AIR Jing Wan Student no. 828895 2018 Semester 1 Tutor: David Wegman
CONTENTS A.0 Introduction A.1 Design Futuring 1.1 Case study 1 1.2 Case study 2
A.2 Design Computation 2.1 Case study 3 2.2 Case study 4
A.3 Composition/Generation 3.1 Case study 5 3.2 Case study 6
A.4 Conclusion A.5 Learning outcomes A.6 Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches A.7 Reference list 3
STUDIO EARTH A place for keeping secrets 2017
STUDIO WATER Studley Park Boathouse 2017
Jing Wan Course: Bachelor of Environments Majors: Architecture & Urban Planning
To me, design is always an inspirational and ever-evolving process. Seeing good Architecture designs provides me with the feelings of excitement and wonder that can in turn enlighten my mind and refresh my soul. The process of creating something with the engagement of digital programs and technology in particular, provides us with myriad possibilities to arrive at an optimal design outcome. Parametric modeling with the engagement of algorithms, the core of what I will explore in this studio, provides me with more opportunities to generate more creative ideas that are often difficult to achieve with conventional design tools.
very now and then we think of future as an association of sustainbility. Over the years people have attempted many ways to design for future to maintain the environment we all rely on and sustain our existence
in the planet. Yet the way we as architects try to achieve this is not to predict how the future may become and search solutions but rather to use design, particularly with the engagement of advanced digital design technology to open up all kinds of possibilities that can be discussed by everyone to arrive at a preferable future. Such way to design futuring, is referred to as â€˜speculative designâ€™ indicated by Dunne & Raby1. In so doing we are allowing our imagination to flow freely to search for myriad alternatives to a design problem, which in other words, we are trying to speculate on how things could be rather than how things should be. Through such future-oriented design intervention we as human beings, can use our collective intelligence to explore the way that can perhaps redirect us towards the sustainable mode of habitation2.
1 Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) pp. 1-9, 33-45.
2 Tony Fry (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1â€“16.
A.1 Design Futuring
“For us futures are not a destination or something to be strived for but a medium to aid imaginative thought - to speculate with.
－Anthony Dunne & Fiona Raby3
3 Dunne & Raby, pp. 1-9, 33-45.
s issue of 3 is less about the ‘what’ and more out the ‘how’ of this new synergy of sustainable d resilient design forged by climate change.
uge kten, House
Image source: Snell, C. (2018), Climate Change is the New Gravity. Archit. Design, 88: 6–15. doi:10.1002/ad.2253
e sustainability ure is a worldwide This apartment na was also t the German standard.
Project: Passive House Bruck Architect: Peter Ruge Architekten Date: 2014 Location: Changxing, China
Image source: Passive House Bruck / Peter Ruge Architekten" 26 Nov 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 5 Mar 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/569638/passive-house-bruck-peter-ruge-architekten-2/> ISSN 0719-8884\
1.1 Case study 1
ustainability in architecture development is always a worldwide, collective endeavour in the face of design futuring4. Peter Ruge Architekten's passive house design is a project which achieves
95% energy saving and meets the German Passivhaus standard, one of the most rigorous energy performance standards in the globe. The house demonstrates excellent energy efficiency, thermal performance and comfort with specific design of the building's envelope that implements passive solar and ventilation strategies. It is a flagship project to the introduction of sustainable and future-oriented passive house in the Chinese growing residential housing market5. As the climate changes, so does the site. Such design approach adapts to the current and future's climatic conditions on site, which creates a sustainable pattern of passive house living. This project can improve the quality of residence and provide a way of thinking into how architecture development is able to slow the rate of defuturing that redirect human development away from the path of unsustainability6.
4 Clarke Snell. (2018), Climate Change is the New Gravity. Architectural. Design, 88: 6â€“15. doi:10.1002/ad.2253 5 Passive House Bruck / Peter Ruge Architekten" 26 Nov 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 5 Mar 2018. <https://www.archdaily. com/569638/passive-house-bruck-peter-ruge-architekten-2/> ISSN 0719-8884\ 6 Fry, pp. 1â€“16.
Project: Shell roof Architects: Kam-Ming Mark Tam, Nathan Brown, Renaud Danhaive and Caitlin Mueller Date: 2016 Location: Unbuilt
Image source: Mueller, C. (2017), Distributed Structures: Digital Tools for Collective Design. Archit. Design, 87: 94â€“103. doi:10.1002/ad.2201
1.2 Case study 2
his precedence is an unbuilt design exploration project that targets on exploring the best preferable option from a series of possible candidates with the engagement of computational tools. It tries to discover the best outcome
that balances between the two ultimate goals - minimizing the energy embodied in structural materials and minimizing the operational energy requirements of the resulting building, which both are of crucial significance in achieving a sustainable future as architects try to instigate changes to adapt to the future climatic conditions7. Such design process expands future possbilities of solutions to a maximum potential for people to choose from, relying on human collective intelligence and discussion about how things could be to arrive at an optimal outcome, thus forming another way of design futuring, referred to as speculative design8.
Image source: Mueller, C. (2017), Distributed Structures: Digital Tools for Collective Design. Archit. Design, 87: 94â€“103. doi:10.1002/ad.2201
7 Mueller, C. (2017), Distributed Structures: Digital Tools for Collective Design. Architectural Design, 87: 94â€“103. doi:10.1002/ad.2201
Renaud Danhaive and Caitlin 8 DunneMueller/Digital & Raby, pp. 1-9, 33-45. Structures, Stormcloud design tool, MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2015
BALANCE, COMPROMISE, CONSTRAINTS
In many architectural design problems, a multiplicity of goals and considerations is important, competing or trading off with each other in complex ways and belying
ollowing the concept of design futuring, design computation provides the opportunities for architects to explore the multiple ways of outcomes to a specific issue, which in this case, the
defuturing condition we are currently experiencing9. Computational design takes advantages of its algorithmic principles, allows people to explore all sorts of imaginative design possibilities for which they can further speculate upon and hence to find the optimal solution10. The fascination of design computation, lies on its potential to provide inspiration and achieve beyond the intellect of the designer through the generation of unexpected result11.
9 Fry, pp. 1–16. 10 Dunne & Raby, pp. 1-9, 33-45.
11 Brady Peters. (2007) ‘The Smithsonian Courtyard Enclosure: Computer Programming as a Design Tool’, in Expanding Bodies: Art, Cities, Environment, ed. by Brian Lilley and Philip Beesley. Proceedings of the ACADIA 2007 Conference, Riverside Press (Waterloo, Ontario).
A.2 Design Computation
“When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture .
12 Brady Peters. (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought. Architectural Design, 83: 8–15. doi:10.1002/ad.1545
Image source: iaacblog, CD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010, <http://www.iaacblog.com/programs/icditke-researchpavilion-2010/> [accessed 10 March 2018]
Image source: achimmenges.net.ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010, <http://www.achimmenges.net/?p=4443> [accessed 10 March 2018].
Image source: iaacblog,, CD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010, <http://www.iaacblog.com/programs/icditke-researchpavilion-2010/> [accessed 10 March 2018]
2.1 Case study 3 Project: ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion 2010 Architect: ICD/ITKE Date: 2010 Location: Germany
ncreasingly architects use computation as a method to expand opportunities in the design process. It is for this that they are able to delve into new ideas and extend their capabilities to deal with complex situations.
For instance, this project demonstrates the potential of computational design in which architects can create a certain architectural expression that celebrate materiality as an active design component through a deep exploration of the complex characteristics of the material world13. The pavilion takes the form of an intricate timber lamella network. This is the result of the technical possibility of which architects are able to compute architectural form along with the material characteristics of timber (i.e. its behaviour to elastic deformation) that such potential design outcome can be realized, both architecturally and structurally14. The computational design thinking allows architects to open a new world of materialspecific design possibilities that are often unexplored when focusing on the geometric form of a material instead of its structural characteristics.
13 Sanford Kwinter, ‘The Computational Fallacy’, in Achim Menges and Sean Ahlquist, Computational Design Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (London), 2011, pp. 211–15. 14 Achim Menges (2016), Computational Material Culture. Architectural Design, 86: 76–83. doi:10.1002/ad.2027
Project: Bao'an International Airport Terminal 3 Architect: Massimiliano Fuksas and Knippers Helbig Advanced Engineering Date: 2012 Location: Shenzhen, China
Image source: Archdaily, Shenzhen Baoâ€™an International Airport / Studio Fuksas, 2014 <https://www.archdaily. com/472197/shenzhen-bao-an-international-airportstudio-fuksas> [accessed 10 March 2018]
2.2 Case study 4
omputation is redefining the practice of architectural design. It is more than the tools we use to create complex 3D models or any intricate geometries. It offers a new design environment for architects to get inspiration that
can augment their intellects and to simulate performance of the building both physically and experientially. This also creates a new way of thinking in architecture design as algorithm is gradually taking over the role of illustrating and communicating ideas from the conventional drawing-based method. The airport project is covered with a perforated cladding system, which is designed by using the computing tools with parametric data model to control the size and slope of the openings that are set to meet the requirements of daylight, solar gain and viewing angles as well as the aesthetic intentions of the architect. This is achieved through the simulation of building performance to receive feedback at different design stages and for new design opportunities to evolve. Such design computation, takes into consideration of various parameters (e.g. structural, material & environmental performance) in the creation of the final architectural outcome, allows architects to analyse and make decisions in a logical way thus producing more responsive designs15.
15 Peters, 83: 8â€“15.
he tripartite computational processes of modeling, analysis and fabrication has led to the predominance of geometric-driven formgeneration that has been employed and explored in architecture for
more than 50 years16. As design culture is experiencing a shift from composition to generation, we are now focused more on investigating ways of generative computational design, rather than drawing design solutions.
16 Neri Oxman. (2012), Programming Matter. Archit Design, 82: 88â€“95. doi:10.1002/ad.1384
“Implicit here is the idea of learning how … to study natural or ‘wild’ intelligence in a contained but active, refining domain. In this use the computer becomes metallurgical substance, it extends the exploratory evolutionary process of differentiation and refinement by inventing new levels of order and shape.
17 Kwinter, p 211.
Project: Bifid ceilling prototype Architect: Alisa Andrasek Date: 2005
The intersection and fabrication pattern was generated algorithmically. The algorithm was based on wave interference logic. Parametric differentiation imbedded into the script derived multiple offspring conditions.
Ceiling detail. A field of LED lights which were programmed through the same logics of interference as the intersection patterns.
Images source: Ednie-Brown, P. (2006), All-over, over-all: biothing and emergent composition. Architectural Design, 76: 72–81. doi:10.1002/ad.296
bifid v1.5. Alisa Andrasek and her algorithmic fabric ‘creature’ during installation at the KSA Gallery, Austion E Knowlton School of Architecture, Ohio State University. In often referring to her systems as ‘creatures’, Andrasek evokes their inherent dynamically behavioural coherence. This becomes powerfully manifest in her material computation
3.1 Case study 5
mong the dominant evolution of digital architecture, materiality and fabrication design are both significant elements that architects consider when engaged with computational approaches. Today,
though, biological influence starts to emerge as a new inspiring stimulant in generating architectural forms using parametric algorithm design18. The bifid ceiling prototype here shows the intersection and fabrication pattern being generated algorithmically based on the natural interference of wave and fabricated with fabric using CNC milling. The project takes the biomorphic approaches to represent the natural morphologies of organic things of which can be considered to be problematic in that 'form is generated in terms of form'19. Such design approach often lacks in insightful analysis of the natural principles in response to the conditions of the environmental context. Natural design is more than just mimicking the appearance of the organic20.
18 Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1â€“10. 19 Pia Ednie-Brown. (2006), All-over, over-all: biothing and emergent composition. Architectural Design, 76: 72â€“81. doi:10.1002/ad.296 20 Oxman, pp.1-10.
Skidmore, Owings & Merrill (SOM), Infinity Tower, Dubai, 2012 The lateral stepping of the perimeter columns for the Infinity Tower became a driver of the building’s exterior architectural expression, and were designed in a close collaboration between the SOM architects and structural engineers. The use of finite element (FE) algorithms was critical to the success of the collaboration, providing analysis and visualisation of the structural forces for the various structural design options that were considered for the building’s twisting form.
Computation fabriCation and ConStruCtion
In architectural practice, computation not only works, but has become necessary, to build the largest projects in the world. Given the complexities of form and the compressed timescales of construction today, groups such as Foster + Partners’ Specialist Modelling Group (SMG) have become essential aspects in the construction of many projects. As Mouzhan Majidi has said: ‘This hasn’t simply transformed what we can design – it’s had a huge impact on how we build.’11 One example of the impact of computational design is in component design. Unlike in Modernism, where the design effort often went into the perfection of a single detail, the computational approach currently tends to be the development of parametric families of components and in the requisite control of data. Here, what is relevant is the relationship between the parts, and the management of this change in response to local performance requirements. As new design tools are developed to link the virtual design environment with the physical environment, Image source: Landvestdubai.com. (2018). Infinity Tower Dubai, designers Dubai Marina will properties, 80 architectural increasingly have
the capacity to explore building systems and building environments (see Andrew O Payne and Jason Kelly Johnson, pp 144–7) This could lead to a future where an architect´s digital model could continue to be relevant during the occupation of the building, where feedback between users, building and environment is updated in the digital model and reflected in changes in the building and its performance. Computational design linked to computationally driven manufacturing Project: Infinity Tower requires a new interpretationArchitect: of the designSOM and construction process (see Jan Knippers’s Date: 2012 ‘From Model Thinking to Process Design’ on Location: Dubai pp 74–81). This invention of new techniques and technologies has, and will continue to cause shifts in our discipline’s definition and boundaries. Jan Knippers notes that this is the point for significant innovation. Similarly, Dennis Shelden writes that these computational tools and techniques will even more significantly affect the processes of design and delivery, the definition of the discipline of architecture, and the connection of the work to us and to society (see his ‘Networked Space’ on pp 36–41).
Storey Glass faced Property, Studio Apartment,Penthouse,Apartment. [online] Available at: http:// www.landvestdubai.com/infinity-tower-dubai-p134.html [Accessed 14 Mar. 2018].
Image source: Brady Peters. (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought. Architectural
Design, 83: 8–15. doi:10.1002/ad.1545
3.2 Case study 6
n architectural practice, the use of computational tools not only helps to generate design forms, but also makes it more efficient when dealing with large projects across the globe. The Infinity
Tower in Dubai, for example, uses algorithm data to provide analysis and visualisation of the structural forces for the various structural design options in response to the building's form. Such way of designing, offers a bridge of communication between the SOM architects and the structural engineers that make it the key to the success of collaboration hence the accomplishment of the project21. The ability to link the virtual design environment with the physical environment and the achievement from virtuality to reality of the building systems in a highly controlled manner in terms of its performance and experience is, in a sense, the highlight among the many advantages of parametric modeling.
21 Peters, 83: 8â€“15.
art A introduces the concepts of design futuring and explores the shift in architectural design culture from composition to generation using computational tools. Several architectural
precedences are highlighted that help me to conceptualise my Initial design approach in response to the given brief. Looking for inspiration from nature with emphasis on the behaviours of the organic beings in response to the environmental contexts rather than merely focusing on the morphology of their original forms. Process is to be highlighted that celebrates the dynamism and variations are to be explored to show any changes or adaptations that occur. Such design approach can act as a guiding vision to lead my design development while providing opportunities to observe the nature around us and perhaps to reflect ourselves and learn some of the principles from them.
A.5 Learning outcomes
he past few weeks of experimenting with computational tools has opened a new world of algorithmic design for me, which help me to build up my knowledge about parametric modeling and
explore the alternative pathways when respond to the design issues. It is always stimulating to try out the many different commands in Grasshopper that can offer myriad design potential and most often produce some unexpected outcomes by chance. Also, the algorithmic thinking design culture, provides a new way of communicating and presenting ideas that forms the paradigm shift within the architectural discourse.
Some basic morphologic forms of the morning glory at the very early stage of algorithmic experimentation to demonstrate process from booming to decay. Furthur exploration of the behavioral process within a temporal scale is to be considered at the next stage of design development.
A.6 Appendix - Algorithm sketches
A.7 Reference list
Dunne, Anthony & Raby, Fiona (2013). Speculative Everything: Design Fiction, and Social Dreaming (MIT Press) Ednie-Brown, Pia (2006), All-over, over-all: biothing and emergent composition. Architectural Design, 76: 72–81. doi:10.1002/ ad.296 Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg) Kwinter, Sanford (2011) ‘The Computational Fallacy’, in Achim Menges and Sean Ahlquist, Computational Design Thinking, John Wiley & Sons (London) Menges, Achim (2016), Computational Material Culture. Architectural Design, 86: 76–83. doi:10.1002/ad.2027 Mueller, Caitlin. (2017), Distributed Structures: Digital Tools for Collective Design. Architectural Design, 87: 94–103. doi:10.1002/ad.2201 Oxman, Rivka and Oxman, Robert (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge) Oxman, Neri (2012), Programming Matter. Archit Design, 82: 88–95. doi:10.1002/ad.1384 Passive House Bruck / Peter Ruge Architekten" 26 Nov 2014. ArchDaily. Accessed 5 Mar 2018. <https://www.archdaily.com/569638/passive-house-bruck-peter-ruge-architekten-2/> ISSN 0719-8884\ Peters, Brady (2007) ‘The Smithsonian Courtyard Enclosure: Computer Programming as a Design Tool’, in Expanding Bodies: Art, Cities, Environment, ed. by Brian Lilley and Philip Beesley. Proceedings of the ACADIA 2007 Conference, Riverside Press (Waterloo, Ontario) Peters, Brady (2013). Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought. Architectural Design, 83: 8–15. doi:10.1002/ ad.1545 Snell, Clarke. (2018), Climate Change is the New Gravity. Architectural. Design, 88: 6–15. doi:10.1002/ad.2253
Published on Mar 14, 2018