLpt

Example Let's go to the cinema.

Making suggestions

a Why don't we ... ? Maggie's bored and Paul"s broke, Look at the suggestions made by their friends, Are they talking to Maggie or Paul? Which suggestions include the speaker?

~Why don't we go to the Cinema?) b eat out tonight?

' \ .Why don't we eat out tonight? )

Let's go to the cinema!

Why don't we go for a walk?

If I were you, I'd get a better-paid job.

I don't think you ShOUl1 L el's go 10 11le cmema. . go out so much. a Why don't we ... ? b eat out tonight? Shall we have a c I think we should game of cards? d invite Pete to dinner tomorrow e redecorate the house f If I were you, I'd g You ought to h buy some new clothes You'd better get a 1 go shopping loan from the bank! Shall we . ? J

Why don't you ask your parents? You ought to save some money every month!

j'm broke!

r think we should ~I think we should eat out tonight) c

Why don't you phone Pat? a You'd better b the police c tell the truth d If I were you, ['d e look for a different job f You should g She h ought to have a break J Let's

5 Work in pairs. Make dialogues for the situations, using ways of making suggestions. Example You have got a A B A B A

{er~ible

cold.

My head's killing me! And my /lose is so sore! I think you should go to bed with a hoI drink. That's a good idca. J'll go right now. J'/l make you a hal lemon drink. Ok that would be lovely!

a You've just got ajob in Moscow, so you need to learn the Russian language, and find out about Russian people and culture as quickly as possible. b Vou both have the evening free, and there's nothing on TV. c Your flat's a mess, it hasn't been decorated for ages. and the furniture is ancient. Suddenly you inherit some money! 2

T.60 Listen to Maggie and Paul and their friends. How can we make suggestions in English?

3 Listen again and read the tapescript on page 136. Notice how we accept and reject suggestions. Work in pairs. Practise the dialogues. Take it in turns to cover the page.

d Vou can't decide whether to go to university (but you don't know what to study) or have a year off and go round the world. e It's Christmas time! What can you buy for the teacher and the different members of the class? f You've been invited to the Queen's garden party at Buckingham Palace in June. What are you going to wear? The weather in June is very unpredictable. Imagine I

Unit 8

85


Relationships Modal verbs (2) probability So do /! Neither do /!

PRESENTATION (1)

Test your grammar 1 Read the pairs of sentences. Which sentence in each pair

expresses a fact? Put a./. Which sentence expresses a possibility?

Puta? Example

I'm in love I I must be in lovel

./

Modal verbs of probability in the present Do you ever read the Problem Page in magazines or newspapers? What kinds of problems do people often write about?

2 Here <Ire the replies to letters from two people who wrote to Susie's Problem I>age in ""'efropo{ittlll Maga::ine. Read them and discuss with a partner what you think the problem is. Usc your dictionary to check any new words.

?

a She's having a shower. She could be having a shower. b That pen's mine. That pen might be mine. e He doesn't own a Rolls Royce. He can't own a Rolls Royce. d You must have met my brother.

Susie's Problem page

You've met my brother.

e They haven't met the Queen. They can't have met the Queen.

Shakespeare might have lived there. Shakespeare lived there. 2 Which of the sentences in Exercise 1 are about the present? Which are about the past?

Lucy has a problem: "I live in Scotland and he lives in California! ... " 'l)Ult ,e"CI(

Everyone has daydreams and there is nothing wrong with this. There is only a problem when you forget where dreams end and the real world begins. Don't write any more leiters 10 him. It路s a waste of time and money, and you know really that a relmionship with him is impossible. For one thing he lives in California and you live in Scotland. Try 10 get out more and tind some friends in the real world; siuing at home crying over his records won't help you. You need 10 find other in.terests and other people of yOUT own age to talk 10. Your parents c!C'arly don't have enough time 10 listen. Swdy hard and good luck next June! }fOJ('{~ Su.9{e

86

Unit 9

Relationships


3 Look at the texts. Say who she, he, or they refer to in the following sentences. a b c d e f g h J

k I

She must be exhausted. She must be in love with a pop star. She could be a doctor or a nurse. She can't have I.nany friends. He might be an alcoholic. He must be unemployed. They can't have a very good relationship with their daughter. They might not have any children. She can't get on very well with her daughter-in-law. She must be studying for exams next June. They might live near a busy road. He must snore.

4 Give reasons for each statement. Example Pam must be exhausted ... because she works hard. she does everything in the house and she can't sleep.

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - Which statement is the most sure? Which are less sure? She must be in 1000e. She could be in love. She might be in low!. - The above scntenc s all express I think it's prubable/possible that she is in love. How cia you express I don', think it's probahle/possible that she is in love?

PRACTICE 1 Controlled speaking Work in pairs. Student A Talk to Student B about Lucy. Student B Talk to Student A about Pam. Put one suitable verb form into each gap. Student A

Pam has a problem: "He spends all his time at his mother's! ..." 'Z:) e ({ 'l

;ba. }rt

If all you say is true. it is remarkable that you are still together. But you are not helping your relationship by saying nothing and doing everything. He doesn't seem to notice how yOll feel. I know he's worried about his mother but he seems to spend more time at her house than his o'vvn. You have a tiring and stressful job, caring for sick people all day, and it is unfair that he is always at his mother's and leaves you to do an the housework. The empty whisky bottles under the bed are also worrying. Perhaps he will feel beller about himself when he finds work. In the meantime. you must try to talk openly to each other about your 'feelings, otherwise anger and resentment will grow. Also, buy some earplugs-you need a good night's sleep! yOli'lg

_ Lucy in Scotland so she must Scottish. She a lot of letters to a pop star in California, so she must a lot of money on to stamps. She in her room and his music all of the time so she can't many friends or hobbies. She should out more and some friends and then she might _ _ _ the pop star. She could to talk to her parents again, but they might not _ because they very busy.

Student B very tired at the end of the day Pam must because she a stressful job. She must _ _ _ sorry for her husband because he _ unemployed but she must also very angry with him because he never any housework. She could her mother-in-law to help but she can't a very good relationship with her because her husband too much time at her better if he could house. Things might _ _ _ a job and if they could to each other.

Su.sie

Relationships

Unit 9

87


2 Grammar and pronunciation Respond 10 Ihe stalements or questions llsing the word or words in brackets.

2 Look at the rhotos. They arc all of Verity and her family. Which is Verity? Who do you think Ihe others are? Your teacher will tell you which group is dosesl.

Example I haven't ealen anything sincc breakfast.

(must. very) YOlllllllSI

be ..err hungry.'

a Mr and Mrs Brown never go on holiday. (can路t. much money) b The phonc's ringing! (might. Jane) c Paul's taking his umbrella. (must. rain) d There are three fire engines! (mus\. fire somewhere) e I don't know \vhere Hannah is. (could. her bedroom) f My <Iunt isn't in the kitchcn. (can'!. cook din ncr) g Whose coat is this? (might, John's) h Wc've won the lottery! (must. joke!) T.61 Listcn and check your answers. Practisc the stress and intonation in pairs.

3 What are they talking about? Work in small groups. T.62 Listen to five short conversations and guess the answer 10 the questions. Example A It's Father's Day next Sunday. B I know. Shall we buy Dad a present or just send him a card? Who do you think they are? They //1/151 be related. TIley ('(lII'l bcj/lsi friends. The)' could he hushand aud lr(fe hili they're pmhah(1' hI"O/I/{.'1" and SiSfer. a Where do yOll think the people are? At home'! In a restaurant? In a pub? In <I hotel? b What do you think his job is? A sales manager? A bus drivcr? An actor? A taxi driver'! c Whal do you think she's talking about? Visiting her parcnts? A first day in a ncw job? Meeting her boyfriend's parcnts'! Hcr wedding day? d Who or wh.ll do you think they are wlking aboul? A dog? The au pair? A horse'! A baby'! e Whm do you think they are doing? Swimming? Fishing? Rowing? Waterskiing?

88

Unit 9

Relationships

PRESENTATION (2) Modal verbs of probability in the past

T.63a Poor Carl has had an accident. He is speaking 10 his friend. Andy, on the phone. In pairs. read and listen to Andy's side of the conversation. What do you think they are talking about? Usc a dictionary to check any new words.


• Hi! Carl? It's Andy. Yeah. How are you? Feeling better? • Really? Still using a crutch, eh? So you're not back at work yet? • Two more weeks! That's when the plaster comes off, is it? • No, I'm fine. The suntan's fading, though. Josie's is, too. She sends love, by the way. • Yes, yes, I have. I got them back today. They're good. I didn't realize we'd taken so many. • Yes, the sunset. It's a good one. All of us together on Bob and Marcia's balcony, with the mountains and the snow in the background. It's beautiful. Brings back memories, doesn't it? • Yes, I know. I'm sorry. At least it was towards the end; it could have been the first day. You only came home two days early. • Yes, we have. Yesterday, in fact. Bob wrote it and we all signed it. I don't know if it'll do any good, but it's worth a try. • Yeah. They found it. It arrived on the next flight. Marcia was delighted.

b What happened to Carl? - He must have broken his leg. - He could have broken his ann. I-Ie must have come home early.

D

e How many people went on holiday? - There must have been at least five. - There might have been more than five. There must have been three.

D 0 D

d Where did tbey stay? - They could have stayed on a campsite. - They must have stayed in a hotel. - They might have stayed with friends.

D 0

e What did they do on holiday? - They must have taken a lot of photos, - They could have been ·unbathing. - They can't have been skiing.

0 0 D

2 Tick (I') the two sentences which you think are

D

D D D

g How did they travel? - They must have flown. - They must have gone by train. - They might have hired a car.

D

D D

h What arrived all the next flight? - It could have been Marcia's skis. - It must have been Marcia's suitcase. - It might have been Marcia's coat. 3 Use some of the ideas in sentences a-h you think happened to Andy and Carl.

D D

D to say

\'ihat

Example Andy and Carl /nus/ hc fricnds and tlrey mllst Ira ve on flU/idaJ toge/her They might ...

4

1)('('11

T.63b Listen to the full conversation between Andy and Carl. Which of your ideas were correct?

possible. Cross (X) the one you think is not possible.

• Grammar questions

Example What is the relationship between Andy and Carl? - They must be friends. [2] [K] - They could be father and son. - They can't be business colleagues. [Z]

- What is the past of the following sentences?

a Where have they been? - They must have been on holiday. - They can't have been somewhere sunny. - They might have been to Switzerland.

D

f What did Bob write? - He might have \vritten a Jetter (0 his \vife. - He could have written a letter of complaint to the hotel. - He could have written a letter to the tour operator.

• Sure. Some ups and downs, but generally I think we all got on well and had a great time. Shall we go again next year? • Good! Great l It's a date. Next time look out for the trees! I'll ring again soon, Carl. Take care!

D

mus{

He

can'{ could might

be

0/1

Irolic/av.

- What is the past of these sentences"

D

0 D

I must buy some sunglasses. IlulI'c to go Irome early.

I

CllII

see the sea ii'om

1'11)'

room. Relationships

Unit 9

89


PRACTICE 1 Pronunciation and speaking Work in pairs. Respond to the following situations using the word or words in brackets and the perfect infinitive (hm'e + past participle). Take it in turns to

2 Work in pairs. Look at the list of modal auxiliary verbs. How many can you fit I/(Ill/rally into each gap? Discuss with your partner the diITcrcnces in meaning,

Ican

Student A

a b c d e

I can't find my ticket. (must. drop) You lJIust "m'e dropped i1.

John didn"t come 10 school yesterday. (must. ill) Look at my new gold watch! (can't. buy )ourself) \Vby is Isabel late for class? (might. oversleep) I can't find my homework. (mllst. forget) The teacher's checking Maria's work. (can't. finish

already) f Did you know that Charles got top marks ill the

must

might

shall

should

have been born during World

War II. you help me with the washing up,

b

Example

could

a He

read aloud and respond.

Student B

can't

please?

c You

sec the doctor immediately.

d It

be raining,

e

we go out for a mcal tonight?

f

stop smoking.

g It pany.

have been Bill that you met at the

h I

learn to speak English.

exam? (must, cheat)

g Where's my umbrella? (could. leave it on the train) 2

T.64 Listen and check your answers. Do Ihe exercise again paying particular attention to stress and intonation.

2 Discussing grammar Fill in the gap in the second sentence with the modal vcrb in the past. Discuss your <lllS\VerS with a partner. (This exercise includes modal verbs of obligation and ability.) a The pond is frozen. It //IllS! be very cold outside. (present probability) You vcry cold when you were out skiing. (past probability) b You 1/1//.\" do yOllr homework tonight. (present obligation) When I was at school we homework every night. (past obligation)

LANGUAGE REVIEW must, could, might, can't .\fust. could, might, and ClIlI" are used (0 e"'press degrees of probability aboul the present.

lie mllst he ill 101'('.

= 'vc;:ry probable that he

i~

in 100e

lie could hi' ill lor拢'. lie might bi' in lol't'. = possIble, but les,> probable He

=

('(/f/"

95

sure

45'

sure

hi' ill 10\,('.

\~r) probable that be j~ I/O' in 100e

95'" sure

2 They arc used to .:xpress degrees of probabrlit) about thc past (using the perfeci infiniti\路e).

III' must JUII'e heell i/1 1(ll'e, = very probable thai he \\3S in 100c

c He WII" be a member of the football team, He"s hopeless III all sports! (present probability) He a member of his school football team. He was hopeless at all sports. (past probability)

He eUllltllwl'c heen ill lo\,e. Ill' migh' hUl'(' hem in IOl'e. = possible. but less probable

d Jane WII swim really well. (present ability) retl]]y well when she was just eighteen She months old. (past ability)

= \'cry probable that ho.:: was

He call'l JUII'(' heen ill 101'('. /10/

in lmc

3 They can also be used with the continuous infinitive,

YOl/lllllst be jokillg.' She col/ld he hal'illg (/ .\h(Jl\'(!I: It mayllllightlm)'(' hecfI ruillillg, 4 .\lay can he Llsed tnstead of might lind ('ould.

(L Grammar Reference: page 153. 90

Unit 9

Relationships

I


• VOCABULARY AND SPEAKING Character adjectives

~r~:~su~2s~j~ng~n:ha~~rson a~e Yo 11 2 Do you enjoy the company of other people?

0

3 00 you find it difficult to meet new people?

0 0

~

Is it important to you to succeed in your career?

5 Does your mood change often and suddenly for no reason?

t

?

10 Do you get annoyed if you have to wait for anyone or anything?

JJ Do you put off until tomorrow what you could do today?

o

0

12 Do you worle: hard?

0

13 Do you keep your feelings and ideas to yourself? 0

o

14 Do you often give presents?

0

15 Do you talk a lot?

0

16 Are you usually calm and not worried by things? 0

• LISTENING AND SPEAKING Do the personality quiz above

10

discover what type of

person you arc. Use a dictionary to check any new words. Write Y for Yes. N for o. and S for Sometimes. 2 Ask your partner to do the quiz about you.

Look at your ideas and your partner's ideas about you. Arc Ihey the same?

3 Match these adje<:tivcs with the questions in the quiz.

,

untidy

9

b optimistic

J

c sociable

k I m n

d talkative e reserved f shy 9 impatient h ambitious

0

p

lazy generous moody hard-working easy-going reliable cheerful sensitive

Which are pusilil'(' qualities and which are "egathe'! Which could be both'!

4 What is Ihe opposite of e.lch of the sixlccn adjectives in Exercise 3? Remember thai Ihe prefixes 11/. and WI· can somelimes be used 10 make negatives. Which of Ihe adjectives above can use Ihcse? 5 Describe someone in Ihe class to your partner but don't say who il is. Can your parlner guess who it is?

Brothers and sisters Pre-listening task Do a class survey. Find oul who has any brothers and/or sisters, How many? Who h<ls Ihe most? Do they like having lots of brothers and sisters? Does anyone have a twin? How many only children arc there in the class? Do they like being an only child?

Listening and note-taking T.65 Listen 10 IwO people talking about their families. First lislen to Jillie, and answer the questions.

How many brothers and sislers docs she have'! Was she happy as a child? Why? Why nor! - Is she happy now? Why? Why nor? ~ How has the family changed mer (he years? - What do you learn about other members of her family and friends? Now listen to Philippa and anS\\er Ihe same questions.

Discussion - How many children do you ha\'C1would you like 10 have? What size is the perfect family? - Would you like to have twins? Relationships

Unit 9

91


READING AND SPEAKING Pre-reading task Read the following quotation.

'011/1' when the last tree has died and tlie last river has beel; poisoned and rhe last fish lias been cauglit will Il'e reali~e that we can't eat 11101U;T' Work in small group. \Vho do you think. aid it') a A political leader. b member of Greenpeace. c An .A.menean Indian.

d An African fisherman. e A Greek philosopher. A French farmer.

r

When do you think it was said') a In the 5th century Be. b In the 19th century. c In the 20th century. Your teacher will give you the concct answer.

Reading are going to read some extracts from a story by the French writer, Jean Giono (1895-197]). called The Mall I""ho Plall/ed Trees. Ln it Giono describes the world of a solitary shepherd who plants trees. while in the background there are two world \vars.

YOll

T.66a Read and listen to the extracts and answer the questions after each one.

']HE MAN WHO PLANTED ']REES Extract 1 About forty years ago, I was taking a long trip on foot over mountain heights quite unknown to tourists. AJ1 around was barren and colourless land. othing grew there but wild lavender.

10

15

92

After five hours' walking I had stiJl not found water. All about me was the same dryness, the same co,use grasses. I thought I saw in the distance a small black silhouette. It was a shepherd. Thirty sheep were lying about him on the baking earth. He gave me a drink and took me to his cottage on the plain. I felt peace in the presence of this man. I asked if I might rest here for a day. He found it quite natural-or to be more exact, he gave me the impression that nothing could surprise him. I didn't actually need to rest, but I was interested and wished to know more about him. Unit 9

Relationships

Giono wrote the story in 1953. In which year does the actual story begin? 2 The story takes place in rance. Which part of France do you think it is? \Vhy? What is the countryside like? 3 Vv'lw do vou think the writer is interested iii the shepherd? What do you think he likes about his lifestyle') The shepherd pulS a large s(lck 0/ (1('01'11.1' onto the table. lIe inspects each acorn and mreji.dly chooses one /rundred pelfect ones be/ore going to hed T/re H'riter is cllrious. The next day H'hen he goes out IIlith rile sllepherd into the hi/Is; lie disco1'ers what the acoms are fm: T.66b Extract 2 I noticed that he carried for a stick an iron rod as thick as 11.1.y thumb and about a metre and a half long. He began thmsting his iron rod into the earth, making a hole in which he planted an acorn; then he refilled the hole. He was planting oak trees. After the midday meal he resumed his planting. I suppose I must have been fairly insistent in my questioning, for he answered me. For three years he had been planting trees in :this wilderness. He had planted one hundred thousand. Of the hundred thousand, twenty thousand had sprouted. Of the twenty thousand he still expected to lose half. There remained ten thousand oak trees to grow where nothing had grown before. That was when I began to wonder about the age of this man. He was obviously over fifty. Fifty-five he told me. His name was Elzeard Bouffier. I told him that in thirty years his ten thou and oaks would be magnificent. He answered that if God granted him life, in <mother thirty years he would have planted o many more that these ten thousand would be like a drop of water in the ocean.

5

10

15

20

25

The next day we parted.

4 How old do you think the writer was at the time of the story') A boy in his teens? In his twenties? Middleaged? Older? Why? 5 How old will Elzeard be in thirty years time? What year will it be? 6 What do you think Elzeard' ambition is? What is his vision of tlle future?


For Ihe nexl jil'e years Ihe lrriter is a soldier Cllld fights in World War I. The lrar ellds ill 1918 and his thoughts tum again to the trel:'-planter in the muuntains. He r('{ul'l1S 10 look fur him.

The l1:riter relUl'Ilsfor alilla! visit ill 1945 after World War 11. EI;:i:ard is S{ iI! aliFe. The writer is ama::.ed at I",hal he sees. Not on!y is there 1he forest, hut mallY I'illages have beell rebuilt, and hy 1953 1I10re l!rall ten l!rot/salld people in the area ollie Iheir happiness to E/:eard Bouffie!:

T.66c Extract 3 T.66d Extract 4 I had seen too many men die during those five years not to imagine easily that E1z<~ard Bouffier was dead, especially since, at t\;yenty, one regards men of fifty as old men with nothing left to do but die. He 5 was not dead. As a matter of fact, he was extremely well. He had changed jobs. He had got rid of the sheep because they threatened his young trees. For, he told me, the war had disturbed him not at all. He had imperturbably continued to plant. 10

15

The oaks were then ten years old and taller than both of us. It was an impressive spectacle. I was literally speechless, and as he did not talk, we spent the whole day walking in silence through his forest. It measured eleven kilometre in length and three kilometres at it greatest width. When you remembered that all this had come from the hands and the soul of this one man, you under toad that men could be as effective as God in ways other than destruction.

7 Why did the writer think that Elzeard might have died? 8 How had the war affected EIzt~ard? 9 Why is the writer speechless? 10 What thoughts about human behaviour cloes he have in the last sentence?

5

10

15

The bus put me down in Vergons. In 1913 thi village of ten or twelve houses had three inhabitants. AU about them nettles were feeding upon the remains of abandoned houses. Now everything had changed. Even the air. Instead of the harsh dry winds, a gende breeze was blowing, laden with cents. A sound like water came from the mountains: it was the wind in the forest. Most amazing of all, I heard the actual ound of water falling into a pool. I saw a fountain had been built. Ruins had been cleared away, and five houses restored. ow th re were twenty-eight inhabitants, four of them young married couples. It was now a village where one would like to live. When I think that one man was able to cause this land of Canaan to grow from wasteland, I am convinced that in pite of everything, humanity i good. Elzeard Bouffier died peacefully in his sleep in 1947.

II What has happelled in the writer's life that could have made him pessimistic? Is he in facl pessimistic about the world? Give a reason for your answer. 12 How is it thal so many people owe their happiness to one man? What are the results of his tree-planting? 13 How old is Elzeard when he dies? Why is it so important that he had a long life?

Relationships

Unit 9

93


What do you think? Work in groups. Do you think the story about Elzeard is true? Do you think Elze;ud was evcr married? Gi\'e reasons for your opinions. Your teacher willlcll you if you arc corree\. 2 How would you describe the personality of Elzeard Baumer? Do you know any people like him in your life? 3 In the COnlext of the twentieth century and its IWO world wars. what me:.sage is GlOno trying (0 make about nature and the Importance of individual human

beings? [fhis little book has been translaled into oyer a dozen languages. Perhaps you could read the whole book in your own language. or bener still. read it in English.)

WRITING Sentence combination Read the selllences about Elzcard Boumer and then compare them wilh the paragraph below. Note the ways in which the sentence:. are combined. Elzcard Boumer was a shepherd. He ....<.IS poor. He \\,.15 soht'lry. He lived in the mountain~ The mountain!> \\crc barren. They were in southern France. Elzeard had a love of nature. He had an incredible idea. During his life he planted thousands of acorns. The acorns grew into a forest of oak trees, The forest made the countryside rich and fertile again. He died when be was 89.

ÂŁ1;i!t1r(1 Bouffier was a POOl; so!itary shepherd, \1'110 !il'ed ill rhe barrell 1II00111({111U of sourhem France. His IOl'e of nature gal'e him all illcredible idea. During his lift' I/l' pllJlIf('(1 thOl/salld.~ of acoms. These grew illio (J foresl of oak /rees. ll'ltich JIIade rhe countryside rich alld ferlile aga;1I. EI;i!tml died u'!len he lI'as 89.

2 Rewrite each group of sentences to form a more natural sounding paragraph.

a A person Alan I-liggllls is a writer. He is famous. He is a millionaire. He comes from the north of England. He has gone to live in the USA. He has written twenty-the novels. His nmels have been translated into the languages. Hollywood is going to make a (ihn of his latest novel. The liIm will star Sunny Shaw. Sunny Shaw's last liIm was a big bo.x office hit. The liIm was called Hot Night ;11 the SIIOII.

b A place O,'{ford is a city. It is a cit) in the south of England. It is on (he River Thames. It has a population of about 100_000. The city is famous. It has one of the oldest universities in the world. It has lots of other old buildings. It has the Bodleian Library. It has the Ashmolean Museum. The Ashmolean \....as built in 1683. Oxford was once the capital of England. Not many people know this about Oxford. Charles I made it the capital. It was the capit<ll from 1642-1645. 3 Write <l short profile of a person (it could be you) and a place that are important to you.


l!::=OS=t~SC.il't So do II Neither do II Read the statements in the chart below. Complete the YOII column by putting (.I) yOli and (X) if it isn'\.

if it is the suly!c for

Vou

Polly

Polly's words

I want to travel the world. I don't want to have lots of children.

I can speak four languages. I can't drive.

I'm not going to marry until I'm 35.

I went to America last year. I have never been to Australia. I don't like politicians. I am bored with the British Royal Family. I love going to parties.

2

T.67 Listen to Polly. She is at a party and lois of friends are talking to her about themselves. Complete the Polly column by putting (.I) for what is the same and eX) for what IS not the same for Polly.

3 Listen again and write on the chart the exact words that Polly tlses. Choose from the lists below. So can I. So did I. Soam I. So do I. So have I. Neither am l. Neither do I. Neither can l. Neither did I. Neither have I. lam. I do. I can. I did. I have. I'm not. I don't. I can't. I didn't. I haven't. What does she say when it is the same for her? What does she say when it is different?

m Grammar Reference: page 153. 4 Work in pairs. Read OUI the statements in Exercise [ to eacb other and give the correct response for you. 5 Go round the class. Everyone must make a statement abOllt themselves or give an opinion about something. The others in the class must respond. Examples Student I Other students

Ilol'e chaco/ale ice cream! So do l.fMC' lOa. I dOli'!!

Student 2

I didn'! do my homework.

Other students

Neilllel' did U Me neilllet: I did! Relationships

Unit 9

95


Obsessions Present Perfect Continuous Time expressions Complaining

PRESENTATION (11

Test your grammar For each pair. match a line in A with a line or picture in B. A

B

a What do you do What are you doing

on your hands and knees? for a living?

b She smokes She's smoking

twenty cigarettes a day. a Russian cigarette.

c He has

a bath. He can't come to the phone. a 101 of money.

He's having

You aren't usually.

e Someone fired a gun.

a gun.

Look at the newspaper headline and the picture of Peter. \Vhat"s Peter"s job'! What has he passed? 'L' stands for Lcamcr. Wh,lt afe L-plates on a car ror? - What is he tearing up? Why'! - Clil you explain lhe play on words in the headline?

You always are.

d You're stupid. You're being stupid.

Someone was firing

Present Perfect Continuous

~

Young vicar passes driving test after 632 lessons over 17 years

tll~~>{~B~a~nigi,~B~a~ng~'~B;a:n~g~, /I/\I'J'NIIv"

The cat drowned.

The cat was drowning 9 What have you done with my headphones? What have you been doing

so I jumped into the water and saved it. It was terribly sad.

I can't lind them. since I last saw you? 5

h Who has drunk my

beer? Who has been drinking my beer? 10

2 look at the second sentence of each pair. What do the verbs have in common?

IS

96

Unit 10

Obsessions

VICAR Peter Newman is celebrating success - he has finally passed his driving test. He has been learning to drive for the past 17 years, and he has had a total of 632 lessons. Peter, 34, has spent over 拢9,000 Oil tuition, he has had eight different instructors, and he has crashed his cal' live times. Then, one week ago he changed to an aUTOmatic car路and he passed his test immediately. He said last night. 'I've been praying for a driving-licence for over half my life, and at last my prayers have been answered:


2

T.68 Read and listen to the article. the questions.

hen answer

-

Why' is Peter celebrating? Was it easy? What helped him to pass his test? What was his first accident? What was his big problem with driving? What has happened to his instructors? Why? Why hasn't he seen some of his relatives foi- so long?

3 Here are the answers to some questions. Write the questions using hI!. They all contain either the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous.

Find the examples of the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous in the text. What is the difference between the Present Perfect Simple and Continuous?

He Itas been teaming to drivc for 17 years. He has had 632 lessons. \Vhich describes a compleleel {lei ion? - \Vhich describes an (/clivily over a period of limc?

PRACTICE

a Seventeen years. (HO\v long has he ... ?) b 632. (How many ... '1) cOver ÂŁ9,000. (How much ... ?) d Eight. (How many ... ?) e Five times. (How many times ... ?) f For over half his life. (How long ?) g That he \vould never pass. (What ?) h Fifty-six times. (How many ... ?) By visiting relatives and people in the remote villages. (How ... ?) T.69

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions

Listen and check your answers.

1 Questions and answers T.70 Listen to two people talking about driving and cars. Complete the questions.

a _ _ _ _ _ _ drive? b How long d e f g h

?

a~~

C

How long How much How many kilometres ever Whose fault

?

pay

') ?

? ?

sk and answer the same questions across the class.

Peter, of 5t Andrew's Church, Repton in ottinghamshire, began driving at the age of 17. 'It was in the country,' he said, 'and I was doing quite well until one morning, in a narrow lane, I saw a tractor coming towards me. [ panicked and drove into a ten-foot hedge.' Peter said, 'My big problem was confusing the clutch and the brake. I was absolutely hopeless. My instructors have been telling me for years that I would never pass, but I was determined to prove them wrong. Many of them have turned grey because of me!' The turning-point came \Nhen Peter tried an automatic, and took his test again - for the tlfty-sixth time. He said, '\I\,lhen I was told I'd passed, I went dO'vvn on my knees and thanked God.' So how has he been celebrating? 'I ve been visiting all my relatives and people who live in the remote villages around here. I haven't seen some of them for years because I haven't been able to get to them. Now I can go anywhere!'

2 Write a que. tion with How long ... : se either the Present Perfect Simple or Continuous. If both are possible, use the Continuous.

20

a b c d e

[live in the country. 1 playa lot of tennis. T know Jack \vell. 1 work in Prague. [have an American car.

How [ow How How How

long long long long long

.) ?

') ? ?

3 Make statements about yourself using the same verbs. Tn pairs. ask and answer questions with HOll' long ...? 25

4 For each of the sentences in Exercise 2, write another question in the Past Simple. a \.-Vhen 30

move there?

b Howald started

')

c Where

meet

')

decide

,)

d Why

when

_

35

e HO\v much

pay

Obsessions

?

Unit 10

97


2 Dialogues

PRESENTATION (2) T.7l Work in pairs and make dialogues. Listen to the example.

Example A tired - whal ... doing? B exhausted - getting ready to go on holiday A done everything? B packed cases ... been 10 the bank ... haven't booked

Time expressions Joanna Hardy is a wriLer. Look at thc chart of evelllS in her life. Answcr the questions.

the taxi yet A

13

rOll/oak fired. Whar 11(/1'(' yOIl bem doing? I'm exhmf-Hed' J'1'l' heen gelling ready 10 go 0/1

"olida): A

Hal'e .1'0/1 dOlle (!1'l'I:rfhillg?

13

Well. I"re packed ,he ("lIses (lnd J"I'C heell 10 {he ballk. bill I hare,,'l boqked rll(' laX; .reI.

a A covered in pilint - what ... doing? B A

decorating the bathroom

B

Wrote short stories about animals Collection of poems published April 1958; visit to France and Germany

up yel

18

oil on your face - what ... doing? servicing the car done it yet? mended the lights haven't changed the oil yet

Went to Cambridge University for three years to read English literature

19 20

Met her first husband

21

Graduated 20 June 1971 First novel, Chains. published autumn 1971

22

Daughter born 14 June 1972

25

Novel Strangers in the Night published; won The Times Literary Award for best fiction

29

Divorce; visit to India and the Far East

31

Bought a house in north London

d A

your eyes arc red - what ... doing? exhausted revising for my exams finished yet? done my chemistry and history .. , haven"t donc any English yct

3 Discussing grammar There is something wrong wi,h thc following sentences~ Talk to a partner. Why nrc they strange? What would be better? a Ouch! I've been cUlling my fingcr. b rve read Tolstoy's War and Peace this afternoon. It was a nice Iittlc read. e 'Why is your hair wet'!' "I've swum: d I'm terribly sorry. but I've been crashing into the back of your car. C You've got tears in your eyes, Why have you cried?

98

Started school

6 8

16 Sept" 1961 mother died; visit to Italy

finished now? cut the grass .,. haven", watered the Oowcrs yet

Il

5

Wrote a novel (unpublished)

A B

A

Born 1950

11

c A dirty hands - what doing? B filthy - working in the garden

Il

o

Events

15

finished yet?

B painted the door ... haven', pUllhc wallpaper b A B A

Ago

Unit 10 Obsessions

33 35-37

GO! married spring 1970

Novel The Cry at Dawn published Made a series of TV programmes over a two"year period; met Jack, a BBC producer

38

Got married 10"30,3 August 1988 to Jack; moved to her present address in Paris

40

Won The Whitbread Trophy for literary merit

46

Began her autobiography 1996

Now

Still writing her autobiography

a Joanna has had an interesting life. What are some of the things she has done? b How long has she been writing? c What son of things has she wrilten7 d How many novels has she written? e Has she \\lon any prizes for her writing? f How long has she been married (Q Jack? g How many times has she been married? h How long has she been writing her autobiography?


2 Complete the sentences with words from the box. while she was at university since she married Jack After the publication two years after she got married

at the age of six until she married Jack between 1968 and 1971 while she was making

2 It is Monday of the second week. and she is at a press conference. How docs she answer these questions? ' ) ' How long are you ~n the States for?

How long have you been in the States?

When do you go back to England?

a She wrote her first stories of a collection of poems in 1958, she b went to France and Germany. _ c Shc was at Cambridge University d She met her first husband _ e Her daughter was born _ a series of TV f She met Jack programmes. g She lived in north London h She has been living in Paris _

Where were you the day before yesterday?

--./"

Where were you this time last week?

T.73

Where will you be the day after tomorrow?

Listen and check your answers,

3 Imagine you are on lOur for two weeks. Write your itinerary, Decide what day it is and where you arc. In pairs. ask and answer the same questions.

3 Discussing grammar

PRACTICE

Work in pairs.

1 Questions and answers

Correct the mistakes in the questions.

Ask and answer the questions aboU! Joanna Hardy. a b c d e f g h 1

When .. , born? When ... collection of poems published: When." mother die'! When get married for the first time? When graduate? When daughter born? When .. , India and the Far East? When ." lor the second time? How long first marriage last? How long in Paris'! T,72

Listen and check your answers.

a b e d e

What time did you go to bed at last night? What did you do the last \veekend? What arc you doing this night? \'v'hen this lesson begin? When ends thi!> lesson'! f Are you going to study English the next month'! g When you born? h What's today date? 2 Ask and answer the questions above.

LANGUAGE REVIEW Present Perfect Continuous The Present Pl'rfect Continuous rclatl's past acti\'ities to th(: present. il has two main uses.

2 How long are you here for? Joanna is on a two-week tour of the United States. Look at her itinerary.

To express unfinished past. /'I'i' heen worki,,/.: I/I:'refol" fifteen -,"mrs. lloll' /ollg hal'e rOil heel1leul'llillf.: English?

Week 1

Week 2

Sun

New York

Kansas City

Mon

New York

Kansas City

Tues

Boston

Dallas

Wed

Boston

Denver

Thurs

Cleveland

Los Angeles

lime expressions

Fri

Chicago

Los Angeles

Sec the Grammar Reference scclion. page 154.

Sat

Chicago

Fly home

Remember the verbs that rarel) take the I'l'e knolt'll Jad, jill' years and years. 110\1" long hUi'/! .l'Olllurd .1'0/11"

2 To

continuou~

('a,.,~

exprcs~

)(111

the present result of past actIvities. louk tin'd 11"'(// hare you bee" doi/lg?

/'I'e bee" doin!: Illy IW/IIl'll'ork.

Lbo.

Grammar Reference: page 153. Obsessions

Unit 10

99


â&#x20AC;˘ READING

Reading

Pre-reading task

Read the text. Were YOllr ideils about B J Cunningham correct? Did you learn anything about him that surprised you?

1 Work in pairs. Which of the following do you think is

the riskiest? playing Russian roulette hang-gliding smoking tobacco taking cocaine riding a motorbike at 200 kph crossing the road with your eyes closed

2 Read the quotations about smoking. What vicv.' of smoking docs each quotation express? a 'Out of a thousand smokers of 20 cigarettes a day. one will be murdered. six will be killed on the roads. and about three hundred and thirty will die prematurely

because of their smoking: b 'If you decide to give up smoking and drinking, you don't actually live longer: it juS! seems longer.' c 'Teenagers begin 10 smoke because they think it"s cool and because they think they look grown-up. The cigarette is a symbol of defiance and an attack on authority" d "I have cvery sympathy with the American who was so horrified by what he had read about thc "fleets of smoking that he gave up reading." C'

'The world spends $150 billion a year on smokingrelated illnesses.'

3 Have attitudes to smoking changed in your country over the past few years? How'l Do liS many people smoke? 4 You are going to read an interview with a man called B J Cunningham. Look at the pictures and read these facts about him. He's a chain smoker. He wears black leather cowboy clothes. He rides a Harley-Davidson motorbike. He has a weak chest. He returned to his true love arter six months. He has started his own tobacco company_ His company is not very successful. He smoked fifteen cigarettes during the interview, - Howald do jOli think he is? ~ What do yotl know about his way of life? - What kind of a mall do you think he is? What nationality do you lhink he is? Would you like 10 meet him? 100

Unit 10

Obsessions

'Here! Have one of mine!' 'Death cigarettes? You must be joking!' David Andrews meets B J Cunningham, a dedicated smoker who loyally puffs his own cigarettes called Death,


myself, but at least I know it. and I smoke a brand which doesn't try 10 hide lhe faa: 'Death dgarelles: concludes B J, 'say, "Don't you dare tell me to

OK. So here are the facts. There's an Englishman called B J Cunningham who has been smoking

since he was eleven. He's a chain smoker who's in love with smoking. He smokes between twO and 5 three packets a day, and already, at the age of 30, has a weak chest. He was in hospital for six days when his lm\gs collapsed. 'It waS at that point that I did actually give lip cigareues for six momhs: But then he reHlrned to his true love. He wears black I(} leather cowboy clothes and has a fondness for classic Harley-Davidson motorbikes, which he has been riding for the past fifteen years. 'I've had abolH ten of them: he says coolly. 15

20

25

3Cl

So far, not a very remarkable life. But then, B J Cunningham (no ont:: actually knows what B J stands for) had an idea one night in a bar in LA. 'Let's market a cigarette called Death: he said to a business partner. 'Why?' said the panner. 'II's obvious: he explains to me. 'When you take a packet of cigarettes out of your top pocket and put it on the bar in front of you, you're making a statemem about yourself, exactly as you do with the clothes you wear, the music yOli like, and the newspaper you read. You're saying, "These cigarenes are a part of me.""' 'So, if you take out a packel of Benson and Hedges. you're saying, ~l'm classy - gold packet - part of high society."" If you take out a packet of Marlboro, you're saying, ""I'm an outdoor type, J like wearing a cowboy hat and riding horses ... ""'

55 stop!~'

60

&5

75

/lO

'Now. if yOli produce a packet of Death cigarettes: he continues, producing a packet of Death cigarenes 3510 illustrate his point, 'what you're saying is .. .'

85

He looks at me 10 make sure that I'm going to write down what you're saying about yourself if you smoke Death cigarettes. But do I need to? We all know what Death cigarelles are about. B J Cunningham has been telling us about them sincc he started his Enlightened Tobacco Company (ETC) in 1991.

90

oW

~s

Everyone has now got lhe joke, thank you very much. We've seen the black packets with their death's head on the front and the while packets which are called Dealh Lig!trs; and we've heard about the coffin-shaped vending machines in pubs and clubs.

95

100

5(l

However, for anyone who has managed to avoid B J's publicity, here goes. Death cigarettes are for the smoker who wants to say, 'Yes, I'm killing

B J Cunningham, now on his ninth cigareue of the interview, says he wants to expose the hypocrisy behind lhe tobacco industry. Governments can't afford to ban smoking because they receive huge amounts of money in tax. Tobacco companies try to improve their image by sponsoring spans events sucb as motor racing, rugby, football, cricket, and tennis. at vas! expense. 'What everybody wants to forget is that smoking kills. That's why I'm here, to remind people that smoking and dealh are linked.'

The ETC hoped to win a good share of the UK market. 'Cigarettes in Britain are a ÂŁ12 billion industry in which four companies control 95% of the market. The question is: I [ow do we get a share?' He knows the question but he can't afford the answer. The ETC can't afford to advertise like lhe big companies. It has been losing about ÂŁ I million a year. Personally, 1 have a very different opinion as to why so few people choose to smoke a brand of cigarette called Oea/h. B J Cunningham has misunderstood human psycholog}'. Of course smokers know that their habit is probably going to kill them, but they prefer not 10 think about it. The only people who are going to smoke his cigarettes are people like himself. When 1 offered one 10 a friend recently, his reaaion was, 'You must be joking.' And this is what Death cigarettes are all about. It's a joke that was funny, but isn't funny any more. But B J is still obsessed by fags. 'Do you know the main reason I love my job?' he says. 'It's because it gives me a chance to atlack the ami-smoking killjoys! Those puritans who try to control our lives. I've met many people who don't smoke, but who tell me that if smoking were made illegal, they would fight it. You just can't have laws which control every aspect of the way people live.' I finally started to warm 10 this character B J Cunningham. It was the end of the interview, and the number of fag ends in the ashtray had increased 10 fifteen. Perhaps he had something important 10 say afler all. Not just, 'Hey, everybody! Look at mel I'm weird, and I'm killing myself!'

Obsessions

Unit 10

101


Comprehension check

Language work

Read the text more carefully. Complete the sentences with the best ending. a b, or c.

Here are the answers to some questions. Write the questions.

B J Cunningham smokes two or three packets of cigarettes a day ... a even though he has a weak chest. b because he ha to for his job. c to prove that smoking is safe. 2 He wear cowboy clothes and rides a Harley-Davidson motorbike because ... a he plays in a rock 'n° roll band. b he likes everything that comes from the States. c it is part of the image he wants to create for him.self. 3 B.I Cunningham says that smokers choose a certain

brand of cigarettes ... a because it shows the kind of person they are. b to go with the clothes they are wearing. c because they want to be sporly or part of high society.

4 a b c

We get the impre sion that the interviewer ... likes and admire B J Cunningham. is bored and irritated by B J Cunningham. is very angry with B J Cunningham.

5 B J Cunningham 'ays Death cigarettes are for

people ... a who want to be honest and aggressive. b who want to prove that smoking cigarettes doesn t kill. c who want to expose the hypocrisy of governments and the tobacco industry. 6 a b e

B J Cunningham says that his job ... i to get sponsorship for sports events. is to sell as many cigarettes a he can. is to be honest about the dangers of smoking.

7 The interviewer thinks that the ETC hasn't been successful because ... a the big lobacco companies spend ÂŁ 12 billion on advertising. b everybody think that Death cigarettes are just a joke. c smokers don't want to be reminded that smoking kills. 8 a b e

B J Cunningham '" wants to defend people's right to smoke. wants to contr 1 the lives of smokers. thinks that smoking will one day be made illegal.

9 The interviewer \-varms to B.T Cunningham at the end of the interview ... a when B J Cunningham gives bis main reason for selling Death cigarettes. b because he realizes that he is just a weird eccentric. c when he finally puts out his last cigarette. 102

Unit 10

Obsessions

?

Since he was eleven.

2 -------------------- ? Between forty and sixty. 3

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 'I

Yes, he has. He gave up for 'ix months after his lungs collapsed. 'I

4

For fifteen years.

5

')

About ten. .~

6 In 1991.

7

?

About ÂŁ I million a year. ?

8 Fifteen.

Discussion Discuss the following in small groups. Then report back to the whole class, 1 How much is a packet of cigarettes in your country? How much of that is tax? What sort of health warnings are there? Do tobacco companies sponsor any sports events? 2 Why is it that drugs such as nicotine and alcohol are legal in many countries, while other drugs are illegal? 3 Do you think smoking should be banned in all public places? Or, should smokers be allowed to smoke when and where they want?


• VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION Compound nouns I The following are definitions of words from Unit 10. What are the words'!

3 Put ont: \\'ord in each box to form three compollnd nouns. Look at the example. Check the spelling in <l dir,;tionllry.

Example What you wear if you want 10 listen 10 your Walkman.

a

looth

Headphones. a The piece of paper that means you drive a cal'.

C"1I1

b What you have to pass \0 gCllhc piece of paper! c What you pUl on the walls of your house when you decorate a room. d An interview given to a lot of journ<tlisls to make an anllouncement.

c Someone who smokes olle cigarette aner

ache brush paste

conditioning mail port

b dining living changing

cup spoon POI

c

lights warden jam

d

way

k

news travel estate

racing bike

another. f Someone thai you run a business with. g Where smokers I'll! QuI their cigarcltcs.

m wrapping writing toilet

What do you notice about these words? 2 Nouns can be combined to make a new word. These are called compound nouns. They are wrillcn in different ways.

n chair fire dust

postcard pO,Hbox

postman

glasses bathing ,el

One word.

o

centre basket spree

Two words.

p

case

posrcode

post oJJke

shop

Occasionally the words arc hyphenated (window-shopping). There arc no rules. and English people themselves often have 10 go to a dictionary to check the spelling. T.74 Listen to Ihe words. Where is the stress?

worm

4 Work in pairs. Look up the words below in your dictionary and find more compound nouns. Write some sentences like those in Exercise I to test the other students in the class.

\~ hand

,-•

head

t.

• •

•• ••

• •

L ~"Jl

r

night

snow

eye

back

land


โ€ข LISTENING AND SPEAKING

Group B

T75b l'rsten to Ted H . . wife and three small Chi':W'": He lives with his

Collectors

a Village between l ren and Oxt ondon

In

ord. He Owns a

Pre-listening task

ChorleVWQod

.

Coach business.

What kinds of things do people often collect?

2 Do you collect anything? Did you lise to when you were younger?

Listening You are going 10 listen to two people who are both keen collectors. Divide into t\\'o groups. Look nllhe picture about your person. What can you What does she/he collect? What questions would you like 10 ask her/him? Listen and answer the questions. ~ee?

GroUP A

75a

She liveS

Margaret Tyler. Listen to d o n Ller n children

T. rthLon . in Wembley, no and left hOme, and S? h av

e nOW grown up

she lives alone

.

"th her ,ncre

WI

,

dible collectIon. r...........

Comprehension check I Where docs she/he Jive? Who with? ~1 living? 3 How big is her/his collection? 4 How long has she/he been collecting? 5 How many rooms of the house arc taken up with the collection? 6 What's her/his favourite piece? 7 How much has the collection cost? 8 Where do the pieces come from? 9 Is she/he in touch with other people who share the same hobby? to What ambitions docs she/he have?

2 What docs she/he do for

When you have answered the questions, find a partner from the other group, Compare and swap information,

Guessing game Your teacher will tell one student what he or she collects. The others must ask questions to find Ollt what it is.

~igaretยง When you've guessed what it i~ ask some of the questions in the Comprehension check above. 104

Unit 10

Obsessions

(can 'you buy them'i

How long have you been collecting?


WRITING Beginning and ending letters I Match the correct beginning and ending for the five letters on the right. Which letter ... ... asks for infGrmation? accepts an invitation? gives news? ... invites? ... says that money has been received? 2 Which of these cntences continues each letter? a Could you please send me your brochure and a price list? 1 would be most grateful. b I've changed my job a few time since I last spoke to yOll, and as yOll know, I've moved, too. c nfortllnately this amollnt did not include packing and postage, which is £7.50. d June and I are having a barbecue with all our friends, and we were wondering if you could come. e We'd love to come. I haven't been to your part of the country for ages. 3

ote the following points about formal and informal letters. I

• We can write contraction (I've, we're. 1'11) in a.n informal letter, but not in a formal one. • All letters begin with Dear ... • You can end an informal letter with Best wishes or Love. Here are some lIseful phrases for informal letters: Beginnjng It lI'as lovely to hear from you. 111'as pleased to hear that ... Thank you for your let tel: 1 was sorry to hear that ... I'm sorry I haven't written before, but ... This is just a note to say ...

Beginnings a Dear Mary This is just a note to ask if you and Dave are free on the evening of July 11. b Dear Jane Many thanks for your letter. It was lovely to hear from you after such a long time. You asked me what I've been doing. Well, ... c Dear Sir/Madam I saw an advertisement in the Daily Telegraph for weekend breaks at your hotel. d Dear Peter Thank you so much for inviting Dave and me to your summer party. e Dear Mr Smith We received your order for the World Encyclopaedia on CD ROM, and your cheque for £75.

Endings Many thanks. I look forward to hearing from you in the near future. Yours faithfully

-:J~-Ic::rx James Fox 2 We will have pleasure in meeting your order as soon as we can.

Giving news

Yours sincerely

We're having a lovely time in ... I've been very busy recent~v. Last week J ... and next lVeek I'm going to ...

Thames Valley Computer Software

Ending I'm looking forward to seeing you .. .lto hearing from you soon. Give my regards to Robert ... Write to me soon ... J hope to hearJi'om you soon ... Write Gnd lell me when ...

3 It would be lovely to meet some time. Do you ever come to London? You must let me know. Love

c:F?.. . 4 Do get in touch soon and tell me if you can make it. Regards to you all. Best wishes

4 Write a letter to a friend who yOll haven't been in touch with for a long time. Give your news describe some things that you have done recently, and say what your future plans are. Ask about hislher news and family. Try to arrange to meet somewhere. Remember to put your address and the date in the top right-hand corner of your letter.

5 We're really looking forward to seeing you again, and to meeting your friends.

Best wishes

Obsessions

Unit 10

105


Complaining 1 Choose a word or words from the box to complete the sentences. Some are used more than once. too much as much as as many as

a few How much enough

any some

How many too many

Example

a little

a

_ _ _ _ _ _ cigarettes do you smoke a day?' 'Forty.' 'That s . You shouldn't smoke _ _ _ _ _ _ at alL'

b

alcohol do you drink?' 'About a bottle of wine a day.' That" . You shouldn't drink that.'

c

3 Write a dialogue of complaint, either in a restaurant, a hotel. OJ a clothes shop. Act it out to the rest of the class.

j

do you weigh?' 'Sixteen and a half stone.' 'That's . You should try to lose _ _ _ _ _ _ weight.'

d ' at

do you earn? money to pay all my bills!'

e

_ _ _ _ _ _ people are there in your class? 'Forty.' 'I think that's _

f

_ _ _ _ _ _ aspirins do you take when you have a headache?' 'About ten or twelve.' 'That's . You mustn't take that!'

g 'Howald are you? 'Seventeen. I'm old but I'm not old

to get married, to vote!'

h 'When did you last go to the cinema? 'Quite recently. Just days ago.' 'Do you take sugar in your coffee?' 'Just _ 2 In pairs ask and answer the same questions.

106

Unit 10

Obsessions

f

L

I_J~)____

Waiter

Lady

HO\ll \lias your meal, madam?

It lIIas terrible. The soup was too salty; the steak wasn't cooked enough, and 'here weren't enough vegetables. The table was too noisy and the waiters were slow.

But apart from that?

It was fine, thanks.


Tell me about it! Indirect questions Question tags Informal language

PRESENTATION (1)

Test your grammar

1

T.76 Look at the picture. Read and listen to the story.

Indirect questions T. 77 Rosie has just arrived at the railway station of a strange to\l,lJl. She goes to the tourist office to get some information.

The Tramp

A tramp was sleeping on a park bench late at night. A man and woman were walking past. One of them tapped him on the shoulder and asked, 'Excuse me! What's the time?' The tramp was very annoyed at being woken up. 'I don't know!' he said angrily. 'I haven't got a watch.' And he went back to sleep. Some time later another man was passing. He woke the tramp up and said, 'I'm sorry to bother you, but I wonder if you could tell me what time it is.'

Look at the information she wants. then listen to the dialogu . Complete her sentences. What Rosie wants to know

Again the tramp said that he didn't know. By now he was very fed up, so he got a pen and a piece of paper and wrote I DON'T KNOW WHAT THE TIME IS on it, and went back to sleep, Half an hour later, a policeman was passing. He read the sign, woke the tramp up and said, 'It's 2.30, sir.' 2 Correct these sentences.

*1 wonder if you could tell me wfI.attime i ih *1 don't know what's the

tiFfl~

a Could you help me?

b c d e

What time do the banks close? How old is this town? Are we near the centre of town? Which hotel did you suggest?

What Rosie says I wonder Tdon't know Have you any idea 1 m not sure I can't remember

_ _ ? _

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - How does the word order change in indirect questions? - What happens to do/does/did in indirect questions? What do we use if there is no question word (where? hall' old? what lime?)? Tell me about it!

Unit 11

107


2 In pairs, practise the conversation. How much can you remember? 3 Here is some more information

that Rosie v,ran ts. se the prompts to ask indirect questions. a When was the town founded? (Could you tell me ... ?) b What's the population of the town? (Do you know ... ?) c vVhere can I change some money? (I'd like to know ... ) d What's the exchange rate today? (Do you happen to know ... ?) e Is there a dry cleaner's near here? (1 wonder ... ) r \,\/here is there a cheap place to eat? (Have you any idea ... ?) g How long does it take to get to the centre of town from here? (Can you tell me ... ?) h Did it rain here yesterday? (Do you remember ... '1)

4 In pairs, ask and answer similar indirect questions about the town where you are now.

2 Speaking Atfadame T/lssaud's W(zxlVorks is London's most popular tourist attraction. What do you know about it?

Make statements about Madame Tussaud's using the prompts. I wonder...

I haven't a clue ...

I'd love to know...

Does anybody know ...

Example where ... born I lVonder I"here she was bor//. a where Madame Tussaud ... (come) from alive chow (learn) to make things in wax d which countries ... (live) in e married r children g why ... (go) to England h when the Waxworks ... (open) in London how many people a year ... (visit) the Waxworks

b when

PRACTICE 1 We can't hear what she's saying! T.78 Listen to the radio news. Unfortunately the reception is bad, and there are some things you can't hear. What don't you know?

Example We don't know We've no idea I couldn't hear I'm not sure

)vhat time the train crash happened

2 Your teacher has the information. Ask the direct questions.

2 Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you some information about Madame Tussaud. but you will not have the same information. Ask and answer questions to complete lhe information. Use both direct and indirect questions.

Example Student A

Student B

Marie Tussaud was born in Strasbourg in 1761. Her father died ... (When?), and her family moved to Switzerland.

Marie Tussaud was born in Strasbourg in 1761. Her father died two months before she was born, and her family moved to ... (Where?)

Do you know whe~ her father died? )

(TO Switzerland. 108

Unit 11

Tell me about it!

7

He died two months before she was born . ..c::..JWhere did her ~\ ~amilY move

toj


3 Asking polite questions 2 Indirect questions can be more polite than direct questions. In pairs, ask and answer indirect questions using the ideas in Exercise I.

Match a word in A with a line in B and a line in C. A What

Which

How

B

football team . newspaper colour long size flavour far sort many much

c times have you been on a plane? does it take you to get ready in the morning? do you support? shoes do you take? of car have you got? do you read? ice-cream is your favourite? is it to the station from here? time do you spend watching TV? eyes have you got?

Example Could you tell me which football team you support?

C

Would you mind telling m ; ( what size shoes you take? ~

PRESENTATION (2) Question tags T.79 Look at the picture and listen to Jessie (.1), aged 3, talking to her mother, Sarah (S).

2 Look at the dialogue between Caroline Bailey (C) and her secretary. Norma (N). Fill each gap with the correct question tag. Choose from the box. didn't I?

am I? C N C N C

aren't I? haven't I?

isn't it? does it?

Now, what's happening today? I've got a meeting this afternoon, ? Yes, that's right. With Henry and Ted. And tbe meeting's here, ? No, it isn't. It's in Ted's office, at 3.00. Oh! I'm not having lunch with anyone, -----,)

J S J S J S J S J S

Mummy? Yes Je ie? I've got ten fingers, haven t I? Ye, that's right, my darling. Ten lovely little fingers. A od my brother s called Joe, i n't he? Yes he is. He's at chool at the moment. And Daddy went to work this morning, didn't he? Yes he went in hi big blue car. And we don't like tiger do we Mummy? Well, they're beautiful, but they're dangerous, it's true. J Can I have a biscuit now, Mummy?

C N C

No, you're free all morning. Phew! r 11 start on that report, then. Er ". I signed all my letters, ? No, you didn't actually. They're on your desk, waiting for you. Ah, right! And tomorrow I'm going to Scotland. ?

N C C

Yes. You're booked on the early morning shutt! . OK. It doesn't leave until 8.00, ? 8.15, to be precise. Gosh, Norma! Where would 1 be without you?

T.aD

Listen and cheek your an ·Viers.

• Grammar questions • Grammar questions - Jessie kno11's that she has ten fingers, and she kno11's that hcr brother's called Joe. So she's not really asking questions. What is she doing? Hov'! do we make question tags?

- Did the intonation of Jessie s question tags go up or down? What about Caroline' ? - Whose usc of question tags means, 'I'm not sure so I'm checking'? \Vhose use of question tags means. 'Please talk to me',? Tell me about itl

Unit 11

109


PRACTICE

LANGUAGE REVIEW

1 Grammar and intonation

Indirect questions

Look at the sentences and complete the question tags. a b c d e

I' g h

J

It isn't very warm today, The weather forecast was wrong again, You can cook, You don't eat snails, You've got a CD, Sally's very clever, There are a lot of people here, The film wasn't very good. I am a silly person, You aren't going out dressed like that,

is il?

2 T.81a Listen and check your answers. Put tag falls and if it rises.

I dOIl'1 knOll' ... 1 l1'on de I' ., CVllld.l'uu lell /1Ie J'I!I /101 sur(! ...

o o o o o o o

jf the

Yes. She's as bright as a button. Believe it or not, I haven't. I've got a tape recorder, though.

Question tags Th~

meaning of a question tag depends on how you

Yuk!

We die/II't pla.r

0,

0,

I don't! They're disgusting!

it's freezing.

No you're not. Just because you made one mistake doesn't mean you're silly. Me'?

o! J can't even boil an egg.

Yes! It always is, though, isn't it? I know! It's absolutely packed! 1 can't move! Terrible! The worst I've seen for ages.

it.

1't'I)'

well today. did we?

:2 A question tag with a rising intonation is more like a real question, It mean '1 think I"m right. but can you confirm it ror me?'

Our tmill /('(11'(';) (1/ 7.0U, doeslI't it? You ha 1'('/1'1 losl I he keys. lWl'e yOll?

m

Grammar Reference: page 155.

VOCABULARY AND IDIOMS Do you know what your body can do? Use your dictionary to check any new words.

Work in pairs. Your teacher will give you a dialogue. Decide where you think question tags could go, what they are, and whether they fall or rise. 2 LCHm the dialogue by heart. Act it out to the rest of the class. Listen and check your answers. Are your ideas the same? T.82

Unit 11

sa~

A question lag \\ ith a falling intonation isn't rcally a qut' 路tion at all. It is a way of making con\'er~ation by asking the listener to agree with the speaker. II's a lore~l' day, iSII't it.')

2 Conversations

110

1 don 'I kllow where he ",ell1. 1 ll'O/ida ~r she's arri!'ed yet. Colild I'OU tell I/Ie what the allswer is.') rill /lui sure hall' milch it costs.

Why') What's wrong with it? 1 thought llooked really smart.

T.81 b Listen and check your answers. In pairs, practi 'e the dialogues.

3

.,.:>

2 Indirect questions have the same \vord order as the positive, and there is no doldocsldid.

3 Match one of the following responses with a sentence in Exercise I.

o o o

I Indirect questions are introduced with expressions such a~ the f(Jllowing.

Tell me about it!

As a class, brainstorm all the parts of the body that you know. Fill the board with all that you can think of: 2 Work in pairs and say which parts of the body you lise to do the follow'ing things. kick hold tie stare

bite hug kneel whistle

hit kiss think

climb' chew lick point blow pat

drop scratch clap


3 which verbs go with which nouns and phrases? Match a line in A with a line in

n,

5 Complete the gaps with one of the idioms in Exercise 4. If necessary, change the form of the verb. The first leller of each missing word is given. a The best way to stop hiccups is to h b and count to ten.

when I said I'd

the r b My parents h been to an all-night party. A

B

whistle kick lick lie climb scratch drop chew stare

a ladder a pile of books your head out of the window aloHee a lune your grandmother a ball an ice-cream a knot

A

B

kiss blow poinl

10

h,g

pat

kneel hit think bite clap hold

pray into an apple me on the back me on the cheek up a balloon aboul home in time with the music a gun allhe bank clerk a nail with a hammer me in your arms

4 Many of the verbs above form intercsting idioms.

How many of the following do you know or can you guess? Chcck the others in your dictionary. to to to to

drop someone a line kick the habit think the world of someone kiss something goodbye 10 blow your own trumpet to hit the roof to hold your breath

your

c I've tried so many times to stop biting my nails. but I just can't k the h _ _ . d I've never seen a couple so in love. They clearly of each mher. t the w e When my teenage daughler learnt 10 drive. buy her a car or k Illy own car g

I

had to r

his own 1.,-.,-.,f Tell your brother to stop b We don't want to hear how wonderful he thinks he is!

g D __ me a I \vhen you know what tillle you're coming, and I'll meet you al the station.

โ€ข READING AND SPEAKING

How well do you know your world?

"'~'iII>:~ , . v:ยง ,

.: .,,~ '.

.

Pre-reading task Work in small groups. How many of the following questions can you answer? - Why do women live longer than men? - What man-made things on Earth can be seen from space? - How many new words enter the English language every year? - Why is walking under ladders thought to be unlucky? - Why are horseshoes believed to be lucky'? - Why is the expression 'Mayday' used as a distress call? - Why do they drive on the left in Britain and on thc right in other countries? - What is the biggest office in the world? - How clever are dolphins?

2 Preface each qucstion above with one of the following according to what is true for you. Remember the v.'ord order for making indirect questions. I think I know ... I've no idea '"

I'm not sure ... I wonder ...

I don't know".

3 Discuss your answers as a class. Which of the questions interest you most? Why? Tell me about ill

Unit 11

111


• Why is walking under ladders ~

believed to be unlucky?

~

.... There are a few explmlafiolls for this. The IIIOSt ... commoll is that someone Oil the ladder lIIight be holding a pot of paim or a bucket of water wllicll could drop on )'011 if YOII walked 1l1ldemeath. Anotller expfmlation relates to tile Tybllm gallows ar what is 1/01'1 Marble Arch ill Lolldotl. Umil J783 criminals climbed a ladder to the gallows witll a rope rOllnd their /leek a/ld tllis was thell kicked from wule, them, The beliefgrew Ihar walkillg Ilnder a ladder itlvited death.

Why do women live longer than men? .... women generally live about six years ...

longer than men. Evidence suggests that boys are the weaker sex at birth, which means that more die In mfancy. Also women do not have as much heart disease as men. In terms of lifestyle, men smoke more than women and thus more die of smoking·related dIseases. They drink more and are more aggressive in behavIour, particularly when driving cars, so they are more likely to die in accidents. Also. they generally have more dangerous occupations, such as building work. Histori<ally, women died In childbirth and men in wars. Hence nuns and philosophers often lived to great ages. Now, childbearing IS less risky and there are fewer wars. The country with the highest life expectancy is Japan, where the average age for men is 76 and for women 82. MOllmoto, tile old~1 hv,"& rNlllll the wol1d (1877 -)

E1 What man-made things on Earth can be seen from space?

n

'WhfllmenjirsljIew ill sIx/(/', riley werr lll1U1:t>cl,O ,liSt'ol'er dUll !Ill.' only IIllm-mllde objeel I'isi/J/I' fro", orbit was llle Gmll Wall of Chilili. 'This is a nice

...

idea. but it's not true. The Great Willi is mostly grey stone in a grey landscape and. in fact. is \'cry difficult to sec c\'Cn from an aeroplanc nying at a mere

I 5 kilometres above. What can be seen whcn orbiting the earth (from about 200 kilometres up) are the fires of Mrican desert people. and thc lights of fIShing boats off Japan; also. a \'Cry long wire fence in \ "estern Australia which marks fannland on one side ilnd desert on the other.

'j;I

-

-

• ~ Why is the expression 'Mayday' used as a distress call?

n

The tenn 'Marday' is . . . thc internationally recognized radio tclephone signal of distress. It is only used when a ship is in great danger and needs help immediately, TIIC signal is transmitled on a wavelength of 2, 182 kl-l7~ which is pcnuclllcntly

monitored by rescuc services on thc shore. The use of thc c.xpression has a \'ery straightforward explanation. It simply nunc from the French phrase 'm·aidez·. which mcans 'help mc·. It was officially adopted internationally ill 1927.

How many new words enter the English language every year?

n

Unfortunately no list is kept. In France there is the . . . l\caclemie Frall(;aisc which approves new words but in England there arc only dictionaries. Thc most authoritntive of thcsc is the O.\jord E/lglish Dictio/lary (OED) which hus 20 volumcs. but this does not make rules about thc languagc, It simply records the dcvclopmcntof English worldwide as bcst it can, It accepts about 4000 new words (or new meanings) cvery year. The OED has readers in all Englishspeaking parts of the world. who record repeated uscs of ncw words, including numerous technical terms, Somc words take a surprisingly long time to enter the OED. For examplc 'acid ruin' was first ust..'tj in 1859, but its usage was rare for ovcr 100 years and it didn't appear in the dictionary until the 1980s.

• n

What is the world's biggest office?

The Pentagon is thc . . . largest office in the world. This famous Ih'Csided building, which is the US I)cpartl1lcnt of Defense. was built in just 16 months during World War U, in Arlington, Vkginia. It is

designed to hold up to 40,000 peoplc. It has 28 kilomelies of corridors. 7.754 windows. 284 bathrooms. and p..1rking space for 8.770 cars, 17.000 meals a day are sen'ed in its restaurants.

I

.


Why are horseshoes believed to be lucky?

III 1700, Henr; Mis50tl, a . . . FrellchmQll visiting

In

Why do they drive on the left in Britain and on the right in other countries? The reason for this goes . . . back to the days when people travelled by horse. Most people arc right-handed. and thus the lell is the natural side to ride on if you arc on horseback and need your right bund 10 hold a s\\'ord in C<lSC of lrouble. So why didn't the rest of the world do the same? &.'CilliSC of Napoleon Bonaparte. He insisted that his armies marched on the righi, and as he marched through Europe,

â&#x20AC;˘ In ...

Work in groups. Here arc nine questions, one for each text. Which question goes with which text? What do the words underlined refer 10?

Britai/l. asked villagers wiry they had horseshoes nailed above tlleir doors. Thq' said that it was to keep witches away. Horseshoes are made of ir01l and the strength of tile ;rOIl was thought to prOlect from evil. Still today they are tllollgllt to bring good flick and many brides Ctlfry silver orles at their weddillg. The position of the horses/we is I'ery important. It mllsl poim upwards like a alp so that the flick cmmar fall our.

n

Comprehension check

he imposed this rule wherever he wcnl. In the twentieth century Adolf Hitler did the same. Signs reading 'RechlS fahren' were put up whenever he look over a country. The question suggests that only the British drive on thc Jefl. but in fact. out of 178 countries in the world, there ilre about 50 that drive on the lcft. including Jap.m. However. most of them are former British colonies.

a When was It buill? b What is a nice idea but not true? c Do they rescue people because they are high!) intelligent? d Why is ib position importanl? e Why don't the majority of countries do this like the British? f What is the most common explanation for thiS superstition'! g Why isn't il possible 10 provide an exact list of these? h Where did the expression come from'! I Why are they more likely to have accidents? Now answer the questions a-i.

2 Find Ihe following numbers in the IC:or.lS. Whal do they refer to? Make a :.eIHence about each number. 4.000

1927

1783

76

16

Producing a class poster Work in small groups. Make a Iisl of some questions about the world thai you would like to ask. Think of such things as places (counlries, cilies. buildings). people (famous people, languages, customs. superstitions), plants and animals. or things (machines. transport. etc.).

How clever are dolphins? DOlphins do have fairly large brains. There are many stories. ancient and modern, about dolphins saving sailors from drowning. Ever since the film Flipper, we have all seen how clever they are at learning how to do tricks. However, the truth is that dolphins are no more intelligent than rats. which can also be trained to do tricks. The stories about them rescumg people are true. but they automatically rescue anything which IS about the same size as themselves. Somebmes they kill sharks and then immediately try to rescue them

40,000 50 200 1700 17.000 82

2

heck round the class 10 see if can answer }our questions.

anyon~

3 Choose at least two questions and research the ans\\crs. You could go to an encyclopaedia. Write the answers in a similar style to the ones in the article. 4 Compile them into a poster for your classroom .... ~dll.

Tell me about it!

Unit 11

113


LISTENING AND SPEAKING

2 T.83c Listen to the rest of the programme and answer the questions.

The forgetful generation Pre-listening task You are going to listen to an item from a radio magazine programme called lVor1d~1' Wise. Ii is about the problem of forgetfulness in modern society. T.83a Read and listen to the introduction to the programme. 'Hello and welcome to Worfdfy Wise. How's your day been so far? Have you done all the things you planned? Kept all your appointments? Collected that parcel from the Post Office? Oh - and have you remembered to send your mother a birthday card? If so, well done! If not - you're not alone. Many of us are finding it more and more difficult 10 remember everything. Once upon a time we just blamed getting older for our absenl-mindedness, but now experts are blaming our modern lifestyle. They say

that we have become Nthe forgetful generation~ and that day after day we try to do too muehl'

Does your lifestyle mean thai you have a lot to remember to do each day'? What kind of things fill your day? - In what ways do you think modern society is busier and more stressful than a hundred years ago? In whal ways do you help yourself remember all that you lHtvc to do each day? Or, have you got such a good memory that yOll don't havc to do anything?

Listening

f Docs Professor Buchan advise using a personal computer to help remember things'! g What does he advise? Why docs hc advise this? h How does the presenter try to be funny atthc cnd of

the interview?

What do you think? Have a class discussion. Do you think Profcssor Buchan's explanation for forgetfulness is true'? I-lave you got any stories of forgctfulness. either your own or somebody else's?

For and against Do you live and/or work in a cily? Is it very big? How many advantages and disadvantages of city life can you think of? Write them down and compare them with a partner.

2 Read the text

on the next page about the advantages and disadvantages of living in a city.

3 Answer the questions about the text.

T,83b Listen to the stories of Ellcn, Josh and Fiona, and takc notes about them. What did they forget?

Josh

Uflit 11

d In what ways was her lifestyle stressful'? e What helped the lady feel more relaxed?

.WRITING

2 Discuss the following in small groups.

114

a What is Professor Alan Buchan'sjob'! b What is it about somc modern day working practices that causes forgctfulness? c Why did thc lady think that she was going mad?

Tell me about itl

What did they do?

a There are three paragraphs. What is the purpose of each one? b Replace the words underlined with one of the following. in spite of another point is that all things considered to sum up one disadvantage is that moreover

pros and cons one advantage is that for instance in my opinion especially finally


~ostSC'lipt Informal language When we speak, we use a lot of informal language, depending on who we're speaking to! Example These sho(',~

COSI

nil/ely quid.

In the dialogues., choose the informal words that fit best.

Living

~~~~eCity

disadvantages. On the plus side, it is often easier to find work, and there is usually a choice of public s transport. SO you don', need to own a car. Also, there arc a 101 of interesting things to do and places 10 sec. For example, you can cal in good restaurants, visit muscums,

10

15

20

25

and go to the theatre and to concerts. What is more, when you want to relax, you call usually find a park where yOll can feed the ducks or just sit on a park bench and !"e;ld a book. All in all, city life is full of bustle and varicty and yOll Ileed never feci bored. • However, for evcry plus there is a minus. for one thing, you might h,wc a job, but unless it is very well-paid, yOIl will not be able to allord many of the things th,lI there are to do, because living in a city is often very expensivc. It is particularly difficult to find good, cheap accommodation. Wh"l is more, puhlic trnnsp0n is sometimes crowded and dirty, particularly in the rush hour, and evcn the parks can become very crowded, especially on Sundays when it seems that every city-dweller is looking for some open space and gr~'Cn grass. Last of all, despite all the crowds, it is still possible to feel very lonely in a city.

• In conclusion, Uhink that city life can be particularly appealing to young people, who like the excitement of the city and don't mind the noise and pollution, HOI"ever, many pcople, when they get older, and particularly whell they have young children, often prefer the peace and fresh air of the countryside.

4 Write rough nOles about the pros and cons of living in the country, Compare them with your panner. 5 Writc three paragraphs called 'The Pros and Cons of Living in the Country'. In the conclusion give your own opinion. Write about 250 words.

a A Let's have a break, shall we? B All right. I'm dying for a cuppa. I see.

b A Myoid man isn't at work today. B Wl ? What's he on about'! 1Y· What's up with him? A He was walking to work yesterday when this guy in a car knocked him over. B Really! Is he OK? Yuk! A Well, he was very lucky. He just gOI a few cuts and grazes. RighL

I

I I

c A Can I have one of your fags?

B

~a~~n.

I

Help yourself. I've got loads.

I

Do )1011 want one? A Oh! Ta! B No, I've just put one out. d A Gimme your homc\'..·ork so I can copy it.

B WN,hat a ,pity! o \vay.

I

You can do il vourself! J

e A Did you manage to fix the telly?

I

B Kind of. The picture's OK, but the sound All right. isn't quite right. A What's on tonighl? B Dunno. Look in the paper. f A What's thai stuff called that you use to clean between your teeth? B What do you mean? 'I'k ' WI ' A You see! You know! t s I e stnng. nte.

II

I

B Oh! You mean dental floss. Wow! A That's it! T.84

Listen and check your answers.

2 There are lots of other examples of informal language in thc dialogues. How do we say them more formally? Be careful if you try to use them!

Tell me about itl

Unit 11

115


Two weddings, a birth and a funeral! Reported speech Saying sorry

PRESENTATION (1)

Test your grammar

Reported statements and questions

, Read the slory in a and write the actual words of the conversation in b.

Match a line in A with a line in B to make a natural sounding conversation. Pul the letters a-j in the right box. Where is the conversation laking place? Who are Adam and Beatrice?

The Marriage Proposal

a John greeted Moira and asked how she was. She told him she was fine and asked about him. He said he felt wonderiul

e f

because they were together again. He added that it had been a long time since their holiday in Paris. She said she had loved every minute in Paris and that she would never forget it. She asked if they could go back there next spring. He said that he loved her. He asked if she would marry him and come to Paris with him for their honeymoon. She said that she would and that she loved him, 100. b John Moira John

Moira

B (Beatrice) D I never wear hats. DOh, yes, lots. There won't be a problem. D We're at the Red Lion. D Because I'm driving. No, I'm not. I'm with my husband. I prefer smaller ones. Actually, I met him at a wedding. Yes, we have. We flew in from New York yesterday. I was at university with Moira. Yes, we can. Are you staying at the Red Von, loo?

o o o o o o

w,

because

It's been 'I loved I'll never Can we

?'

John

"

Moira

Will you _ _ _ _ _ 1' 'Oh yes, yes, I

1.85 Listen to the conversation. Are there any differences with yours?

116

h i

'I'm

2 Which is direct speech and which is reported speech 7 3

9

'Hello, Moira. How - - - _ ? ' 'I feel

Unit 12

Twoweddings ...

A IAdaml Are you on your own? How do you know John and Moira, then? Do you like big weddings? Where did you meet your husband, then? Why aren't you drinking? Have you travelled far to get here? Why aren't you wearing a hat? Where are yOU staying tonight? Can you give me a lift there? Yes, I am. Will there be enough room in your car?

a b c d

---

'"",: .. '-~ "

Co

,I

••

- -.

.... ••


2 T.86a Listcn and check your answers.

3 Beatrice is telling her husband about the conversation with Adam. Read what she says. 'I've just met this really friendly young man. Do you know what he said to me? First he asked me if I was on my own, and of course I said that I wasn't, I was with you. Then he asked me how I knew John and Moira, and I told him I had been at university with Moira .. .'

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions Read the sentences and answer the questions.

'I'm with my husband.' she said She said (that) she was wilh her husband.

'J 11'(15 at university wilh Moira,' she told him. She told him (that) she had been al university with Moira.

e 'Which airport did you Oy from?' I asked them. I' 'The flight has been cancelled: the announcement said. g 'Our plane was delayed by five hours,' they told LIS. h 'What time did it take ofTT she asked. 'I'll help you unpack,' he said. '1 can't do this exercise: he told the teacher.

2 What's the difference in meaning in the following examples of reported speech? Discuss with a partner. a Beatrice said she lived in New York. Beatrice said she'd lived in New York . b Moira told her mother that she'd love John. Moira told her mother that she loved John. c Adam asked them how they'd travel to Paris. Adam asked them how they'd travelled to Paris. What did the people actually say in direct speech?

3 Stress and intonation

- What is the basic rule about the use of tenses in reported speech? - What is the difference in the way say and tell are used?

Work in pairs and complete the conversation.

A is talking to B about a friend, George. B has not heard the same as A. Example

'Are you 011 your oll'n?' he asked. He asked if III'([S 011 my own.

George doesn't

like his new job.

'HaIr do yOll kno)l' John and Moira?' he asked. He asked how 1 knew John and Moira.

- What differences are there betw'een direct questions and indirect questions? - When is Ifused?

(But he told me \J!e loved it! (love)

a A He loves living in London. B But he told me

PRACTICE

b A

1 Reporting a conversation

c

You are Beatrice. Continue reporting the conversation to a partner. Example Then he asked if 1 liked ... and 1 said that 1 ...

He's moving to Canada. But he told me

! (Australia)

His girlfriend has left him. But he told me

! (he/leave/her)

d A B

He II be thirty next week. But he told me

! (twenty-one)

e¡A

He went to Amsterdam for his last holiday. But he told me ! (Barbados)

B

A B

B I' A

T.86b

1 (hate)

Listen and check your answer.

He can't give up smoking.

B But he told me

! (three years ago)

g A He was given the sack last week.

2 Grammar Put the following direct speech into reported speech. a b e d

'I'm exhausted!' he said. 'Are you leaving on friday?' she asked me. 'We haven't seen Jack for a long time,' they said. 'We flew to Madrid: they said.

B h A B 2

But he told me

! (promotion)

He's fallen in love with a French girl. But he told me ! (with me)

T.87 Listen and check your ans\-vers. Pay particular attention to the stress and intonation. Practise the dialogues with a partner.

Two weddings. ..

Unit 12

117


PRESENTATION (2) Reported commands 1 Read the newspaper article.

'A ar iage made in hell!' 5

10

15

20

'We can get a good night's sleep now!' say Mr and Mrs Rsh

This is how Judge Margaret Pickles described the marriage of Patrick and Pauline Peters as she ordered them to spend fourteen days in prison for rowing. THE COUPLE only married six months ago and already they are famous for their rows. eighbours complained that they could hear them shouting from the bus stop six hundred yards away. Mrs Iris Pi h, who lives opposite, said, 'First I asked them nicely to stop because my baby couldn't get to sleep, but they didn't. Then my husband knocked at their door and told them to stop, but still they didn't. They

2 W110 is speaking? Find the lines in the text that report the following, a 'You mllst go to prison for a fortnight.' b 'It's terrible. We can hear them shouting from the bus stop.' c 'Please, will you stop making that noise? My baby can't get to sleep.' d 'Stop making that noise!' e 'Please, can you come immediately?' f 'OK. OK. It's true. We were arguing.' g 'You've been wasting our money on drink and gambling again!' h 'We didn't tbrow the chair.' 'Remember that you have already had two warnings from the police.' J 'You'll soon cool down in prison.' k 'I think you should see a maniage guidance counsellor.' Compare the direct and reported speech. 118

Unit 12

Two weddings ...

25

30

35

40

45

threw a chair at him out of the window. It just missed him! So that was it! We rang the police and asked them to come immediately.' Mr and Mrs Peters admitted they had been arguing. Mrs Peters said that she had accused Mr Peters of wasting their money on drink and gambling. However, they denied throwing the chair. The judge clearly did not believe them. She reminded them that they had already had two previous warnings from the police and she told them that they would soon cool down in prison, especially as they would be in separate prisons. She advised them to talk to a marriage guidance counsellor. Mr and Mrs Fish and their baby are looking forward to some sleep! â&#x20AC;˘

â&#x20AC;˘ Grammar questions - Four of the sentences a-k are commands or requests. Which are they? How are they reported in the text? Which verbs are used to report them? nderline the two sentences \-\lith rold in the article. W11ich is a reported statement and which is a reported command? - Whicb of the sentences below is a reported question'? Which is a reported request? I asked them to stop making a /loise. She asked me if J knell' the lime. - Say and tell are botb used to report statements. How many other reporting verbs can you find in the article?


PRACTICE

LANGUAGE REVIEW

1 Other reporting verbs

Reported statements

Which verb can be lIsed 10 report the direct speech in the sentences below? Put a teller a - j in the box. tell ~

order

D

invite

ask

0 D

remind

warn

0 0

beg

refuse

D 0

advise offer

D D

a -Please can you translate this sentence for me?" Maria said 10 Mark. b 'Oon"\ forget to send Aunt Maud a birthday care!.' Mary said to her son.

e 'Sign 011 the doned linc: the postman said to me. d 路Please. please. please marry me. I can"! live without you: John said 10 Moira.

e -Please come 10 our wedding: John said to his boss. f 'I'll pay for the next round: Mark said. g "Don't run round the edge of the s\vimming pool or you"lI fall in: Mary said to her children. h 'I won"' go to bed!' Bobby said. -You should talk to your solicitor: Ben said to Bill. J 'Take that chewing gum out of your mouth imrnediatelyr the teacher said to Jo.

2 Change the sentences in Exercise I into indirect speech using the appropriate verbs.

The usual rule for reported statement-. i", lhat the \..:rb form mo\cs back one tense \~hel1 the reporting \crb is in the past tense, The vcrbs I'uy and fell are llScG to rcport "latements bUI other \'crb", can also be llscd. 'lie's hu\ing a shower." She ,widlfold /I1e Ihal! he

You are policemen or policewomen taking statements. Divide into two groups.

IU/I';I1':: (/

.\III/Ira

'I\'c lost my wallet!路 He saidhoJIII'/aiJlC'd l!la/) ht' had loH his Imllel.

'They touk a taxi." I .I'aidllhol/ghl IIlIali f!ley IUIlI fukw

'I'll rilll-: ~ou tomorrow." Ill' said (fhal) he 11'011111 rill/.: Ille day. Ifie pl'lJllli,\I't/ {() I"ing /III' IIIl'

fll.\'i.

rI

1//(' 11(',\1 I/C,\'!

dar,

The Past SlInple and the Pre5enl Perfect both change to thc P<l5t Pcrfect.

Reported questions In reponed ql1C5liom the word order i~ like a ~tatcrncnL

2 Listening and speaking

Il'(/S

Vcrbs otllcr than

(Ilk

can bc used

When arc you lc<1\ing?

III' asked (me)!lIe

1l'(lIId('l"('d

II'ltelll"'llI'

let/l'iug,

Group A

Where doc", John li\'e'! Slit' ill/II/ired lI'lt('rI' Jolm liI'/'ll.

T.88a Listen to Pauline Peters and take notes aboul what she says happened.

Il<I\e you mel Moira? III' Inked (lIll') ;f Iluul /lief ,l!oim,

When lhen: IS no queslion word, ilis Llsed. and there is no question mark, Group B T.88b Listen to Iris Fish and take notes about \\ hat she says happened.

Reported commands Thc">c arc formed WIth the in/jlllllve \\llh to. The verbs (I.lk and fdl are Llsed to rerorl commands hut other verbs .:an he Llsed as well according \0 the lllt"anlllg.

Sit do\\ n and be qtlict~ Ill' roldlordact! ,hl'lII TO ,ir dOll/! and hI' IllIi,'I.

2 Find a partner from the other group and report what you heard. Find tbe differences. Begin like this. A Pill/fine adlllilled lIulllllt'}' sV/I1efimt'!)路argm'd. 5/1(' said Ihm . n Iris complained Ihal Ihey mgued t'l'f'I)' lIighl. Sht' said Ihm . ) Write the repons for the police records.

Please can you gin: me a lift'! She lI~kl'd him ro .r:iI'l' hel' lIltll.

If I \\erc

~ou

I'd see a doetor. ."('1' It doom:

Shl" adl'i.\w/lJ/l' to ~

Grammar Reference: page 155.

Two weddings.

Unit 12

119


VOCABULARY AND PRONUNCIATION Birth, marriage and death Use your dictionary to sort the following words and phrases into the categories below. cot grave nappy grief wedding pram wreath

Birth

bouquet pregnant reception to bu ry bonnet mourners coffin

funeral godmother cemetery widow christening honeymoon sympathy

Marriage

to get engaged to have a baby best man maternity leave bridegroom to get divorced to exchange rings

Death'

2 Decipher the phonetic script to complete the puzzle. Find out the vertical word. 1 Three hundred people came to our In'sepSnl after the wedding. 2 I am my niece's l'godmAo;"}/. 3 Thousands of I'm:>:ndzl attended the king's funeral. 4 My sister is four months /'pregndl1l/. 5 Our dog likes to libel'L' his bone. 6 My daughter loves playing with her dolls /pnem/. 7 His brother was his /bes'tmen/. 8 The bridesmaid caught the /bu'kel/. 9 Tn Britain you get eleven weeks' maternity Ili:v/. 10 You haven't shown me very much /'sunpdOII for my toothache. II The Queen laid a /ri:8/ at the grave of the Unknown Soldier. 12 They say that old Bill died of /gri:f/ aner his wife died. 13 The emperor \-va buried in a gold /'kofm/. 14 Where did John and Liz go on their l'hl\Illmu:nl? I: The baby screamed throughout the l'knsl1llJ/. 3 \Vhat happens at births, weddings and funerals in your country? 120

Unit 12

Two weddings ...

GJDDD[JDDDD DDDDDDDDD GJDDDDDDD GJDDDDDOD DODD GJDDD DDDDDOD ~DDDDDD GJDDDD GJDDDDDDD GJDDDDD wDDDD \i GJDDDDD --/ GJDDDDDDDD GJDDDDDDDDDD READING AND LISTENING

A birth and a death Pre-reading task Work in small groups. Obviously you can't rel1lemher anything abo lit the day you were born, but what have you been {uld about it? Who told you? What did they say? Discuss what you have learnt with others in your group. Are there any interesting stories? Tell the whole class. 2 You are going to read an extract from Chapter one of David Copperfield, a very famous novel by the English writer, Charles Dickens. - Do you know anything about the kitid of novels Dickens wrote? - Do you know any of their names? - When did he write? - What kind of people did he write about?


Reading and listening (1)

A birth T.89a Read and listen to Part 1. It is the day of David Copperfield's birth and his young, \vidowed mother meets her dead husband's aunt, Betsey Trotwood. What impression do yOLl form of the characters of the two women'? Have they met before?

'David Coppeifield I

AM BORN (PART I)

was born at Blunderstone, in Suffolk. 1 was a posthumous child. My father's eyes had closed upon the light of this world six months when mine opened on it. On the afternoon of that eventful and important Friday, my mother was sitting by the fire, very timid and sad, and very doubtful of ever coming alive out of the trial that was before her when, lifting her eyes to the window opposite, she saw a strange lady coming up the garden. When she reached the house, instead of ringing the bell, she came and looked in at that window, pressing her nose against the glass. She gave my mother such a turn, that I have always been convinced I am indebted to Miss Betsey for having been born on a Friday. Then she made a frown and a gesture to my mother, like one who was accustomed to being obeyed, to come and open the door. My mother went. 'Mrs David Copperfield, I think,' said Miss Betsey. 'Yes,' said my mother faintly. 'Miss Trotwood,' said the visitor. 'You have heard of me, I dare say?'

I

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

My mother answered that she had had the pleasure. 'Take off your cap, cllild,' said Miss Betsey, 'and let me see you. Why, bless my heart! You are a very baby!' My mother was, no doubt, unusually youthful in appearance; she hung her head, as if it was her fault, poor thing, and said sobbing, tl1at indeed she was afraid she was but a childish widow, and would be a childish mother if she lived. 'Well?' said Miss Betsey. 1'\nd when do you expect?' 'I am all in a tremble,' faltered my mother. 'I don't know what's the matter. I shall die, I am sure!' 'No no, no,' said Miss Betsey. 'Have some tea. I have no doubt it will be a girl. I have a presentiment that it must be a girl. Now, child, from the moment of the birth of this girl ... ' 'Perhaps boy ... ,' 'Don't contradict. From the moment of this girl's birth, child, I intend to be her friend. I intend to be her godmother, and I beg you'll call her Betsey Trotwood Copperfield. There must be no mistakes in life with this Betsey Trot\i\lood. She must be well brought up. I must make that my care.'

Comprehension check Read the passage again and answer the questions. Use your dictionary to check new words. Which of the following adjectives describe David's mother and which describe Betsey Trotwood? Which word describes neither of them'? forceful shy confident frightened weak strong miserable impatient bossy meek insensitive motherly severe flustered

2 \\IllY was David a posthumous child''! (1.2) When had his father died'? What was his father's name? 3 \Vhy is that Friday called 'eventful and important''? (1.5) 4 What is 'the trial'? (1.8) 5 Why is David 'indebted to Miss Betsey for having been born on a Friday'? (1.14) 6 Why does Miss Betsey call David's mother 'child',? (1.24)

7 How many reasons ean you find as to why David's mother is sad and frightened? 8 What is Betsey Trot\\.'ood absolutely certain about? Two weddings. ..

Unit 12

121


What do you think? 2 What do you think will happen next?

What 'mistakes in life' might have happened to Miss Betsey Trotwood?

I

T.89b Read and listen to Part II, \\'ho do you think Mr Chillip is?

AM BORN (PART II)

T 5

he mild Mr Chillip sidled into the parlour and said to my aunt in his meekest manner: 'Well, ma'am, I'm happy to congratulate you.' 'What upon?' said my aunt sharply. Mr Chillip was flustered again by the extreme severity of my aunt's manner, so he made her a little bow and gave her a smile.

10

15

20

25

'Mercy on the man, what's he doing?' cried my aunt, impatiently. 'Cant he speak?' 'Be calm, my dear ma'am,' said Mr Chillip, in his softest accents. 'Be calm. I am happy to congratulate you. All is now over, ma'am, and well over.' 'How is she?' said my aunt, folding her arms. 'Well, ma'am she will soon be quite comfortable, I hope,' replied Mr Chillip. 'Qy.ite as comfortable as we can expect a young mother to be. There cannot be any objection to your seeing her presently, ma'am. It may do her good.' 'And she. How is she?' aid my aW1t, sharply. Mr Chillip laid his head a little more on one side, and looked at my aunt. 'The baby, said my aunt. 'How is she?' 'Ma'am,' replied Mr Chillip, it's a boy.' My aunt said never a word, but took her bonnet by the strings, aimed a blow at Mr Chillip's head with it, put it on, and walked out. She vanished and never came back any more.

DlII\" ~'

\\1\\

"I

\

0~~

~~(7J\ \ r/\~,::. (1\?O~> ~;. ~~~~,

"\\\

.â&#x20AC;˘

_~~cd~ !j~((. J

1111~11<)~(~

Comprehension check

Vocabulary

I What is Betsey Trotwood' opinion of r Chillip? What does he think of her? 2 What is the misunderstanding bet\veen them? 3 Does Betsey go to see the baby? 4 'What does Betsey Trot\vood hit Mr Chillip with? Why doe' she hit him? 5 Why does she leave?

I Find words in Part I that mean the same as the

What do you think? What do you think of Betsey Trotwood's behaviour? Do you think David Copperfield ever meets his aunt? 122

Unit 12

Two weddings, , ,

following. shy

uncertain

was used to

hat

crying

2 Find words in Part II that mean the same as the following, gentle most humble disappeared

strictness

hat

hit


Language work

Reading

Read the account of Betsey Trotwood's conversation wilh David Copperfield's motber. Fill each gap with a suitable word

Read the poem and answer the questions. Use your dictionary to check new words.

from the box.

se each word once only.

said asked begged told (x 2) invited expressed suggested added didn't answer exclaimed introduced

Miss Betsey Trotwood (1)

FUNERAL BLUES

_

herself to Da,'id's mOlher. who (2) thai she had heard of her. Then Miss Belsey (3) her to take off her cap so that she coulll see her properly. She was vcry surprised and (4) that David"s mother looked \'('ry young indeed! Next she (5) when the baby was due. but David's poor mother (6) _ the the question. she just (7) fear thai she would die having the baby. Miss Betsey dismissed these fears and

(8) (9)

~~

her to have some tea. She that she had no doubt

Ihal the baby would be a girl. Da\ id's mother lentatively (10) that it might be a boy but Miss Betsey (II) her not to contradict, and (12) _

STOP All the clocks, cut offthe telephone, Prevent the dog from barking with a juicr bone, Silence the pianos and with muffled drum Bringout the coffin, let the mourners come. Let aeroplanes circle moaning overhead Scribbling on the sky the message /-Ie Is Dead, Put crepe bows round the white necks of the public doves, Let the traffic policemen wear black cotton gloves. He was my orth, my South, my East and West, 1\ Iy working week and my Sunday rest, My noon, my midnight, my talk., my song; I thought that love would last forever: I was wrong. The stars are not \WIlted now; put out everyone; Pack up the moon and dismantle the sun; Pour away the ocean and sweep up the wood; For nothing now can ever come to any good.

her to call the baby Betsey Trotwood Copperfield.

Reading and listening (2)

Adeath Pre-reading task I

T.90 Close your books and close your eyes. Listen to a poem by W H Auden (1907-1973). The poem is called Funeral Blues. Don't \\orf) about understanding every word but tf) to understand Ihe overall 'message". It is a love poem. What has happened? How does the wnter feel about the world now?

2 What words or lines can you remember? Share what you can remember with the rest of Ihe class.

A loved one has died. What in general docs the poet want the rest of the world to do? Why does the poet fecllike this? 2 Which lines describe things that could possibly happen? Which describe impossible things? 3 Which verse describes the closeness of the relationship? 4 When you fall in love it is said that you see the world through 'rose-coloured spectaclcs". What does this mean? In \\hat ways is this IXlCm the opposite of this?

Learning by heart Choose one verse and learn it by heart. 2 Recite the poem round the class. Two weddings.

Unit 12

123


WRITING Correcting mistakes I Kat! was a sltldcnt of English in London. where she stayed wilh the Ilcnnctl family. She has now returned home. Read the letter she has wrillcn (0 Mr and Mrs Bennett. Her English has impro\cd bUI there ,Ire sti11 over 25 mi~lake~ How many can yOli find?

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1,3

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tf'od Mad ~--' 5~ wi{/, 1J'" ""'" " ~ '""""~ ~""a.(", "". 7,t,.;, fP" ~ aPt ~ Ad ea=-<U "'f!""';"-ak, ;; ~ y'''ger"" mud wurA ?

Cho CIme

..be Kah'

2 Compare the mistakes you have found with a partner. Correct the letler. 124

Unit 12

Two wedc:hngs

3 Write ,1 thank-you letter to someone you have

stayed "llh.


Saying sorry I Read the conversations and put the correct expression from the box into the gap. (I'm) sorry

a

I am sorry

Pardon

Excuse me

What

_ _ , can you tell me where the post office is?" _____ , rrn a stranger here myself'

b

'Ouch! That's my foot!' _ _ _ _ _ . I wasn't looking where I was going.'

2 T.91a Listen and check your answers. Act out the conversations. paying particular attention \0 stress and intonation. 3 What exactly \vould you say in the following Situations? Respond in one or two sentences. a You \vere cut otT in the middle of an important phone call to a business colleague. You think there is a problem with the switchboard in your office. You ring your colleague back. b You want the allention of the waiter in a very crowded restaurant. You want another large bottle of fizzy mineral water for your table. t A friend tells you that she can', meet you for lunch as planned next Thursday because she suddenly has to go to an aunt's funeral. d Your daughter, aged fourteen, tells you that she wants to go to an all-night party and take a bottle of your whisky with her. e You thought you had bought a mediulII jumper. but when you get it home you see it's the wrong size. You take it back to the shop.

_ _ _ _ _ _ , what's thai creature called?' 'It's a Diplodocus.' l' 'A Diplodocus. D-l-P-L-O-O-O-C-U路S.' 'Thank you very much.' d ,] failed my driving lest for the sixth lime!'

f You ask for directions in a foreign country, but you don't understand the reply. Ask the person to say it agalll, g You want to get on' a very crowded traill at tbe next stop, Vou have a huge suitcase. h Your dinner guest reminds you that he is vegetarian. You have just put a huge steak on his plate. 4 T.91 b Listen to the sample answers. Were yOUl" answers similar?

! We need to get past. My little boy isn't feeling well.' f 'Do you wan! your hearing aid, Grandma?'

e

- - - - l' 'I said: Do YOllll'lIl/l YOIl,./zearillg aitt!' _ _ _ _ _ 1' "DO YOU WANT YOUR HEARING AID?!" _ _ _ _ _ _ , I can't hear you. I need my hearing

aid.'

Two weddings, , .

Unit 12

125


Tapescripts UNIT 1 Tapescript 1 I The modern Olympic Games started in 1896. 2 It takes eigbt minll!es for the sun's rays to reacb Earth. 3 He was stepping down onto the moon. 4 A vegan doesn't cat any animal products at all. 5 If you arc buying things witb rupee., you are in India. 6 The lirst books were primed in China before gOO AD. 7 The gods Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva are wor'shipped in Hindui,m. { Miehacl Jackson's ThrillPI' has s Id more copies tllan any other. 9VIP stands for Very Important Person. 10 Ben Johnson didn't get the gold medal because he failed a drug te t. II Abraham Lincoln was watching a play in the theatre when he was assassinated. 12 Brazil has won the World Cup foll1' timcs. 13 A bulterny has four wings. 14 If you are eating Sl/sM, you are eating raw fish ;md rice.

Tapescript 2a The sun rises in the west. It doesn't rise in the west l It rises in the east!

Tapescript 2b (*

*a *b e *d *e *[' *g h *i *j k

mC<ln salllple answer) Ie doesn't eome from Australia! He comes I'rom Italy! She isn't wearing a 'wimming: costume! She's wea ring a dress! They don't drive on the right! They dri eon the len! She hasn't got ten sisters and brothers! She's got two l We didn't go to Iceland l Wc \1I<:1ll to Spain l I didn't have a huge breakfast l I just had a cup of cotree! It won't snow tomorrow' It'll be sunny! We aren't karning Chinese' We're learning English! I don't livc in a palace! I live in a flat! Il i n'tmade in Scotland! ]t's made in France! Cats can't swim, but dogs an!

Tapescript 3 1 1. 3 4 5 6 7

My sister's a teacher. She's Oil holiday al the moment. She's jusl come back from Greece. She's been there for two weeks. She's going back to work next week. She's got three children. Her husband's a builder. Hc路路 building a house.

126

Tapescripts

9 [t 's made of Slone. 10 ft路s got three bedrooms.

Tapescript 4a

P Um, well I was thinking that for me the .. ,

See page 8

Tapescript 4b Dad Emma Dad Emma Dad Emma Dad Emma Dad Emma

Morning! Did you slecp well? Yes. ] did. Da yOll want any breakfast? No, J don't. I'm not hungry. Oh. Have you fed the cat? Yes, I havc. Has the post come') 1 0, it hasn't. OK. Are you going 10 be late tonight? o. ['m no!. I'll be back at the usual lime.

Tapescript 5 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Is il hot today? Is il raining? Are you in class? Arc you wearing a suit? Do you usually come to school by hus? Doe' your teacher smoke? Arc you going out tonight? Did you go out last nigh!') Can you swim? Do you like learning English? Have you got a dictionary? Do you have any brothers and sisters?

Tapescript 6 J

=John

M

=Martin

P

=Pam

LCIIllC ask you two a question. You know the wonders of the ancient world were all building'. Well. wbat would YOllr wonders of the model'll world be? And don路t ... don't nccessarily think about buildings, think about things, you know, our way of lifc at the end or the twet1lieth century, M Well. I think for me definitely, wbat's ,;banged my lire more than anything else is lhc washing machine. er .... I think it's. marvellous! It's thc best invention ever! It has extended human freedom. really! 1 think that the free time it creates is incredible! P Yes. It's very convenient. it's true ... J No more taking your clothes to the river. P ... but] think we wash our clothes more often than necessary because we have the machines to do it. So we fill Ihat free time with more wa hing. M Ah' That's interesting' PI.. 1... take your poinl about the wa 'hing machinc, but. well I was thinking along more. slighlly sort of intelleclUallines perhaps .. , M Y~ah. go on!

well ... th~ most wonderful thing is the fax machine, becausc of the way il ... it simply enables you to communicale with people ilJ a way that you just couldn't contemplate even five years ago! Are you saying it's good for work, or for pleasure, .. for keeping in touch with people" P I think it's just the wondcr of thc machine, not work or pleasure. er ... it's simply am'lzing. Ye , I know what you mean. You watch your piecc of papcr going into the fax, and at the same time, onlhe other side of the world iI'S coming out of somebody else's machine. II'S incredible! P That's it! M But it never leaves you alone, though, that's the problem, It never stops P Oh, possibly. ycah. M You're never alone ... p never alone with your fax ... M with your fax machine. Well. this may be very obvious. but talking about keepin~ in touch Wilh people a long way away. l... I'm still very, very impressed by planes, actually. Especially jumbo jets, [think I'm slightly obsessed by them. Yes, I can never understand how something: so very, very big can actually takc off. M Absolutely' PMmm, It is incredible to be able to get almost anywhere in thc world in less Ihan twenty-four hours. 1 think we have to agree, though, thal one of thc grt:atcst wonder of the modern world has 10 be Ihe microchip, or the computer, and all the technology that that's opening up. I mean, almost weekly there's some new amazing bit of technology that was inconceivable live or ten years ago. P Yes. I think a lot of the things we're talking about are to do with communication. aren't they? Thc w<lys we can communicate with each other, how much and how quickly. \-I/e could include the phone, The phone's pretty amazing. To sort of ... to take a slightly dilrerenl vicw of thc question, wouldn't you ay that one of the wonders of our age is free lime, actually having free time') Well, that's what you were saying about wa hing m,lchines, M Yes. l\'!mm, I. er ... ye . I think that has been thc great revolUllon. I ju t ... my fear is ... lhat allthesc machines arc beginning to en11 ... attack people's frec'time. J think we are losing our free time, because lht:se machines that communicate wilh lIS never leave us alone' P Mmm. Very philosophical. What you're saying is lhat. for every machine lhat comes


along LO g.ive us more I'ree lime, something else eOllles along. possibly <,ven the am~ thing, to fill it. M Exactly.

Tapescript 7 a b c d ..: f

hread work donc paid good ach<.> "" dear h cows

a castle bomb c sandwich d island

e f g h

read (past) talk son playcd wood takc pcar

read (present) walk won .aid .tood weak

owes

rosc

ncar

knock foreign heart knowledge

psychology grandma

Tapescript 9a a

b c

d

c

h

k

'Sorry I'm late, I got held up in the tratlie.' 'Never mind. You're here now. Comc and sit down." 'Bye, Mum' ['m off to schoo] now.' "Take care, my love. Havc a nice day" 'I-[ave you heard that Jenny"' going out wilh Pcte Bo, d')' 'Really" I don't know what she sees in him." 'Ilow long did it take you to do the homcwork')' Agcs. What ahout you')' '1 don't know about you, but I'm bl up with thLs weather." 'Mc, too. ['m jllst longing for some sunshine." 'Viho wa . that I saw you wilh lasl night?' 'M ind YOLir own bllsiness" 'I'm tired. 1'111 having next week orr." 'That's a good idea. The break will do YOll good." 'Right! Let's go for a ten-milcjog in the park!' 'You must be joking!' 'Let me buy you a drink." 'No, no, It's my rOllnd, What wOllld yOll like'!' 'Shalt we meet this afternoon at 3.00')' 'Sorry, I can't make it then, What abollt a bit later'," 'What a fant,lstic coat! Was il expemive:' 'It COSt an absolute fortune"

Tapescript 9b I

2 ,; 4 5 6 7

Tapescript 10

See page 16

Tapescript 11

he<ld fork phonc madc food break hear knows

Tapescript 8 b

UNIT 2

I"m having Friday and Monday off work next week. We're going away. 1"11 se~ you l\I about 7.00. This weather's depressing. isn't it"? Hey! Nic~ jeans! Sorry rm late. I overslept. I\lan\ going to im'ik Suzi~ \() the party n~xt weck, For your homework tonight I want you to learn one hundrcd new words,

a

'\Vhcre docs he [ive'l' ']n a detach cd house in thc south 01 England,' b 'What docs he do')' 'Hc's an accountant.' c '11o\\' man, children docs he ha c'" 'Two." d 'Ilow docs hc relax after work'!' 'lie watches televiSIon or a video: c '!-Io\\, much does he spend per week'," 'fl20 on average.' 'What does he do Ilt I he weekeml T 'lie eat. in restaurants, goe 10 see shows. or plays golf Most weekends he pOllns in th~ garden.' g 'How olten does he go on holiday abroad:' 'More than once n y~ar."

Tapescript 12 Roger the gardener D'yoll know th..: best thing that ever happcned to me"? D'you know what it was? It was when I lost my last job. Yes, really! J never liked it hated it in I'act - stuck in an ofTice all dav with computers and a t~lephone, NOI,' my hobb} is my rull-time job' ] Slart work very early, er '" in ,'lllll1ler ] usually leave home abollt 5,30 in th" morning, but in winler not lIntil about 8.00, [ have a small van, and I carry all my tools and equipment in !Iw!. It's autumn now so rm tidying the gardens - rl11 picking lip leaves and pulllllg. up old summer Ilowers, Oh, and I'm plaming bulbs as well. 1"111 plilnting lots of datl'odtls and tuhps. Every sea on is So ditTerent. i1nd [ love them all. I jllst love working outside in the open ail' after all those years in a stuffy ollice. I never noticed the scasons there! After work r always go home and rdax in a hot bath, I have a flat in London but most or my work is outside of London, in the suburbs. "Ill not married but [ live wilh my girlfriend, 'iona. I usu~lIy cook our evening meal because shl' gets home from work aner me, She's a graph ic designer and earns a lot or money, much more than ,ne' She eaT/1.IlTlOre but I think I enjoy my work more, At weckends we often drive into [he country and g0 to antique shops and antique S<l]es [ collect old rad ios, you sec. Wc don't have a television! Can you believe it') Everyhody has one these days but we don't! Yes, cr ... , er .. , I collect old radios and Fiona collects old cookery books. We take our dog, we have a lovely dog. and we like taking her on long walks. I've ju,t bought two 1930s radios and I'm cleaning them ~llld mending them, All my radios work, you knoll' I never play I/HI' spons, Is this unusual? I think there is only one problem with my job. It's seasonal. so I don't earn Illueh in the autllmn and wintcr, so er .. I'm nOl earning

much at the moment. I cam most moncy in spring and summer. But it's OK, I earn cnough. not "nollgh to eat Olll often in"xpcn~ve restaurants or go 10 shows, but enollgh lor my dog and my hobby, I'm a very happy man'

Tapescript 13

See page 18

Tapescript 14 I

=Interviewer

SW

=Sister Wendy

I When did you become a nun, Sist~r Wendy? SW When I was sixteen. Goodness, that's nearly

fifty years ago' I And where do you live'! S\V In I orlOlk. In a Carmelite monasta . Well. Ilot actually in the monastery but in the gro uncls_ I hHve a

(".'(l

ri:1Villl,

I Do you travel al] round the world',' S\V l 0, I dOIl't. .Ju,t in Europe -that's Car enough' Why do you think your art programme, ar~ so popular') SI\! I don't really know. I'm not ,ure why they're popular. ] lee] that I look 0 silly, but perhaps people find it funny to watch a silly old nun' I Do you enjoy going on tour'! SW Yes, I do. Of COllrse I do. The tours arc r..:ally interesting and everybody enjoys a lire of lu,xmy now and then, I lov" good lood and drink, but you kno\v I'm happiest on my own in my caravan, I no yOll walch yourself on television? SW No, I don't' I look ridiculous, I never wiltch if I can help tI' What ,Ire yOll doing with all the money you'no' earning'! SW I'm using it 10 help the monastery, Some new shower room, are being buill, That's good, isn't it')

Tapescript 15 I Suzanne I love many sports. hut hes! of all skiing. I first skicd when I was six ye~lr old, and lived in Canada. and then for many years. in fact decades, I wasn't able 10 ski again because I was li\'ing in hot places Aut sinee I've been living in England, I'w resumed skiing amI it's even h..:tler than it was. For mc now the phlce to ski is the Alps. and panicularly !"ranee. I live in England and the winters arc gloomy, and there's not much sun, so one of thc wonderful things about skiing for me, is Ihe light and the brilliant sunshine thaI you find higb, high up in the mountains. A lot or other people [ike it, too. and it can be rather crowded, especially around the lifts because yOll nOli have mechanical lifts that take you zooming lip, Ilying lip the mountains like a god. wherem in Canada I had to walk IIp ir I wanted to ski down. The equipment yOll need '" skis, and boots, and poles. Many people own their own equipmcnt but I hire mine in the re or!, I do hm'e my own c10thcs though. and clothe' are very important bccause skiing is quite a fa,hion路 conscioLis spon, Also, it's ncecssary [0 have

Tapescripts

127


clothes that will protect you becau"e the weather can bc very sewre. You need a ski-suit. a 11<lt. gogglcs to protect your eyes, ,ocks, millens, and a rucksack is useful to carry around your bib and pieces. Now at this point, I have to confess that I am not the world's greatest skier, I would ,ay I am a respectable skier. 1'111 a s"re skier, hut that doesn't stop you having a wonderful timc. Also. tbere is the ,ociallil'e that is ,uch an important part of ,kiing, You can eat and drink as mtKh as you want because you know you're burning it all on'. And then at the end of the day there's the evening, food and wine with friends and everybody talking about their excitements during the day. I love it l 2 Dorothy I'm an elderly lady of eighty-three and I've always been interested in keep-lit. yoga and anything to keep myself mobile, and er .. two year. ago, I joined a lillie dub run by the Salvation Army. where about ~ighteen of us meet together and we go through all om movements with music - it's very enjoyable. l'eedles. to say, I am the eldest one therG, but I"m able to do 1110"t of the exercises, when 1 feel OK WhGn I've got a bad bout of sciatica, I've got t" Gase up a bit. How orten'! I go once a week on a Thursday for .. " oh we exerei, e for about three quarters of an hour. and thGn we end up with having a niGC lunch, which i, always verv good, aJld tllilt is at the Salvation Army Hall in Branksome. Who with'? Lots of my friends; 1 have made friends ,ince joining beGalise I was a complete stranger when I wem there but now there's a lot of people I can call my friends, And for this keep-fit we ju. t wear a leotard with a nice bright yellow top and feel vcry smart, And across the top il says, 'Branksome i, lighting tit'. And am I good at it':' Well I think r am ... and the instructress tells me. or tells the others rather, that I am an Gxample to the rest of them. 3

I = Jnteniewer

M = Martin

I So 1artin. what sports do you play'! M I play football. volleyball. telmis, and table tennis but volleyball is my favourite game as it's a team game and you can play it with your friends, and enjoy it as a team. I Is it 4uit~ a fast game as well? M Yeah. It is a fast game and thars another rea,on why I enjoy it. I How exciting, .. M Yes. I Where do you play, then? M I play at local spons centre more during the winter and sort of play in toumaments around England, I also, in the summer. play beaeh volleyball. h beach volleyball difTerent from the volleyball you play in the centres" M Yes, it's a very difTerenl. game. Instead of six players on a team. it's only two players. You memioned you played in tournamenlS - now do you do quite well in the tournament .'!

128

Tapescripts

tvl Yes, I've played for South West England and we've got througb to the cmi-tinals of differem England tournaments. and for Wes. cx, my other volleyball team, we've actually won a I~w tournaments, So yes, I have done quite well. Oh \\ell done' 'Vhm sort of equipment do you need'! M Well. first of all you need the ball and the net, and obviously the court." but you may also need knee pads and your volkyball kit. OK ". k,lee pads because you filiI on your knees a lor) M Yc> ... 'cos you ... when diving and things like that I Diving'! M Diving ... yeah. I It sounds like swimming. That means jumping to cat~h the ball') M Yeah, jumping 10 get a ball up in the air. I Yes, all righl. So how often do you play volleyball then Martin? M \lv'ell during the season, which is abolll September to June, [ play twice a week, One of those is I. railling. and one of those i, a match. And during the ,ummer I play Ixach volleyball. but that's only once a week.

Tapescript 16a

Sec page 23

Tapescript 16b I

A When 10 you go away on holiday? 13 On the fitkenth, We're nying. The night takes nine and a half hours. A And when are you back') B On the twenty-fourth, I'll give you a ring wilen we're back. :\ OK, 1 And now the bu,iness ncws. This month intlation i, up 1.5'(0. This produces ,In annual figure of 9'(0. Unemployment ha, also risen. An estimated two and three quarter million people arc out of work, 3 A I lelia. Odeon Cinema. !:l Ilcllo. Can] book a seat for tonight's film') A Certainly, Do you want to pay now or later',' 13 ] can pay by credit card, can't I? A Yes, sir. The scats are six pounds each. There's no bookin~ fee, 13 OK. It's a Visa ca;l. number 4929502 418508, A Expiry date? 13 04/99, A That's fine. Your tickets \vill be ready for youlonight. The progranUlle start, at 7.45. H Thanks. Rye. 4 A Hey! I like thosc shoes, Where did you get them'l B In Raver. A How much. if vou don't mind m asking? B ÂŁ39.99. They're having a sale at the moment, Everything's half pri"e. A That' really good, S A Hello, 4887621. B Hello, Tony. It's Lionel. A Hello, Lionel. How are things?

B OK. thanks. Li,ten. I'm phoning to ask you to a party. ;\ Oh. that', nice. Is it your hundreuth birthday already? fl Ha, ha. No, it's our wedding anniversary. actually, Rosemary and I \ ant to have a lillie party A That sounds lovely. When is it? 13 The eighteenth. at about Ihree o'elock Can you make it? A Hold on. Let me have a look. Yes, that seems fine. 1 really look I'orward to it. B That's g.real. See you then A !:lye, Tony. Thanks, !:l Bye!

UNIT 3 Tapescript 17 The Bald Knight Once upon a time. a long time ago. there was a knight who, as he grew older. lusl all his hair. He heel/III/! as bald a, an egg. lie didn't want anyone to sec his bald head so he &Oll"/il a beautiful. black, curly win. One day some lord and ladies li'om the castle inviled him to go hUl1ling with them. so of course he pili 0" his beautiful wig. '!-low handsome I look" he tllOllglll to himself as II<' II'(/S drosillg ill frOM of his mirror. Then he SI'I on' happily for the fore>t. How~ver. a terrible thing Iwppened. 1/1' lras ridillg "lOll". sillgillg lIIerri~r IV himself H'I1<'1I he passed III/del' 1/11 oak Irl'!!, (llid his wig (aughl on a branch and fell off in full view of everyone. How th~y all laughed at him! At lirst the poor knightje/r vcry foohsh but then he S({H the funny side of the situation, and he started laughing. too, The}' H'Ne ull slill laughing n'/iel! Ih!!)' arril'ed hark al Ihe caslll'. The knight never "we his

wig again. Th.: moral of this story i,; When people laugh at liS, it is best to Illugh 1I'ilh Ihcm.

Tapescript 18 I arrived 2 cooked 3 wanted 4 finished

5 started 6 lived 7 travelled 8 visited

9 laughed 10 danced II listened 12 invited

Tapescript 19 A life story They met and fell in 10 e while they were working together in Malaysia. They got married during the Second World War. They had their first son while they were living in Hong Kong. Th.:y lived in Hong Kong I'or five year'. They had live more soris when they returned to BritaIn. They sent th~ir sons to boarding school while they were working ahroad, They lived in six difrcrent countries during their Inarnage,


They were happily married for over forty-five years. My grandfather died during the summer of 1991. L

Tapescript 20 The Farmer and his Sons There was onCl' an old, dying fanner who had H'orkl'd Irarrl in llis ~'illeyard all hi.1 lift. Refore he died he wanted to teach his threc sons how to be good farmers. So he called thcm to him and said. 'My boys. before I die I walll you to know that there is a great treasure buried in the vineyard. Promise me that you will look for it when J am dead.' The sons promised and as SuulluS Ilrcir./l/lher Irad died, they began looking for thc treasure. They worked very hard in the hot sunuml (11/ Ihe lime as Ihel' H'ere "'orking Ihl')' H'olld('l'cd H路hlll /henjillher had le}i for Ihl'lII. In their I11ll\d they pictured boxes of gold coins. diamond Jlecklaces and other such things. SUOII Iher Iwd dug lip ererr illeh of lire rilll'.ml'd. But they found not a single penny. They were very upset. The.l'jell tlr(1I all Iheir hard H'ork Irad bel'li for 1/OllIillg. But then the grapes started to appear on the vines and their grapes were the biggest and best in the neighbourhood. and they sold them lor a lot of money. ow they understood,rlwl tlreir jl/lher fwd mealll br Ihl' gl'l'(I/ Irl?aS/lrl? and they lived happily and wealthily ever after. The moral of this story is: Hard work brings i/s 0\1'/1

L

L

reward.

L

Tapescript 21 I

L

'I went 10 the airport but r couldn't catch

the plane.' 'Oh dear' Had you forgotten your passporr" 'r was homcsick while I was living in 2 cw York,' 'Poor you! Had you never livcd ahroad before?' 3 'I met my girlfriend's parcnts last Sunday.' 'Oh l Hadn't you met them before'"

I J L

4 'My grandfather had two ,ons from his lirst 11lillTlage.

'Really? I didn't know he'd been married belore.' 5 '1 told everyolle the good news' 'Hadn't they heard it already?' 6 'As soon as 1 saw him] knew something was: wrong.' 'Oh dear' What had happened'?'

Tapescript 22 Mu ic from

The Ellterlailler

Tapescript 23 J

=,lack

L = Liza

J

= Il1tcr"i(~wcr

And it was really frightening. wasn't it'] L Well. yes. it was like something out of a horror movie. This w man was so thin and

J

J L

bent, she had long, straggly grey hair. and dirty old tom clothes. The smeJl was ... Bnt .... hilt the \\'0 I' SI thing were the bandages' Oh, yes' She had bandages on her wrists and round her legs ... , .. yes both legs. And these bandages looked as if they had been on her for weeks. Tbey were grey, and absolulely covered in blood. Goodness knows what she'd done to herself. but ihe wounds obviously hadn't healed. And under one arm she was carrying a cat, <Ind in her olher hand there was a larg.e glass of whisky! She could hardly stand up straight! Yes, she was swaying from side to side, spilling b<;r whisky. \vasn't she? Anyway. she asked us in, so we tri<;d to hide how terriJied we were. and we followed her in. The house was so old and dark and dirty ... and it absolutely stank of cats. There were cats everywhere. p the curtains. on the boobhelve" on tbe stairs ... It was unbelievable. And when she was leading us upstairs. suddenly two huge dogs, really huge dogs, the size of horses. came charging out of a room and nearly knocked us over! So you can imagine how we were starting to feel. Like. do you really have to stay here" At ew Year'? And pay for ,t'l 8111 the wor路t was still to come. When we got to the rooms, we couldn't believe il All the fLimiture was broken. there were no curlHin~ ... It was absolutely freezing. There was no heating apart from one little electric fire for the whole place. ]n fact, there wa. only one power point. so you had to make a choice. You t'ould either have the telcvi.sion. or the lamp. or the lire, but you couldn't have more than one. We just looked at eaeh olher and knew that we couldn't stay. So what did you do') Well. wc didn't even try to be polite. We just said that it really wasn't what we wanted and we couldn't po~sibly stay there, and left. Tbe lady said we'd losc our depo it ... A 拢10 deposil ... which wa, cheap al the price, I'll teU you! And we just rani

4

bis latest one down until the last chapter.' 5 'What do you think of their children'!' 'I think they spoil them. They always give thcm whatever they wanl' 6 'What was your holiday Iik<;?, 'It was a good break, but I he weat her wasn't very good.' 7 'What did you think of I fannah Smart'}' 'She's usually vcry good but I don't think she was right for this part' g 'What was the match like'!' 'It was really exciting, especially when Smith scored in the closing minutes.'

UNIT 4 Tapescript 25 I = Interviewer

M L

M L

M

I L

I L

1 L

Tapescript 24 'Did you like the film'!' 'It was excellent. Have you seen it yer) It stars Anthony Hopkins and Emma Thompson.' 'What did you think of the play')' 'It was so boring I fell asleep in the lirSl act.' 3 'Did yOll enjoy your pizzas?' 'They were delicious. John had tomato and mozzarella topping and J had ham and mozzarella. '

'00 you like Bcn Brown's novels'!' 'J didn't like his la<;t one, but [ couldn't put

I

M

L

M = Megan

L

=Laura

What an~ some of the good things about being a teenager. not an adult') Um ... well, you dOI1'I!lm'c 10 go out to work, for a start. And you dOIl'1 harl! /0 pay bills. You ('(1/1 go out with yom friends. go shopping, go to the cinema. BlIt I always h(/1'1' 10 tell my Mum and Dad where I'm going lirsl So do 1. Another thing is we dun'l h",'e Iu do the housework and the washing and cleaning, and all that stuff, which is really boring. One problem is that you never have enough money. We get soml' money from our parents, but it's never enough. Youllrell'l (/I/O'n'd 10 buy whal you want. What do think it's like being an adult'! Well. adults hm'(' 10 worry about bills and looking afler tbeir family. They can't do what they wanl when they want. They have respon ibililies. you mean') Yeah. [ feel mOre sorry for my Mum. She's always rushing around and she has to go to work as well. She doe 'n't have to work on Thursdays and Fridays, but she has loads of different things to do in a day, like shopping, er .. cooking, taking me to dancing and swimming. S do you think your Dad has the easier life? Wdl. I don't know. He has to work I'ulllime, and he drives over a thousand miles a week, btH he doesn't bave to do anything III the hCHlse. When he gets ill at 7.30, everything's been done! Urn, tell me about school. Whal arc some of the school rules? Huh! \Ve h(/\'e /(I wear a stupid school uniform, anel we're not allowed to weal' while oeks. they have to be black, We ('(1/1'1 wear make-up, and we al'e/1', "I/ull'i'd 10 chell' gum' And if you break one or the rules, you get a Friday afternoon detention'

Tapescripts

129


Tapescript 26 Bert Atkins talks about his schooldays I

=Interviewer

13

=Bert

I \Vhell did YOll slart school, Bert? B Well. ... er. I was born ill 191') and I started school whcn I was live, so lhat was 1924. It was jllSt a lillk \1llage school, anI. 20 of liS in all. I don't think it had a namc. we just callcd it 'The Lillie School'. And we staycd there till we were ten. and then we mOl'ed to 'The Big Boys School' in the next village. I don't think that had a name either, it was alwaysillst 'The Big Boys School.' And whal can you rcmcmber about your first school? 13 Well. you know the iirst thing t.hey lallght us, all of w;. hoy.~ and girls" The ..err first thing they taught llS ... was kllillillg. It seems strange. doesn'l it? But we all had lO learn to knit. \Ve couldn't Jearn to rcad and \\Tiw till we'd learnl to knit l I Wh) was that? Was there a reason? B Oh yes. thcre was a reason all right. You see. we all had to knit OIl[ own cloth to clcan our slate. We weren't allowed to use paper and pem:ils, at kast not until we were sc en years old. They werc too expensil'e. so we had to use chalk and a slate for the first two years. So you scc it was a good idea. knitting a cloth. I think that's what I remember most about the Little School. And when yOli werc tcn you moved to the l3ig Boys'! Did you havc to take an, e,\am 1O go there'! 13 Oh no, I don't remembcr any exams. When you were ten you just started walking to Ihe next village (0 'The Big Boys'. There was no transport. you sce. you had to walk It was about four mile;;. I didn't get a bike till I was rourleen, and of course I'd left school by then. You had to Icave at [ollrteen in those days. And what about 'The Big 130ys'? Did you enjoy it? B Ooh. in the beginning I wa. terrified. There were so many really big boys. and the teachers were f<~ally strict. You had to behave in The Big Boys' I What did you havt' to do? B Well, we had to stanu behind our desks at the stan of every lesson, we weren't allowed to talk at all in cia$.. cver, well ... cr. only if the teacher asked a question. The headmaster. Tom Bevan he was called - we called him BOS5Y Bevan. He was rcally . trict, we were terrificd of hiin. terrified. Once he hit a boy so hard he broke his nose. But he never hit me, no The worst punishment I gOI was writing lines ann school, and that was for coming late. In the winter. it was, and in all the 'now and I arrived ten minutcs late, Huh .. , I had to write one hundred times, 'I must leave home early. I must not arrive late.' 0111' hundred times. But I was never hi t, never.

130

Tapescripts

J

And did you h,we

10

do much homcwork'!

H Homework? No - we nevcr got homework.

I don't remember any homework. We didn't have to do allY. The teachcrs never thought about it. I think they'd had enough of us after each day. They didn't want more work! So were your schooldays the happiest days of your life'! B Ooh no' J ever. I don't think I had an ed llcat ion rca lIy. The happiest time of my life was whcn I was in India during the war. It's t.he only time I've been abroad.

Tapescript 27a

See page 37

Tapescript 27b M = Mum

,J

=,Jim

M J M J Ivl J M J

You must look arter your money. Yes, Mum' I will. You mustn't go out when it's dark. 0, Mum' I won't. You must make sure you eat well. Yes, Mum l I will. You must phone us if you're in trouble. Yes, Mum' I will. You mustn't talk to slrangers. J No, Mum' I won't. M YOli mustn't drink too much bccr. J No. Mum! I won路t. M You must have a bath regularly. J Yes, Mum! I will. M You mustn't go anywhere that's dangerous. .I No, Mum! I won路t.

Tapescript 28a J = Jim

A

=Anthon)'

I think we should take our travellers' chelJ ue, in American dollars. A I doo't think we should go to Thailand in September bccause it's the rainy sea on.

Tapescript 28b J

I think we should take plenty of suncream. Jt'll be rcally hot. A J think we should buv a book called See {Ire World Oll $25 a Day. It'll haw some good ideas about where to go and where to stay. ] don't think wc should put too much in our backpacks. We won't be able to carry it all. A I don't think we should take anything aluahlc. Wc might lose it. I think we should go to Australia first. I've gOt somc friends there who'll put us up. A I think we should go to lndone.,ia by boat. 11'11 be cheaper than flying . I don't think wc should \Vaittoo long before we go. I want to get 路tarted.

Tapescript 29 1 Sumic In my country. Japan. usually we invitc guests home at the weekend, in the early evening, about scvcn o'clock. Belore thcy come, we must lidy the front garden and clean the entrance

haiL Then wc must 'pray it all with watcr to show lhat we welcome guests with cleanliness. The guests usually bring presents and when thcy givc vou the present thcy ,ay. 'I'm sorry this is such a small present'. but in fact they have chosen the present very carefully. When the meal is ready thc hostess says, 'We haw nothing special 1'01' you today but you are welcome to cOllle this way'- You can see that in Japan you should try to be modest and you should not show off too much. If you don't understand our culture you will think this is very strange. Whcn we have foreign guests we try to serve t.raditional Japanese meals like sushi, {,."'PUrti. or :mkiyoki but when we have Japanesc guests. we servc all kinds of food such as spaghetti. Chinese food. or steaks. When guests leave, the host and hostess see thcm out of the house and wait unliltheir car turns the corner or the street: they wait until they can't see them any more. 2 Rosa I come from Spain. At home what 've love most is going out to cat in bars and restaurants. There is a big choice and we can go from one bar to another trying different things and having a few drinks, u 'ually WIllC or beer. But sometimes ,,'e also like to invite pcople to our homc. I usually invite my fricnds for an inlormal meaL I cook Spanish omelwe, which is made with potatoes. onions and eggs, fried in olive oil. Then we have things like cheese, hamSpanish ham is very differcnt from English hilm. and it" you huy 111<: best onc. called .Iabugo. is something delicious, worth trying. And then things like olives, anchovics, mussels. We drink winc or beer, Some peoplc may bring a bOll Ie of wine or som~thing for pudding. We usually meet late in the evening, about eight thirty or nine. or course we drcss casually; we jllst wam 10 he relaxed ilnd comfortabk. and lalk and laugh logether. 3 Leslie ['m from the United States. Sometimes when our family gCIS togclhcr with olher families. we have what's called a 'pOI luck supper', which can take place ill the cvening or even at lunchtime. This is an informal occasion hcld perhaps in s mcone's garden. so people drcss casually but nicely. Invitations can be written or made by phone. and each person is asked to bring a dish of food. They're given a choice or starter. main course, salad or vegetable. or dessert. The hostess know how many of each kind of dish sbc needs but noL exactly what lh~ guests will bring. This is why it's called 'pot luck', as it's a lovely surprise, holding a dinner party and not knowing what you're going to I'::ed your gucsts. As the guests arrive, they put their dish, or pot as it lised to be called. on the table and the meal i, served buffet-style, and drinks ar~ provided. although some guests might bring a bottlc of wine as a present. [ really enjoy this kind of entertaining; it's a fun, relaxed way of gClling togelherwith friends.


Tapescript 30

Tapescript 34

Tapescript 36a

a

I

The Geography of the British Isles

b c

d

g

h

'Could you lill it up. please')' 路Surc.Shall I chcck the oil as wei]," 'Could 1 have the bill. please'!' 'Cenainly. sir. I'll bring it straight away,' 路It's a prcscnt. Do you think you could giftwrap it for me')" 'Yes, indeed. I'll just take the price ofr Two lagers, please.' 'Halves or pints?" 'Can yOIl tell me the code for Paris~' 'One moment. I'll just look it up.' 'I'll give you a lift if you like,' 'Tbat's great, Would you drop mc at the station?' 'Would you mind opcning thc window')' 'Not at all. It's very slUITy in hcre.' 'Could [have extension 2387, plcase?' 'I'm afraid the line's engaged at the moment. Do you want to hold?"

Tapescript 31 I

A So anvwav. I said to him lhat I reallv

didn'lthit;k it was ri~ht tochanee ll;e arrangcments withou'l letting ev~ryone know,", B Sorry to interrupt, darling. but I think thc baby's crying, Do you tltink you could just go and sce if she's all right'! And perhaps give hcr some milk') Ooh. ancl ch.:ck h.:r nappy':' 2 A Yes. madam, Can I help you? BYes. J bought these here two days ago and the heel's broken, Can you change them~

A Oh. deal'. I'm '0 sorry, I'll just see if we'vc got another pair for you, A Turn that wrctched mu ic clown. will you? Or better still. turn it on'! B Oh, all right. 4 A J think we need an advertising campaign on televisioll and in the press, [ really want to push this projecl, John. Would you mind looking after the newspapers. and I'll deal witb tbe telcvision'/ Is that all righl? f3 Mm, line. Er '" when shall we stan? 5 A Anita, will you ~ome here a minuIC~ Could you gel me the file on sales in France? I just need to ehe~k something, Ob. and Anita, I'd 10 e a cup of coITee, if that.'s at all possible. B Ye. [r Parkinson. 6 A I'm awfully ,orry to bother you. I'm sure pcople are always asking you tbis as you'rc always standing bere sdling your newspapers. but you \vouldn't have l'hange for a flve,pollnd nolC, would you~ It路s for the phone box. B Here you are. A Oh, tbat's terribly kind,

UNIT 5 Tapescript 32

See page 45

Tapescript33

See page 45

A Well, darling, It's our big day soon. B I know, I ~an't wait. 1 hope the wcather'.' good, A Yes. it makes such a dilTerence. doesn't it') B The church is looking beautiful. A And tbe hotel is gcni';g ready for the re~eption,

R And then there's our hOne)11100n. A In Bali, BAh' 2 A How many people ar~ ~oming'! B About twcnty or thirty. A What bave wc got to eat and drink? B Caviar and champagnc, ,Vhat else could anyone ask for~ A Let's move all tbe fUl'l1iture out of this room, B So people ~an dance. you mean? A Yeah. Good idea? B Finc. 3 A Have you packed the books and the picturcs from the living room? B Yes, And allthc kitchen tbing are packed. too, A That's it, then. What time are the removal men coming? B Early, I hope, About 7,00 in the morning, A Good! It's a long drive to our new hOLlse. and it's right in ~le middlc of thc . coulJlryside. Do you think thc driver will lind it OK? B Don't worry, I've told him to follow our cal'. Oh, I can't wait to be there. A And r can't wait to get the baby's room ready. B Tom if it's a boy and Natalie if iI's a girl. It路s so exciting ' A new homc and a new baby in the same month '

Tapescript 35 S = 'ina Kendle's secretary A = Alan Middleton S Hello. Nina Kendle's

om~e,

A Hello. Could r speak to Nina Kendle, please? This is Alan Middleton. S I'm afraid she'" out at the moment. She's "isilil!fi a factory. A I see, What time H,t'll she he back in the omce~

S 1'm not sure, I don't know how long sbe's going to stay there. A All right. What about lunclHime') Is she free then? S Just one moment. I'll check, 1 o. shc's horing lunch with a designer. A Till what time'! Do you know? S Erm ... Well, she '.I' seeing a 1.:1'''IOmer here in her oniee al 2.00. A Ah' So whcn's a good time to try again? S Any time after 2,30. A Are you sure') S Definitely. Shc'lI be in her offiee for the rest of the aftcl'l1oon. A OK. 1 'II phone back then. Thank i'Oll. S That's all right. Goodbye.

The Rritish Isles ean be divided into two, not only because of its geography but also because of its climate and agriculture. If you draw a line from about the Bristol Channel to the Wasil. then to the south of this line there are mainly low lands and hills, and to the north lhne are higher lands and mountains. This ineludes the Welsh Mountains, the Highlands of north-west Scotland. and the Pennincs. which i a range of mountains that allls north to south. and is known as the backbone of England. It is wetter in the north bccause of the higher land, and drier and sunnier in the south. This has an elTect on the agriculturc, of course. To the north there are sheep and cows because the grn s gro\VS so well. and to the south there are arable farms growing crops and ccreal.

Tapescript 36b The South West of England is famous for its beautiful countryside and dramatic coastlinc. One particular area of nat mal beauty is Darlmoor. which is inhabitcd by wild ponies, The countryside in the South "ast is more gentle, and there is a lot of fruit-growing. It is also the 1110st heavily populated part of Briwin. East AngJia is very nat. and is famous for its vast fields of \vheal and potatoes, The Midlands used 10 have a lot of heavy industry, but much of this has tli appeared over recent years. Wales is characterizecl by its mountains in thc nOl'lh and its valleys in the south. In the orth West of England there is the beautiful Lake District. and the cities of Liverpool and 'ranchester. The 1 ortb East used to have a lot of mining and ship building, but not any more, unfortunately, Scotland is famous for its lakes. of course. known as lochs, The moors and monntains are beautiful and empty. Ireland is famed for its rains and its rich green grass. its roman~e and its mists.

Tapescript 37 The Weather Forecast And now here's the weather fore\"ast for the next twenty-four homs. ['II divide the country into four, starting with the North West and the North Easl of England. Well, therc'll be some carll' morning mists, and after that it'll be mainly dry and sunny, but quite chilly, with tcmpcratures around six or seven, It should stay dry all day, but there'll be ljuite a wind, so wrap up warm, And now the South West and Wales. You can expect some rain in the morning and afternoon. There might be some storms, as well. with thnnder and lightning, There'll be quite strong winds, and the temperatllre will be lower than yesterday. around three or rOlll' degrees. I don't think you'll scc l1luch of the SlIn, Cloudy all day, I'm afraid, The South East. the IVlidlands, and East

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131


AngJia will see the best of loday's weathcr. 11'11 be warmer than yeSlerday, no winds, and sunshine nearl, ;111 day, with temperalures around ten or eleven, so qIlitc warm for the time 01' year. In Scotland and Nonhern Ireland, however, there'll be heavy rain and maybe some sno\\ during the afternoon, and on lhe hilb tcmperatures will drop to below rreezing, minus four or five, and on the highest spOtS minus tcn. Over much of Scotland it will be cloudy, and windy, 100, as the cold fronl moves in over the Atlantic. onhern Ireland can expect the same, but thc rain will cnd before dark, But again. very cold. with temperatures nol going above frcezing, And that's alll~roll1 me.

Tapescript 38

See pages 51-53

up before we caught the plane last week, Jt was" lovely evening, and we enjoyed IIIcelillg your friends. Pete and Sarah. We managed 10 get to the airport with plenty or time to spare, We even tned 10 gel an earlier flight. but it wasn't pos. ible.

UNIT 6 Tapescript 41 A

=Anna

"i

=Nina

AMy Frcnch exchange visitor .;ame ye tt:rday. 1'0,1 What's her name'? A Marie-Ange. What a pretty name! Wlnll's she like! A She's really nice, ['m sure we'll get 011 really well. We seem 10 have a lot in eOtnmon, N \Vhy do you say that? Wlrlll dues rhe like doillfi'

A Well. she likes dancing, and so do I. And wc both lib: tennis and listening to music. N That suunds great. I saw you with someone this morning. Was it Maric-Ange? W/WI does sire look like:'

Tapescript 39 I would like to reserve some rooms at your hotcL Vic arc arriving in AJi<:ante on 28 JlIly, We hopc to stay for ten nights leaving on 7 Allgust My husband and I would like a double room. preferably wilh a balcony, Our twO tecnagc daughtcrs require a twin room. We understand that all your bedrooms are en-. uilC. Could you confirm this'? Is it possible to haw rooms with a sea view'? Please let me know if you have rooms available for these dates, I would abo be grateflll if' you could tell me the price of ea.;h room. I look furward 10 hearing from you,

Tapescrrpt 40 'No, no! He ,aid turn left nt the pub, not right" 'Look! You drive and 1/1 navigate from now on! Right?' b 'Can you take us to Euslon Station, please?' 'Yes, of <:Ollrse. Hop in" l' 'I'll get a wuple of cofTees from the bufTet

A She's quite tall. and she's got long, dark hair 1'0,1 No. it wasn'l her. then. Now. we're all going out IOmorrow, aren't we? Shall we go lor a pi7Ja, or :-hall we go to the cinema'! Whw ",'(!/lid

'Would you mind getting me a sandwich as well'" d 'Excuse me, f think you'll find those seats facing the front arc ours: 'I'm terribly 'Ol'lyWc didn't notice that they were reserved.' e 'Excus.: me, arc we landing on time'>' 'Yes. We're heginning our descent soon.' 'Do you think it'll be a rough .;rossing'!' 'Well. the forecast is good, su it 'huuld be very smooth' g 'Two to the British uscum, please. AmI .;ould you possibly tell us when it's our stop'!' 'One pOllnd eighty, plcase, Just sit near me and I'll give you a ShOUI: h 'Whid1 line is it for Oxford Circus?' 'The Jubilee Line to Green Park, Then .;hange to the Victoria Line.' 'That's all righl. you can keep the change: 'Thanks a 101. Do want a hand wilh tho,c bags')'

Tapescripts

was very sad. [tmade me

/1m,. is

I 2 3 4

sh('~

Tapescript 42

7

2 3

4

5

(, 7

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9

He's very ni.;e, actually, You'd really likc him, He's the kind or per'on you can always go to with a problem, Shc is not very well. Still got a tempcrature, and a cough that she can't get rid of. She loves riding h~r IlOrse, Blackey. Shc's mad about horses, Th.:y're her greatest passion, She lives lor horse5 from morning till night. It isn't very nice, a';lllally, It's raining, it's cold, and it's pretty miserabk. What about where yOll arc? Mmm ... a hit like you, actually, She's gOI the same build. abOll! the same height. but your hair is longer and straighter than hers, Other than that. you two are pretty similar. He's line. Very happy sincc he met a Frendl girl called Valeric. Those two are in eparable. She's quit.e good-looking, The kind of girl you gu for. But she'~ a bil 100 serious for me. YOll know, politics, literalllre, human right, thing> like that. It was great. Really relaxing, Lots of sunshine, goud ,ood. 'Ne did nothing but sit next to the pool and read books lor a whok twu weeks. J like all sorts, hut I . uppose [ like biographies and dctective stories best.

Tapescript 43 II) sa)'

thank you for putting u

to cry.

Tapescript 44

10 do~

6

I

11"(/111

Anyway, wc're looking lorward to hearing from you, and hope 10 see you soon. Let us kJ/l)II' if you're ever in the area. You must call in, l3est wishes, Sandra

NOh, 'he's OK She's had a bad sore throat, that's all. but it's getting bctter now, A Oh, it's not too bad. then.

Dear Denni, We just wanted

132

The weather was fantasti.;, The sun didn'l stop s!lillillg all the time we were there. Leaving Spain

A Um, l"Il ask her tonight and tell you tomorrow, 131' the way, someone told Ille your Mum's not very well. What's the maller"

a

GIl'.'

she like

We had a wonderful hlliiday in Spain \Ve just loved dnl'illg through the <:ounlryside, and wc often Slopped (o II'/lik round a moumain village, INc met our friends, Bill and Sue. and they invited us ro !lme a meal with them. They wailled 1/510 SlIn' with them, bLI! we couldn't. as we had aheadv booked a hotel

5

8 9 10

II 12

13

The teacher told me to do tn, homework, 1 promised to do it ~arefully, [finished painling my kitchcn yesterday. The baby continued to cry until his mother pj.;ked him up. I cHn't 'tand queuing. It drives me mad, It's slIch a wa, te of time, Please don't forget to post my letter. It's terribly important. I refuse to lend you another penny' You'll just ~pend it on the horses! I usually choose [0 have my holidays in winter becallse we all like skiing. Excuse me. I jllst need to go to the 100. I won't be a minute, I hate shopping for dothes. They ncver have my size, She agreed to lend us her flat while shc was away. She JUSl asked liS to look after thc plants and Ivater them every day, How will you manage to pay HlI your bills if you have no money in your bank account'?

Tapescript 45 a

'Whal is Anna's brother like')" 'Well. he is certainly tall, dark and handsome, but I didn't enjoy meeting him at all. He is even /"Iul,'r than she is!' b '\Vhal was your meal like?" 'Ugh! Jt was awful. The pizza was disgusling, We were absolutel starring, but we still couldn't eat it!' c 'Did you have a good time in Amsterdam'!' 'Ex.;ellcnl. thank you. There's so mud1 to do. lt's a really exo'ting city. And there are so many people from all ovcr the world: it's even lIIore ('o.m1lJ[Joli/t1l1 than London.' d 'Mmm' These courgettes are delicious. Did you grow thcm yourselves?' 'Ycs, we did, All our vegetables arc hOIl1/!groll'n,


I

Tapescript 46a Sheila and Bob talking about New York I = Interriewer

B = Rob

S

S = Sheila

I How long did vou live in Ihe States" B We were there for two years. ill lew York. I And did you enjoy i1'.' SOh. tremendously. \Vc had a wonderfultirnc. 13 Yeah, what \ve lik~d best was that we could work and yet still lead a normallifc. I mcan. thc shops arc op~n till ten o'clock. I All shops') S Yes. everything. Food shops. ch~mist.s . B Thcrc's evcn a hugc dcpartmcnt stor~ called Gimhlcs on 86th Stre~t that wa, open till nin~ o'clock. S And some sup~rmark~ts arc opcn twcntyfour hours a day Most shops don't opcn as early as in England. well. they don't open until about erlll." 10 or II in the mornin!!. B Yes. that's righl. S Becallse they all work much later. And everything" open on Sundays. 13 And the holidays, the public holidays are much shortcr than hcrc. and in thc Statcs only the banks arc shul. Everything cbe stays open. so it makes life much easier. You eould do what you liked l\'hell you liked. I .ce. erm ... Do you think New York is as cosmopolitan as London? Oh. ye , but it's not as mixcd. Nationaliti~s stay in their own areas: like therc's thc Russian section ... 13 .. the German section. We were in Gcrman Town. York Town, which is call~d G~rman Town. And there was a row of German shops. all German-speaking. [ think the major ditTcrence was the height of the place. Everything was up. We lived on the Iwellly-nilllh noor. B Yes. and I worked on the sixty-third Ooor. S Yes, but I like heights And 01' course e~erything is laster. And the peopk are much rudcr. I Oh l [n what ways" 13 \Vell. pushing in thc st['~el. fights ahout gelling on the bus. People don't queue like they do in England. And of course the taxi drivers' lew York taxi drivcrs must b~ th~ rudest in the world' Amcricans themselvcs are really friendly but the taxi drivers ncver speak. And they don't seem to know where anything I,. I asked one of them 10 lake me to the Guggenheirn Museurn ol1(:e and he was really angry with me became he'd never h<,ard of it! fie angry with yOIl? Arc all American taxi drivers Iike that? SOh, yes. Well. in ell' York, anyway. Not so much in other plaecs. Wh~n wc went to California it was very ditTcrenl. B Yes. I think we were aV,iare that New York is quite a dangerous place. We ncver had anv problem ourselves at all. but when there' H"I/.\' a crime, it was horrendous, SOh. yes. The subways are unusable. Th~y're diny. ullcomfortahle.

Did you make many friends" Well. that's what's interesting, really. We made more friends in our [wO years there than we have after tll'O years of li\ ing baek herc ncar London. I think Americans are morc .. c)pen, thcy ... you knO\\!. thcy spcak thcir minds, so if they don't like something, well. they actually tell yOli directly. Not like the British. who might think one tbing and say another. So maybe Ihe Brilish are ruder than the .A..Illerican's!

Tapescript 46b Terry talking about London [ = Interviewer T = Terry

T I

T

I T

T I T

T

1 T

So. Terry. You've been in London quite a long time now. )vlmm. \\路11ill diiTerences do you notice between the two coulllries? Olwiously the biggest diiTerence is the people. The average Englishman is ". mmm ... cold and not very open. Oh! In the States it's very difTer<,nt. Wc start conversations with people in thc street. Wc're a lot more enthusiastic and spolllaneou. than people here. You know, whcn I first call1~. I couldn't understand what was wrong. but now I sec that r was trying to be too friend Iy too soon. l3ut um. tell me. do th~ English improve as you get to know them? Oh yes! Oh. good! Once you've made a friend. it's a friend for life, but it takes a very long tillle I'll tcll vou something that 1 think is very important~ English people in America are respectcd Everyone wanls to talk to tbem. W~'r~ inquisitive, we love the accent. Bill Am~ri ...ans in England are thought to be a little inferior because (hey get excited by ~vcrything. They think everything is so 路cute路. One thing I've leflrned - it's runny now. but it wasn'l at the time -I couldn't undcrstand why. when I was talking to someone. they would moye away. you know, llIove backward.. I thouoht. 'Do I sl11eJl1 Am I boring'?' 111e rcason was. YOU se.... Americans stand closer whcn they're talkin o Ah, that's interesting. What abol;t your <"impressions or living here? How does that compare with the States'? Well, IlIrnrn ... I Ihink lir~'s a 101 easier in the States. I(s easier to mllke money and it's easier to spend it. Shop, are ()P~n all the timc over th~rc. When I lirs! came to England you had to race to r~ach the sup~rmarket befor~ 5.30. but this has changed. Some shops are open later now, and on Sunday.. but they are still harder 10 find than in the Statc.. Yeah. l3ut it is a lot bctter than it was. Sure. And another thing is Americans "'or!, a lot harder thall you do here. To thc English, their private lives are important.

Iheir holidays are importanl. their gardens are important, their dog' are important, but for mericans. "'olk is the most important thing in our lives. You know, holidays seem to he longer here. and around Christmas and Nell' Year the whole country closes down for two weeks' I Oh. come on! T [t's true! We AI1K'1'icans arc likc the Japanese in this respecl. We live to wo rk. I So you don't like London very much' T Oh. you would think so from what ['111 saying. wouldn't you'? No. in fact 1 real[y love it here, [ go home once a ycar and I r<,ally look forward to coming back here. This is Illy home now. I find life. afcr. more relaxcd_ and much morc cnjoyable. The Underground isn't very clean but at least you can usc it and f~c1 safc. And your taxi drivers are wonderful' Thcy tell you their life stories and know every street in London. Maybe I've gOllen into English habits! England doesn't have the dramatic beamy of the States. but oh. it .. it's very prell)' an-d charming in a wav that I fmd comforting.

Tapescript 47

Sec page 63

UNIT 7 Tapescript 48 I

=Inten-iewer

N I N

N I

N

=i\"an9' :'\1:Inn

Vv'ho do you work for at thc moment. Ms Mann? m. [ work for the I313C World Service. Ah, and how long 111m' you workcd for the BBC? ['re been with the BJ3C for tive yeal路s. Ycs. exactly live years. nd how long h(/r(' you been their German eorrespondcnl'? For two years. And what did you do before the BBe' I worked as an interpreter lor the EU.

As you know, this job is based in Geneva. Hm'l! you ever lived abroad bdl.He? N Oh yes. yes I h(/l'{'. I And when did you live abroad'.' " Well, in ['flet, I 11'(15 born in rgenlina and 1 lived there until I was eleven. Also, I lived and worked in Brus. cis for twO yean; when I 1I'1lS working for thc E . Mmm ". That's interesting. 1/(/\,(' you travelled much? Oh yes, yes indeed. 1'1"(' Iravelled all over western and eastern Europe. and I "'e also been to many parts of South America. Ml11m ". And why did you go to these places? N Well, mostly for pleasure, blll thrce years ago I went back 10 Argelllina 10 cover various political stories ill Buenos Aires for the BBC.

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Tapescript 49 a

She was born in Argentina in 1959. b She weill lO boarding school in England from 1970 lO 1977. f: She studied French and German when she was at Oxford University. d She hasn't spoken Spanish since she was in Buenos Aires three years ago. e She's worked in both eastern and western Europe a\ various times in her life. Slie worked in Brussels for two years, from 1989 to 1991, g. She's worked for the BBC for the last five year. h She hasn't worked abroad since her son was born lour year. ago. She married for the first t,me when she was twenty,one. j Shc's b",en married three times, k She married for the third lime lasl year.

Tapescript 50a The news The murderer Bruce Braden has escopcd from Parkhurst Prison on the [sle of Wight. b After the heavy rain of the last few days, Iloods have brOllghl chaos lO drivers in the ,Vest CUllntr)'. e Amy Carter, the kidnapped baby from Leeds. hilS been jimnd safe and well in a car park in Manchester. d Two thousand car workers from a Scar factory hare been lIIade redundant. a

Tapescript 50b a

Last night, the murderer Bruce Braden

rscapecl from Parkhurst Prison. Prison ollicer' fOllnd hi' cell empty at six o'clock this b

c

d

mol'llmg. Early this morning. floods bl'ollghl chaos to many roads in Devon. Drivers left their cars and \l'alked to work through the flood water. Late last night, the kidnapped baby. Amy Cartel', was jillmd safc and IYell in a car park in the ccntre of Mancl1ester. Thc car park attendant heard a noise coming from a rubbish bin and hejound Amy wrapped in a warm blanket Two thow;and car workers from the General Motor. factory in Delroit 1I-ere made redundant yesterday. The managemcnt glll'e them no warning. The men were shocked and furious when they t he news yestcrday evening,

''''/I,.d

Tapescript 51 Thomas Wilson a retired man T

=Thomas WilsOll

P = Philippa

P How long have you been retired now. ,randpa 0 T Let me see. Er ... it's four years, Yes. I'vc been retired nearly four year:; now. I suppo:;e rm used to it after all this timc, But you know, I

134

Tapescripts

worked lor C'ourlaliids for over forty years. Can you believe that'? Forty year. P One job for lorty year. Incredible! [ remellJb~[ when you retired and they gave you that gold watch. Do you like being retired'! I'd get bored. I"m sure [would. Don't you get bored" T Well. I'm lucky. l've got my health so I can do a lot. J can get out at lot. I've just taken up golf. you know. It's a wonderful sport lor an old man like me 'eo.\ it's not really a sport at all. at least not tile lVay your Grandpa plays it, I t's just a good excuse for a walk. and I need an excuse since Rover died. I ,'. I miss good old Rover: he and I were great friends .. , but [ don'! think 1 want another dog at my age. I go to the golf club t\vice a week. l've made some good friends there, yOll know. Have you mel Ted and Marjorie? They're my age. Er ,., Tl1ey're a lovely couple. rEI'. no .. , I don't think I've met (hem. but didn't you go on holiday with them'! T Yes. that's right We went to Wale together last Easter, Oh ... and we had a lovely time. a lovely time. I do appreciate company since your Grandma dicd , .. you know, I really miss your Grandma. Thil'ly-ftvc year:; we were married. thirty-live years and still as much in love as the day we met. She was a wonderful lady, your Grandma. r Oh J know iliat, Grandpa. We all miss her so much. We all loved her so much. T So I like to keep busy~ I've been on all sorts of special holidays, you kno\\'. Package holiday for senior citizens, and [ ... P Well. I know you went to visit Uncle Keith in Australia. And you've just come back from a cruise I' und the Caribbean, You're so brown. T [know. My word, that was an experience, I 10 ed every minute of it! When you're older, I'll tell you about the American widow [ met! '" Miriam, she \ as called. Oh, JUSt a baby of fifty-live. but she 'eemed to like me. P Grandpa! T And yes. of course. Keith, [ saw him two years ago, You've not met your Australian cousins vet. havc you? Oh. you'd love the baby. Kylie. shc's beautiful. Looks just likc your Grandma, But yOll know, I've also been to Spain and Morocco. and TlII'key. Thcse package holidays are so good for people like me. r Grandpa. next time. please think of me. Don't you want a companion? Can I come with you? I'd love a suntan like yours! We never go anywhere interesting. T Oh. Philippa, you know your mllm and dad wouldn't tet me. Not lImil you've finished your exams. Helen says I am a bad influence on you. P \Vell. [ think yOIl have more flln than I do! All I have to look forward to is exams and more exams and then years and years of work' T Oh Philippa, Don'l wi h your life away. Just enjoy it all. YOll only get one go at it!

Tapescript 52 On the telephone a

Hello. this is Ches vood 285120, I'm afraid 1'm nOI at home at the moment. but please leave your namc and number aftcr thc tone and I'll get back to you as soon as I can. 'Hi. Annie, This is er ... Pete here. Pete Nealy. Er ... I need lO speak to you about next weekend, Can you givc me a ring') Erm ... I'm at home. by the way, It's ten o'clock no\V and I'll be here all morning. er. at least until two o·clock. Yeah, thanks. Bye,' b 'J'm afraid Mr Barrcu's in a meeting. Can [ rake a nlessageT ·Yes. please, This is Pam Haddon, He rang me earlier andldt a message on my answer phone and I'm retum;ng his call. Can yOll tcll him I'm back in my omce now')' c 'Shall J ask Mi s Jackson to givc you a call whcn she gets back')' ·Yes. please. I'm sure shc's got my nllmber but I'll give it to you again, jllSI in case. It·s 01924561i18.' d 'Good morning. Payne and Stracey Advertising. ' 'Good morning. Can I have extension 321. please'!' e ·Hello. Mrs Barrett ... I'm afraid Mr Barrett's on another line at the moment. Do you want to hold or ..? Oh, he's free now I'm putting you through.' 'Thank you very much' 'Hello .. .' 'Hello, Frank? It' me. Diana. ·Hello. Is that Sandra?' 'No, ["m ·orry. it isn't. She's just gone out. Can I take a message'! She'll be back in a minute.'

UNIT 8 Tapescript 53a M = !vlulIl

J

= ,Jim

M Oh, dear! I hope e erything will be all rig.ht. You 've never been abroad before. Don't worry. M lim. I'll be OK, I can look after myself. Anyway. I'll be with Anthony. We ,,'on'/ do anything stupid. M But what l\'ill yOIl do if you run out of money? J We'll gl'l a job of course' M Oh, What about if you gct lost? J tvlum! If we geilosi. we'll ask someonc the way, but we 11'011'1 gel losl because we know whcrc wc're going' M Oh. All right. But what if you can't read thc d irectiolls?

Tapescript 53b M Blit how will I kllOw that you're all right') When we gel to a big city, ['/I send you a postcard. M Oh. But Jim. it's such a long Ilightto Istanbul!

J


Mum! As soon as we lIrrire in Turkey, I'll gil'e you a ring! M ]'11 be so worried until I hear f!'Om you,

J

It'll be OK, Mum. Hone, t l

Tapescript 56a a b

Tapescript 54 .J

=Jot'

S

=Sue

c

Goodbye, darling!,Good luck with the interview~

S Thanks, rllneed il. I hope the Hains are running on time, {(the tralllS are delayed, ] 'II gel a taxi, /f 1'111 late for the intervicw, ['II be furious with mysell'r J Just keep calm' Phone me when you can. S [will. As soon (J ' I come out of the interview, r'll give you a ring, J When lI'ill you knmr if you've got the job? S They'll send me a letter in the next few day', /fthey ofter me thc job, J 'II accepl it. and if] accept it. we'll hare 10 move house, You know that. don't you') J Sure. But we'll wony about that later. S OK, What arc you doing today? J ] can't remember. When 1gel to the omce, nllook in my diary. I don't think I'm doing mllch today, S Don't forget to pick up the children as soon liS you get back I'rom work, I won't. You'd better go now. f{you lion'[ hllrry, you '1111Iis5 the train. S OK, I'll see you this evening. Bye' J Bye, my love, Take care, and good luck!

Tapescript 55 I

2

3 4

S

6 7

8

A I'd go on a boat trip around the world. B Oh. 1 "'0 Ii/Ii" 'I , ] 'c/ gn so bored I 'Ii ralher ny, ] t 'd be so much quicker. A No, I'd like to relax on the boat. sunbathe all day long, and have a waiter bring me a cold drink just when [ want one. Ah, I leaven! I wOl/ldn'[ //lind taking things easy for a bi!. but then] 'd like to ju路t get On wilh my life, 'cos l'm very happy, really, with what I've got. I'd buy all the toys in the world. J would buy n field witl1 the most beautiful view I could find, not very far awa~' from where we live, if possible, and move my own house that I live in stone by stone and build it in that field. I would first of all resign from my job as a tcncher, and I would take the kids to Di,;neyland, and make sure they had the lime of their life,. and then I'd probably buy a property in Europe 'omewhere, just 0 we had the chance to go away for different holidays, I would buy a football team \Vell, I wouldn't give up my job, bceause l've heard toO many stories ahout people who go completely mad when they do lhat. I think 1'd lry to spend it all in a week or a mO/llh, and then I could forget all aboll! it. Erm .. I WOLlld go icc-skating, go to the moon, on a rocket of course, and,,, go to the circus.

d I'

g

h

If Tony rings, tell him I'm at Andy's. He can get hold of me there. If you've f'inished your work, you can have a break, But you must be back here in fifteen minutes, ]f 1'm not back by eight o'clock, dOll't wait for me. Go without me, ['11 join you at the parly. If you've got the 'nu, you should go lO bed, Keep warm and have plenty of tluids, I I' you're ever in London, you must give me a ring. We could go out somewhere, If you go 10 Austraha, you have to have a visa. You ean get one from the Embassy. I'd buy a word processor if I could aO'ord it. It would be really useful for work. I f I had more time, I might do an evening class. I'd love 10 be really good at photography,

Who wants a marble swimming pool, I don't. And] don't 'cos all I want is you.

lOa?

Tapescript 58 " went to Alice's nat last night: 'Oh, really' What was it like',' 'Well. it was absolutely wonderful: :2 路When] got home, I told my parents that I'd failed the exams: 'Oh, dear. What did they say')' 'Well. mv mother was OK, butll1y father. he went mad!' J 'We went out for a meal last night.' 'Where did you go'l' 'That new restaurant near lhe station: 'What was the food like?' 4 路We had a great time skiing in Switzerland: 'Where did you go?' 'Zermatl.' 'Was the wcather good?' I

Tapescript 56b I

2 3 4

5

6 7

8 9

Wlun do yOll do if you can't get to sleep at

nigh!'! What will yOll do if the teacher gives us a lot of homework tonigh!'! \Vhat would you do if you saw someone stealing in a shop? What will you do if lhe weather'S good this weekend? What would you do if you were in a place where smoking was forbidden, and somcone started to light a cigarette? What do you do if you're reading something in English and you cume across a nc\ word') What wOlild you do ii' yOLI found a wallet with a lot or money and an address in it" What do you do if you get a headache? What would you do ir you nt'eded fl,OOO very quickly?

Tapescript 57 Who wants to be a millionaire? Who wants to be a millionaire? j don't. Have nashy tlunkies everywhere. I don't. Who wants the bother of a country estate" A country estate is something I'd hate. Who \vants to wallow in champagne'! I don't. Who wants a supersonic plane" I don't. Who wants a private landing ficld, too? I don'!. And r don't 'cos all I want is you, Who wants to be a millionaire? I don't. \lvllO wants uranium to spare? I don't. \Vho wants to journey on n gigantic yacht') Do] WHnt a yacht" Oh, how' do not! Who wanls a fancy foreign ear'l j don't. Who wants to tire of caviar') [ don'!.

5

'It took holil's to get here:

'\Vhy')' 'The trame' I t was incredible!'

Tapescript 59 1 Amnesty International Amncsty International is a world-wide organization, independent of any government or political party It is our aim to release prisoners of conscience, These are men find women who arc in prison not because they have broken the law, but because of their beliefs, colour, language, or religion, We try lo gel fair and early trials by publicizing lheir cases and by pUlling pressure on their governments 10 practise basic human rights. Amnesty International has been in operation for over twenty years, and in that time we have helped prisoner' in over sixty countries, We have won several peace prizes, including the 'obel Peace Prize in 1978. Each year we handle, on average, nearly 5,000 individual cases. Please help us, We need your donations to make llS unneccssary in this world,

2 The RSPCA Founded in 1824, the RSPCA is the world's oldest animal welfare organization. We work to promote kjndness and 10 prevent cl'uelly to animals within all lawful mcans throughout England and Walcs. Every year we lind new homes for about 80,000 animals, we treat over 20n,aoo sick animals ranging from hedgehogs to horses, and we investigate over 100,000 complail1ls of cruelty, We also work for the well~lre 01' animals in the wild, such as whales and badgers, We are the world experts at cleaning and rehabilitaling birds that have been damaged in oil ,pills, Every year nearly 3 million animals are used in research laboratorie" and we oppose all experiments that cause pain and suflering, We work with both governments and the I~lrming indLlstry to promote humane methods in the rearing of farm animals. Intensive

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fanning methods can cause many animal wdfare problcms. The society is a charity, and receives no mel from thc governmcnt. Our running costs amount to 拢38 million a year. Please givc generou.lly.

3 Drought and Famine in Africa Drought and famine have come to Africa again this year, just as they have every year for the past fifteen years. In some parts of Afl'ica it hasn't rained for three years. There have bcen no crops. and the animals on which many people depend died long ago. Refugees arc pouring from the countryside into the towns in their desperate search for food, and it ha, becn estimated that over a thousand people are dying every day. We are supplying towns and camps with food and medical supplies, but our eflorls are drops in the ocean. We need a hundr~d times more food and medieal supplies, as well as dOdor>, nurses, blankets, ten[s, and clothes. Your help is needed now before it i, too lale. Please give all you CHn. No pound or penny will ever be beller spent or more appreciated.

UNIT 9

Tapescript 63b

Tapescript 61

A I Ii' Carl? It's Andy. CAndy' A Yeah. How arc you? Feeling bene!'" C No! Not a lot. I have to sit down most of the time. It's too tiring walking with a crutch. A Really? Still using a crutch, eh'? So you're not back at work yet'? C No. And I'm bored to death. I don't go back to the hospital for two more week. A Two more weeks' That's when the plaster comes ofl'. is if? C I hope so. I can't wait to have two legs again! Anyway. How are you? Still missing all thai now and sun" A ' 0 , I'm tine. The suntan's fading though. Josic's is too. She sends love, by the way. C Love to her, too. I miss you all. By the way. have you got any holiday photos back yet? A Yes, yes, [ have. I got them back today. They're good. I didn't realize we'd taken so many. C What about that one you took of that amazing sunset behind the hotel? A Yes, I he sunSet. It's a good one. A11 of us together on Bob and Marcia's balcony. with the mountains and the .now in the background It's beautiful. Brings back memories. doesn't it? C Yeah. The memory of me skiing into a trce! A Yes. r know. I'm sorry. At least it was towards the end; it could have been the first day. You only came home two days early. C OK, OK. Oh. Andy, have you wrinen to the tour operator yet to complain about that cal' wc hired? Thcy did promise us a bigger one. A Yes. we have. Yesterday, in ract. Bob wrote it and we all signed it. I don't know if it'll do any good, but it's worth a try. e And Marcia's suitcase. did that {Urn up? A Yeah. They found it. It arrived on the next flight. Marcia was delighted. C I'll het she was' r suppose it was a good two weeks really. wasn't it? A Snre. Some ups and downs, but genera Ill' I think we all got on well and had a great time. Shall we go again next year? I'd like to. All six of us again. Julie wants to, too. She fell in love with Switzerland, but she says she'lI only come if J don't break a leg! A Good' Great' [['S a date. Next time, look out for the trees! I'll ring again soon, Carl. Take

A = Andy

a b c d e

g h

'M rand M r~ Brown never go on holiday.' 'They can't have much money.' 'The phone's ringing!' 'It might be Jane.' 'Paul's taking his umbrclIa' 路]t must be raining.' 'There are thrce fire engines" 'Thcre Illust be a fire somewhere" 'J don't know whcre Jlannah is.' 'She could be in bel' bedroom.' 'My alInt isn't in the kitchen.' 'She ,'an't be cooking dinner.' 'Whose coat is IhisT 路It might be )ohn'路.' 'We've won lhe lottery!' 'You mU.t be joking!'

Tapescript 62 A A haJl' or lager and a fizzy mineral water, please. 13 Icc and lemon with the water" A Yes. pleasc. And do yOll do b;lr meals'? B Yes, we do. b I don't work r~gular hours and I likc that. I'd hate one of those nine to five otTice jobs. Also, I m~d a lot of really interesting people. Of "ourse, ev~ry now and then there's a difficult clIstomer, but most times people are really nice. I look that really famous film star to the airport last week, now what was her name? Er ... you know. sh~'s in lhat film cr. what's it called? Anyway she was really nice. Gave me a big tip! c A So how did you get on? B Oh it was good, They're v~ry nice actually. A Were you nervous? B Yeah, a bit. Michael really wanted them to like me. I think they did. They Ivere very kind anyway. A And did you tell them that you and Michael ar~ going to get married? B No, next time. ] juSt wanted to get 10 know them first. d A. 'Ne've never had one before. B Reallv? We've alwavs had them in our tInnily We're all mad about them. A Well, we are now. 111e kids love her. And she is so good with them, ever so goodnatured. But it wasn't fail' to have one when we lived in town, B It's OK if they're small and you live ncar a park, but [ know what vou mean. What's she called? A Trudy. e A Pull! Pull! ot too quickly' B I can't. It's really strong. A Come on. In then OUI. You're doil1g fine. Careful' A Yaow' A The one that got away! a

Tapescript 60 M

=Maggie

i\

=I\nna

M I'm bored ' A Well. it's a lovdy day. \Vhy don't we take the dog for a walk'! 1'0'1 0, I don't feel like going for a walk. I'm 100 tired. A You need to get oul! Let's go shopping! M Oh, no' r couldn't bear il! I'd rather do anything bLIl that! A OK, then. Shall we watch the telly') M That's a good idea! A 00 you want th~ nl:ws 011 ]TV,? M Mmm, I'd rather watch Neighbours on 13 I:lC I It's just staned.

P = Paul

B = Billy

P I'm broke, and I don't get paid for two weeks' What am I going to do'! B II' I were you, I'd get a job lbat paid more money. P Oh. why didn't I think of that? Thanks, Billy. It doesn't help me now. does it'.' B Well, then, you'd beller get a loan from the bank. P No, I couldn't do that. T o\ve them too much already. B ,Vhy don't you ask YOlIr parents'? They'd help you. P No, I'd rather not. I'd rather sort out my problems on my own. B Then you Ollght to ask. your boss for a pay rise. P Good idea, but I've already tried that and it didn't work. Fl Oh. Well, ] ~ uppose I l.:ould lend you some. r Really? That would b~ gr~at! Thanks Billy. You're a real mate, I'll pay it back, hone (!

Tapescript 63a

136

Tapescripts

See page 88

C = Carl

care~

Tapescript 64 a

'John didn't come to school yesterday.' 'He mllst have been ill.' b 'Look at my new gold wateh " 'Wow! You can't have' bought it yourself.' c 'Why is Isabel late for class?' . m .. She might have overslept.' d -I can't find my homework.' 'You must have forgotten it.' e 'The teacher's checking Maria's work.' 'She can't have finished already!'


'Did you know that Charles got top marks in the exam?' 'He must havc eheated l' g '\Vhere's my urn hrella')' 'Oh' You could have left it on the train,'

Tapescript 65 Brothers and sisters I

A large family

J :::: Jillie

I:::: Interviewer

I'm the youngest of nine children, My eldest sister is still alive. age ninety-three and there arc sixteen years between us, \Ve wcre four girls, foUl' boys, and then me, And how well did you all get on together when you were children? Really, amazingly well. Being the youngest. I and my two young brothers rather looked on the rest of the family as 'the otht:rs', \:os by that time they wert: either away at school or working, But we were alway fond of one another and now of courSt:, the roles have rather reversed because they were indined to keep an eye on us and now - we younger ones, the two youngest. are very busy looking after the remainder, 'the ancient ones'. Tell me how your relationship with your sister, Joy, has changed over the years, Joy was the sister who used to '.. in her holidays '., used to take me ofT er .. , for lovely walk, and teach me a great deal about the countryside, And she eventually became a nun and disappeared to Australiil for twenty-three years, And we \vrate to one another and 1 was still her little sister. VYllen she came back, shortly after my husband died and the \.'hole relationship changed enormously, and we became tremendous friends, we've never looked back, What do you see as the main advantag~ and disadvantage of coming from such a large family" I think the main advarnage was this marvellous cxample of our parents, of how to enjoy life on a shoestring, because we were very much the poor relations, and it always amused us that our wealthy young cousins envied us so much. We had the old bikes and all the freedom in the world, and they were stufTed into Eton suits and expected to behave themselves, Disadvantages') I think it was very tough at a certain stage (Q have hand-mc-down clothes, especially for a vain little girl. and no{ tQ have much in the way of parties and perhaps not to be able to go abroad. as other children did. But the advantages olltweighed the disadvantages enormously, there's no doubt about that. Six out of the nine of you arc still alive, How closely have you kept in touch over the years? Very dosely, For many years now wt:'ve had an annual family party of three generations. And the touching thing is that

the two vounger generations JUSt love to comt:, al;d there are anything up 10 sort of thirty· live of us met:! up, once a year, in one or other of the houses, and have this marvellou lunch and It:a-pany, and lot' of pholOgraphs are taken. And we've now got balw twins thai were handt:d rOllnd thi tim~ D'vou know, and all this sort of thing ... marvellous' 2 An

onl~'

child

P :::: Philippa

I:::: Intcl'I'icwcr

P I'm an only child and basically I think the disadvantages far outweigh the advantages of being an only child. I was erm ... relatively happy as a young child but as you get older. I think being an only child gets more ditTicult to deal with. When you were little it wasn't too bad being an only child? P No. but I was very lucky: I had lots of cousins. I had fOllrteen firsl cousin,; and 1110st of them lived in the same town lhal I grew up in until I was ten. so we all played together and what have you, And I had a I'riend who lived next door to me, who was my best friend, who was the same age as me and so she was a bit like a sister then I suppose, and it wa!m't until we moved away from there that Ithink it became more dimcult being an only child. You said to me once that it was when you were a teenager that it was panicularly hard. Why was that? P Yes, [ think ,.. I think when you're a teenager, you're quite unsure of how to deal with things, especially your parents any"""y, and when you're on your own, you have nobody to compare notes with or to sort of say, a re my pa ren ts being unreasonable or not. you just have to work it out for vourself. and that [ think is quite hard really. Some people who come from large families might envy you bt:cause you had all or your parents' allention. P Yes. That of course has its negati es as well as its positives, doesn't it? I think- You have all of their allention bm you don't always want it. especially as a tecnager. I think at that point in yoLll' late teens. you want to move away from your family a lillie bit. and ... and sort of explore other relationships, and if yOll have all of your parents' attention, yOll can'l necessarily do that very well. What about now that you're an aclul!') Does the fact of being an only child have any impact on your life at all" I' Er ... yes. I think it's probably again quite dinicult really. 1'111 ... my father died about ten years ago, so of course I'm the one who's Icft totally responsible for my mother I'm the one that has to look after her il she has a problem. and help her if she needs help in any way, There's nobodv else to help at all. So yes, I think it does have problems tben, too.

You have two children of YOlll' own, Was thal a conscious decision beeallse you decided that yOll didn't walll one of your childrcn to be an only child') P Yes, very delinitely. Yes, yes. I didn't want that to happen and I feel sorry for other children who arc only children. I must say, I think that's .. , at tbis age at the age of Illy children, it's probably fine but as they get older, I think it gets more dillicuit. So all in all. being an only child is not sometbing you'd recommend. P o. certainly nol, no, no.

Tapescript 66a-d

See pages 92-93

Tapescript 67 Polly and her friends P :::: Polly

A-J:::: Polly's friends

A I want to travel thc world. So do l. B I don't want to have lots of childrcn. I' Neither tlo I. C I can speak four languages. P I can't. D I can'l drive, I' Neither <:an J. E I'm not going to milrry 1I1ltii I'm 35. P Neither am I. F ) went to AmeriCiI last year. r So did 1. (i I have never been to Australia. P ) have, H I don't like politicians, P Neither do I, I I am bored with the British Royal family. P So 11m I. .I I love going to parties. P [dun't. I'

UNIT 10 Tapescript 68

See p:lges 96-97

Tapescript 69 a b c d e

How long has he heen learning to dri e') Ho\v many lessons has he had'! How much has he, pent on tuition'! Ilow many instructors has he had') How many times has he crashed? How long has he been praying for a driving-licence? g What bave his instrul:!ors been telling him'! h How many times has he taken hi' tesl'l How hilS he been celebrating','

Tapescript 70 Call rou drivc') 13 Oh. yes A How long !1m'£' ),ou I>£'£'II dril'illg:' B Since [ was sevellleen, Abollt t~n years, H(Hte you gOI a car? B Yes, I have, Jt's a Renault, A How long h(ll'e YOll Il(Id il?

A

Tapescripts

137


8 ~bout a year. ,-\ How much did rOil pay/or if? Fl Well, I gOt it second-hand. and I thlilk I paid about six thousand pounds. A How many kiloJll~tres h05 il do lie? B Ooph l I'm Ilot SLlr~. A About how ll1any~ 13 About rorty thousand kilometres. I'd say. A llal'e rOil cver had WI acl'ide/l/? 13 ot in this car. no. but I had one in the car I had bcrore. A What happened') 13 Well. the road., were wet beCflllse it had been raining. and I skidded 11110 another car. A Who.c raultlw.\ it:' 13 Oh, it was my I~nllt I wa, going too [·ast.

Tapescript 71 You look tired! What have you heen doing? B I've been getting readv to go on holiday. A Have you done everything') B Well. I've packed the ca,es and I've been to the bank. but I haven't booked the taxi yet. A

Tapescript 72 a

A When was she B In 1950.

bo['ll~

b A When was her collection or poems published? B InApril1958.whenshewasjusteight years old. c A Whcn did her mother die'] Il On 16 Septcmber 1961. d A When did she gCI married ror the fin time') B \\·11ile she was still at univcrsit - in spring 1970. e A When did she graduate~ B On 20 June 1971. A ~fhen was her daughter born" Fl On 14 JLlne 1972. g A When did she go to India and the Far East? B Arter her divorce. She was twellty-nine at the time. h A When did he get married !(>r the second time'.' B At 10.30 on 3 August 1988. A How long ctid her first marriage last'! B Nine year. A How long ha she been living in Paris? B Since 1988.

Tapescript 73 I = Inten'iewer

2 :; 4 5 6

I J I J I J I J I J J

138

J

= Joanna

How long are you in the States for? Two weeks. How long have you been in the States? Eight days. When do yOLl go back to England? At the end of the week. ill five days lime. Where werc you the day before yesterday? I was in Chicago. Where were you this time last week? Er. I was in ew York. \Vhere will VOLI be the dav after tomoITow~' . I'll be in Denver.

Tapescripts

Tapescript 74 driving-licence driving test \vallpapcr press conrerence

chain smoker business partner ashtray postcard

postbox postman postcode post ol1ice

Tapescript 75a I = Inten'iewcr

;\ L = iVlargaret Tyler

iVlargaret. may I ask you what you do ror a living','

M Well. I work for a children\; charity. That'" a l'ttll-time job. but I al,o have gucsts coming 10 stay witb me at weckends. I You mea n ... paying gllests'? i'vl Ycs This houe. which is called Heritage flouse. i. a hed-and-breakfast place, 100. \\lhat I can sec arOLlnd me, i\·largarel, is amazing! Ilow long have you been collecting all this royal memorabilia') M \Vell. I 11rs! got interested in the Royal family when I saw the wedding or Princess Margaret on TV in 1960. Um. my rather wOllldn't let us have a television in the hOll'e bec:ause he said it would stop me doing my homework. so llll the day or the wedding, I went round to a friend's house, and I just sat in rront or the screen. mesmerized. Blil it wasn't until later that I started collecting. I'vc been collecting ror eighteen years. The IIrst things I bought were it dish with the Queen's head in the centre, and a rew Coronation mugs to go with it. I What sort or things have you got': M Oh. everything l Oh. pictures. paintings. ashtrays. hundreds of mug. LIm .... er ... tea-pots. tea-cloths. hiseuit tin. posters. books. Ilags, toast racks. egg cup.. candle sticks. thc lot' I've got over rom thousand Royal souvenirs. I All in this house? M All in this house. yes. The hou.,e has been extended three timcs to fit it all ill. They're in all the rooms downstairs. and in the rour bedrooms upstair', and in the attic, 100. I Incredible l M [t take' all my spare time to keep everything clean and dusted. I'm always playing around. making a special area ror one of the Royals or another. Er ... It keeps me amused for hour. and the visitors who come. mainlv rorcign vi.litors. never get tired of talking about our Roval familv. • I ' I Is thelT one piece that's YOlJr ravourite'! M Yes. f was dcsperately upset when Princess Diana and Prince Charles split lip, and I wrote to Prinecss Di'.1I1a. saying I hoped they might get together again. I got a lovely leiter back from her Lady-in-Waiting, Sarah Campden. and thm's the most important pan of my whole collection. Have you had to spend a 101 or money on your collection? M Oh. I don't know. I've never thought abom it. No, I don't think so, Once. when Prince nure\\' married Fergie. a 'hop filled its windows with nothing else but mementoes of them. and 1 walked in and bought the lot.

I3tll I I can't remember hoI\' I11lH:h it was. I And where do you get it all rrom~ M All over the place. There are lots 01 people who collect this stufl I go up and down the count ry. We have conventions where we sl\'ap thing,. And there are specialist magazines and shops, and ... and jumble sales. Havc you ever had to light to get something you really wanted? M \Vell. once I was in a shop and the shop keeper was drinking his tea rrom a lovely Coronation mug. loiTered to buy it from him hut he w,lsn't interested. So otT I went to a shop nearby and bought a plain mug and presented it \() him.·1 ow will you do a swapT I said to him. And he dit!. Oh. it was driving mc mad. the thought or him using tbi' mug every day! I wanted to give it a proper home! Is there anything you haven't got that you'd really like to have? M NO! a thing. blll a person, Princess Diana is Illy ravollrite Royal. She's warm, wonderruL giggly. real. I'd love to meet her. WeiL I hope your dream romes true! lr she ever came to your house. she'd feel very at homc l

Tapescript 75b I

=Interriell'er

T

=Ted Hewitt

Ted. we'rc sitting in your dining-room. surrounded by a wonderful collection or miniature coaches. When did you start collecting them? T Well. some or them dale back to when I was a child. and they were given to me as toys. so ... at the age of five Or six. Btl! the bulk or them I've added er ... in the last ten. Ilfteen year.

T

T I T

1 T

I T I T I

ow. I can understand a child enjoying playing with them. but why did you carryon. and actually make this collection'.' Weil. it's becau e or my ramily ba(;kground. t:rm ... I'm the third generation in a family coach business. 0 I've been ... lived with and been brought up with coaches all my life. Mmm. So you've got the real thing, and ... and the miniatures as well? That" right. yes. HoI\' many miniatures do you think you'vc got? I haven't counted them lor a long time, but therc must be at least five hundred. I should think. \Vhieh is your favourite'! "Vell. my ra ourite i probably what is also the oldest. and that's a er ... lillIe tin-plate double-decker bus. loosely based on a London Transport double-decker or the period. And how old is that~. Er ... that would have been manufaelLIred in the '" in the late thirties. early ronics ... And '" .. [think. And we've gOt it here. It's lovely. And it ... and it ... it ... it winds up. Will y011 ... will you .. .'!


T Yes, It's ". I .., do it lor US'I T It's a clockwork So, er ... winds up like that, ' Oh, it's marvellou . How long have you had that'! Did you have it as a child? T Er ... no, no. That one doesn't date from that period. Erm ." probably about ten years ['ve had that one, Hmm, Do you keep your collection all in here? [5 this the complete eolleeti n'/ T The bulk of it is here, but er .. I have others in other rooms of the house, and some stored up in the attic, as well. Do many people collect miniature coacheso Where .. , where do you get your eoachcs from: Vvllere do yuu find them'/ T Yes, there are a surprisingly huge number of people colket buses Hnd coaches. and erln ... there are specialist shops that sell them. And then there's also a .. , a network of what arc called swapmeets, where people go and trade in either current models or old models. So there's no diniculty in finding. models at a II, Arc they expensive? If I decided that I wanted to collect __ .'1 T No, not necessarily, You can .. ' yOll can buy contemporary models ". anything from about two nincty'nine upwards, And the sky's the limi!. I Give mc a figurc, r Oh. some people pay thousands and thousands for a specific model. Which do you think was your most expensive? T I don't really know, Erm '" I've never paid more than ,__ probably about fifty, sixt)' pounds. I think, yes. Have you got any very rare ones that people would tight for째 T f've got some that have .. , have become rare. Weren't panieulHrly rare when ... when I bOLlght it. It's ,.. there's no rhyme or reason, but there __ there is one that 1 bought probHbly for sevcn or eight pounds which is now worth about a hundred and eighty, And that', quite good in ... sort of seven or eight year,. That's not bad, I Would you ever __ would you ever sell it? T . 0, I don't think so. Unless I had to, No, I

o.

T No, f'm too attached to th~11l to sdl them. [t's like the real ones, Are there any that you would really like to have that you haven'! got, that you ... you look for when you go to these swapmeets'? T There's a lot that I'm temptcd by, but er .. ' no. no one specific model erm '" financial constrailll is thc __ . is the problem, f'm afraid I[owcvcr. if a model appears of an actual vchick that [ .. , that [ own, then financial constraint or not", no, [ would havc to have i!. 1 think, Well. I think they're all lovely, Thank )'011 very much, Ted, T Thank yOLl,

Tapescript 79

UNIT 11 Tapescript 76

Scc page 1()9

Tapescript 80 Sec page 107

Tapescript 77 A = Clerk in the tourist office R = Rosie

Good afternoon. R Hello. I wonder if you could help me, I've just arrived hcre. aud ['m looking for somcwhcre to stay, 1-\ Uh huh. R Can you tell me where I can lind a cheap hotel? A Certainly. Thcre are a few around here, but the nearcst and one of the nicest is just around the corner. It's called the Euro Hotel. Would you like me to phone to see if they have a room'] R No, that' OK. nl just wander round there mysell: Ah! Another thing. I nced to change some travellers' ehcque~, but I don't know what time the bank closc. A They close at 7 o'clock in thc evening. R Right. thanks, This is a very pretty lOwn, isn't it'? [t looks terribly old I-lave you any idea how old this town is') A Yes, it was founded in the thirteenth century. R Really? As old as IhaC.' Wow! Well, I'd betic I' get going, Oh, I'm not sure if we're ncar the centre of town, because I've only just arrive I. A Yes, this sq UMe Ollt here is just aboUl the centre, R Thank wry much, Thanks for your help. fll go to ... oh, sorr, , I can't remcmber whil'h hOlel you suggested. A The Euro Hotel R The Euro, Thanks a lot. Bye.

Tapescript 78 The news Therc's becn a train crash in the north of the country, and there are fears that up to five people havc been killed, II happened at XXXX o'clock this morning, The train wa. going from London to XXXX, Lucie ('ounncy, the six-year-old girl from XXXX who went missing from her home last Thursday, has been found safe and well, She was found by XXXX. She'd gone 10 StH)' with her grandparent. There's been a robbery at a bank in Manchester. About XXXX men dressed as policel1l~n went into the bank and stoic XXX X pounds, They escaped in a XXXX, And finally spurt. Liv~rpool played Real Madrid in the ELlropean CLip last night. It was Hclosely fO\Lght match, and the final score was XXXX. And in boxing, Louis Henderson is the ncw heavyweight champion. He beat XXXX in Las Vegas last nigh!. I-[e said afl~r the light XXXX, And that's the end of the news,

C = Caroline Bailey ]\' = "IoTlua, her seerdary C Now, what's happening today'? I've got a meeting thi aftcrnoOIl. 111"'<'11'[ I'? N Yes, that'" right. \Vith Hemy and Ted, C And the mecting's here, is/I'[ it? N No, it isn't. It's in Ted's olTice. at ~,OO, (' Oh LI'm not having lunch with anyone, (IIJ/ /') N No, you're free allmoming, C Phew' ['II stan on that report, then, Er. signed all my letters, didll'[ f? :\I I 0. you didn't. actually. They're on your dcsk, waiting for you, C Ah, right' Aud er __ . tolllorrow ['m going tll ScotJand. are/l't I? Ycs. You're booked on the early morning shuttle, C OK, Il doesn't leave until ~.OO. does if? N S, I -, LO be precise. C Gosh, Norma' Where would I be without you?

Tapescript 81a R = question lag rises; F = question tal: falls

a It isn't very Warm today, is ilo (1") b The w~ather lorecast was WroLlg again. 1\'(10'11'1

iI" (FI

You can cook. ClIIl'1 yOIl? (R) d YOll don't eat snails, do you? (R) e You've got a CD. hare,,'t yUII? (R) Sally', very clever, isn'l sire') (F) g TIlere are a lot of people here, amt"lthere? (F) h The tiltn wasn'! wry good, 11'(1.1 it? (F) I am a silly person. oren'[ (! (F) You aren't going out dressed like that. are you'! (R) l'

Tapescript 81 b a '[t im'l \'~ry warm tOday, is i1')' I F) 'No, it's rreezing.' b 'The weather forecast was wrong again. WOSI1't it~' (F) 'Yes l It alway~ i" though. isn't it?' c 'You can cook. can't you'I' (R) 't\,1eO Nol I can't evcn boil an egg.' cI 'You don't eat snails, do you?' (R) 'Yuk l No, 1 don't! They're disgusting!' c 'You've got a CD, haven't you'?' (R) 'Believe it or not, I h~vell'!. I've got a lape recorder, though.' f 'Sallv'~ very clever. isn't sh~'?' (F) ')'c" She's (IS bright a, a bUllon.' g There are a 101 or people here, aren't there'" (F) 'J know! It's absolutely packed' I can't move!' h The film wasn't very good. was i1'1' (F) 'T~rriblel The worst I've seen tor age~.' 'I am a silly person, aren't P' (F) 'Nu, you're not. Just heeause you made one mistake does,,'t mean you're silly.' 'You aren't going out dressed like that. are you'" (R\ 'Why'l \l,'hat's wrong with i1" I thought I looked really smart.' Tapescripts

139


Tapescript 82 I

A You brok~ (l1<It WI><:, (li(ll1't y,Hl'! A Y~,;. I <lld, I droPlXd II. I'm ~orr), ,\ YOll'll huy another Olle. I\<)n't ~'ou'.' Ye,. of course. Ilow Illuch wa, il"~ A £200. It "1'.11"/ £200. W<l' it?! , \ Yc,- ,t '''''', A II's so rom;ullic. iSll'IIl',' R Wh;1I ifI A Well, thc;. 'rc re;,lIy in 101c. aren't they? R Who arc'! A I'aul and Mary. raul and Mar) rlr/'n" in 101c.IHe th,')',>! A Oh. res. Ihey Me They're m.,d about ta~h olhtr.

" " "

!

A

H,I\(,' you p<lid ttle c1eelnclly bill? 11, 1111\"cn't you? N", I ha\cn't! BUI you ,,/oml'.' pa) it. dOIl't )01I? No, I don'1. f "IWll)"' IXly the lclephonc bill. Oh. ye!>. Sorry

B 1'01.>, )(/II'\"e paid A II A

,

B

A We 10le caeh other. don't w"<:?

B Er ,llhlllkw, A

We dOn'l e\·tr ";,nllO p:trt, do IIC'!

B Well W.:·llltet married and hale "~ c-hildrcn. won'l we? Whal " ,'ou lu,I'en'l bou£ht me a nnl!, ' h;l\'e you? ,\ Yes. , h,lIl,' [)I;Imomb ,Ir.: fore\er II Oh. dear! A

"

5 A Hclen dldn'l \\inlhe kllter;.. did ,he!? B Oh, yc). )hc .lid. She lIon £2.000.000! ,\ Sht isn'l going. CO g.h'e it all awu}. is Sht? II Oh. les. she ,s. ,\ Shc< \'cl) kind Not many people would do Ihlll. \\ould the)'l WclLI'Ollcert;lI11ly wouldn·t. would I"OII?

"

6 ,\ rhat J"I'r a Icl1er (rom Ikrtll'. 's it? II Yes. it is. lie hasn'l writt("n tor Sil mOlllhs. has he? Wh~u d,l() he wanl? Hc "'alll, to borro" some mOlley. doe,n't he'! ,\ I'm not lending him :molht'r pt'nny' YOU'IC alread} lenl hlln 1::2,000. haven't you"! A I ccrlamly ha,"e. A

" "

7 A You 1t(ILX'I,'1 (orgotten the map, haye

"

A R A

II A

you? Oh. (kar. Yes. I hn\'e, lllli I pili Ilnt'xt to your rucksack. I didn't see iL did ]? So. hOI\ "nil we find the villa£,'? \Ve could ask a policeman. couldn't we'; There ar<'Il'lmanv pohcenwil on Ihis mountain I

8 A We tan'l alTOI'd thai ne\\. car. can we')

"

A

B .A R A

B

140

Are you surc? Haven't wc saved a lot of money? Yes. blu. we need that money. don'l we"! Whal for? Ollr old age. You'r... jok:ing. aren'l you" Yes. l:Jm 1",,1.' jusl ooughtll for you! Wow!

Tapescripts

Tapescript 83a

" 011'" of the problems. these days. is thaI

The Forgetful Generation Presenter J kiln and welcomc 10 Worldly Wl>c. Ill)"" your day been so far'lll:\\'e you done :tllthc Ih'nl;:; yOll planned? Kept :111 ~'<WI aPIXlllltlncnt)': Collc\"led th:n P:HCel from lhe Po,t Omce'~ Oh and IMI'e yOll remembcr<"d to "nd your mothcr a blrthd:!) I;ard? If so, well donl"! If not YOll're not alone. Many of us arc Iindtng IImorc :md more dltTicult 10 remcmber el'cr} thing. O,](:e ll1X11l a time we all Just bl:lTned gelling older (II' ,lur absentmllldedn ... ~). bllt now ... ~pt'rlS arc blaming our modern lili:~tyk They ,ay thaI wc've becomc 'lhe forgelful generation' and th,ll day arter dny lI'e try' to do to() much'

Tapescript 83b rllcn l.a'tlCilr I finished universit} ;\]1<1 r 1101 ajob 1Il1he )<Ime 10WI1. Canlerbur). where I "OJ,,:ll unilcrsit}. ..\nd on.... da;.. lor some reason. r;uher thall go tn work for nine o·do.. . k. 1 got Ihe bus and went to the ullhcrsit) tor:m ekl.:n o'dock llXllJre, r was siltin,£ Ihcrc, in thc Icrlur.: room, .1IId llhuughl 10 mysdf. 'Why don'l I kllO\\ anybody?' Thcn suddcnly [ r("mcmber("d Ihal 1"d finished unl\ersity and Ihal I was two hOIln-late for wurk! Josh I'm siudying law in London now, and um. al Ihe end of la'l term I packed m)' suilea$(" <IS usual. and went 10 King.·' Cros.s Sialion to catch the trall1 home. r was smll1g reading on Ihe Irain. re\'ising for my cxams. and Ihc inspeclOr came 10 check Ill)' tickcl. He looh'd :l~ it and )ald. -Thllnk )'ou. ,ir. We'll be 111 '\Ic\\'ca",I" in aboul 'In hour: And wddcnl) I Ihought. ':>:ewl'asllc!?! BUll don't "anI to go tn 'e"ca,tlc, My parents h\'e 111 PlymOlllh " You sCC. "h<'n r was a child 1 hn'd with my p<lrellh in Ne"castle. hUI WC' mo,",~d 10 Plyll10uth "hen I was len. I oouldn'l helie' .... il How could I l>c so stupid'! Fiona SOUle tim.... ago I got dressed. rt'ady 10 go 10 work. 1 pUl on my ,marl black ,uil 1"d been workmg <II home thi: ni/1ht before - pr.:parin~ for a \'ery imrOrtanl mectlng the neXI day. and I remembcrt.-..IIO rut all Ih.... right Jlapcr'l into my hrie(cas.:. I left h'om.... and walk:ed do\\ II 10 the bus slOp, Just beforC": I gOt on the bus. I I(l()ked down, and 1 was still wearing my' t1ut1\ pink bedroom slipp....rs!

Tapescript 83c p =

I'r,~nln

P A

P A

P

Tapescript 84 a b

A Oh, let") h"I<' a bretlk, <,hall \\e') ,\11 ril!hl I"m d)in£ ror a curp:1 A 1I1~ old man I,,(t al "ork loda~ U Why" Wh;II's up wllh him') A lie "~IS walking to work yC'Slerd:ly when Ihts guy ill :1 car knodw hnn o\er. Re:IlIy! b he OK'! A Well. h", \\a, lery lucky. H"'Ju,1 got a few elils and gr;ll,C). A Can [ hale one of }Our fags'! II Sure Help )'01l~1(. I've got loads. t\ ra l Do I'm "OJnt one~ B No. I'vc JUSI pUI olle OUI. A Gilllnle YOllr homew'ork ,0 1 can copy it. II No Ilay! You call do It yourself! A Did you manage 10 fi~ Ihe lell}" H Kind of. The pictuTC'S OK. bUllhc sound isn'l quitc right. A What's on tonighl? U Dunno, Look in the paper.

»

a

c

A = 1\lun But'hurl

P Stories of forgctt\llncss like Ihese:Hc f,uniliar 10 111:II1Y ,If liS and experts Sil} thai such cases as Ellen's, J(J>h's and Fion~!', show that los> of memory is n01 jU)t related to age. but e,lll be e"lIsed b~' 0111' way of life. I'mfes:>or 1\ Ian HIlCh:lIl. :l neuro· ps)'cholog"L C\pl:Ull~ Ilhy.

mall} comp:ll1lc, h:II'e far fe\ln ",mployteS .md this me:lllS Ih:n one person often doe<; ~\<:ral Job", Jobs thai before IIcre don", by many people are done' b} a f(,,11 and Ihey hal("n'l oc'Cn tramedlo do IhlS. If ~ou hme til'e thillgs to do al once. you become slressed and (or£et(ul. I think: many people In 1I'0rk situalions. at a meeting or somelhing. hal'c Ihe experience II here Ihe) Slar! a >elllencc and half'\I'a} thmu£h 11. the\' can'l rcmember whal Ihey're lalking about. and Ihey c:ln'l tinish the sentence. It's a terrible feeling you think you're gOlll£ mad, I remcmber one lady who came 10 me so distressed because at three important medillgs III 011('" I,,;~k. she fO(llid hn",lf ,aying. mid-sclllcncr, Tm sorry. I can'l remember what I"m lalking aoom . And, Ihi.l was a ladv in a nell job, wllich in\oll'ed a lot of tra\'dling. Shl' al~o had a homc and family to look aftcr. 1/11</ shc'd rC'l.·cnlly moved hOIISC, Sile had so 1111111.1 thing. to think about that her brain couldn't cope. 1l shut dOlI n. 1 (:an ~et' the probkm bllt whal's the sohltion'> How did you help th,lt lady'.' Wcll. p,lrt of th~ ~ollttion IS rt.·cogni/ing the prohlcm, Once wc'd talked to this lady ahoUl her strcss(lllli(cstyk. she realized tlla! she w;,sn't going crazy. :lI1d sile fell morc rcl,ued and was able to help hersell: Out do yOIl know one of Ihe besl ways to remember thinf!s. e'cn in these d:IYs o( personal computers and lilo(:lxes? What's thaI? Well. 10 (act. ii'S a nOlcbook ;\Od a penctl of coursc:~ Atlhe beglllnmg of e'ery d:<y. \I rile yoursel( :1 IIS1 of thllll!s you h;lvc to do, ;\Od II gi\"es you a really good fechn~ "hen you eroS) thlllllS oIl' the h~t a, you do them! P,ychologlclllly, It'S '''''.1' ";lllsfYllll! to complete thmgs. Well. there you hale It I ] hope [c:11l remember how nOllO lorgel! Th:,"k rou \"Cry much IOdeed f'rofc!>Sor er, er Oh' Professor ..' Ian Buchall '

d e


What's tbal slulr called that vou usc 10 clean bet ween VOlll' leeth? . n \:Y11al do you [;lean') A Oh, you know' It's like strin~. White. B Ohl You mean dentailloss ~ A That's it'

t\

because I was driving. He asked me ir we'd travelled far 10 gel here, so I explained that we'd flown in from New York vcsterdav, Then he asked s()mctl~ing stra;lge, He asked me why I wasn't wearing H h~11. so said 1 never wore hab, He then wenl on to ask me where we were Slaying wllIghl. and J told him we were at the ReI! He Hsked me if we C<luld uive him a lin there, and 1 said yes, I asked him ir hc was staying at the Red Lio//, 100. and he , aid he WHS. He asked ir there would be enough room in our car, and I told him that there wouldl)'t bc a problcm.

I

{.i,,,,.

UNIT 12 Tapescript 85 The Marriage Proposal J = .Iohn M = Nloira J Hello, Moira. I-low arc you'? l'vl ['111 line. How are. ou'? J 1 feelwonderlul becausr we're IOgelher again. It's been a long time since our holidav in P<tri, . M Oh, I lovcd every minute of it. I'll nel er forget il. Can we go back there next spring') I love you. Moira. Will you marry me and corne to Paris wilh me for our honevmoono M Oh, yes, yes, I will. I love you, too..

Tapescript 87 a

A Fl

d

A He'll be thirty [lext week, B But he told me he'd bc Ifl'e//Iy-olle! A He lV~nt to Amsterdam 1'01' his last holiday, B But he told me he'd gone to lJarhados! i\ lie can'l give up smOking, B l3ut he IOld me that he'd oiven up IlIr<,<,

The Wedding Reception

= Adam B = Heatrke

100')

A

Y~"

car'?

I am. Will there bc cnough room in vour

..

~

B Oh. yes, loIS Therc won't be a problem.

Tapescript 86b

His girlfriend ha, left him, But he told mc lhat he'd It:1't fIer'

c

c

A

He loves living in London, B Rut he told mc he IlIlIel! it!

b A He's moving to Canada. B But he told Ille that hc was moving to Aus/mlia'

Tapescript 86a

A Are you on your () 11" 13 No, 1'111 not. I'm with my husband, A How do you know 10hn and Moira. then" 13 [wa at lllliversity with Moira. A Do you like big \\ieddings? 13 I prefer smaller ones. A Where did you meet your husband. then'! I3 Actually, I met him at a weddiIH!. A Why aren't you drinking? B Because I'm driving. A Er.. Have you travelled far 10 get here'! B Yes, we have. We lle"''' in rrom New York yesterda. ' A I Icy. why aren't you wearing a hat? B 1 never wear hals. A \:Y1lere are vou staving tonioht? 13 We're at th~ ReI! /iUl; '" A Oh! Can you g.ive mc a lift there? 13 Yes. we can, A re you staying at the Red Lioll.

I~

years ago! 0

'"

A He was giv~n the sad last \I,eek. BUI he lold me he'd been givcn

'" n

promo/ion I

h A He's rallen in love with a French girl. B Oh! But he lold me that he'd fallen in love with mel

language he used! But sh~ wouldn't op,;n it. she opencd a window in tead and threw a plant at him, Tonight she threw a chair at m), poor hu~band. They're so selfish. They don't even care about the baby,

Tapescript 89a,b Tapescript 90

Sec pages 121-122

Sec page 123

Tapescript 91a 'Excuse me, can you tell me where I he post omce is')' 'Sorry, I'm a strangcr here myself,' b 'Ouch! That's my 1'001 1' 'Oh, I'm sorry. I wa n't looking where I was

,\

gOing.

'Er .. , Ex~'use me, what's that creature called'l' 'll's a Diplodocu,;.' 'Pardon')' 'A Diplodocus. D-I-P-L-O-D-O-C-U-S,' 'Er .. , Tha 11 k you very much,' d 'j failed my driving lest I'M the sixth time!' 'J am sorry.' e 'Excuse mc' We need to get p~st. My liltk hoy i. n't frding well.' 'Do you want your hearing aid, Grandma')' 'Pardon'" 'I said: Do .1'0/1 H'WII 1'011I' he(lring aid:" 'Whar)' 'DO YOU WANT YOUR HEARING AID')' ¡rm SOITV, I can't hear vou. I need mv hcaring ;id: â&#x20AC;˘ . c

'Oooh l '

Tapescript 88a

Tapescript 91 b

Pallline Pelers

Hello, Elmw',' Hello, again' I don't know what happened, I think we must have been cut olT, I'm sorry about that. Never mind, Now, where were wc'1 b Excuse me' [lellol Excuse me! Excu 'e me. please' Iii' Yes, please! Can we have ,mother large bottle or tizzy mineral waler, please" Thanks. cOil, r (/11/ ,orry to hear about thaI. Of eOl1l'se I understand, We'll go out another time. d What! You want to go where? And witb a bottlc or whisky? How old do you think you arc? Ilull l You can think again' c Excuse me! r wonder il' you cOllld heir me. I bought this jllIl1P~r. and I thought it \ as mcdium, but when I got homc saw it was the wrong size. Can I change i(' Pardon'l Could you say that again, please, I didn't understand. g Excuse me. please! Thank you, Oh! Excuse me. I'm getting ofT at the next SlOp, Sorrv, I've gOt a big suitcase, h Oh, no! or course. you're vegetarian! [ am sorryl How awrul of me, Do~'t worrv, there are lOb or other things for you to ea;.

OK, We arguc sometnncs but nOl often. Usuallv we just sit quietly and watch tel~visioll ill the ' evening~. But ~ometimes .. , sometimes we argue about mOrley. We don't h~ve very mueh bccause neither of us has a job at the momcnt, and I get very upsct when Patrick spends the little we hav~ al I he ru b or on the horses. I-[e promised 10 stop drinking blll he hasn't SlOpped, It's worse since he lo,t his job. OK, We \ ere shouting bllt we didn't throw a chair at I'vlr Fish. It ... er .. , it ju t fcll OUI or the window. And I'm reallv sorry that we woke th~ baby. We won't do it ag:lin. VJe lovc children, We'lI babysit lor Mr and Mrs Fish anytime if Lhey want to go out.

Beatrice talking to her husband

Tapescript 88b

I\'e just met this really fri,;ndly young man, Do you know what he said to me? First he asked me if [ was 011 my own and of course I said that r wasn't. I was with you. Thcn he asked me huw I knew John and Moira a.nd I told him I had been al university with Moira, lie asked me ir [ liked big weddings. and I said no. I preferred smaller ones. Then he asked l11e whcre I'd mel YOU which was a bit or a funny question. s(; I t~ld him that wc'd mct at a wedding, He asked me why I wasn't drinking, ,Ind I . ,~id that it was

Iris Fish Every night it's the same. They argllc every night. And we can hear e cry word they sal', During the day it's not so bad becausc they're both out at work. Bllt in the evenings it's terrible, Usu~lly, they start arguing about which television programme to watch. Then he bangs the door and marches down the road to the pub. I,ust night he came back really drunk, He was shouting outside his rront door. 'Open Ih~ door yOll ,er .. , so and so,' I won't tell you the

a

I

Tapescripts

141


Grammar Reference UNIT 1

Auxiliary verbs and negatives

Auxiliary verbs Introduction There: an: thm: d .. ,~ of \crbs m rnghsh I Ttw au\iliaT) '",rbo.IIQ. ~ and har,. Thc'\C .U'I:' u~ \{l form tense\. ilnd to shO\\ forms 5uch as questions and oCI5II1\1:' The~ .He deah wllh In this unit 2 'IIKI:II au:.iliar, wrbs The..e ilK \crIY.. ~uo::h b I//IUI. ('/III. _VIOIIItI. ",,~hl. will. and ,,"ouhl ~ an: dU\lliaf) \(rbl. ~-Ju..e Ihe) 'help' olhn- \nm.. but unlil.:c do. I>t' and II",,.. the) h;r. ... their 0\\0 meaninp.. For example. ro" expresses abdlt~. and Jl/IUI c."(prtSS<.'$ obhg.l1IOn. (See L'm!5 4. 8. and 9)

J Full ,"«IK ThC')(' an: all the ol~r \crbs lllihe language. for example. pluT. mil. In·/p. Ill11lk. "lllll. go, elc Remember thai the wrbs d;}. l¥ and Iwrt can also be used as full \.::rbs "Ith thclr ~ n mc.'anln!s, I do"" ,111$1111/, /lIr SlIlrmlm.t. SIN' dOC', u 1m of "".11IH.'.1.$ III 1IU' H'T Eajl J "lim 10 ~ a /NUlu-r II e tiT,. '" rllU.f at /I/OIIU'''' nll:r ourf' (1/

"Ie

h",,,,,, Yf'str,rJm

/I 101 of prlJhlelll!>. f/u:r IIure fhrre cllildr('". Jl hm do 1'(111 lit)' = What"s )our jOb1 (The liTS( (Ill is an au,iliary;

11,. IIUJ

Ihe S«"ond I) 3 full \trb.l

'" I

fle

1\

11<11"I;'

3re

u~

!Ilt rol~ mg pomt.... We can·t sa)~"l"·t ¥lonung We ha\t to sa~ I'm 110' "wli"/III(. It is possible to contract the auxilIaries ~ and "ur~ and usc the unconlr.:tctcd /III' 1/"$ 110' rlanl/f! ",,-':1.1' (= tit I$IIt pia) ing toda~.) lie'", 110' IOlIIg Itl llalr alll'raN 1= We al'l'll·' !loing to Ital) I'rr 110' m;ld Ihr hiJnI,." rrl 1= I hal'~I/'t read the book yet.)

Auxiliary verbs and questions I To male- J ll~lIon. InH~rt tilt: )ub]«1 and th(

au.tiliar~ \(rb. If there i) no 3u\.lliaf} \erb. use dDlJonMjr:J, Qucstion SlIr·.' Il,Wrmgjl'UII<" 1171U1 is slit ll't'armg' )i.lll 01'(''''/ ~wlil/lJ:, WlI. IIrtlf', J·OU llwkillg' 1'1'/1'1"( k'CII f{/ Chm<J IIQS P~ur M~ll 10 Chilla' )iJII lU'1'(' hom III I'oru 1I"1Ier~ "V'r~ "rou b(".,,'

I

h",,,

Do

)"QII

Tiley duM,

us..-J a) aU'lhaf} \o:rbs. the) makt dtfTtl\'nI Itrb

IIh verb + ./11.1; IS

~ote

to make

((II/IIIII/QIIS

vcrb forms.

!f,,'s wasl/illJ: IUf (UI/r (Prcsent Conunuous) Tlwl' ~'(ft J:0h'J: 10 n'I11'I.:. (P;lst Conllnuous) n", bun leurllillJ: l://Kh'(l jor /lro .I(lIT$. (prcsel11 Pcrll.'Cl Conu nuous)

go 011I

2 Question tags

,He u:ry common in spoken English. (S«' Unit II) I,'s (I 10",,,,, du,l'. is,,', it' 1'011\... 111.'1'", Irll.'d cllrry, hQr~ you? 1'/1/1 //)1',' ImmlJ/g £/lgIiJII. JOII·' )'ou"

J Tht:r( is lIsllally no d/!!dO('.IJdidin subject qlldtions. WI1/) H'III/I,I' w/ i('I'-('f('{///I,' WllllllwpJ!I'Il(,d I/) )'/)1" eyr?

J"II ilk., 10 "" lj'illJ: (11/ l1Ie ModI rl.l;1I111011 (Conllnuous infinililc)

Who hmkr 1!l1' lI'illl/rlll"

Continuous I'erb forms describe llClllllies in progress and temporary aClIV!tles.

Compart: the questions abo\c

2 SI' wnh the pas! participle (-1',1 CII;..) IS ul'Cd to form the /XIIS,..t. P<llIa 6' /l1I"h' from 1ll)(I(1 (I>resent Simple 1'a)Si\e) .\1) mr ...us )'t"frn yrslatlfll: (I>:l>t SImple l>a~l\e) Till' 110/11'" hlu' brl'II r<'llr/"or<ltr,1 (present Perfect Passi\e) rlllj' (WIIt/'It'or/' Ill'/'(6 ta br dunr IUI/I'(hl (Passhe mfmitl\e)

There tS lin tnlfO(luettol\ 10 the p:15S1W on page 144

I,ul'l' IllIrt " tth the p,ISt Pitrllelple is used 10 make perferr wrb forms. lit "us ,,'orktd III 5t'\'/I diffi'rellf cowl/rie~ (Prcsenl Perfect) She "'/5 ('rylll,fJ henm$t' 5lit I/ud hud somr bod /It'll'$. (past Perfect) (,I filiI' 10 "UI'~ mn S(/ll()leoll. (perfer! mfiniti\e) Perfce! mcan~ ·before·. so Present Perfoct means ·before now· (See Unlls 7 and 10) Pas! Perfect me,ms ·hc:fore <I lIme in t!'le piI.st . (Sec Unil J)

142

Grammar Reference

I knOll yOIl?

IIllal dINS Ir~ ""tIIII' I'"h)· didn·' ,lrry gt) om'!

Ih "maf (/II Ifr-trrUIII

Auxiliary verbs and tenses Whtn tv and form....

To mllke II neg,ttlle. add "/1" to the 31niliaf} n~rb. If there tS no auxiliar~ \'erb. use do,,·,ldocw·lldidll·l. Nq:aliw lie's ll'orkmg. III' is,,·' l1'orkl/lg, I tll1.f 'hlJlkl/lg I ,,"u.fn·' Ihi'lking. II (0 '1'('U'/'11 II,e pIal II e hUl'~"·' WI'I/ ,Ii,' 1'101 511(0 llorJ,:s //I a h(mk Sill' dINs,,·"rork 1/1 n MIlIi nl('r lik,' ~Iillg. TIII'I' do,,·' 1//'1' sliimg. He Ir~1I/ (HI helidar fie did,,·' go on Iwlidar

10

the following:

WIl/(ljll/l'Our iCI"C/'MI/i ,Iu l'O/lIj'(II//? 11'111// did .1'011 do to your "yc? "0'" liitl .1'011 break /lie Il'lIIdo\l'?

Auxiliary verbs and short answers I Short llllSI\ers are vel') common in sl}O~en Engli)h. If )OUJUSI 5<1'" )e.l or So, it can sound rudo:, We: use short answe:r~ af!<."r 'yes/no' que~tions. and also in reply to statement), To make a )hort anS'ltr, rtJ)('atlhe auxiliary \erb. If [here is no au,\.ihaf} lo:rb, uS(' du!dO('$!dJ(/. Shari llllS'lt'r A~ l'lJII cutl/m,1[ "ull 1i.I' Jes, I um, Hm'r yUII Imd "rCUk{IHt.'

I,·s Q ltJ"r/l' <luI.' KUIe' Iu.~s "allimt Did nm ~ Uld lusl n('(ht.'

Sa 1 ha"~II·' Jt-S, i, i$. ;S/I·' it?

sllr dOt'sn', Shl.' hairS i,. lios. "-e- did

\'0.

\1/1,. (1,,1/1"1 plllJIlt·

Je.'!: 5hr did_ )'Qu

IJ<",", f~t'o ,,'rur. Can rou ~nok'

So. I

"Y)II·'

le.t I can.

II".,..

011I


:'. We often lise II short question to reply to something someone has said, In this way, we use the shon question to express our interest. concern. surprise. or whatever emotion we feel. We are not asking a question, Reply question Did )'ou, dear~ I,renl shopping IOda)'. r "e houghl Will a present, Hal'e you? Thank .FOII, Durid's going 10 Berlin, Is hI"! HoI\' interestillg! I lol'e' c/ussiCilI lJlliSic. Do you? I call'l slalld il.

Auxiliary verbs and emphasis Special emphasis can be put on an aux.iliary verb whcn we speak, This can give more emotional force to the whole sentcnce, or it can express a contrast. for example. between true or false. [f tbcrc is no auxiliarv. Lise doldoes/did, • The' hOllse is JO tidy.' 1,<)(./ JUII'e beell lmrking hard. A/111m! Thllt was delieiolls. J do like y01l1' cooking,' 11'.1' lillie yOIl cleaned )'0111' roOIll.' 'I !luve ele/mcd IIII' room.' ,Why didn'l .1'011 ring ;lIe lasl night?' 'I did rillg, /n'-I )'011 II'('/'e' 0111.'

• Use The Present Simple is used: to cxpress an action that happen again and again. lhal is, a habit.

I go (0 'fork hI' ('til: She smokes lell cigar('[les ada): I wash III)' hair mice a lI'eek. 2 to express a fact which is always true. Roil" comesji-olll Germall)'. SOllie bird fly SOUTh ill lI'illle/: lHy daugilier has brOlI'l1 eres. 3 to express a fact which stays the same for a long timc (a state). He works ill a b(1I1k. Ili,'e in (/ .f1a/llear The ceillre of 10\1'11. J prefa coJIee 10 Tea.

Adverbs of frequency I We often use adverbs of rrequency with the Present Sinlpk. 0% - - - - - - - - - - 50% - - - - - - - - - - 100% never rarely not often sometimes often usually always

have/have got There arc two fOnlls of the verb hUl'e: hal'e as a full verb with doldoes/did for questions. negatives and short answers. and hllre gal where hal'e is an auxiliary. I hUl'e Ihree sisters. l've got Ihree siSTers. Doe~' she have any children~ Has she xot 011.1' children~ I dOl/'t hlll'e any meelings fIIda.E J hlll'ell't got an." //leelings today 'Do /ish hll~'e hmgs?' 'Hm'e JlSh got lungs?' . Yes, Ihey do, ' 'Yes, rhey hll~'e, ' ITave and have gOI can mean the same, Note the following points: - Ho\'(' gor is more informal. and spoken. When we write. we normally use hare. We cannot use have got to talk about a habit. J've got a lilccling This a{temoo/1. r ahl'GYs hal'e a lIIe'eling 0/1 i'vlonday afternool1. (habit) - For the past. we use forms of have only with didldidn'l. NOT *-lta& ~.

Present states and actions Present Simple The Present Simple is Olle of the most common tcnses in English. It Can refer 10 the present (now), but it can also refcr to all tillle and regular time (permanent silllation and habits). I want {/ Clip of Tea, = now The ,Hill rises iI/ Ihe 1'0.1'1. = all timc J play I('/Inis (II/ 5,·'l11do.l' moming~. = regular time

Form ami negative

I We You They

work don't work

He She It

works doesn't work

3 Somelimes and usually can also come at tbe beginning or the end. Sometimes Jill' play CClrds. If'(' pia)' cards someTimes. USllally J go shoppill,f!. ,rithfriellds. I go shopping 1l'iThjl-iellds IIStla/~I).

hard.

ra,.e~,·,

and seldom cannot move in this way, OT * ~~ go (0 the eio6ma. *!\IWllYS 1 have-lea'j ·he morning.

4 Ne,·er. always.

walliS ears helps drires 2 Add -cs to verbs that end in -.IS, -sir, -ell. -x. and -(). kisses washes \l'lItches jixes goes 3 Verbs that end in a con ouant + y change to -iI'S. carrie.\' .flies worries Iries But verbs which end in a vowel + )' only add -so /lIlYs says plays elljo)'s

Present Continuous

• Form Positi\'c and negative

Question am

m 'm not

Question

do Where does

he.

Spelling of verb + -$ The normal rule is to add -s to the base form of the verb.

UNIT 2

10

S El'el'yday. etc. goes at the end. He phallI'S me Her)' lIight.

J had a headache yesterdaJ: Did .1'011 have any pets as a child? I didn't !lllve allY money when r Ira. a .I'll/denI.

J~osit ivc

2 They go before the main verb, but after the verb IlI,wally go 10 bed (I[ 11. 00, TdOll't oftell go SllIillll11illg. She lIe"er eats mem. I rarely :ee Peter Ihese days. He is fleI'er lme for sc!roo!. I {(11111.w/(//~I' ill a Illmy in Ihe IIlOmillg.

we you they she he it

He She It live?

We You They

is

's isn't 're aren't

eating.

What are

she he it

doing?

we you they

Grammar Reference

143


Vvllen the subject is a person. we often use ('(/11, Call you ~'ee Ihul hiI'd"} Call .1'011 smell sOlllellling bllmlng:' I can hear .\'UII1('OI/C cr.l·illg.

• Use The Prcsent Continuous is used: to express an activity that is happcning now, Don'l tum Ihe TV off I'm II'I/telling il. YOII CilII'1 speak {() Jan£', S!II':~ IIm'ing a bUlh. 2

to exprcss an activity or situation that is true now. but is not necessarily happening at the moment of speaking. DUII'I IOke Ihm houk. Jal1e~~ readillg iI, I'm doillg a French el'ening course Ihis ye{f/:

3 to express d temporary activity, Peler i. l/ slllrienl, bUI he:~ workillg as (I barlllal/ dllring Ihe lIalidll.!'s, I'mlil'ing ll'illi Fiend~ /IIl/ill.f7nd a place of" 111,1' Ull.,l. 4

to express a planned future arrangcment. I'm IIm'illg Ilinch Iridl Glenl/a IUil/orrulI'. We're //leetinK til roo oil/side 1111' re.l'IiIUlwlI.

I The normal rule is to add -ing to the base form of thc vcrb. goillg II'earing l'isiling ('(fling 2 Verbs that end in one -e lose the -e.

fOlI/ing

hoping

ith

The passive

Spelling of verb + -ing

-,n/Okillg

2 Some of thcse verbs can be used in the Present Continuous, but a changc of meaning. In the Continuous, the verb expresses an activity. not a state, I thillk l'OIl're 1'~1;11l. (= opinion) We're thillkillg 01" gOillg 10 Ihe cinema. (= mental activity) He has a fOI uI"IJIOI/C.l'- = (possession) She's haring a balh. = (activity) I see Il'hat yUIi mea/l. (= understand) Are yOll seeillg NigeIIOlIIOITulI"? = (activity) Tile soup tastes illl/ill. (= state) ['III tastillg Ihe Ollf! 10 see if il needs salt. (= activity)

I1Til il1g

Introduction to the passive The passive is dealt with in Units 1.2. 3, and 7 of ,Nell' Hea(/I'Y/Y IlIlalllediale.

• Form

But verbs that end in -el' don't lose an -e. agreeing seeing

The tense of the verb 10 be changes to give different tenses in the passive. This is followed by the past participle.

3 In verbs of one syllable. with one vowel and one consonant. the consonant is doubled. slopping gelling 1"1lI1l/ing nut if the final consonant is -." or playillg shOII'ing

plal/ning -II',

jogging

is was has been

It

it is not doubled.

are They

State verbs I There are certain groups of verbs that arc usually only used in the

Present Simple. This is because their meanings are related to states or conditions which are [acts and /l01 activities. This is a feature of the use of the Present Simple. The groups of verbs are: Verbs of thinking and opinions believe think understand suppose expect douht know remember forget agree mean realize deserve prefer imagine

Verbs of emotions and feeling hate

care

hope wish

wunt

admit

I like black cofft'e. Do you wallt 10 go Olll? I dOIl't eill'e.

Verbs of having and being belong own bave possess contain cost seem appear need depend on weigh come from resemble This book helollgs In Jl1l1e Leadbeller HoII' IIlIIell doe.\' il co,~t"} I-Ie has a /111 of mOlle.l"-

Verbs of the senses look

hear

taste

smell

The food smells guod.

144

Grammar Reference

feel

Notice the passive infinitive. l"d Im'e to be im'ited 10 Illeir pcmy. This IIIJlllell'ork 111/1.1'1 he dO/le by 101ll0iTOll'.

• Use Passive sentences move the focus from th~ subject to the ohject or active sentences. Shakespeare II'rote Hallllel ill I j99. Hamiel, ulle 0/ Ihe greol dramalie tragedies, lI'a.\· written by Shakespeare. The passive is not another way of expressing the same seutence in uJe active. We choosc the active or the passive depending 011 what we are more interested in. In the first scntence. we arc more interested in Shakespeare; in the second sentence. Hamiel has moved to the beginning of the sentence because we are more illlerested in the play.

I helieve yO/l. Do YOllllllderstalld:) I kilO'" his facc, h1l/ I finget his IIl1l11e.

love

were

have been

'\lote lie Iving

like

mended.

2 Very often by and the agent are omitted in passive sentences. Thi might be because: - the agent is not known. Mv flal W([S burgled IlIstl1ighr. the agent is not important. Tlli,I' bridge 11'([.1' hllilt in 1886. - we understand who the agent is. I was filled £! 00/01' speeding 3 The passivc is associated with an impersonal, formal style, It is often used in notices and ,1IlnouncemeI1ls. ("lIslolllers are reqllested tu refraill FOIII sllloki;lg II has lieI'll /loth'ed 111111 reJi'rence books hUl'e bem relllol'edji'olll Ihe library.


4 In informal language, we often use you, we, and they t refer to people in gencnd or to no per,on ill particular. [n this way we can avoid using the passive. They'rc' bllilding Ii nelV department slore in Ihe dn cell Ire, YOIl call blly stamps ill lot oj'shops, 1101 jllst post offices. We speak English ill Ihis shop. The same meaning is expressed in formallallguage wing ()Ill'. One should dress to SlIil Ihe occasioll. S Be careful! Many past participles are used more like adjectives. 1'111 I'erv interested ill lIIodern arl, I l1'US surprised by her h/'hOl'iolll: We II'ere very ,,'orl'ied aboul you. Aren't you bored hy the nell's? J'III exlulI/sted.! f'I'e ht'/'II II'orking aU day.

• Use The Past Slmple is used: to express a finished action in the pa-t. We fIIel in 1987. Iwellt 10 Mancfle~·ter last H'I't'k. Joh/l left 1\1'0 mi/llites ago. 2 to express a\:tions which follow each other in a story. Mary walked into the }'(10m and stopped. She listelled careji"~l', Shc heard II noise coming ji-om behilld Ihe Cl/rlain. She Iltrew lile curlain opell. IIlId Ihell she ,WlIV ...

3 to express a past situation or habit. When I was a child. Ire lived in a small hOllse by 111e sm. E,'ery da)' [ lValked jill' miles Oil the beach wilh Illy dog.

This u:;e is often expressed with /lsed to, We 1I,I'cd to Ih'e in a small hOllse ". I /lsed to walk lIliles .

Present Simple and Continuous passive The uses are the same in the passive as ill the active. l"fy cur is sel'l'iced regltlm'!!: (= habit) Complllers are used in all areas 0 Wi, and work. (= fact which is alway~ true) Sorry abOll1 Ihe mess. The hOllse is being redeco/'llted at the momenl. (= activity happening now)

Past Simple and time expressions Look at the time expressions that are cOlllmon with the Past Simple, last night. two days ago. yesterday morning, in 1990. in summer. when I was young.

I did it

UNIT 3

Spelling of verb + -ed

Past tenses

I The normal rule is to add -ed to the base form of the verb. worked lI'i11lled helped lmshed

Look at the diagram. Whell Sy!l'ia arrhed hOllll' at 8.00 last 1II:lI:hl .

5.00

6.00

7.00

9.00

2 When the erb ends in -e, just add -d. likal IIsed haled cared

3 If the verb has only Olle syllable, with one written vowel + one Ivritten consonant, the consonant is doubled. stopped planned robbed til'll/I'd Tim cooked the meal. Tim was cooking the mea!. Tim had cooked Ihe mea!.

l3ut we write cooked, semed and moaned because there are two vowels. 4 The consonant is not doubled if it is.r or

played

Past Simple

5 In most two-,yllable verb,. the end consonant is doubled if the stress is on the second syllable. pre '(erred ud'milled

• Form The form of lhe Past Simple is the same for all persons.

But we wrile 'elllered and' "isited because the stress is on the first syllable. The exception is the final consonant -I. as in tJw'elled in Briti~h Engli h. (In American English the spelling is lral'eled.)

Positive I

You He/She/lt We They

11'.

howed

finished arrived left

yesterday, three weeks ago.

6 Verb. that clJd in a consonant +y change to -ied. carried hurried hl/ried

flut we write cn;oyed, because it ends in a vowel + r,

Past Continuous

• Form

I She You (etc.)

didn't

finish. arrive yesterday, leave.

I He She

you he they

We finish? enjoy the meal?

You They

Question I

was wasn't

It

Question

Did

Positive and negatil'c

was What

were weren't

were

she he It

doing?

we you they

(etc.)

Grammar Reference

145


Past Perfect

• Use We often use the I'a,t COlllinuous in sentences together \\lith the Past Simple. When this happens, the Past Continuous refers to longer. 'backgrouJ1(r activities. whilst the Past Simple refers to honer actions that happened in the middle of the longer ones, When I woke lip lhis morning .'

Perfeclmeans 'completed before', so Past Perfect refers to an action in the past which \Va complctcd before another action in the past.

• Form The form of the Past Pcrfcct is the same for all persons, Positiw and ncgatil'e

:J'~\4~

I

You

seen him before. finished work at 6,00.

had hadn't

We letc.1

Question

~ ~~rE /II I\~,~ ----... Ihe hird.\

Weft'

you she they (etc,)

. Y

v

This mor;9

Where had

been belore?

singing alld Ihe .\·lIn lI'as shining.

The Past Continuous is used: to express an activity in progress before. and probably after, a particular ~ime in the past. I Imlked pa.\'l rour hou e lasl night. There wa.\' (11/ ull/1i1 10/ 0/ noise. JFlwl were yOIl doing? A I 7.UO Ihis momillg, I ,,'as IUll'ing hrmk;ilSl. 2 to describe a situation or activity during a period in the past. Jan looked /OVe/.I'. She lI'a.\' lI'earing Ci greell ('011011 dress. Her eyes were shining ill the light (If Ihe calldles Ihal were hll/'fling 'Icarby.

3 to express an interrupted past activity. Whell Ihe phone /'(IlIg, f lI'Wi hUl'iI/{{ (.I halh We were playing le11l1is 11'111'11 il slarted 10 raill.

to express an incomplete activity in the past in order to contrast with the Pa$t Simple which exprcs'cs a completed activity. lli'us reading (J book during IlIe.flighl. (I didn't finish it.) I "'1I1.'hed a film during Iheflighr (the whole film) 5 The Past Simple IS llsually uscd to express a repeated past habit or situation, f lI'ent OIlT 11';111 Jack jill' years.

• Use The Past Perfect i. used to look back to a time in the past and refer to an actioll lhat happened before thell .

. .- . . -----'Q

./

...-

.... ...- ...-

....

....-----¥

./ /

/

I

~ Past

4

But the Past Continuous can be used if the repeated habit becomes a longer 'setting' for something. [was going OIlT wilh Jilek lIhen f }iI'SI !/leI Hurl'.1:

Past Simple versus Past Continuous I The Past Simple expresses past actions a$ $Imple facts. The Past

Continuous gives past activities timc and duratiOll. Compare the following pairs of sentences: "

I didn'[ see you in l/re pllb IWI nighl.

B No. f stayed (If /rome alld 1I'{t/ched Ihe jiJOlbllll, 1\ I rang you

/11.1'1 night, bllt Iherc II'as 110 reply. B Sorry. 1"'11.1' ll'atclri"K rhe filot/mll. I didn't hear Ihe phol1e. 2 The questions refer to differcnt time periods: the Past Continuous asks about activities before: the Past Simple ask about what happened after. J.Vhen Ihe II'{//' bmke uul, Peler 1m. studying lIIediclIIe a/ ullirersily. He dccidl!d thar if lI'as Slifer 10 go hOllle IiJ his purell/,\ lind postpone his swdics Whal wa,l' Peler doillJ.: 111Icn Ihe 11'<11' broke Olll? HI! Il'as sllidying. lIe weill hOllle 10 Whlll did Pelcr do when Ihe lI'{//' hmke oue his pal'c'II.\~

146

Grammar Reference

0

Now

When I gOI home, I jilllnd 1//(// someul1l' had b"okell inlO myj7al and hud stolen lin' Slereo. I didn'l lIwiI 10 go 10 lire cinema II';lh Ihe (Ill1er. hecause I'd eell lire ,film before. 2 Notice the difference between the following sentences: WlreN I gOI 10 Ihe parly. Peter weill home. (= l\fter I arrived, Peter left. I When 1 gor 10 Ihe party, Pel!!.- had {{Olle homc. (= Before I arrived, Peter left.)

Past tenses in the passive The uses are the samc in the passive as in the active. The IJridge was huill in 1870_ (Past Simple - finished action in the past) The bllmb }\IUS heillg defi/.~ed II'hen il exploded. (Past COlllinuousinterrupted past activity) The leller I \l'OS wailing for didn'l arr!l'e beclJuse il had heell sellt 10 mr IIld address. (Past Perfect - one action before another action in the past)

UNIT 4 Modal verbs (1) Introduction to modal verbs The modal verbs are cal1, could. ma)'. mig/II. mUSI. II'ill, I\'ould, shal/. should, ought. They are known a modal auxiliary verbs because they 'help' another verb, (See also Units 1.5,8,9) I CUll swim. Do you Ihink I ~'hould go?


i\'f/IS[

• Form

and should are modal verbs, See the Introduction to modal verbs,

There is no -sin the third person singular.

Po iti"e and negatil'e

Shn:an ski-

I You They

He IIIw'l be tired,

fllllighl rail/.

2 There is no doldoes in the quc'lion. Shall )1'1' go j{Jr II Imlk? Ca/l ! help yOIl?

IV/WI should I do?

must mustn't

do that!

should shouldn't

(etc.)

3 There is no dOI/'/ldoes/I'! in the negative, T 11'0/1'1 he a minll1e

He can'l dal/ce

You IIII1SllI'l sleall

4 Modal auxiliary verbs don't usually have pasl forms Other

expressions are used instead, ! had (0 11'01'!( hard al school,

Do I f/{(I'e

Could is used with a past meaning in some cases Compare the following sentences: I couTd .mim 1I'hell ! 1I'as six, (= general ability) The prisoner II'as able lollllalli/ged 10 escape by climhing OJl!O the roof of Ihe prison (NOT * 0tH~"a-J*) (= ability/performance on one occasion)

5 They have no infinitives and no -in!!, forms. Other expressions are

used instead. rd 10l'e 10 he ahle Iu ki, I hale !Iarillg to get up 01/ cold. lViJl!er mOl'llil/gs.

6 They are followed by an infinitive without

10.

1I1/1,IT

go.

f'/I help

)'011,

You ought to see a doC!ol:

Vou shollid hal'e told /ile 111lI1 .1'0/1 can'I swim, YOII lIIight hm'e d)'owllCd.'

• Use Each modal verb has at Jeast two meanings, One use of all of them is to express possibility or probability. r lIIust POSI this lel1er.' (= obligation) YOlllllust he liredl (= deduction, probability) Could you help 11Ie~ (= req lIest) We could go [0 Spain/or our holiday, (= possibility) J\1a)' Tgu h011le nOH'.~ (= permission) 'Where's Anna!' '1'lIIllVlsllre, She /1111)' be at lI'OI'k.' (= possibility) :2 Modall'erbs express our attillldes, opinions and Judgements of events, Compare the dialogucs. 'Who's ,IwI knocking on Ihe door?' 'It's John' (This is a fact.) , Who's thar knock ing

011

tlte

door~'

'ft COllldlmaylmightllllustls!IollldIClI/1'tI'II be John'

(These all express our attitude or opinion,)

Expressing obligation

• Form Posith'e and negalh'c

work hard, has to doesn't have to

Question Do

you say,

01'

can f dn \I'hat !

2 Should f hhehl'e .. ..? is possiblc. We often

1I

II'WIt:'

e Du you Ihillk , .. ?

Should lily 10 eat less? Do )'011 Ihink I should lee a dOClor.~

3 Hm'e

10

has all the forms thallllllsl doesn't have.

I fwd 10 lI'UI'k ulllilmidnightlClsl tligll/. (Past) YOII'II ha.'1' 10 sllIch' hard lI'hel/ you go 10 IIl/i,'elsit,,: (Futlll'e) She's II /IIi/liollaire, She's ne\'er had 10 do WIY H'Olk. (Present Perfect) I hale harillg to gel lip 011 cold. \I 'ill11'1' mOl'llillgs. (-illg form) ((.1'011 were a policemall.rou ••.ouldhal.eto1l.earaulI((ol.11I.

(Infinitive)

Mllsl and hal'e 10 both express strong obligation. MIISI is used to express an obligation that involves the speaker's

opinion. It is personal. f III/m get my hair ClI!. (This i me talking to JUe,) You IIIl1st do tllI.I' homework carefully. (A teacher talking to students.) Must i,; also a,;sociated with a formal. written style, Candidates IIlllslllTlre in ink alld illISIVN.!imr quesTions, (Instructions

on an exam paper.) Books ill/lSI he re/lil'lled 011 vr be/ine Ihe due da[c. (I nstructiolls in a

library,) :2 Hare 10 expres es a general obligation based on a law or rule, or based on the authority of another pcrson. 1t is more objective. I can'I play lennis lOl1lorruw, I hlllle to go 10 the dell list. (I have an appointment.) Children hal'e 10 go 10 schoo/IIII/illhey are sixleen, (A law) MUIII says you hl/l'(' f(1 tidy YOllr room be.!;lre you go OUI. (Mother's order l )

AIuSi and h(/1le 10 arc sometimes interchangeable, I IIllist be home /w midnighl. ! hal'l' to be hOllle by midnight, But, Jun'l! IV is used more often than mu,l'I, If you are unsure which to use, it is probably safer to use hal'e ro, difTerenl. Muslll'l expre,;ses negative obligation - it i very important not to do something, Don't hal'l' to expresse the ab ence of obligation - you can if you want to bllt it isn't necessary, You I1Il1stl/'l .Ileal olher people's l!lings. II's wrong. Ytm 11I11St,,'t dril'f !fyou','e !Jeen drinking l'iJll C01l1d kil/so/lleone'

have to don't have to

She

,,-IUI/

3 Be careful! The negatives !i'II/Sli/1 and don'I h{{\'e 10 are completely

!Tal'e [0, 11111,11, and shollid are used to express obligation.

He

do

are more

• Use

7 They can be u ed with perfect infinitives to talk abollt the pasl.

I You We They

10

10

The e.'l.ception is

ollgh! 10. You

ote the following points: MIIsl f .. ,: is possible, but question forms with hal'e common,

I ~ou I have to work hard? (etc,)

SOl11f people iron their socks, but )'011 don't hm'e to. I think it '.I' (/ lI'astl! of lime. Whcn )'011 go illtn a shop, )'011 don't !lm'e to Imy sO/llething. }'Oll CiJn jllsl look.

4 Have got 10 is also common in British English but it is more informal than hal'e 10. 1"'1' got to go nOli'. See you' f)on'l go 10 !Jed /me. We're got to gel lip earl.!' lO/l1urru1l', 'Go Cllld 'i(~)' row' 1'00111.'

'II(II'e I got to:"

'Yes, you Iwve,l'

Grammar Reference

147


5 S!Iould and vughl IV express mild obligmion, or advice. They both express what. in the speaker'.. opinion. is the right or best thing to do. You'r!! always IIsking me/or lIIolley, II!Iillk .1"011 should ,\'pelld less. }')lI ougflt to be /1101'1' c{/J"!!jiil \I'ill1 your 1110111:)'. I kilo II' I sllUuldn't keep buyillg yOIl presenls, bUlijust love .1'OU-' )'ou shouldn't sit so close lu the lelevisioll' It's bodjor YOllr eves.

3 Shall ... ? is lIsed ilfqucstions with the Jirs1 pcrson, I and lI'e. h exprcs es an offer, a suggestion, or a requcst lor advice, 'Shalf I cany .1'0111' bagjor you?' '7'ha(s vcr\, killd. TlliIllkyou.' 'Shallll'e go Oil! for 1/ meollol/~!Jht:" 'Mmlll. I'd lore 10,' .Wh/II shall II'£, do,? We harel/'! gOI UII)' mOl/ey.' . We could ask Dad.' We use should to make an informal suggestion, Whar should lI'e have for dillller? What should \I'e do IOnighl?

Expressing permission Call. lIIay. and be alfOll'ed 10 are lIsed to express permission. Call i more informal and usually spoken. You CIIIl bU/TOlv III.\' bike, but you can't hare l!Ie CUI: [need il. ,I'da)' \I'e s/lloke in !Iere.~ You ('(/II't cOllie ill here wilh Ihose /I1uddy shon'! ),ou're allowed to gellllill'l'ied \lhen you're six/eell. Are 11'1' allowed to use a diCliOllar.l' for Ihis le:;l?

Making requests I. There are many ways of making requests in English, Can Could Will Would

you

help me, please? pass the salt, please)

Would you mind helping me, please? Can Could

I

speak to you, please? ask you a question?

Do you mind if I open the window? Would you mind if I opened the window?

Call. cuuld, wil!, and 1I'0uid are all modal verbs. For an introduction to modal verbs. see page 146. 2. Could is (a litile) more formal: call is (a lillIe) more familiar. Could J .. .,? and Could yo II ....? are very useful bccallse they can bc used in many different situations. -' Here arc some ways of responding to requests: A Excuse me! Could you help me? B Sure. O/course. Well. 1'11I afraid rm a bit busy ill Ihe momenr. A Would )'OU lIIind if j opelled Ihe lI'indo\\'? B No. nOi al all. iVO. Ihol 's jille. Well, 1'11I rather/a lillie chilly, aClllally.

Making offers Will and shall al'e lIsed to exprcss offers. They are both modal verbs. For an introduction to modal verbs, see page 146. 2 The cOlltractcd form of 'rill is used to express an intention, decision or otTer made at the moment of speaking. Come Mer ojler llwk. I'lf make a melli/or you. 'lt's JOlle's birlhdm' 1()(la)'.' 'Is il" I'll bu)' IIt'r sOll1ejIOl,'ers, ' Gire him your lIilcase. He'll carry il for you. DOII'I lI'orry oholl! Ihe bus, l)Ol'e'll giv!! you a liji. Gil'£' il back or Ire'lf calilhe Police.' In many languages. this idea is often expressed by a present tense. but in English this is wrong. NOT * gi-ve yolo! my niol-FIl9al' NOT *1 earry yOIo!F sui lease Othcr lIses of \rill arc dealt with in Unit 5. I

148

Grammar Reference

UNIT 5 Future forms There i no future tense in English as there is in tn,lIly European languages. However, English has several forms that can refer to the future. Three of these arc \I'il!, goillg 10. and the Present Continuous I'I! see yOIl larel: We're goillg to see (I jilm IOlliglll. Do .1'011 \1W1! I(J come? 1'1/1 seeing til/' doclur IOmol'/'O\I' /'l·/'liing. Thc difference betwecn them is 1101 about near or distant future, or about certainty. Thc speaker chooses a future form depcnding on whcn the decision was taken, and how the pcaker ~ees the future event. There is more about this in Usc below.

• Form Positi,'c and negative I

'II won't

He They

help you. watch the football tonight.

I'm/I'm not She's/S he isn't We're/We aren't

going to

I'm/I'm not He'slHe isn't You're!You aren't

catching the 10.00 train,

Question What time

will you are you going to

arrive?

are you meeting the manager?

Note that we avoid saying goillg rVe're COlllilig tomOl'ro\l'. Whell are you going hallie?

10

come or goillK

10

go.

• Use Prediction (lI'il! and going to)

will The most common use of Il'ill is as ,in auxiliary verb to show futurc time. It expres'cs a fUlllre fact or prediction. ft is called the pure future. or the Future Simple. We'ff he mrayjor 111'0 ll'l'eks, Those j!oll'ers won't groll' IIlIder IIII' tree. II's 100 dark. Our 10l'e will/aS! }orel'e/: You'll he sick ijYOIl eat all/hose Slreels l Wil! for a prediction can be ba 'ed more on an opinion than a facl. Ilhilik Laura will do rei:,. lI'el! il/ !tCI' C.HI/IIS. She II'0rks hard. 111/11 com'il/ced "UII illjlation wiff fall (() 3 per cem lIex/ yem:


going 10 Going to c~n also express a prediction, especially when it is based on a preselll fact. There is evidence now that something is certain t happen. She's Koing to Iw\'e a hah}: (We can see she's pregnanl.) Lil'erpool (Ire going to will Ihe lI1(tfch (It's four nil. and thcrc's only five minutes left.) II iSlI't goillg 10 ra!" loda,r (Look at that lovely blue 'ky.)

Sometimes there is no ditference between 1I'i/! and going

, I will ruill ThiS f{(Jremlllenl... ,

IS

gowg to

1'11111

10.

Ilhe country wilh ils slupid " , ecOl/omlC poliCies,

2 Occisions and inteniions (will and goi/l.~ to)

Will is also llsed as a modal auxiliary \'erb to express a decision, intention or otTer made al the moment of speaking. We saw this lise in Unit 4, (See page 148) I'll hm'e Ihe sleak, please. I'll see you 1011/01'1'0"'. Bre.' Give /Ill' a ring sOllie lill/I'. We'l! gu 0111 fill' II drink 'k./f Ihere'.l somCOlle allhc duor!' 'OK. I'll get il.'

Remember thai you can't use the present tense for this lise, NOT *1 Ii",e lite ste,tk,

+[ see YClU tomorrow:

Going lu is used to express a future plan, dcci'ion or intention, made he.fhrl' the momeIll of speaking. !""hcli I groll' lip, I'm going to he a doctor: Jalle and Percr urI' going to get married lifter Ihey've gradliciled. H-t> 're going to paint Ihi room bille, 3 Arrangements (Present Conliuuou )

The Present Continuous can be used 10 express a future arrangement between people. It usually refcrs to the near fUtllre, We're going olll "'ilh j('remr lonigill, I'm hm'ing Illy hair Clil 101J1O/TOl\". J路VIIlII are ,,'e having for IUllcM Think of the things you might put in your diary 10 remind you of what,ou are doing over the next few days and weeks, These are the kinds uf events that are often expressed by the Present Continllous for Ihe fllture. The verbs expres somc kind of activit)' or movemcnt. I'm meetillg Perer 10llighl, 'I'he roylol'S lII'e coming/cH' dilil/el: /'m seeing Ihl' docwr ill thl! lIIomillg We'l'e going 10 a pari)' 011 SlIIurday IIIghl, Wc're catching tile 10,00 Imin. Remember, that you can't use Ihe present tense for this use. OT*-1-meCl Petel toniglit. * I see Ihe dtlel01 in llie mOrnit1g, *~e-yotl do thi:; e\'eAiAg'? Sometimes there is no difference between an agreed arrangemenl (Present COll1.inuous) and an intelltion (goillg 10). We're goil/g to get I/I{//'I'INI III Ihe spring We','e getting

UNIT 6 like I Bc careful not to confuse Iikc as a verb and like as a preposition, Like as a verb has a person as subject: I like 1II0dem arl. I don'l like Ihe Imp he looks allIIl'. Do you like ji'sh? Would you like ([ drillk:'

Like as a prcposition has an object after it: Shl! 's lI'earing ([ har like mille, Hc' Ilolhing like hisflllill'/: '!!WI sounds like rhe posllllan. You're behaving like childrel/, Thi, nell' gir(fril'nd 0/ his - II'hcl/ '.I shc Iikc~

2 lVlwI's Londol/like? is a vcry general question. [l means 'Describe London to me because [ don't know anything abollt it'. or 'What are your impressions of London compared to other cities0'. The answer can be a descl'iption or a comparison. It's quire bi/{, and it's ,'cr)' illleresling. t = description) It's like Nell' York. bill \riillll/.l1 Ihe IiIII buildings. (=- compariwn) Ue careflll not to confuse a description and a comparison, Wlul/ '.I Peler like.? (asks for a description) Hc's IiIII alld guod-louking. lOT *He's like tall .... 3 What ... like? asks about the permanent nal\Jre of people and things, What's your II/olhe,-/ike? Wlwt's Ihe health Sl'SleIlI like ill ,rour COli/lilT,? 4 Hmr" ,? is used to ask about the present condition of sOJOlelhing that can change. How's ,rork rhes!! &IJ路S." Hol\' IHiS yOllrjollmey? 11011' 'HiS Ihe lraffle Ihis 1I10rt1ing.~

To ask about the weather, we can use both questions, What's rhe \\Icalher /ike HoJ\' ',\' the \I'calher \I'here yOIl are?

5 HoII' __ .1 is also used to ask about people's health and happiness, Compare Ihe folJowing. HOll",I' Peter? He'sj)lIe. WIUll'S Peter like'! Hc's a lIice guy, Quiet bllljill1ny. Hl"s quill' taIi, ha dark hail'

6 lIn\l' ... '! is also used to ask about people's reactions and feelings, I-loll' Ira.l路 Ihe part,r? lIoJ\' ',\ YOllr lIIe(/l.~ Holl' '.I )'our nell' job:' Sometimes we can usc ~Vhar . __ like? or HoII' ....? but they aren't the same, Whal ... like? asks for an objective description. HalL' ... ! asks for personal feelings. HUH"s Ihe f!al'll'.~ It's greal! What's Ihe parI)' like,? It's "elY /10iSl; bill rherc',1 loIs IIJ eal III1iI drink,

Verb + -ing or infinitive? See Appendix 2 on page 15R for a list of verb patterns,

Relative clauses I Relativc clauses are used to lelilis which person or thing we are talking about. It makes it possible to give more information abolll the pcrson or thing being spoken about. 'The boy has gone into hospital.' (Wllich boy?) 'The hoy II,hn liI'l's flext rIoor has gOlle 11110 IlOspiwl,' 'The book is ver. good,' (Which book'?) 'Thc book thllt I hUl/glrt yesterday is \'er)' good.' 'This is a photo of lhe hotcL' tWhieh hotel?) 'This is {J pholo oj lhl' hOle/where we stayet!. '

Grammar Reference

149


2 Wt::, use ,rho lO refer to people (and we can also use thm). We use Ihat to refer !O thing, (and we can also use Il'hich). Ti,e book is abollt a girl ",ho/that IlIm'l"ies (I lIIilliollaire. W/wl lVII.\· Ihe llimle o/Ihe horse thllt/which 1l'Ot1 the race.'

3 When

or 'hal is the object of a relative clause. it can be left out. The person yOIl need to talk to is 011 holida)'. Thi is Ihe hest lI'ilie I've /?I'/?r lasted. The hook 1 boughl yewerday is ,'ely good. /farc )'oujiJIIlld Ihe keys youlosl.? 11,'110

flut when II'ho or Ifral i" the subject of a relative dau c, it must be used. I like people ",ho are killd alld considerate. 11I'(lJI[ (I cal' thaI i.~ cheap to 1'1/11. 4 Wfrich can be used to refer to the whole previous sentence or idea. I passed Illy dril'illg test /irst tillle, ",!lich surprised e\'eryoIIl'. Jalle can't cOllie to Ihe party. which is a shame,

5 We u e 11'110.1'1' to refer !O someone' possessions, Th(/( \ [he 1I'0l11al1 ",huse SUIl "'011 the lottery.

UNIT 7 Present Perfect The same form (hm'c + past participle) exists in many European language,s, but the uses in English are difTerent. In English the Present Perfect is essentially a prcsent tense but it also expresses the enect of paSl actions and activities on the present.

PRESENT

Present Perfect means 'before now'. The Present Perfect does not express Il'hell an action happened. If we say the exact time, we have to use the Past Simple. 1/1111)' life I hm'e Iml'elled to al! jil'e COII[/lIeIllS. ltl'Uvelled rOllnd Afrita ill 1988.

• Form Positive lind

n~gllti,'e

I

We You They

've

haven't lived in Rome.

He's She hasn't Quesrion How long have we ______-t-_"-y_o_u-i How long has

known Peter?

she he

The Present Perfect has three main llses. It expresses an action which began in the pa"t and slill continue. We'l'e lh'ed ill the same hOllse for Ilt'el1ly:/lle years. PCler~1 worked as a [cacheI' sillce 1991. Holt' IOllg hm'e you known each other~ The)'''''e bcen I/larried/or IIl'elll)' rears. Many languages express thi, idea with a present tense: 'Peter is a teacher: Peter is a teacher for ten years'. but in English the second sentence is wrong. Peter is a teaeher fer ten years, )( Peter has beellll leacherfor [1'/1 .l'I!ars. Vi ote the time expressions that are common with thi, use. We use/or with a period of time. and 'illce with a point in time.

for

6 We call usc IrherC' to refer to places. The hOlel ",here "'e stayed lI'as riglz[ Oil [he beach. W" Il'elll back 1o Ihe place "'here "'e first met.

PAST

• Use

two years

1970

a month

the end of the lesson August

a few minutes half an hour ages

since

8.00

Christmas

2 It expresses an experience that happened at some time in one's life. The aetion i, in ihe pa,t and finished. but the efTects of the action are still felt. When lhe action happened i, not important. I')'e been to Ihe ,<·;tales. (I still remember.) She's writlen poe[,~l'. children's stories. alld biographies. (In her writing career) HII>'/, .1'011 e\'er had an operalion? (At any time in your life up to now) HUll' lIlany tillles has he be/?n married? (In hi life) Note the adverb that arc common with lhis use. Have )'ou 1'\'1"1' beel! to AIISlraJia.~ 1'1'1' lll'l'l'I' [ried hlllljee jlllllpillg. f hal'l'n'l tried ake befol'e. II's vel')' nice. Note that questions and an~'wers about definite limes are expressed in the Past Simplc. When did you go [V Ihe Slales? Was her poelry pl/hlished lI'hile she \\'as alive:' I broke Ill)' leg vnce. hili I didn'l hare 10 SIll)' in hospital. He met his semnd 11'(1'1' ill Ihe dl'y cleallcr's. 3 It expresses a past action thal has a present result. The action is llsually in the reeen t past. T'1'l' lost 11I.1' wallet. (I haven't got it now.) Tile ((IX/ hasn't al'l'iI'('{l. (We're still waiting for il.) Whal !1m'/? you done [0.1'0111' lip? (It's bleeding.) Pe[er has shaved hi heard oj/' (He looks dilTerenL) We often announce ncws in the Present Perfecl. because the speaker is emphasizing the cvellt as a present fael. Hal'e FOil herll'll? The Prime ,1linisler has resigned. Susall' Iwd her bahyt I'I'/? I'/Iined Ihe meal. II'" bUrl/I. Note the adverbs that are common with this use. IfraVl'II'1 dOlle Illy hOll/c\\'ork yet. (Negative) fla Ihe posllllan beell yet? (Question) I' 1'1' a"'ear~r drllle 1I1.l' hOlllework. 1"'1' jusl seen orne scissor, ..II/o\\' ,..here did I pili Ihell/.~ Again. details about definite time will be in the Past Simple. She I'esi:~/Ied hecause she los[ a role of no confidencc. She had a bab)' bo)' this II/ol'lling " was a difficliit hirrh. I didll'l w{(fch i1 carejill/)' enough.

Final notes Be careful with beell and gUile. He's been to All/erica, (= experience - he isn't there now.) She's gone tu AII/erica. (= present result- he's there now.)

150

Grammar Reference


2 Compare the rollowing sentences. a j'l'e lired ill ParisjiJI' six .1 'cars, (I still live there,) I li"ed ill Pari for six rears. ( '01'.' 1 live somewhere clse.) b Shakesp('(lre ",..ate Ihir/y plays (He can'l write any more.) I'l'e writtell several hooh. (I can still write some more.) c Have you seen RiJl)' this momillg,? (It's slillmorning,) Didl'Oli see Bill!' Il1i.l' mOl"llillg,~ (It's the arternoon or evening.) 3 Compare the rollowing right and wrong sentences.

RIGHT

\VRONG

a When did you go to Greece? b I saw him yesterday. c I've studied English for three years. d Where did you buy your jumper? e I haven't brought my dictionary to class.

*~tl ttl

*-l--have seeR

Greece)

hi~·.

*+sttltly-Eflglisl1 fer tRree ,ears, *·Where have you aeught-v&tIf~ef?

*-J--4iGn't ariA!! my ElietioAary to£lass-.

Past Simple refers to detinite time by looking at the timc expressions used with the different len es.

I've done it

for a long time. since July. before. recently.

Past Simple - definite

I did

I've already done it. I haven't done it yet.

it

Verb + particle

4-

object (separable)

a I put IIp Ihe piC/IIre. b 1 Pllt lip 111)' siSlel'jiJr Ihe night. In a. lhe verb and panicle arc used literally. In b. they are used idiomatically. To pili up means to give someone food and a place 10 sleep usually for the night or a few day. Type 2 multi-word verbs are separable, The object (noun or pronoun) can come between the verb and the panicle. f Pllt IIp the piclUl'e. r Pllt lip my Sisfe/: f Pllt IIle piclIIl'c lip, r put 111)' siSler lip, But if the object is a pronoun. it a/lmr.\ comes between the verb and the particle. f pili it lip. NOT • ~-i . r pilI hel' lip, NOT * 1 put up her. Examples with a literal meaning: The wailer took {JlI'£IJ' Ih(' plales.

4 We can see how the Present Perrecl rerers to indetinite time and the

Prescnt Perfect - indefinite

Type 2

yesterday. last week, two days ago. at eight o'clock. in 1987, when I was young. for a long time,

5 American English is different rrom British English. In English. lhe rollowing sentences are correct. Did .1'011 hcar Ihe n£'II's? The PresidclI/ resiglled' Did )'011 do .1'0111' hOl!lcll'Ork Vel? YOllrfcllherjusl CCll!ed you, I already fwd breakj{tsI.

AIll~rican

DO/l'1 1111'01\' ill/ll'/lY·

7I,eF're puflillg Ihlll oM huildinK dOWlI, Examples with an idiomatic meaning: f Pllt ojl fhe meeting. (= postponc) She told her hoy I'iend ofJfor beillg lale, ('= be angry with) Don'l let me dOll'lI. (= disappoint)

Type 3 Verb + particle + object (inseparable) a She callie across Ihe /'oorn b She Cllllle across WI ok/Fiend while she

Im,I'

aU! shopping.

In a. the verb and particic are used literally. In b. they are u ed idiomatically. To come ocross means to find by accident. Type,:1 multi-word verbs are inseparable. The object I nO\ln or pronoun) alwa)'s comes after the particle. NOT "£ke came all old fl'iencl aefElSs. or *SI,e earne her aeross. Examples with a literal meaning:

I'm lookillg jiJI' Jane.

Multi-word verbs Tllere are four types of multi-word verbs.

Type 1 Verb + particle (no object) u b

He pilI on his cOo/ and went Ollt, f didll'l pilI enollgh 1I'00d 011 Ihefire and il weill out.

[n a. the verb and particle are used literally. In b, they are used idiomatically To go oul means to stop burning, Example. \vilh literal meaning: Sit dOJl'II. She .\tood lip alld ",alked Ollt. Plcase go aWlIy. She wlliked righl paS! Ihe shop IvilllOlI! /loUtilig ii, Examples with idiomatic meaning: Thc meal ha.l golie off (= go bad) The marriage didn'l ",ark out, (= succeed) Our plW1S fell throlll:II. (= fail)

Thl'.!' "{/II aCN!.I'~' Ihe park We d"ol'<' past Ihel11. Examples with an idiomatic meaning: yOIi. (= care fin) She lake' after herjil/he/: (= resemble) He lIel'er got Ql'e/' Ihe tlealh of his H'iF, (= recover from)

nl look after il for

Type 4

Verb + particle + particle

r get all

Fe,)' II'el/ ",ilh mJ hoss, 1'11/ lookillf( fOI'II'III'd to il. HOlr call rOll pllt lip with fhallloise?

Type 4 multi-word verbs are nearly always idiomatic. The object cannot change position. It cannot come before lhe partiCles, or between Ihe particles, 'OT

*-HlHe~)kiAg fOF'<Vllrd

ii--ffio

Grammar Reference

151


Second conditional

UNIT 8

• Form

Conditionals Thl:J'C

arc

If + Past Simple + would

IlllHlJl Jin'ncnlway" of making SCll1cnces wjth if It is

important to understand the differenoX betWeen sentences lhal exprc,lS /'('((/ possibilitIes. and thost' that express wlreal SitlUllions. Real possibilities

If il rain.f. '1"(''1/ ftay m hOIllt'. (if+ Present Simple + 'rifll II \'Ol/',,/, fi/lishl'd your "'ark. yml CI//I go hOllle (if -+ Present Perfect + Illod,ll ,luxihary \erb) 1(\,ulI',,(' feelin): ill. go huml.' (lml gn ill/I) hrd (if + Present C(>ntinuous + imperatil'e) Unreal situations rOtJ "'ould IIIIII..,.~/(/nd me bt:1/(r if yuu CUIIII' from Illy crmlll!')' (,"'Quid + if -+ Past Simple) If 111'<'1'(" rich. {"'Ql/frllI', JI(/l't' (Illy problt'l>ls. (if -+ In'T!' -+ ll'(w/d) If I stoPPf'J J'J/wkiltg. I could I'lm josfI'r. (if + Past Simple + mod:!! ll\niliary serb) There an:- liC\eTal p..1lterns which you need 10 kllOl\ 10 undaslanu thc \'fLrlations. NOI( lhal a comma is usual whcn Ihe if clau:.e come~ firs\.

Positi..t lj I ",'Oil 50111(' 1II01Il'.1: It! go round lhc Ilwli/, MI' fa/her ...orl/d /;,i/l /Ill' if he could .\c.. 111/' 11011. Nl'gath'e I'd gll'l' 111' m)'job if I did,,', (ike il /f I ,WI'" 1/ K!rOJI. f "'OIlld,,', IlIlk /(11/

Question IV/WI would yOIl do

If yOIlIl('<'dt',1 help.

Note thalllI!J can change to If I

lhe condition clause.

rtlel

• Use We usc lhe Second CondilionallO express 'Ill ulln'al siluauon and its probabk result. The Sllu<ltinn or condition is improbablt:. impossible, imaginal)', or COnimry 10 known rael$. If 1ll'1'1(' Ihl' {'rnil/em of lUI' coulI/ry, I'd 1Ir1'rfase {'lXlllioll. (But it's 1101 very likely Ihal [ will t:\t:r bl' the presidenl.j ~f Illy IIIOlher \\'as sliflllliw.', shei/ he I'er)' prO/ill (But she's de~d,J If Ted IIl.'rdt'd (iliy mOll('Y, I'd /I'I/({ if /(J him. (BUI he doesn't need iLl

If + Present Simple + will

2 Olher modall'crbs arc poSSible in the result clause_

I) I filld yallr

11'(ll!fl,

1'1I1t'1 YO/I klloll'

JI,,'f/ (01111' (11111 St'/? YVIII,)I1 Sunda)'

I cOllld buy JOllie lIel\' dOilies if I had some 1/101/1'.\: If I sarcd /I lilllt, e'WI' "'uk, I mixlll be IIb/1' 10 ~'are lip for a car. If yUIi mmfed fhat jl)h, you'd Im,'1' 10 apply I'en SOUl!

if Ihl' lfearh('f:~ goml

.' \rgatil'e )'01/ "'0/1" ptIJS I/Il' l'xams If .1'01/ do,,'1 r/,"iu I{mllius/' I"O/lr lickel, yOIl "'011'1 be ahle 10 go

3

Questio" It '//(I/ will YOIl do t} yOIl d01l'1 find II job." ff {hUt, hl/" tI hOle/. ",here ...iII.l'OlI !iluy,'

if IIIWf YOI/.

First or Second Conditional?

if dause.

'l~u-willl<!'Lwe Re". you'll catch the lrain. 'IF-HI g6 6l1116nighL I'll gi\'e you a rmg

If call be replaced by tm/t,....v (= if ... not) or i/1 possibilily, .. J. l,'"less I h"lIr from )'1111, !'II arrll'l! III 8o·dock. rlf IlIk" my ulllhrt'ilil ill Clm' ;/ m;lIs-

((lSI'

(= because of Ihe

• Use Fir~1 Conditional s.clllences express a possibh: l'(muillon and I\S probable resuh III lhe fUlUre.

1/ I (rill/II Jumper Ihar mils YUII.

Rl'Sult (Rc-~llIt clause) 1'1/ huy iI/or rO/i

I) you rlill do Ihc homl',,·ork.

gin! 1/1('

1/ rOil ('(III pili/lin' pune,

Imighl hlly )'OU all ice-cream.

If you '\'1' IIl'IW bl'C't 10 Wale.l",

\'(1/1

Condilion (ifclaust")

If I "'en' I"<m, I"I{ ••. IS used 10 give advice. If I "'fn' )'0/1, I'd ap%gi;t' 10 her I'd IlIk(' il ('my for (I n'hile

Note Ihal we do nOI usually uS<' will in the

NOT

II'I'rI'11I

LLJ wouldn't have 10 work,

J were rich,

ifiiel

First Conditional , Form Posilil'e

if Y(lU )'11'" SIIII/I'OI/(' ~"opliflillg? who "'(l1I1d )'1/11 11,lok?

1/

Both conditIOnals refer In the pre:;enl and future, The difference is aboUl probability, not time. II i~ lL~u;lll) dear which eondilionallO use. FITSt Condilional senlenc<:s are rcal and poSSible: Second Conditional sentences express situations IhM will probably nC\'er happen, I} 1/051' Illy job, rli ... (J\'\y company is dOing badl~'. There is a slrollg possibilil~ of being made redundant.) If I 10sImyjob, I'd ... (Redundancy prob..1bly I\On'l hap~n. l'm jusl speculaling.) If Illert' is IIlIlIcle(lr U"flr, ne'l/lIl/ ... (Said b~ a pessimist.) If {llerc lLu.~omlclear war, ... (But I don't think it will happen.)

Zero Conditional Zero Conditional sentences refer to 'lIll lime', not jmllhe presenl or fUlllre, They express ,I situalion Ihat IS always Irue, II me,UI~ ",I,ell or ,,'helll'l'('I",

Ij yUIi spl'lId I)r", £2IJ

d/

thm supermarket,l'OU J!('I a 5'}(. disUWIII

rillg.

should Iry 10 gellhere mil! 1/(/':

:! We can use the Firsl ConditiollallO e'l.press diffcrenl functions (all of \\hich express.1 possible l,mditinn and a probable result.) If you do Ihal again. I'll kill rou.' (= a Ihreat) Care}lIl.' If .rOIl /{meh Ih(/(, rUI/'1I bum ,rollrwl(l (= a Wafrllllg) I'll po.rllhe ,,,fter if you/ike, (= an otTer) If yOIl/Clld me {/OO, 1"1I10I'e )'O/Ifi-Jr('\·Cr. (= a promise)

lime clauses COll;unClions or time (I,'hell. as SOr/1l (/.1, befurI(, III/Ii!, IIfla) <Ire not usuall~ rollowed hy will. We usc a prcserH tense even though the time reference is fUlure, I'll plrulle yOIl ...hc" I gt'l hOl1le rI'(((~I', I'll gil'1' yall (l cllfl. Call 11/(/1"(' a ,,'ortl ".//h pm hejort' I ,~o:' Wail /liltill rome blick,

As soon u) dilll/I'r is

\Ve can LIse Ihe Present Perfe<:1 if il is imporlanllO slm\1 thallhe aelion in the time c1ausc LS tinished. WhclI rn' n'lId the

boot

nl/I'nd il

/1/

.mll,

I'll go hom.. lljte!' f ','t' <lOIle {I,I' shoppill1? 152

Grammar Reference


would

Asking about possibilities

NOlicr thc U';l' of \l'ould in the following s~ntenccs: Shc'd look hella \I'itll SIUlTIf'T hlllT (= II' she CUI her hair. sht·u look bwer. )

Qucstion tonus with the above mod:!l vcrbs ,Ire unusllal. We usually u>c

Il'oultllu express preference

I'd Im'(' II ('lip of cuJfCf' WIreri' wou(d I~m Iikf' 1/1 I'd mltrer h(ll'(' cojA','. pll'iHe I'd mlheT 11011('11 )'nll, iJ Ihll(s (/1/ T('{ht. Whlll "'OId,( you r(l/h('l' iI,!. lWI ill or go ml/.'

.,ie

~

Do rail ill/Ilk

'Do YOIi/Mllk I'IU,'II/Wrril,(l!' 'She nml fl,',' 'WII"Te do .1'011 IMllk Itl'''' (mlll?- 'lit' l1Ii~1t1 h.' Frellch He'.- reT)" lumdJ'IJlJI<' ' .Do yOIl thillk llin' "I' (/rri,..'11 yee' . Thn' mil.\' IIm'f. Or 111<'.1' migll I 110\'1' gO! sllIck illihe tr(lffk'

So do I! Neither do I! NOllce hll\\' \lC r..:p.:;l11h..: illixiliar~ I~rh~ \'hcn ,'c ilgr~c or UI\,Htre..: Il) u~ing So,., ,8"illl<'r . . f. If th~'n: is no au~ili<tr\'. \lS~ (/o!dol',ldlli. lk cardul I'ith semencc ~trc~,,-

"'ou'" to e'\press a l"i'qu<':S1 II'vuldYQII opell lire door {or me~ WOllld 1'011 mind IClldillg lilt' (I hUlIll'

'\GRH1'\lG

UNIT 9 Modal verbs (2) must, could, might, can't T1u:rc ISHn inlrOOUl·tion to mO<.lal auxiliary Inbs on page

I~(I.

Mod,ll \erbs (an c.'<:prt·ss ability. oblig;ltlon, pcrmi~~ion. and rt'qu<'S1. Thc) (,m also e,<:press the idea of probabilltY, or how certain a situation I';' Expressing possibility/probability

!

We lIse III/1St and can', to e.\prcs) Ille logical condusion of a situation: I/I11SI = logically probable: ('(11I'1 = lo£ic<tlly improbable. \V~ dOll't hal'c ,111 the fact~. W lI'e arc not absolutely sure. but 1'1' arc prt:lly crrl:lin. He·~·

,·eryfll.

11I<)1I~1t hi' mll~·t hc 11/

SII:ie Can'I/IIlI'I'

(I

t like ice-cream

•Sodo I.

I don'! like Mary,

I (Ion'( like work.lllg.

Neither do I.

I like blue cheese,

•I (Ion't,

I can SWIm.

So can I,

I can speak Polish,

I can't

I can't dllve,

Neither can I.

I saw Pat yesterday,

I didn't.

I'm wearing Jeans.

So am I.

We're going now.

We aren't.

I went out

Sodid 1.

I havel"! been Skiing,

I have.

I haven't been

Nellher have I

I'm going to have a coHee.

I'm no\.

to Paris.

Ifll-\'('(lr-llld d(l/IghteT! SIW·.I' lillh' {1l('III!"-lir/' nH.'r~· <tIl:

b IIlt'n' 110 I'Cp~\,1 They "'U~I b(' ill bl'(1. Thn (!I IIIgl/l. A ~,,(tlk ill Ihif Il"('(uhl".r J'111111111~1 he jQkill;:'

('{//l',

hI' 0111 (1/ Ihir lime

)011 klloll" wl,',e I!0illl! 0111 IIllligll(' II"U. l/1/i;:/1/ IWI hI' uMI' 10 lII(lkl'

~all1e

ide;!$.

'I do. 100.' I ',Ill' WYO'

'I

dOl/'I,

ci,hrr.' I ',II.. IllMlI'r,'

UNIT10 Present Perfect Continuous idea~

Relllcllllxr the

iI, I might hm'I' 10 ""'Irk 1(1/(',

e.'<:prl:sseu by all

~'ontinuous

forllll>.

Aeti\'it~

Wc use ,,·illl0 cxprc~s I,hat Ill: beliel'e 10 be true about the prescnl, We arc gucssing based on "hm lIe kilOw llbout people and thing:>. their routines. d.naclcr, and quall\ies, 'There 'I II A11(>("1; 011 Ihe door. ' 'Thill '/I be 111,' (,,><lmllJl. He (lIor(/l \ calls

in progrt'SS Bf qlllfl.' 1'11I Ihh,ki"x,

I

"·U.f

II/willg

(I

built

\\/1('1/

IIII' phollf' /"Illig.

1','" he"11 worki,l!: Jill{'c nille (/ -r/ork IlIi.' 2

l!liI IJIIl/'.·

II!IJ!"IIill~.

Tt'mpurar~ aelhit~'

c',.·

nuyillg ",ilh .frirmb III/Iii II.' fi!ld 11111' Olm plan' Ili''''c he,," H"j"K \l'ilh IlIflll for ,~i.\' II"Cl'k.I'

II

Illfinitiws 3

Notice thc dllrerent infinitil'Cl>.

I'crrl.'<"t infinili,'e 10 e.\pl"l'S..< dcgrees of pr,lb"biht) dnm~

Shc <,un'l han' X'" II/Im., .1'1'1.

If I' miKhllru,·~ }:OI '",' FlI<,y could ha,'~ mOI'ell 11I1II,<f.

I'ussibl~'

iUCQrnplCfe

1'11I IlTitinK

Continuous infinitiH~ )/1/1 mu<1 he jO!d1lK.' !'nt'r 11111.1'1 bl' Il'orkillg /me. SII/, fouM hUI'(' hl'<'I1 Iyin;: w pm He JIIu<t hlll'l' hun

lICI<.'ml W<lys of expre~~ing the

'f Iik.. i,,'-Ir.'(III/'

'I dltll', "~e "lll'kmg.'

:! We usc IllU)'lmight and colIMIO express possibilit) in the presenl or future, '\/al'lMlgllI + 'WI is thc T1egatll'C. Oll/l1Mlls rare in this usc, nlk" .1'0/11' 1IIIII>,1'1/U. /1 mil-[hl ruin/a//'r f)UI'(' (l1If1 B('lh flrm'l aI/wnw. T/I('r /'ould h.' iI' til(' Jlllb, f ~Uf'f1O<1' lie lIIay gu U, (,'1'<'/'1'., jor our holidar!>. IIi:' 1"1\"('11" d('ddrd .1l'I_

(If

•I do.

lelm six I)"

',..rsdF

)

D1SACRHI."\C

W/w\

{I

IQ

hi','

actilit~

T('I/I)rl. I ful\'(' lo(ii/i,1I 1/ hy II}l/WTTUIl'.

/not!/1 ~uling

my .wmd'riik"

• Form In

the p:!Sl

Positile and

negllti,,~

I

W.

y,"

'" haven't

They

H, Sh,

"

been working, "

hasn',

Grammar Reference

153


Time expressions How long

~ ""

Ilere are some timt" t"xpressions often found '\llh c"rwin l(lheS,

Past Simple

been working?

f !il'rt! IJJ Rrmlt' for "ix yl'ars 1.'1/1, Jack 111"0 t"lys ugu. Th,,\, IIII'I Juring Ihe waf. She gO! married ,,'hi/e she "'II) ulllllil'(;'l'siry,

h"

• Use The Present Perfen Contil1l10US expresscs an activily \\ hich beg;Ul in the past and b ~lill continuing now, 1',"(' bl!Clr feurning English lor IhrCl' )Wlrs, If (III' !Illig 1m r't' ,roll bun I<'orkillg hert''>

There IS SQ1l1CllmeS no dinerencc between the Simple and Ihe Contllluou5. {"'I' played III<' pi/l/ltJ siner IlI'{/s 1/ My 1'1'" hUll I',,/yin;: If the Continuous is possible. Ellghsh

h:l~

a preference for uSing It

The Cunlil1u()u~ can ~(lI1lCllll1CS c~press a temporary acti\'il)'. and Ihe Simple a permanenl Slale, /'1'£' hun lil'illg 1/1 rhi$ (1m/v, Ihe pa,' fell //loll/lis. (= temporary) J'n'!i"f'd here aI/lily life, (= pcrrnnncnt) Remember lhln {'n'

~latc I'crb~

rarely take Ihe COllllllUOlb (See page 1-14).

hud 11m hlHlk jor IIges,

{"'f' II/UVl.fS

f(!l'fJ sww r ,lays.

:2 The Present Perfect Conlinuous e.\p'T'SCS a past actl\ll} \\llIch has eau$cd a present result. I'"" han "'ol'ki"X tiff dm; (I" m tirt'u now.) /lrm? yOIl h"ell ('rrinK? (Your eyes are red,) Roger :., h....n ('ulli"X IIII' Krwl. (I can smell it.)

The past ,lctivlly mighl be finished or it might not. The context u,ually mdkes this clear, !JJok ol/Hide Ilw II'iml'lI1! 11'$ hun ~'nowing! (It ha, stopped snowlIlg now.) I'rt' het'n ,,'ritin): 1111) buok .for Ill'i' J"t'llrs. (11 still isn't filllshcd.) I'm co\"ered in paml beCl/lIsl' 1',·1' b""n dccoTating ,he oolhrOlJI!I. /11 might be finished or it might not. Wt'don"t!:no\\.)

Present Perfect Simple or Continuous? 1 The SI111plc cxpresses:! wmpleted aclion, /,,'" pl/ill",d Ihe kil..hell. (llIIllIml" I'm doing illI' hml/r(wlII The C011tInUOU, expresses an aClivity over a period, and things that happencd during the aeti\it). 1'1'/' XOI paint i/l my hair because /'0'" be"I/ dt't'ora/iI,x. 2 Think of lhe verbs that have the ide;! of a long time. for cxample. Imit, n·m/.;, pli/I". Irr, 1('(lm. railt. The~ verbs :Ire often found in lhe Conlinuous, Thin!: of the verb~ that dUII'1 h;ln° the ide;! of a long time. for example find. Jlllrr,llI/\', ili(', los(;', hreak, SIOP_ These vcrbs ;lrc rnOI\' usually found III lhe Simple. /'.'e bu" (ulli'l!! firl!lI'UI!lI. (I't:rhap~ over sever.!.1 hour'<.) /'o't (lit lIIyfillg,'r. (Ont: short action.) J The S,nlplc expresses a completed adion. This is 'Ihy \I.e use the Simple If lhe sentence gives a number or quanlily, and lhe Con\lnuous isn't possible. ,..,/, orl''' n"udin): till tlay /'re feud I{'II dlllf'l"r,f. She)' h/",'" s/llok;'l): ew'r 'mce ,'/('lIrl;,'"d SIH'~~ hlld /('11 alrCl/dl:

154

Grammar Raference

Present Perfect We\'e hern I'IlIrT;t'" for ten )'tUf$. They're hCi'lI/lI'IlIg ilne silll't Jllnl'. She has/I'I bl'el/ ""t)rkmg sinn' 1III'ir fJ(tby "'as hom.

Future We',," guillg Oil Iwlidtiy far II lew da.!'S. rI", le.,~ullelltls ill '",ellty millutes' I;II/e. r/! M "out/' in half a/l 110111',

Prepositions with dates, months, years, etc, September 1965

summer in the 1920s on lhe twentieth century lhe holidays the interval

Monday Monday morning 8 August Christm1lS Day holrday

seven o'clock Christmas 11\ the end of May the age of ten tea time

UNIT 11 Questions Look :lIthe following queslion words. Notice Ihl!l Whal, Which and IlhuJ<,can eombin~ with;; nOlill. and Ilml' can combIne with an lldje<'-li,e or an ad\erh. Whlll sari uf ml/sic (fa you lih,.? Whlll kind uf cigtlrt'lles do y()U ,mlf1kc' Whtll si:1' shlJ('s do yOIl/tlke'! 'Vhal co/Oltl" 1Irt' )"0111' ",I"I:S,' Which pCI! do yUIf "//Itt? Which "'a)' 6 illu Ih" slIIlhm" W/lOse hook i,,' Iln\',' Ho much do )"(111 wt'igh? flo mllny im)fIU'I~ ((Il(! SISlelS 1/11\"(' .1'011 gUI? flo 11//11I.1' limc,,' 11m'" you bi'en 1)11 a plane? flo flllIt"1I homework do yOIl gel e''t'ry ni'{ltr' flOl" IlII! lire you.' flow tlft!!J/ do .1'01( go 10 Ihe cinema? flaw/on,!! dlJ('s il /(Ike ,1"0/1 10 K!'I 10 s('/wuf'


Indirect questions

UNIT 12

I Indirect questions have the same word order as the positive and there Is no dofdoe.l/dil!,

Reported speech Reported statements If the reporting verb is in the pasllen e (e.g. said, ((lid), il is usual for the verb in the reported clause to move 'one tense back'.

lOT "I don't know wkere does Tom If.ve., Here are some more expressions thal introduce indirc-ct questions, f H'ondel' / (all 'I /,(!lIIember {'ve /10 idea I'd like IU kllow 1'111 nol s/lre

'I'm going.' Ile said he was Koillg. 'She's passed her exam '.' He lold me she had passed her exams, 'My father died when I was six.' Shr said ireI' }II/lrer had died 1.)1('11

ho ... long Ihejoumey takes,

If there is no question word, lise (/

01'

'Ire was six

,,'helhe!'.

I dOIl'1 k 1I0W if {'nr COllling 01' 1101. I ,milder wllelher it's going /(I mill,

2 We ofteJ1 nlake direct questions into indirect questions to make them sound 'softer' or more polite. CO/lld you lell JIll' Do yOIl kl/Oll' Do you happen 10 knoll' Haw! .1'011 ((II)' idea Do rou remember

present past present perfect .....------.. pa 1 perfect past past perfect

H-I1lI1 lillie rhe hanks close~

2 II' the reponing verb is in the present tense (e.g., says, asks), there is no tense change. 'The train will he late.' He SUI" Ihe lraill Ifill be fa/e. 'I come from Spain.' She says she comesji-olll Spain. 3 The 'one lense back' rule docs havc exceptions, If the I'cponed speech is about something that is still true, the tense remains the ame. Rainforests are heing destroyed. She told him 11/(/1 minfim}sls are

'I hate football.'

Question tags I Question tags are wry common in spoken English. We use them to kcep conversation going by involving listeners and inviting them to participate. The most common patterns are: positive selllenccnegative tag, 01' negative sentence - positive tag. Y()II'l'e Jel/Jl)', lI)'el/'l you.~ Ir iSlI'1 a "elT "ice daJ'. is il:'

4 The 'one ten e back' rule also applies to reponed thou!!hts and feelings. I thollghl she wus married, hut she isn路l. I didll'l kllOlI' !Ie 1I'{l.\' (/ reachel: /1!IolIghl he worked ifOlxol yOIi were cOII/ing, ,'111'1'1''' mind. Come in. i hoped yO/l ",ould rillg.

ill

a bank.

5 Some modal verbs change.

2 We repeat the auxiliary verb in the tag. If there is no auxiliary. use:: do/I!oesfdid. YOII IUIl'ell'l been Irere bejore, hUl'e )'011:) YOII call speak French call't )'Oll? We 1/11/.1'1 11Ike lire dog 0111, IIII1SIIl't 11'1.'.' Sire eals meal, doe.lll'f she,~ Ballks close or low: d01l'1 Ihey? l'ol/ lI'ellr /0 hal late. didll't yOIl?

Cal'eful with question tags with 1'111 , I(I/e. (11'1'1/'1 /? (NOT *-a-tt-J+H

3 Notice:: the meaning of yes and

11(1

can will may

~

could would might

'She can type well.' He told lIIe she cOllldlcall l.1pe IIdl. TIl help you.' Sill' said she'd !Ielp me. 'J may come.' She said .\'he might {'Oil'll'.

Tnr

in answer to question tags.

; Yes.' (= [ am coming.) 'No.' (= l'm 1I0t coming.)

. You're comillg, al'ell'l YOII"

being destroyed, I rold him/I/(/Ie}ilolball.

---- ---

4 The meaning of a question tag depends on how you say it. [f the lag

falls, the speaker cxpecls people to agree with him/her.

Other modal verbs don't change. 'You should go to bed.' Ile IOfd me / should go ro bed. 'It might rain.' She said she rhoughl il /IIiK"t rain. Musl can stay a IIIIISI. or it can change to had 10. '[must go!' He said he lIIusrlhad 10 go,

6 In more formal situations, we can 1I5C

Ihal after the reporting verb.

HI.' lold Iler (Ihal) he 1I'Oliid be !zollle lOll'. She said (lhat) soles lI'ere

dOlI'l1

all !Lw yem:

7 There arc Illuny reporting. verbs.

Reauri!id day, iSII'1 il '

We raedy use wy with an indirect object (i.e. the person spokcn to).

It'sju,51lhe .1'01'/0/ "'ealher}iJr slIimmillg, isn'l il?

She said she Ims going.

{III (I

silh' perSOJl, aren'l

NOT *She :;aid to me she--wa-s-geHtg,

/1

Tefl is always used with an indirect object in reponed speech.

YOII dOIl't like my mOlh1'l', do yOIl?

--------

me

If the tag rises, the speaker i asking for confirmation. The peakeI' thinks hefshe knows (he answer, but isn't absolutelv sure. j'lJIII'

lIame's Abigail, isn'r ir'

You're in advertLl'ing, lIrell'l rOil

.

She raid

Ihe doctor I/S

Ihe new.\'.