Issuu on Google+

Module 2: Design Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong

Tutorial 6 - Lyle Talbot

Virtual Environments|Semester 2 - 2013


Design Development [Extraction of Ideas and Concepts] Our group chose the umbrella to be our object of study for our second skin design because we shared an interest in how simple, yet complex an umbrella operates. From the hinges, to the way it embraces the concept of skin and bones, we were sure that taking aspects of an umbrella would give our design a certain disctinctiveness in terms of movement mechanics. With regards to the skin and bones concept in umbrellas, we discovered how the skin and bones somehow rely on each other to allow an umbrella to function and maintain its form. For instance how the bones are forcing the fabric to stretch, to allow the water to travel smoothly off the surface of the umbrella; and also how the ends of the fabric are the thickest, to bend the arms downward to provide a steep slope for water to travel off the umbrella.

Fabric on the edges between arms are the thickest

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Extraction of Ideas and Concepts] Our group also took apart umbrellas to get a more indepth look at how the hinges of an umbrella actually work. We discovered that there were many members in a single arm that work together when operaitng an umbrella. For instance, some members are in tension while some are in compression. Our group wanted to replicate that in our design idea. Here are some close up shots of the umbrella components.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Initial Model] The pictures below show the inital model of our group’s design idea which already incorporates elements and characteristics of an umbrella, which is the way it works with hinges, and the concept of skin and bones. As the images illustrate, the object expands outwards and upwards when a force is applied downwards to the centre. The skeletal structures represent the “bone” components in an umbrella. A piece of cloth will be sewn to the skeletal structure to display the “skin” component of the design. The initial model also adresses the 3 dimensionality and the volumetric nature of the body by creating a volume using developable surfaces.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Personal Space Brainstorm] Our group also did a quick brainstorm on personal space and came up with the below mind map. We mapped out the variables that could affect our personal space, and designed experiments and observations to carry out to determine the accuracy of our ideas.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Mapping Personal Space] Week 2 reading: Sommer, R. (1969) Personal space: the behavioural basis of design The main concept for our design is based on the idea that interaction with people and their personal space can differ dramatically depending on different parts of the body. (Sommer, R, 1969) states that personal space “does not extend equally in all directions�. This suggests people are more sensitive to invasions of their personal space in some areas of the body than other parts. The position of the body to another person is also another influencing factor. It is more comfortable for one to have a stranger stand by their side from shoulder to shoulder, than it is to have a stranger sitting or standing right in front of them. This notion can be observed in public spaces, such as on public transport for example. It is common for people who are sitting opposite another on train seats to have their feet and body placed slightly sideways to avoid direct eye contact or physical contact with the person opposite to them. It can also be observed that people standing up generally stand side by side rather than front to front.

Module 2; Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Mapping Personal Space] Personal space is mostly measured by using sight as a medium of awareness. In this experiment, we attempted to measure one’s personal space whilst being blindfolded. The method is simple, one must be blindfolded and then poked on random area on the body and determine the level of sensitivity of the poking. One may also be unaware that the object which is used to poke can be change to raise more awareness of the unknown. From this experiment, it can be concluded that higher level of sensitivity is lo- cated closer to main sense of human body, such as sight (even when blindfolded).This diagram roughly showcases different level of sensitivity resulted from the experiment.

Module 2; Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Subejct Material Analysis] Personal space is also described as a portable territory. It is evident to say that eye contact can be classified as an intrusion of personal space. Even if two people are 5 metres away from another, making eye contact with a stranger can sometime feel intimidating, and therefore one’s personal space is intruded. This idea is reiterated by (Sommer, R., 1969) who explains that people who take public transport often “lower their eyes” in order to “minimise unwanted social intercourse”. It is also evidenced by an experiment by Argyle and Dean which concluded that people will stand closer to a photograph of a man with his eyes closed, and further away from a photograph of a man with his eyes open. Glen Mcbride who studies human spatial behaviour uses a system of measuring personal space by the Galvanic skin response (GSR) as an index of emotionality. It traces the changed in skin conductivity that relate to stress and emotional behaviour. The study concluded that when people are approached form the front, GSR is highest, and therefore their front is more sensitive than their sides or back.

Week 3 reading: Surfaces that can be built from paper/ In H.Pottmann, A.Asperl, M.Hofer, A.Killian (eds) Architectural Geometry, p534-561, Bentley Institute Press, 2007 A cylinder is formed by a sequence of parallel lines. A curve “p” is extruded in one direction by “r” and the lines on the surface are called its “rulings”. In order to create a three dimensional volume, it is necessary to understand the surface area and shape of the object, or the “unfolding of the prism”. (Pottman, 2007) The prototype below was constructed with this idea in mind. The plan of the unfolding rectangular prisms were first drawn out and then assembled.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Subject Material Analysis] Week 2 lecture (Loh, 2013) Material: the matter form, which a thing is or can be made. System: a set of things working together as parts of a mechanism or an interconnecting network: a complex whole. The lecture in week 2 explored the different types of material systems including the skin and bone system. The system is composed of two parts. Firstly is the bone section. This frames the structure and gives the object form, it is also an example of tension and compression force. While the Skin section is also known as the “Diaphragm” which produces lateral force. The design for our prototype similarly mimics this system. As a force pushes down the prototype, the skin material is moved in a horizontal direction, while the bone remains tense and compressed. The skin material is flexible and stretchable.

Week 4: Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H. 2011: Lost in Parameter space? AD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81_4_July, pp. 70-79 Main ideas: abstraction and reduction Abstraction: reducing the amount of information/complexity of tan object, “Kolmogorov complexity” or “descriptive complexity”. Meshes can be used to define complex shapes. Reduction: Finding the best method to transport information. (Scheurer, F., 2011)

Module 2; Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Precedence Study] Our design is based on the movement of each individual piece of the second skin. In areas of the body that are most sensitive such as the facial area or the front of the body, the movement of the object would be more exaggerated. Whereas in the areas of the body that are least sensitive, the movement of the object would be less dramatic. Speed of movement Rapid movement (contracting) Pulsating movement, contracting of coral & similarly, of a Puffer fish

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Precedence Study] Medium movement (reaction) Nyctinastic and semimonastic movements: The Mimosa Plant (Mimosa pudica) Nyctinastic movements: during the night time, the leaflets fold together and the whole leaf droops downward until the sun rises in the morning. Seismonastic movements: Touching the leaves, shaking, warming of the leaves, or chemical/electrical stimuli, lack of water in the plant can lead the leaflets to fold together and droop downwards temporarily. (Ombrello, T, 2000)

Slow Movement (reaction) Lotus flower

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Precedence Study] The precedence study is adapted from how natural world adapts to a certain motion. An example of this would be the coral, which bloom during a certain circumstances. This image se- quences display the blooming of the coral.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Prototyping] Exaggerated movement Similarly to the Mimosa plant, movement is generated by touch. A force is generated by the human hand, which is released and pressed onto the object. This kind of exaggerated movement may be incorporated into the second skin as a part of the areas, which are most sensitive, such as the facial region. It symbolises the high reaction level as indicated by one of our experiments on the human body.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Prototyping] How the prototypes work The prototype utilises the umbrella mechanism, which we discovered in earlier weeks. The prototype is still in the early stages of the construction. The prototype should create an up and down motion, in reaction to touch. How they are constructed We simply created six equal length rectangular sticks and one triangular surface to hold the sticks. Then, we punctured holes at each end of the stick to allow the twine to pass through. Some additional holes were punctured on the centre of some sticks. Lastly, we joined the centre end with some twines. What goes wrong The prototype does not display the desired motion, due to the number of the object joined. The object should be conjoined in even numbers, such as 2 or 4, in order to create that motion. While odd number of objects may lead to erronous outcomes, and the concept of skin and bones from the umbrella, with the bored-hole arms as the bones, and the tissue paper acting as the skin.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Design Development [Prototyping] This prototype explores the different amounts of leverage achievable with the arms of the protoype. DIfferent amounts of leverage produces different magnitudes of reaction when stimulated in the centre. Besides this, this prototype also explored the concept of volume with developable surfaces, and the concept of skin and bones from the umbrella, with the bored-hole arms as the bones, and the tissue paper acting as the skin.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Digitization of Human Body [123D Catch] Human Body Mesh [Standing]

Human Body Mesh [Sitting]

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Digitization of Design Prototype

Captures of digitizations of individual components of second skin prototype.

The different sizes and leverage amounts were digitized as the images above illustrate.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Digitization of Design Prototype

Captures of digitizations of complete model of second skin prototype on a human body mesh.

Objects of different sizes will be located on the body, each representing different maginitues of sensitivity to a given part of the body. These objects of different sizes will also have differnent amounts of leverage with the arms to produce the affect of different magnitudes of reaction to a given touch, force or stimulation.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Reference List Ombrello, T. (2013) August 14 2013-last update, The Sensitive Plant [Homepage of UCC Biology Department], [Online]. Available: http://faculty.ucc.edu/biology-ombrello/pow/sensitive_plant.htm [2013, September 1]. Pottmann, H., Asperl, A., Hofer, M. & Killan, A. (2007), Architectural Geometry, Bentley Institute Press. Scheurer, F. and Stehling, H. (2011). Lost in Parameter Space? IAD: Architectural Design, Wiley, 81 _4_, July, pp. 70-79 Sommer, R. (1969). Personal space : the behavioral basis of design / Robert Sommer. Englewood Cliffs, N.J. : Prentice-Hall, c1969.

Module 2: Design

Bronwyn Zhao|Kevin Adhitya|Christian Ong


Module Two: Design