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Contents Part I. Expression of Interest I.I. Case for Innovation I.I.1 Architecture as a Discourse I.I.2 Computation in Architecture I.I.3 Contemporary Scripting Cultures

I.II. Research Project I.II.1 CUT : Develop I.II.2 CUT : Fabricate

Miscellaneous Weekly Reflections Image of the Week


Part I. Expression of Interest I.I. Case for Innovation I.I.1 Architecture as a Discourse

The Discourse “Architects, after all, can design with a pencil anyway.” - Burry, Scripting Cultures (2011) p.17

“... [C]omputers will contribute their superb rational and search abilities, and we humans will contribute all the creativity and intuition needed to solve design problems.” - Kalay, Architecture’s New Media (2004), p.3

People tend to think of architecture as an art, exclusive to the profession (Williams 2005). However, a closer look into the subject would reveal that architecture is the work of the entire society – everybody is part of it. Dramatic changes in the society – new materials, new technologies and new ways of thinking – often results in a change in architecture. With that an architectural discourse is created as a portion of the society would try to resist the change, while the others accept the change and adapts to it. Hence, an architect’s work is the result of the debate within the entire society, between the two extremes, and his/her own interpretation of the zeitgeist of the age. As Patrick Schumacher argued, architecture becomes a system of communication that constantly regenerates and reinvents itself with the ongoing discourse and the cross-disciplinary dissemination of knowledge, ideas and theories (2011).

Personal Project :

Studley Park Boathouse Old principles or new ideas for the Gateway Project? The Studley Park Boathouse is designed based on the works and design philosophies of the modernist German architect, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Precedents from this master became integral to the design process and very much influenced the outcome – form and facade that resembles Farnsworth House, interior partition that recalls his Barcelona Pavilion in 1929. It is precisely this focus on precedent-based design of the studio (ADS: Water) itself that become the source of architectural discourse. Contrast that with this studio’s (ADS: Air) aim for students to rethink architecture via the digital design medium. While designing based on the principles of past master’s works have its own merits (since they have been timetested to be successful), will it be “exciting”, “eye-catching” or “brave” enough for the Wyndham Gateway Project? It probably

will not. In order to “generate [a] discourse”, those time-tested successful design principles and strategies should be replaced by those which are still young and has not been fully exploited, i.e. parametric designs (Burry 2011). It would be the better design path of the two in order to meet the Wyndham City Council Selection Panel and Advisory Group’s aims and expectations for the project.

Case Study 1 :

Beijing National Stadium Herzog and de Meuron Beijing 2008

Progressive design rooted in ancient culture. The Beijing National Stadium is one of the centre pieces of the 2008 Summer Olympics. It is rooted in ancient culture, yet progressive in its form as its circular shape is the symbol of heaven in the Chinese culture (ARUP 2011). Here, architecture becomes a sign that could be interpreted differently. It is a stadium, an icon of Beijing, an architectural representation of the society (Zaera-Polo 2009), a new urban experience (Herzog & de Meuron 2007), a politically controversial project (Beyer and Knofel 2008). Beijing National Stadium has proven that architecture is much more than satisfying the brief, it could do so much more by sparking a discourse. Similarly, in the Gateway Project, the design should be able to be read and interpreted in as many ways as possible to spark interest and gain attention of both the professionals and the laymen in order to “make a significant

impact”. It could be, as suggested by Williams, “symbolically rich, but located within a widely understood vernacular of signs” (2005, p. 111)

Case Study 2 :

Gehry Residence Frank Gehry Santa Monica, California 1978

“...ugliness is beauty that we are yet to understand” - Van Schaik, Artichoke (2010), p. 120 Gehry Residence is Frank Gehry’s own house completed in 1978 (Mortice 2012) and it had been a building of much controversy since its completion as the aesthetics of the house is not traditionally pleasing. Reactions to the house range from intense dislike to full embrace, but it inspired a new kind of architecture, Deconstructivism (Muschamp 1993). Such provocative architecture definitely challenges the fundamental perception of beauty. The strong contrast and tension between the Gehry Residence and its surroundings forms a strong dialogue between the structures which begs for a discourse, and it was successful in creating one. After 25 years, the debate on the aesthetics of the Gehry Residence is still going on, and its importance is still recognised as it was just being awarded the 2012 AIA Twenty-five Year Award (Mortice 2012). It took the elements

of the middle-class suburb and recomposed it into something radically different. This is what the Gateway project should aim for: generating a discourse that lasts a long time, perhaps with unconventional and provocative aesthetics that draws inspiration from elements of Wyndham city itself, such as its K Road Cliffs or Victoria State Rose Garden. The ideas behind the Gehry Residence definitely opened up new possibilities for the Gateway project.

I.I. Case for Innovation I.I.2 Computation in Architecture

Case Study 3 :

Beijing National Aquatics Centre PTW Architects Beijing 2008 As mentioned in the lecture this week, computation in architecture is still very young, and hence offers huge potentials in pushing the boundaries of the discourse in architecture. Kalay laments the separation of the design conception of a building from the construction during the Renaissance (2004) as it implies that architects had relinquished some of their powers over the design process but computation had tied the two together again in recent years and forms a sort of “digital continuum� (Kolarevic 2003, p.58). The complexity of many parametric designs necessitated the union of the two because the design intent could be easily lost with unsuitable construction methods or choice of materials (Kolarevic 2003). Architecture has become much more multi-disciplinary. The National Aquatic Centre of Beijing, more commonly known as the Water

Cube, exemplifies the union of design and construction through computation. The ultimate form of this project is generated digitally using the soap bubble structure as both the inspiration and the basic unit for the structure which could be repeated in infinite combinations. Digital fabrication (CNC cutting of the ETFE sheets, for example) played a major role in the construction of the building which demands high accuracy in the dimensions of individual parts. Computation allowed the designers to transform the fragile bubble into a building that could withstand earthquake, fire and sandstorms. The Water Cube succeeded as an innovative and unique architecture that managed to retain its links to the aquatic nature of the function of the building despite being designed digitally – the form reflects the function. This shows that a unique and brave

architecture could be the result of a simple concept, and the concept is not lost through the digital platform in the design process. The Gateway project, hence, could be approached in a similar manner. Various aspects of a concept (as mentioned before, could be derived from elements of Wyndham) could be translated into different elements of design and transformed digitally into new, exciting forms that still reflects the Wydham community. A visually striking structure with a “strong presence” could be produced via computational methods driven by the creativity and intelligence of the designer in finding solutions to construction practicalities (“search” process as described by Kalay) so that the initial concept is preserved. Digital fabrication could further aid the realisation

of the project in efficiently producing the components with minimised mistakes. The digital tools, like Kolarevic says, should be seen as a “colleague” (2003, p.21). This is the approach which, I think, is suitable for the Gateway project.

I.I. Case for Innovation I.I.3 Contemporary Scripting Cultures

Case Study 4:

Emergent Field Kokkugia Project 2003

“Scripting can be a design idiom.”

- Burry, Scripting Cultures (2011), p. 24

“Instead of working on a parti, the designer constructs a generative system of formal production, control its behavior over time and selects forms that emerge from its operation. The emphasis shifts from the ‘making of form’ to the ‘finding of form’, which various digitally-based generative techniques seem to bring about intentionally”

- Kolarevic, Permomative Architecture: Beyond Instrumetality (2005), p.195

Parametric modelling has changed the way architectural design is represented. The focus has shifted from expressing individual geometries to describing the geometrical relationships through scripting (Menges 2006). In the relation of the EOI and the course objectives, one of the principles of conceptual parametric modelling mentioned in the lecture becomes important – the generative principle. For Kokkugia, the generative principle is used to exploit the ability of digital modelling to produce random beauty in which the results could not be conceived beforehand (Van Schaik 2010). Multiple iterations of the same algorithm could be generated quickly as although the relationship between the agents in the algorithm is clear, the result could not be predicted when they are linked to the whole (Van Schaik 2010). Hence, for Roland Snooks of Kokkugia, a strong design intent that is derived from the design problem is important (Burry 2011, p.58) so that an optimal result could be chosen from the pool of generated iterations. In their 2003 project, “Emergent Field”, the ultimate form emerges from the reassessment of the plaza-program relationship, in which programmatic and architectural agents are part of the algorithm that generates the form (Kokkugia n.d.). This shows one of the advantages of parametric modelling over the traditional design method – intimate site responses based on the major driving forces of the site and the programme required by the brief becomes possible. The unknown result is informed through known parameters, making the final result more functional and flexible than those generated via traditional means. Since our mind is programmed to recognise known patterns (Van Schaik 2010), designing with parameters without any preconceived result pushes the boundary of architecture by introducing new forms never imagined. As the brief for the Gateway project calls for a “new, inspiring and brave” design as well as a “dialogue between the sculpture and the landscape to compose the Gateway”, the method employed by Kokkugia in ‘Emergent Field” is a good direction for the design process. Factors such as the hill in Site A, the service station behind Site B, the high-speed motion along the highway and the weather and light conditions will be considered during and after the scripting process in Grasshopper to make the design more informed.

Part I. Expression of Interest I.II. Research Project I.II.1 CUT : Develop


The patterning and culling, as well as the mathematical functions involved are all random. Therefore, the process is rather generative. I was looking at the patterning that could result from overlapping grids, as well as how two colours interact when the data (the radii of the circles from both grids) overlaps. The colour is inspired by the agricultural background of Wyndham.


Further experimentation with the previous definition, but now the colour is associated with the height of the extrusion, which in turn is affected by the attractor points. With just one grid, the result is less interesting.

After that, I decided to abandon colour in this process as it will be difficult to fabricate later on. However, as I was turning the digital model in Rhinoceros, the movement created some interesting moiré effect. I have decided to further explore this on a curved surface (which could be a response to the hill in Site A). The result is unexpected. The moiré effect disappeared, but the effect of texture that the lines engender is reminiscent of Heatherwick Studio’s British Pavilion in the 2010 Shanghai Expo. The thinner and the more distorted the ‘cylinders’ are, the stronger is the effect.


Reverse Engineering 1 :

Airspace Tokyo Faulders Studio Tokyo 2007

Voronoi study

This case study is based solely on my interest in Voronoi creation. They are easy to produce in Grasshopper but the results are infinite. An attractor curve is used to determine the location of the points for the origin of the Voronoi cells. By altering the curve in Rhinoceros, many versions of Vornoi is created quickly. I noticed that Voronois with first degree curves evoke a stronger sense of tension than those of higher degree curves (in this case, the 7th degree). I did not pursue this any further as they are rather cliché and do not meet the “new, brave and exciting idea” criteria the Wyndham City Council is looking for.

Degree 7 Voronoi

Degree 1 Voronoi

Reverse Engineering 2 :

Dior Ginza Office of Kumiko Inui Ginza, Tokyo 2004

Layering and the Moiré Effect The envelope of Dior Ginza is a double-skin structure that produces a hazy and subtle moiré effect as one move along the street. The simple act of layering and reducing the size of the patterns on the silkscreened panel at the back created the effect. Moreover, by having a double layered skin, it allows for light installation in the airspace which gave the building a very different day and night view. I have decided to analyse and recreate this case study as our group is currently interested in the moiré effect produced as one moves along the highway in order to enhance the experience of the drivers. Process: By looking at the pattern on the facade, it is clear that attractor curves were used. Circles closer to the curves have a bigger radius while those further away will have a smaller radius.

Only two radii are observed. The attractor curves were first drawn on a surface in Rhinoceros according to the pattern observed in the facade. A grid of points is then created on the surface and their distance from the attractor curves was measured using the “Pull Point” component. The values are remapped into the domain between 0 and 1 and then rounded up. The new set of integers is then associated with a set of two numbers so that only two radii will be produced. Circles are then created using the grid of points and the radii, and the remapped values were adjusted to reduce the number of big circles. The reason is that the density of the attractor curves also caused many points to be close to a curve. A second layers is quickly reproduced, only with the values of the radii changed.

“Proposition 8: All ornament should be based upon a geometrical construction.”

- Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament, 1910, p.5

Ornamentation As Moussavi said in her lecture that careful assemblies and choices of materials results in ornaments (2011), a purposefully designed building, thus could never separated from ornamentation because a building itself is essentially a careful and deliberate assembly of chosen materials. Therefore, it can be argued that all buildings are ornaments in a city. Hence, this is how I see the Gateway project: an ornament that represents Wyndham and marks its presence. I agree with Moussavi and Kubo’s claim that “if architecture were to remain convergent with culture, it needs to build mechanisms by which culture can constantly produce new images and concepts rather than recycling existing ones” (2006). I feel that the “new images” could be produced through “recycling existing ones” through the use of technology. Technology, like Moussavi

and Kubo said, becomes the new driver for cultural development (2006). Thus, digital design becomes the perfect media to be working on the Gateway project where new cultural icons could be produced based on existing elements of the city, just like National Aquatics Centre and Nation Stadium in Beijing did.

Form Exploration 1

As mentioned before, our group is interested in exploiting the motion along the highway, but the exploration of colour parametrically is not too successful. Therefore, we have decided to create a form that allows colour change when one moves along the highway. In order to put motion and colour together, I have explored two forms that will allow multiple view points, in which the colour changes as one moves along. The first design uses the angles the small panels sit to show the colour of the underside from behind and the colour of the top side from the front.

Form Exploration 2 With only two views, I feel that I need more viewpoints as this does not reflect the full potential of Grasshopper. Hence, the second form is very angular with multiple surfaces created by breaking a large surface into smaller surfaces. Different colour could be applied to each surface and each side so that the sculpture changes more as one moves along the highway.

Part I. Expression of Interest I.II. Research Project I.II.2 CUT : Fabricate

Fabricate After some Data Tree manipulation in Grasshopper, I managed to extract 6 “cells” out of the surface for small scale prototype fabrication. However, due to its unusual geometry, I could not use the components provided on the LMS to unfold the geometry nor using the “Orient” component as it will be difficult for me to track and label each piece of the model correctly. I had to revert back to the method I used in Virtual Environments back in my first year – using Pepakura Designer for the unfolding and tab creation. I made the models out of two materials: paper and polypropylene. There were some problems with the fabrication process. Due to the geometry of the surface, some corner pieces are detached from the whole while the others meet at a point instead of a surface. For the design proposal, this issue must be considered to ensure the design could be fabricated. Digital design tool do not solve this kind of geometrical problem and it is up to the designer to rectify them. Material joint forms another problem during the process. While normal glue works fine for paper, it would not hold two polypropylene sheets together. Only a hot glue gun (according to internet forums) could be used as the bonding agent. Since I do not own one, I had to use transparent scotch tapes to hold the pieces together. That compromised the clean look that I look for, and most importantly, the structural integrity.

Case Study 5:

Blur Building Diller Scofidio + Renfro Yverdon-les -Bains, Switzerland The 2002

Blur Building by Diller Scofidio + Renfro challenges the fundamental perception of structure, skin and space as it is an “architecture of atmosphere” which essentially is a cloud of mist that responds to the weather condition on a simple platform (Diller 2008). The contrast between the ethereal mist and the material structure is the point of interest – architecture as a special effects machine (Diller 2008). The special effects capture attention, and the uniqueness of the building makes it memorable. Hence, the Wyndham Gateway project does not necessarily have to be a mere addition at the Western Interchange; it could produce a special effect that reflects the time and progression. The key is to be memorable via the special effects, and the permanence of the structure became secondary. The special effect could be something permanent and produced parametrically, such as the moiré effect which interacts with motion. On the other hand it could also be something that

degenerates over time and constantly changes, driven mainly by weather conditions. This will encourage people to view the gateway time and again to see how it changes and evolves through time. The main idea is that the impermanence of (part of) the structure is the focus of the design, just like the mist of Blur building which could engender enough interest to attract attention to itself, and hence to Wyndham as well. Moreover, the Blur Building is low definition (Diller 2008). The cloud of mist essentially has no details. Details are lost in motion and therefore, this is an important aspect for the Gateway Project to be installed along the highway as high-speed calls for a simple form. By applying this principle to the project, the form precedes the details – a suitable form to highlight the motion is more important than intricate details. We would use parametric design to explore the desired form and not to create fine details.

Case Study 6:

Skin of De Young Museum Herzog & de Meuron San Francisco, California 2005

“Nature too, should be allowed to lead her own life.”

- Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, 1958

Weather adds another layer to the depth of parametric designs. While the form produced parametrically is in total control by the designer, the effect of weather is difficult to predict and could change the design dramatically. Herzog and de Meuron had accounted for the weather in the design of De Young Museum in San Francisco. The rain emphasises the joints of the bronze plates which would otherwise look flush in dry weather. Water makes the surface more reflective and that blends the structure to the environment.

Gateway project.

Similarly, the effect of weather is to be accounted for in the Gateway project. The design could have two very different looks in dry and wet weather, or even changes with the season. Again, this encourages multiple views through the changes, linking this back to our initial interest of “progression” in the

Since materials will deteriorate, integrating the effects of weathering into the Gateway project design makes perfect sense as maintenance is now minimised. Furthermore, weathering adds/removes layers, and this property of weathering could be part of the design.

Another point to note on De Young Museum is its choice of material. Bronze ages with time and its colour gradually changes from brown to green as patina forms. Weathering plays an important part of the design (Kolarevic 2003) as material deterioration is difficult to predict and control. The process is slow, and hence the design will not be completed until many decades after, stretching the time period of the relevance of the project. We want the project to grow with the community.

Special Effects 1 “Stains on the building are evidence of its capacity for resistance.” From the two case studies presented before, I explored how the weathering of colours could be used to create interest. The choice of exploring how colour weathers is inspired by the changing colour of de Young Museum. The first colour weathering example draws its colour (red and blue) from the logo of Wyndham City Council. The suspended model is made of polypropylene as gouache paint washes easily off them even after they dry. As one of the quotes states that stains on a building show its capacity for resistance, I decided to stain a bottom sculpture (paper) with the “weathered” colours from the first. The staining did not work out as well, probably because I did not wait for the paint to dry before adding more water. However, the mix of reds and blues on the base created a very interesting pool/river of colour, something our

- Kolarevic and Malkawi 2005, p.14

group will explore further with the site contours and possibly together with the future urban growth of Wyndham. The geometry of the model also controlled the flow of water, hence this could be another potential for design proposal exploration in which striations could be designed parametrically to direct water flow. The striation themselves could be made out of sacrificial metal that will corrode and deepen over time, or even change their course of flow via careful planning of the depth of the striations. This is relevant to the Gateway project in the sense that it shows not only the durability of the project but metaphorically, the city of Wyndham itself that manages to survive the test of time – an inspiration for the residents of the municipal.

Special Effects 2 “Stains on the building are evidence of its capacity for resistance.�

- Kolarevic and Malkawi 2005, p.14

The second colour weathering example explores the effects of double-layered colours. As the purple washes away, the yellow beneath reveals itself. Polypropylene in this case holds an additional function: the provision of day and night view as required by the brief. The model initially is opaque with the layers of paint on it, but as they gradually wash off, the translucent polypropylene is revealed. If lighting were installed beneath the model, the night view of the sculpture would change after every rain when more polypropylene is revealed. During the day, the colour themselves creates interesting patterns on the parametrically designed form which would also look different after every shower. With time, the sculpture would become completely translucent. This gives the Wyndham City Council the opportunity to engage with local artists to paint a new layer

of paint/degradable material, continually changing the look of the sculpture based on the skeleton just like the Blur Building. The only difference is that the change would be slow with the weathering, but abrupt when a new layer is added on. The engagement with the local artist could foster community pride while the cycle of weathering and repainting would generate continual interest and multiple viewings. This would make this

Gateway project worth the investment.

Weekly Reflections Week 1: I have never really thought of architecture as a discourse. I am aware that there are battles between theories and ideas on architecture throughout the history but I always see them as a search for an answer for the question “What is architecture?” By phrasing “architecture as a discourse”, it throws a new light on this matter. A discourse allows room for negotiation. Battles do not. Week 2: I had my first taste in digital design this week by using Grasshopper for the first time. The Rotate3D exercise really got me excited as a simple line is now transformed into a complex set of lines that have the potential to be lofted into a complex surface. I also liked the term Kolarevic used to describe these digital tools – “colleague” – because it suggests co-operation. When I was doing my Grasshopper definitions, I have to understand the workflow of Grasshopper in order for me and the programme to communicate. Week 3: “Serendipity may play a part [in the scripting design process], but a possible surprising influence rather than as a driver.” (Burry, 2011, p.15) Although my experience of scripting in Grasshopper is still extremely little, I would have to disagree with Burry on this to some extent. I agree that results I got from the scripting are, more often than not, pleasant surprises, because I do not have any preconceived idea on the form I am looking for. However, in my opinion, for a beginner like me, using serendipity as a ‘driver’ could be beneficial in the learning process. I see them as the unknown carrot tied to a stick in front of me; it baits me to go further and experiment a bit more to see if I can get more interesting results. Of course, Burry is speaking from the point of view of an advanced scripter, whom if relying totally on serendipity in the creative design process is simply foolish, and even more so if the design will be built. With a project brief and a site, form finding through scripting could no longer be completely experimental. Real world parameters such as budget, site boundary and structural integrity come into the equation. Week 4: I enjoyed playing around the definitions this week. My design process is more to the “search” Kalay mentioned in the reading in Week 2. I start with one of the “Input” definitions provided on the LMS and started to combine more of them by thinking “What else can I do to the geometry?” until I find the results satisfactory. The lecture this week really helped to clear up what the Gateway project is about and clarifies the

aspirations of Wyndham city further. Week 5: I have always seen forces being transferred down a building in straight columns but this week’s lecture opened up my thinking. Performative architecture is a rather interesting branch of digital design in which the optimised form for the load bearing elements in a building with multiple point loads is surprisingly complex. It is not at all the traditional columns but a complex web of materialised load paths. I loved the reverse engineering task this week. This is why I did an extra case-study (OMA’s IIT) for the week as it was being discussed in the Facebook forum. The definition is difficult to understand at first, but after asking in the Grasshopper3D forum, the data flow made sense and I succeeded in modifying it slightly (more shapes for cut-out and I “negative” the picture in the image sampler). It is like puzzle-solving, breaking down what I see into logical steps and try to recreate them. The Grasshopper3D forum was really helpful. I learnt a lot form these exercises. Week 6: Data tree was so confusing and after the readings and ExLab tutorials, I understood it better and learnt about its importance. It allowed me to extract the “cells” from the Grasshopper definition I have written (Form2) using the “Path Mapper” and “List Item” component. I changed the data tree structure so that each “cell” is a branch that could be more easily extracted. I liked Stanislav’s view on ornaments as well, in which he mentioned in the lecture that he thinks that Modern architecture has their own ornament just expressed in a very different manner. After listening to Moussavi’s lecture, I agree with him. If we look at a building stripped of ornaments but it is beautiful per se, does it not make the building itself an ornament? Non-Teaching Week: Our group explored the moiré effect by making a few small scale models. It turns out that moiré effect is only the strongest while the plane is perpendicular to the sightline. This might not be good for the drivers because it is potentially distracting. Moreover, the lines must be close and thin enough, and the background must be opaque for it to be apparent. The required opaque wall breaks the view of the driver across the landscape of the highway. This is not what we want and I think we will be abandoning this idea and search for a new direction. Week 7: Our group finally found the direction we want to go after the lecture this week. Before this, we were exploring patterns and

optical illusions but they are not too interesting for us. Weathering, however, opens up many possibilities which could make the project more interesting without having had to create complex patterns or forms. We talked about the possibility of building the Gateway project with bio-degradable materials such as paper, boards or even seeds that will slowly disintegrate. We want to use Grasshopper as means to explore the form and let weathering add to the design. Week 8: This week’s lecture talked about kinetic structures and motions. The Bolte Bridge precedent caught my attention as it is the sheer size of the piers that makes the driver aware of the motion itself. This is something to think about for the design proposal about the appropriate scale for Gateway project.

Image of the Week

The images shown in this section are those which are not relevant ot the EOI but more towards the learning process. Only the most important/interesting ones of the week will be included here. The rest is uploaded as either .3dm files or .gh files.

week 1:

Torchlight created in Rhinoceros.

week 2:

3D Rotate Exercise with the Grasshopper definition. A single line suddenly becomes the skeleton of an organic form.

week 3:

Orienting a curve around a circle.

Further iteration of the same step within the definition.

The floral-like curves were an accidental creation when I change the curvature in the z-direction, and thus the “serenditipty�.

week 4:

2 Vray renders of the models in Rhinoceros.

week 5:

Reverse engineering of OMA’s McCormick Tribune Campus Centre in IIT.

week 6:

I was playing around with the “Cut Data Driven Compoenets” definition in attempt to create intersting patterns.

week 7:

Exploring forms using Elsa’s (group mate) laser cut polypropylene voronoi webs.

Prototype of double-layered colour weathering before painting the exact same colours onto the small scale model.

References Layout //

Artichoke Magazine

Information //

ARUP (2011). Beijing National Stadium (Bird’s Nest), <> [accessed 3 April 2012] Beyer, S and Knofel, U (2008). ‘Herzog on Building Beijing’s Olympic Stadium’ [interview], in Spiegel Online International, trans. by Christopher Sultan from German, <,1518,569011,00.html> [accessed 3 April 2012] Burry, M (2011). ‘Scripting Cultures’, in Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: J. Wiley), pp. 8 – 71 Herzog & de Meuron (2007). 226 – National Stadium, <> [accessed 3 April 2012] Kokkugia (n.d.). ‘Emergent Field’, in Projects, <> [accessed 22 April 2012] Kolarevic, B (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York: Spon Press), pp. 3 – 62 Menges, A (2006). ‘Instrumental Geometry’, in Architectural Design, vol. 76 (2), pp. 42 – 53 Mortice, Z (2012). ‘2012 Twenty-five Year Award’, in The American Institute of Architects, < twenty-five-year-award/index.htm> [accessed 9 April 2012] Moussavi, F and Kubo, M (2006). The Function of Ornaments (Barcelona: Actar), pp. 5-14 Muschamp, H (1993). ‘The Gehry House: A Brash Landmark Grows Up’, in New York Times, published 7 October, <http://www.nytimes. com/1993/10/07/garden/the-gehry-house-a-brash-landmark-grows-up.html?src=pm> [accessed 9 April 2012] Schumacher, P (2011). ‘Introduction: Architecture as Autopoietic System’, in The Autopoiesis of Architecture: A New Framework for Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley), pp. 1 – 28 Van Schaik, J (2010). ‘Kokkugia’, in Artichoke, issue 31, pp.117 – 120 Williams, R (2005). ‘Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press), pp. 102 – 116 Zaera-Polo, A (2009). ‘Patterns, Fabrics, Prototypes, Tessellations’, in Architectural Design, vol. 76 (6), pp. 18 - 27

Images // Beijing National Stadium

Gehry Residence

Beijing National Aquatics Centre

Emergent Field

British Pavilion*CxiQWYsXYbUhBC8lefcqf4AHpQUdwgRs2uZsvQtIAsmIgh9HqGYXA0J6wTT9nklNQJxX24I/ShanghaisExponearlyready.jpg

AirSpace Tokyo

Dior Ginza

Blur Building

De Young Museum

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