A cost-effective, customizable solution that maximizes the effectiveness of fracking heterogeneous rock, by analyzing the rock mechanical data commonly obtained during drilling.
Optimize Hydraulic Stimulation An optimized completion that increases production by even one percent could result in significant increases in total recovery and thousands of dollars over the life of a well.
INEFFICIENCIES OF PERFORATION CLUSTERS IN HORIZONTAL WELLS Numerous papers and articles have addressed the common issue of non-contributing perforation clusters with the average range of non-contributing clusters are reported from 30 to 40 percent. When clusters are aligned with relatively soft rock compared to other clusters in a particular stage, they take most or all of the fracking fluid and proppant, leaving little for the other clusters in the stage. These “frac hog” clusters are recognized as one of the leading causes of non-contributing clusters and reserves left behind. With operators consistently finding heterogeneity of the rock along the wellbore, geometric (evenly spaced perforation placements can create a wide variance of the rock hardness within each stage). The perforations aligned with the softer rock become for each cluster the ‘frac hog” and the remaining clusters become marginalized.
The average range of non-contributing clusters are reported to be from
30 % to 40 %
Detail rock information is usually not available along lateral at the time of completion design. Log runs to define the facies of the wellbore are often considered uneconomical and time consuming, so geometric fracking design became the norm. However, geometric fracking designs are too inefficient for heterogeneous wells and results in reduction of the return on the drilling and completion investments.
For more information and case studies, see our website: www.drill2frac.com 2
DRILL2FRAC SERVICE Drill2Frac (D2F) is a cost effective, customizable solution that mitigates the risk of fracking heterogeneous rock, by analyzing the rock mechanical data commonly obtained during drilling. It provides a virtually risk-free way of determining the varying levels of hardness of rock along the wellbore so that fracking operations can be made significantly more effective. This ultimately leads to better and longer producing wells. Now completion designs that mitigate wellbore heterogeneity can be created without risking delays to the completion schedule, and they can increase the effectiveness of the perforations by better aligning them to like rock in each stage. Solutions can be customized to each individual well. Our solutions include:
· · · · ·
Shifting clusters within the stage to align perforations with like-rock area Shifting clusters and aligning stages to align perforations with like rock areas Aligning stages to accommodate large like-rock areas Eliminating perforation clusters that are predicted to be parasite clusters Developing diverter strategies that evenly spread fracturing fluid across the perforations
Our personnel has several decades of experience in optimizing frac jobs. Our solution represents a completely new approach to an age-old problem delivered by a team of experts. Drill2frac solutions have been successfully installed in hundreds of wells around the world with outstanding results.
You can count on our dependable services and technology for dependable operations in hydraulicallystimulated wells. To ensure that our products perform in the harshest environments, our solution has been rigorously field-tested with multiple customers to ensure precise and reliable data-driven solutions to optimize your wells.
DETERMINING ROCK HETEROGENEITY Mechanical Specific Energy (MSE) is the energy required to excavate a unit volume of rock. Basically, it provides a way to compare the hardness of rock along the wellbore. Drill2Frac service uses a refined MSE derived from existing drilling data. It is part of a creative and complex process that ultimately provides the well map that can be used to clearly identify zones of “like rock”, aids removal of “frac hog” clusters, and facilitates stage realignment for optimal cluster placement strategies. The comparative strength of the rock in any given stage is important while specific standards of hardness measurements are not necessary for this application. Both downhole and surface drilling data are used to calculate MSE. Some of those data components include torque, weight on bit, rate of penetration (ft/hr), RPM of bit, and bit diameter. Over the length of a stage, the resulting MSE can be used as a proxy for stress profiles enabling optimized completions.
BENEFITS AT A GLANCE ·
Increase production rates
Remove “parasite” clusters
Increase diverter effectiveness
No HSE risks
Space perforation clusters for maximum effectiveness
DRILL2FRAC USES A PROPRIETARY SEVEN-STEP WORKFLOW AND DOWNHOLE SOURCES THAT PINPOINTS THE CHANGES Drill2Frac Seven-Step Workflow
COLLECT REQUIRED DATA
ELIMINATE EXTRANEOUS DATA
DATA QUALITY PROCESS
(Pason files, EOW report, MWD, GR, DDR . . . )
(Repeat sections, Abandoned laterals, Vertical Sections)
(Gaps, Spikes, Cyclic Noise, Etc.)
CALCULATE MSE (To Define Rock Heterogeneity)
BUILD DEPTH CORRECTION
BU FACIES AN (LWD-GR and TRAJECTO WL-GR/CCL Correlation)
*Pason is a registered trademark of Pason Systems Corp.
Explicit Drilling Data Inputs
The process is a proprietary seven-step workflow that ultimately provides a log and trajectory plot and summary report. The initial step in the workflow is the collection of the data. Much of the data can easily be derived from drilling data recording programs such as PasonÂŽ data solutions.* The data is collected from a wide range of sources in a variety of different formats. With the data collected, extraneous data is then removed. This data includes repeated information and abandoned laterals. Once the data is narrowed down, the data must be cleaned, which removes anomalies such as spikes and cyclical noise. Some data anomolies are also corrected using basis-specific modeling. With clean data, the mechanical specific energy of the rock along the wellbore is calculated. This process is combination of software and intervention by experienced engineers and geologists. Because the data is pulled from many different aspects, the relationship between the data points is paramount and as the data from different sources align, the results become increasing accurate. When a high level of confidence in the data is achieved, the log of the wellbore is cast. The data is used to build a depth correction for perforation depth control. By correlating the multiple data points accessed with gamma ray logs, an extremely accurate log of rock hardness differentiation can be extracted. Drill2frac services include delivery of log plot or a completion design that takes advantage of the hardness log along with the depth correction.
Data Analysis and Cleansing
EXPLOITING MULTIPLE DRILLING DATA INPUTS RPM SPP COLLAR TALLY
W THAT TAKES THE DATA FROM EXISTING SURFACE S IN HARDNESS ALONG THE WELLBORE Solutions for typically-spaced clusters
UILD BUILD S PLOT OPTIMAL ND COMPLETION ORY PLOT DESIGN
TOR LWD ROP WOB ΔP
PROD LOGS TRACER LOGS PROD RPTS Validation Data
Geomechanical Completion Data
Shifting clusters to like rock
Shifting clusters and aligning stages to like rock
By identifying the relative hardness of rock across a stage and aligning that map with an accurate depth correction, it becomes a simple exercise to place clusters aligned with like hardness. This assures that clusters that were ineffective because they were in inconsistant rock hardness are now likely to contribute.
When space permits, the optimal solution is to start with stages that are sized to minimize variance in hardness. Then, aligning the clusters creates higher level of effectiveness for the clusters because a larger percentage of the stages can be used along the entire wellbore.
Solutions for closely-spaced clusters Aligning stages to like rock When tight spacing between clusters prohibits realigning clusters, it is still very effective to use D2F technology. By adjusting the stage lengths, the difference of rock hardness can be minimized, resulting in better fracking performance for each stage. The D2F Lateral Heterogeneity Index (LHI) measures the change in MSE so that variance of hardness in each stage is significantly diminished.
Eliminating “frac hog” clusters Parasite clusters can reduce the effectiveness of most of the clusters in a stage. Because the D2F plots identify these parasite clusters, they can be excluded from the completion plan. This allows the majority of the clusters to be effectively stimulated rather than just the few parasite clusters
Diverter strategy Without detailed rock characteristics along the lateral, jobs using diverter typically consist of one or two diverter drops, with equal volumes of fluid and proppant before and after the drops. Studies have shown that while the diverters are effective, these strategies can result in some clusters being either over- or under-stimulated, when the treatment volumes are not matched to the relative numbers of perf clusters with weaker or stronger rock. By using D2F logs, operators can employ an “engineered diversion strategy” to guide the number of diverter drops and the amount of fluid to pump between before and after each drop. It also reveals when the stage is homogeneous and does not require any diverter, saving pumping time and expense.
Drill2Frac is a nominal investment to get stage-specific perspectives on heterogeneity for our completion optimization process. Blain Lewis, Legacy Reserves
DRILL2FRAC INVESTMENT —SUBSTANTIAL RETURNS By investing in Drill2Frac service, you are able to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of your fracking operations with the ultimate goal of increasing production rates, ultimate recovery and increasing the bottom line ROI of hydraulically stimulated wells. A small increase (as little as one percent) in production more than pays for the cost of the service. However, many customers have seen results beyond five percent increases in production. Additionally, eliminating individual “frac hog” clusters significantly reduces completion costs while increasing the effectiveness of the remaining clusters. The process of identifying stages with homogeneous rock hardness, allows you to avoid unnecessary diverter drops which reduces the cost of diverter and time of completion costs, without sacrificing its effectiveness.
Color coding identifies “like hardness” of rock.
For unconventional completion design, Drill2Frac offers a virtually risk-free way of determining the varying levels of hardness of the rock along the wellbore so that fracking operations can be made significantly more effective. To learn more about our cost-effective, customizable solutions, contact us at: Info@drill2frac.com or visit drill2frac.com for more information.
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Drill2Frac service optimizes hydraulic stimulation