Page 1

VERNON

NAT U R E + MACHI N E


N AT U R E + M A C H I N E TA BL E OF CON TEN TS TEAM PAGE

4-7

VERNON PAGE

8-9

READINGS

10-21

MAPPING

22-31

THE VERNON ARGUMENT

32-33

URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK

34-59


3

VER N ON, C A


NATURE + MACHINE Manifesto

As society moves into the impending future of scarce resources, the demand to design urban metabolic systems will increase. Relationships between contrasting entities will no longer function solely but rather as symbiotic organisms. Cities will grow as these organisms adapt to their surroundings. Thus creating a relationship between nature and urban environments.

A R M A N D O S I LVA When first presented with the task to design within the context of Vernon, California, the first assumption made was there is nothing you can do here. With a motto “strictly industrial” for a landscape architecture student those words mean no vegetation. Now with a growing field and expanding mind sets, Vernon opened the door for new passions and systems of resiliency that don’t necessarily have to revolve around the all too common garden state of mind. Urban Design is a field that is not too familiar in our vocabulary but is highly on the rise for how architects of all nature see cities develop within their context. The Landscape Architecture 402 studio sponsored by SWA

My passion for industrial sites has developed over the

Laguna Beach is the perfect symbiosis between visionary

past couple years. With projects like Gas Works Park in

urban design and landscape architecture. SWA has led

Seattle Washington and Landschaftspark Duisburg-Nord

many studio discussions and reviews that have broadened

in Germany, the site of industrial complexes turned into

the mind sets of our young student body. This studio has

community spaces has become attractive for myself.

introduced me into methods of design where systems can

The skeletal system of how buildings and landscapes has

develop to prolong the life expectancy of a given project,

always amazed me, now with the perfect opportunity

as well how to approach a design that relates to the sites

in Vernon, I along with my group mates can begin to

context. For Vernon, the approach is completely different

incorporate our passions and see how nature and machine

than anything I have ever taken on. The question of who

can become one system that works for all humanity.

to design for was the most confusing. With a population of 100 residents Vernon lacks community and for a good reason, Vernon is not a residential type of city. As a group of four we came to terms that this project was more about how a city can develop for the future and keep its “strictly industrial” nature. We do not aim at brining in people or creating a tourist attraction but rather developing an urban fabric that can function at all levels of industry. How can Vernon function as a symbiotic industrial city? This is the question we explored along with making this system move Vernon into becoming a healthy city and a machine that could ultimately better the environment.


The concept for “Urban by Nature” has reiterated the necessity of nature existing in our urban environments. The city of Vernon sets the stage for our landscape interventions that were dependent on identifying the relationships between Vernon’s infrastructure and the surrounding context. Here we identified nature and its processes as an absent figure within the city. Vernon provides a unique setting for the “Urban by Nature” studio because of its role as an industrial city which became a fundamental component in our design process.

D E N I S E M U N OZ

This required we acknowledge a sensitivity to the city’s needs. The studio, led by Cal Poly Pomona’s Andrew Wilcox and Laguna Beach firm, SWA, provided me with a greater understanding and appreciation for the relationship between landscape and infrastructure as a mode of operation for manipulation of form to influence a balance between these fabricated systems. The studio established the role we have as future landscape architects in determining how design can meet the expectations of a city’s needs while maintaining the value of nature and its processes as they occur within the city. Working with SWA provided me with the knowledge and understanding of how teams should work together to bridge ideas within large-scale design and systems thinking.

5


The topic of Vernon was presented to us in the fall and knowing the city at the surface level I knew it

was going to be an interesting topic. At first sight I thought of how I was going to turn the streets green and make Vernon this eye candy for the typical pedestrian as they walk the streets, but as we learned about how the city runs and its pride in industry my group and I felt that this was an opportunity to explore the provocative in design. Since June I have been working at a private architectural firm based in long beach and after graduating I will be working full-time, so because of that I want to use my last quarters as a student exploring larger ideas that get filtered out of the work environment but this studio serves as a design tool and most of all, a way to explore the creative approach that as students we strive for.

The support that he received from SWA Laguna Beach has enriched the experience of exploring these

new ideas and helped with making them tangible. Since they deal with these scenarios on a daily basis, it really helped us develop this thesis that we have into a project that can help change the mentality that people presently have. Throughout the quarter we have explored the different approaches that we had to offer to Vernon and the studio as a whole really meshed together to compile a thorough project. Seeing this first hand has really made me bridge the gap from what a campus studio does in comparison to a large firm. As a team we tackled programs that were new to use and utilized them as much as possible which was an enriching experience and helped me develope my skills to further pursue my career.

E A R N E S T L IT T L E


J I M M Y TA Vernon being a city solely industrial, it becomes a major factor to America’s production. The city has potentially grown for its industry and stays that way. As a result, it becomes a challenge to design for a city with a different approach in consumerism. The importance of America’s consumerism plays a big role in Vernon’s conversion of leftover products to a cities treasure of goods, Vernon is an important role to the county of Los Angeles and to other cities supplied by Vernon. The interest of goods behind factories must be understood by the interdependence of this system. Vernon helps clean and remove unwanted materials and recycle goods for a better living of urban America. With that being said, Vernon must be understood at the level of production and consumption. With visionary intentions within the sponsored studio by SWA, Vernon serves a potential in developing the future of urban consumption. We must understand the goods we consume and the metabolism of our city. Our consumption is the big factor taken into consideration for design. Designing for this urban fabric of industry, Vernon has a woven mat scheme of related industries. The goods we developed within Vernon are mechanical within the motive of production. What if we see the resiliency of the systems around us? As landscape designers, we see the systems and networks within the habitat humans have created over time. The urban fabric is understood that we can no longer see development from the ground up, but rather the reconfiguration of our systems and infrastructure. As a team, we seek the model of adaptable ecosystems. Our vision of developing new landscapes does not exist, as we must adapt to our future and urban fabric. The mechanical environment and the resilient ecosystems seek connections between the developments of the future. I seek the nature and resilience within systems. The nature behind humankind is clear; we are part of the ecosystem. I prolong to find a calling for that connection between man and nature. While growing up, I was exposed to the world of aquatic animals and insects with fascination. Between the biological roots and graphic representation in landscape architecture, I embrace the world technology it has to offer. With my respect for man made systems and nature, fascinate myself over projects like Oystertecture by Kate Orff. In addition, I see potential in biomimicry and systems that are created within landscape architecture or architecture. I seek the nature and technologies to create systems for our communities.

7


VERNON N AT URE + MAC H I N E Vernon nestled between downtown Los Angeles and the

Alcoa, glass Owens, can-making American Can and

ports of Long beach made it the ideal city to become the

automobile. Even though industry takes up most of the

central hub for industry in the Southern California region.

square footage of the city there is a small amount of

With an area of 5.1 sq. mi, the city of Vernon is home to

public space, due to the lack of public space within the

46,000 workers and 100 residences making this an industry

city limits, Vernon helps fund parks for the adjacent

orientated community. What started out as a “Sports Town”

communities as an attempt to justify its industrial

in 1907 has emerged into a highly product and distribution

dominance. Even though they give to the adjacent

based city, and this is highly due to its location and context.

cities, Vernon has recently been forced to comply with

8 miles north of the city sits Downtown Los Angeles and

a higher number of residents to qualify for its city

20 miles south are the ports in Long beach, intersecting

charter.

the eastern portion of the city is the Los Angeles River and

As a result of its high industry, Vernon’s yearly revenue

freeways that surround the city include the 5,710 and 60

is an estimated $250,000,000 and it’s mainly due to its

freeway. This context gives the businesses the opportunity

city owned utilities. With so much revenue coming in

to efficiently distribute their products and makes exchange

and out of the city, it has also faced legal discrepancies

with other companies easier due to being located in or

within its city which further emphasizes its focus on

near the city. Because of the benefits that come with the

currency and stresses the importance its industrial

location, the value per square foot has risen through the

stance. Vernon strives to keep its status as a city of

years making Vernon a more desired place to be when it

industry and there are many workers and businesses

comes to businesses.

that benefit from having a place like Vernon.

Looking at Vernon as the industrial hub that it is, there is a certain atmosphere that is generated as one enters the city that moves you through its circulation as fast as possible. The transportation infrastructure is designed for trucks and rail road’s, not for people, making it highly efficient for distribution to and from the industries that lay within the city. Some of the main industries include food service manufacturing, metalworking, and manufacture of glass and plastic equipment. Vernon is globally connected through the distribution of these good and it is said that “In Los Angeles, everything that you touch has gone through Vernon”-Marissa Olguin. The current building typologies consist of tilt up warehouses; these buildings are found throughout the industries. These building types have a lifespan of around 100years; most of the main industries that are reaching the latter part of their life cycle include: steel U.S. Steel and Bethlehem Steel, aluminum


9


REA DIN G S


11


Mapping

01

r

c u ln e t

i nt ART & CARTOGRAPHY IN THE 20TH CENTURY DENIS COSGROVE

at si w r a l i n fo r m u

i tio a

MAPS, MAPPING, MODERNITY:

e

r mt i o n a on n

c o n v er er r e fe s

a t n c en fi no rfmo r m o

n t i o at i o n

l innafl oi r m a a nf n io

*CARTOGRAPHY: the science or practice of drawing maps.

+ ART

CARTOGRAP

MEDIUM

PARALLELS

CONTENT SELECTION

EMPHASIS LINE

Mapping is concerned with the process and selection of specific documentation of a site’s performance and spatial representation.


r

c u ln e t

rm

u

n

w ra l

n io tion a

i nt

rm ce e n s i n fi nofor m at

a

c o n v er er r e fe s

a

t i om atni o n r tio

l i n fo r m n at i o n ai nlfoi n fo a

INDEPENDENT ANALYTICAL+

PHY

INDEPENDENT

REPORTIVE CARTOGRAPHY

ART

ANALYTICAL

MEDIUM

SCIENCE

REPORTIVE

INSTRUMENTATION MECHANIZATION

SYMBOLISM

SCIENCE

MECHANIZATION

SYMBOLISM

PARALLELS

CONTENT SELECTION

OBJECTIVE REPRESENTATION

OBJECTIVE REPRESENTATION DECISIONEMPHASIS

DECISION

COLOR COMPOSITION

LINE

COLOR COMPOSITION

FRAME

INSTRUMENTATION

FRAME

FORM PERSPECTIVE

FORM PERSPECTIVE

Urban mapping is a pictorial art practice that documents another performative art, the urban derive.

13


02

GRAPHIC INTEGRITY & MAPPING COMPLEXITY READINGS FROM THE EXPOSED CITY NADIA AMAROSO

KEVIN LYNCHE Mapping the image of a city Elements of cognitive mapping: path | edge | district | node | landmark Language of symbols

RICHARD SAUL WURMAN Information architect Organization of data & category Mapping is thoughtful organization of geographic information using visual strategies to understand urban complexity.


32

EDWARD TUFTE Visual integrity = Graphic truth Mapping is designed representation of interesting data Selective clarity + data selection

15


DRAWINGS: THE MAPLANDSCAPES

RICHARD SAUL WURMAN Informational graphics Urban mapping and data Logistic mapping and emphasized importance Precise representation of data on maps Spatially mapping data in two dimensions

READINGS FROM THE EXPOSED CITY NADIA AMAROSO

EDWARD TUFTE One dimensional data mapping Field of information graphics Data and mapping Concise mapping and information

Data driven timeline

Data

Joseph R. Passonneau and Richard Saul Wurman, Urban Atlas: 20 American Cities

time


NADIA AMOROSO Data appropriate mapping representation Third dimensional spatial mapping Mapping through geo-spatial referencing

positive data

negative data

sloping data

17


05

THE MAP - ART

McHarg’s site-analysis mapping concept endures today because it showed the potentialities to convey site information in layered categories and color coding. Nadia Amoroso

THE WORKS OF JAMES CORNER NADIA AMOROSO

50

40 20 10 0

“Survey landscape accrued” Taking measures across the American Landscape.

IAN MCHARG 1 Dimensional Mapping Natural + Social Aspects of site - Vegetation - hydrology - soil structure - geology - morphology - sun and shade areas - erosion - areas of sensitivity McHargian mapping. Lacks poetic flare to the modern eye. Potentials to convey site information.


JAMES CORNER 2 Dimensional Mapping Visual Architecture 50

-selected + translated + organized + shaped

40 20

Maps make visible what is otherwise invisible.

10 0

Maps cannot depict everything. Metaphorical. Symbolic. 50

Spatial Powers.

40 20

Practical measures

10 0

- scale + mathematical projections 10 0

Poetic measures - artistic interpretations + cultural aspects

50

Dynamic mapping.

40 0

Logic + Creativity.

20 0

0

Hidden Potentials. Ideas.

10 0

Relationships. Possibilities.

20 0

Eidetic.

40

0

The piece as a whole is informative and attractive; more than that. it is rich with information for the viewer to decipherinformation that may entice the viewer to learn more about the site and about its recurrent phenomena.

50

Nadia Amoroso

0

20 0

50 0

10 40

0

0

“Burnings� Taking measures across the American Landscape.

19


09

THE AGENCY OF MAPPING: SPECULATION, CRITIQUE & INVENTION JAMES CORNER

MAPPING Dynamic Experimenting with reality Constructs the unconscious Measures performance Past, Present and Future Commercial

Residential

Streets

4 Thematic ways to practice Mapping DRIFTS Spatial Experiences Disrupting any form that may be interpreted as capitalist power increase public conscious and systematic everyday life

LAYERING Superimposing various independent layers to produce heterogeneous and thickened surface

Richard Long: 7 day circle of ground


Buildings

Streets

TRACING Literal Alleged Competence Redundancies

RHIZOMES Connections of any point No beginning nor end, no hierarchy and accentual

GAME BOARD Notions of Performance Shared working and competing surfaces to work

s Éä ç íó Åá

together and play out different scenarios

a á ë í ÅÉ ~å

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MAPPING TRANSPORTATION CONTEXT DISTRIBUTION SYNTHESIZED MAP


23


TRANSPORTATION The city of Vernon is dependent on its network of

Due to Vernon’s focus as an industrial city,

transportation systems to thrive as an industrial

there lies opportunity to integrate alternative

city. The current transportation system relies

modes of transportation into the city in areas

on the links that connect Vernon’s distributive

where we can identify existing constraints

system to the neighboring communities and

between

essentially, the rest of the world. At the local

transportive systems. Areas with higher traffic

level, Vernon’s transportation infrastructure

density (arterial streets) pose issues related to

primarily serves trucks and trains, giving

congestion, noise, smells, and emissions. Areas

secondary priority to cars and other forms of

where railroad crossings intersect with street

public transportation. The distribution of these

flow also cause heavier traffic conditions and

multiple forms of transportation are dependent

are considered unsafe for pedestrian use.

the

disconnect

and

tension

of

on the capacity of these streets to determine

i-5

i-710

6 arter

soto st

santa fe ave

alameda blvd

east 30th st

long beach ave

the flows and density of traffic within the city.


TYPES & FLOWS

CIRCULATION PLAN

64’-104’ rial street

freeway rail road spur lines arterial streets

PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION

collector streets local streets bike lane

In areas where transportation conditions minimize the efficiency of the city, we can identify opportunities to improve the quality and efficiency of these transit systems. At locations where we can identify voids, there is opportunity to occupy these infrastructure with multifunctional modes of transportation therefore no longer limiting the user interface within the city. As we take a look at neighboring communities within Vernon’s context, we can identify areas that could serve as potential linkages from Vernon to its neighboring communities.

0mi

.25mi

.50mi

2mi

25


chavez ravine

downtown los angeles

south los angeles

east los angeles commerce 1 1

north 3mi

2mi

1mi

1

east maywood

Huntington park

bell

bell gardens

west south Alameda Corridor

to port of long beach + los angeles

LA River


CONTEXT Vernon’s contextual transportation networks are unlike any other city. Two major railroad systems, the Union Pacific and the Burlington Northern Santa Fe, run right through the city of Vernon in a complex rail network that weaves in and out of buildings and narrow corridors. Many of these railroads are abandoned and some remain in use. The Alameda Corridor runs right adjacent to Vernon and connects Vernon to the Los Angeles and Long Beach Ports. The rail system theoretically connects Vernon in a global scale of transportation. Further on, the 710 Highway runs right alongside Vernon, connecting directly southbound to the Long Beach port. On a public scale, Vernon’s public transit is run by the LAMTA bus transit. This is the main source of public transportation in Vernon. The other major source is the blue line metro station that lies two blocks west of Vernon’s city limits. The bike lane ends in Vernon along the Los Angeles River. The bike lane continues north starting above Elysian Park. In conclusion the transportation system in Vernon is related highly to industrial usage. This fortunately connects Vernon contextually to many adjacent cities. However this network is highly under utilized. Opportunity can be found in the rail system and the Los Angeles River to move pedestrians, products and goods in high efficiency as well create a relationship between both the Los Angeles River and Vernon.

Contextual cities Vernon,CA neighborhoods

bike routes metro (rail + bus)

railroads

rivers

highways

abandoned rails

abandoned rail yards 1. Hobart yard

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DISTRIBUTION

VERNON’S INDUSTRIES


CONNECTION TO PORTS

DISTRIBUTION With the development of industry, we must understand where the goods come from to create the products we consume. As a result, Vernon is understood that goods are transported into the city through different scales, consisting of city scale, regional scale, and international scale. Vernon plays an important role in gather resources such as petroleum oils, animal by-products, and agricultural goods as well. With these resources, Vernon recycles goods and most easily obtainable resources for output to the city. The process behind developing these products for distribution becomes a matter of what are we shipping out to the cities and countries. Vernon is the heart of distribution and the soul of distributing the goods we need, such as soap, detergent, fuel, fertilizer, and many more. These behind distribution goes beyond the production, but the necessity of these goods, which then fuels America as we see today. Something small such as where our soap comes from is vital to the metabolism of Vernon and the linkage between the city to many scales. As we look at the types of goods produced within the boundaries of Vernon, it is a neighboring production site, which we can identify where our distribution comes from and the types of goods. Distribution is the input and output of our city; however, available goods currently in Vernon will change in the later future. The type of resources we seek such as petroleum oils, agriculture products, and recycled meats to create a city will soon change, thus seeing the potential in accommodating the alternate form of goods for Vernon impacting the greater network.

29


40’ 35’ 30’ 25’ 20’ 15’ 10’ 5’


SYNTHESIZE Understanding the way Vernon works understands the layers in which the city is composed of and its relationship to its context. Understanding the systems and how they work together is important due to scale in which Vernon works; most cities do not have the influence that is evident in this city. By gathering the data that relates to transportation, context and distribution you start to notice the patterns that lay within the parameters of the city. When over-lapping these 3 systems there are certain areas that are concentrated with industrial activities and other areas that are scarcer.

Vernon,CA railroads arterial streets collector streets local streets LA river

Most densities are found closer to main streets such as Alameda and Soto just to name a few. These patterns allow the viewer to perceive these concentrations and gaps as potentials for opportunities for design. In this map there is an emphasis on the Los Angeles River and how it connects the city to both Downtown and the Ports. This relationship is vital to the topic of distribution and the means in which goods are distributed which are trucks and trains. The Ports are also what connects Vernon on a global scale which is one of the traits that Vernon has. Meanwhile on a local and regional scale the map is displaying the significance of industry and how it is not only contained within those parameters of the city but trickles out to the neighboring cities as well. This mass of industrialization that is shown in the section, indicates that the city creates a contrast in elevation changes that alters the way one moves and feels when in Vernon. In conclusion, Vernon’s overlapping systems are what make this city unique and understanding them allows for a deeper understanding of how it works and why. The foundation of this city is built upon these systems and at times they can be overlooked because of its contradiction to what people understand a typical city to be which has an emphasis on the residence but that is not the case here in Vernon.

31


THE VERNON ARGUMENT INTRODUCTION Adhering to Vernon’s goal to thrive as an

Vernon. The edge conditions between industry and

industrial city, our design philosophy approaches

the Los Angeles River inspired the exploration of

Vernon’s industrial footprint and attempts to

symbiotic relationships between the two, where

adapt it to the rising demands of the future. By

we saw potential and opportunities that were not

2050, Southern California’s population is expected

being explored. Our strategy for design proposes

to increase by 62 percent. With increasing

to release the tension between industry and water

demands for goods and manufactured products,

infrastructure, in which a new river morphology can

the city of Vernon remains an appropriate site for

exist. The framework for our design analyzes the

the future of industrial development. Our design

potential to integrate the Los Angeles River and

approaches Vernon as a stage for industrial,

Vernon’s industries as a working system that focuses

environmental, and typological intervention

on increasing the efficiency and life expectancy of

through industrial symbiosis.

the industrial cycle. We aim to avoid the nostalgic image romanticized by advocates of the Los Angeles

Our plan identifies that the current industrial grid

River and evoke a futuristic approach to industrial

that defines Vernon is successful at maintaining

design methodologies.

its status as a city solely for business. As citywide development begins to increase, urban

The framework for our design explores defining a

development and industry will have to phase

new typological system for Vernon’s industries in

out their disconnected state of existence and

which a new fabricated model for industry will exist

formulate a program for coexistence. Our

working in conjunction with the Los Angeles River

approach aims to integrate edge conditions

and transportation networks. Identifying that Vernon

between industrial development and its

currently services a large number of businesses,

surrounding context. The city of Vernon reveals

there is projected need for businesses to develop

many opportunities to integrate multiple systems

and increase. Our design proposes to consolidate

for a more efficient output. Understanding

industry by integrating and organizing each type

that Vernon is a major hub that operates at

where they can exist as an alternative system of

multiple scales of connection, the patterns at

production and consumption of each other’s waste

which transportation, distribution networks, and

products and other resources. Industrial occupation

building footprints exist need to be integrated as

along the Los Angeles River will provide the city

a framework for efficiency.

with a source of power as well as an alternative connection to the Port of Long Beach. Our design

The concept for our design framework emerges

philosophy engages the resilience of Vernon’s future

from the existing conditions of industrial systems

and the connections between all the systems that

and its relationship to infrastructural networks

define the mechanism of Vernon as a working city.

and edge conditions that define the city of


CONTEXTUAL SITUATION Vernon’s location is an ideal region

The framework for design is influenced

for an industrial city as it remains in

by Vernon’s unique disposition and regard

close proximity to major freeways

for their industrial properties as they

and railways that connect to the port

outline the streets and create an edge

and essentially links to the rest of

boundary for the city. The contextual

the world. From above, Vernon’s city

relationship between Vernon and the Los

limit is outlined by the concrete paved

Angeles River currently functions idle

infrastructure that defines Vernon’s

of one another. Our framework draws

grid. The building characteristics are

from the idea of the resources that can

defined by large-scale rectangular

be allocated from the L.A. River and

structures that house the working

become of service to Vernon’s industry.

properties of the city. These tilt

Acknowledging that there are two separate

up warehouses offer opportunities

networks of infrastructure (industry and

to reconfigure the forms that are

the Los Angeles River), opportunity exists

necessary for industry to thrive.

to integrate the two separate systems

Our framework identifies strategies

into one. These circumstances draw upon

towards approaching the future of

a unique identity for our urban design

Vernon and its relationship to its

framework and a proposed typology for the

context and neighboring infrastructure.

city’s industry to work in conjunction with one another as a distributive system.

33


URBAN DESIGN FRAMEWORK


Our urban design framework aims to

businesses aim to reorganize

consolidate industry into an integrated

larger industrial groupings that

industrial symbiotic process that

share responsibilities between

reorganizes the existing fabric into

resource distribution, allocation, and

an organization of parts that posits

consumption of waste products.

a systematic process of distribution,

The forms of the industrial typologies

consumption, and waste reduction between

resonate from natural river processes

related industries. Identifying the existing

and their ability to pool, ripple, step,

conditions, our framework was inspired

and run. Each typology will perform

by the potential to occupy underutilized

towards the needs of the industries,

infrastructural systems like the Los

dependent on their necessity for

Angeles River and identify soft spot areas

water or energy.

where other strategies for design may be applied. Transportation infrastructure

Our urban design framework

and alternative network systems are also

approaches the Los Angeles River

programmed and integrated into the design

with the intention of challenging it

framework to facilitate the new industrial

as a nostalgic amenity. Rather, it

typologies along the river and their

focuses on adapting industry and

connectivity to the region.

infrastructure to repurpose it for the resilience of industries’ future.

Industrial Typology Development The development of industrial typology existing within and along the river aims to ratify the resources made available from the Los Angeles River. Our strategies for typological development of industrial

INTRODUCTION DIAGRAMS PHASING 35


NATURE + MACHINE C OMP ON E NT S

INDUSTRY + RIVER + COMMUNITY

INDUSTRY


OPPORTUNITY The tilt up warehouse model has a short life expectancy that will have to be reformulated. This serves as a potential to reconfigure this industrial building type in or for it to maximize use and create efficiency.

POTENTIAL

The potential of reformulating the building space can provide a more flexible space for industry to develop. This will allow spaces to change and adapt over time. This reformulation will also allow buildings to become mix –use by adding more spaces.

37


NATURE + MACHINE C OMP ON E NT S

INDUSTRY + RIVER + COMMUNITY

RIVER


D SYSTEMS

STRATEGIES + POTEN TIALS

OPPORTUNITY The adjacency of the Los Angeles River to Vernon offers a great opportunity to utilize it. Taking advantage of the space and resource it has to offer can help Vernon become a more resilient city. DETACHED SYSTEMS

Re co n f i g u r a t i o n to a l low fo r maximum efficiency

DETACHED SYSTEMS

POTENTIAL The potential in utilizing the river can come in the form of inhabiting it with mix use structures and recreation. As well the natural resource of water can be utilized by mix-use buildings.

Industry moves to Los Angeles River Utilizes water in river to help with production

39


NATURE + MACHINE C OMP ON E NT S

INDUSTRY + RIVER + COMMUNITY

COMMUNITY


OPPORTUNITY

Vernon’s edge is surrounded

by residential communities. The opportunity to saturate the edges of Vernon and the Los Angeles River can benefit Vernon in the long run by integrating mix use typologies.

POTENTIAL

The potential in integrating

the edges of Vernon with mix-use can result in Vernon becoming a better neighbor. This will progress the consolidation of industry on to the river.

VERNON EDGE CONDITIONS LA RIVER

CONSOLIDATE

41


INDUSTRY | TECHNOLOGY | URBANIZATION

R UST B EL T

C AS E STU DI E S

http://www.smartplanet.com/blog/smart-takes/can-the-rust-belt-be-saved/

- Industrial decline ---- economic + population + urban decline

K A L UN D BOR G SYMBIOSIS

This was a model that spurred from the economic decline of the north eastern region of the United States. It strongly effected the post-industrial cities due to the

increase of the automobile industry in the South East, causing the downfall of the coal and metal industry that was the foundation of the North East.

- Industrial exchange - Shared resources (waste heat, sludge, steam) - Links between material + energy + community + industry The Kalundborg Symbiosis is an ecosystem focused on industry, where there is a symbiotic relationship between an enterprise that uses a resource by another

enterprise, in a closed looped cycle. This industrial symbiosis is a merge between the public and private enterprises to buy and sell each others products, resulting in mutual economic and environmental benefits for both enterprises.


F ORD ISM

http://www.mathiaspoulsen.com/tag/education/

http://silodrome.com/ford-model-t-assembly-line/

- Industrialized/ standardized form of mass production - Economic expansion + technological progression - Technological revolution

when the fall of that industry occurred so did the city’s.

Fordism was a result of a cities approach to building a foundation on a specific industry which

43


NATURE + MACHINE M ODE L S FO R S Y S T E M S

BUILDING T YPOLOGY A reformulation of the existing building typologies is necessary to maximize the uses and diversify the city enough to help it become more resilient. These typologies not only maximize the internal uses but the external as well, by utilizing the natural resources from its context while staying true to the distinct identity that

Vernon has. In addition they benefit with the surrounding context and land to create a working landscape.


NATURAL LIGHT

MULTI-FUNCTIONAL ROOF TOPS

LINEAR TYPOLOGY -- LINKAGES

45


BUILDING TYPOLOGY

Collector

The Dissipator Cleanser

Distributor

Generator


PROPOSED NET WORK PLANS

NEW PROPOSED LAYERS PROPOSED ROADS

PROPOSED BUILDINGS

I-710 CORRIDOR PLAN CA HIGH-SPEED RAIL

EXISTING CONDITIONS

NEW RIVER MORPHOLOGY

HIGHWAYS

STREETS

RAILWAYS

CONTEXTUAL INFLUENCES

RIVER

47


NATURE + MACHINE

M OD EL S FO R SY S T E M S

RIVER MORPHOLOGY


RIFFLE

R E F O R M U L AT I O N POOL

POOL

RIFFLE

STEP

RUN

S Y M B I O T I C R E L AT I O N S H I P CAPTURE

CLEAN

COMMUNITY

LOS ANGELES RIVER DISTRIBUTE

INDUSTRY

GENERATE

49


c

e’

d’

c’

MASTER PLAN b’


e’

e

c’

b’ b

a

a’

d

d’

north 0’ 500’ 1000’

1/2 mile

1 mile

51



THE NECESSITY OF VERNON The city of Vernon has stood its ground as an industrial city for over a century. The city provides over 50,000 jobs and houses an estimated 1,800 businesses. The current economic contribution of Vernon to the city of Los Angeles provides over $310 million annually from the city’s taxes. The future of Vernon functioning as a working system in conjunction with the Los Angles River provides a framework for the resilience of industries and economic development for Los Angeles. The project Nature + Machine identifies the conditions at which Vernon can impact its industries and administer environmental contributions to help alleviate impacts towards waste development.

53


NATURE + MACHINE

Connection with water Connection with abandoned rail roads

The Collector

The Cleanser

F IN A L COMPI L AT ION


55

The Generator

The Distributor


EX I ST I N G C O N D IT IO N S N AT U R E + M A C H I NE

Existing Los Angeles River

The existing conditions of Vernon that led to Nature + Machine are as follows: The Los Angles River cutting through Vernon, the amount of existing open space, the highway, street and rail infrastructure and the land use. All these conditions of Vernon are uniquely specific to the city.

Existing Open Space


Existing Highway, Street, Railroads

Existing Land Use

Residential Industrial Water Infrastructure

57


PR O POS A L

N AT U R E + M A C H I NE

WHAT: We want to create a symbiotic relationship between industry, river and neighboring residents.

HOW: By consolidation of industry on the Los Angeles River.


WHY: Because industry is a response to technology.

59


TH E C L E A N S E R NAT U R E + M A C H I NE

This site looks at the edge of Vernon and the opportunities that this condition presents. Due to Vernon’s highly industrial land use, they are motivated to increase their residential base to 150 people to maintain their city charter. With this number sure to rise in the near future, we approach the industry with the intentions to re-purpose the abandoned warehouses and focus their attention towards inhabiting people and businesses.


61


N ATUR E + M A C H IN E soto st e 26th st

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

e vernon ave

seville ave

THE CLEANSER

seville ave

PHASE 1


e vernon ave

63


TH E C L E A N S E R EXI ST I N G S I T E


65


TH E C L E A N S E R LANDSCAP E

Cu r r e n t ly Ve rn o n do e s n o t u t il ize the spa ces in-between the b u i l d i n g s a n d t h ere is a p o ten t ial fo r a wor k ing l a ndsca pe to emerg e. T h e la n d s c ap e h as t h e po te n t ial to become a sea sona l wetl a nd, tha t du ri n g t i m e s of h eav y ra in c an c le an a nd ca ptur e the r unoff.


RE -P U R P O S I NG B U I L D I NG

By c r e a t in g in c isio n s in to t h e existing buil ding s, the sca le of the bu i l d i n g s a r e bro ken dow n to in v ite r esidents a nd businesses to util ize th e s p a ce s w i t h in .

67


TH E C L E A N S E R PR O P OSE D S I T E

Th is re - p u r p o s e d s i te w i ll cre a te a new s ym b iosi s of t h e n e i gh bo r h o o d s a nd o l d in d u st ry. By c r e a t i n g t h i s r e la tio ns hip be t w e e n th e t wo typ o lo gi e s , i t gi ve s t he o ppo rt unity fo r Vern on to e mbr a ce t h e s u rro unding ne ig h b orh oo d s to ke e p t h e ir c ity cha rte r w hile s til l st ayin g t r u e to t h e d i s t i nct indus t ria l ide n t i ty.


69


TH E C L E A N S E R C I R CU L AT I O N

A L L V EHIC L ES SM A L L V EHIC L ES BIKE T R A IL PEDE ST R IA N

Th e new c ir c u la t i o n p a tte rn re a s s e m ble s t he hie ra rchy of veh i cu l a r a n d p e de s t r i a n t ra ffic. T he l a rge t ruck s a re direc ted to t h e ma i n s t r e e t s , le a ving s m a l le r s ide s t re e t s for sm al ler c a r s a n d bi ke s . T he pe de s t ria n w a l k m e a nde rs throug h t h e s i te a n d co n n e c ts t he a ba ndo ne d ra il l ine s con n ec t in g to a la rge r s y s te m t hro ugho ut Ve rno n.


ZON I N G

RE SIDE N T IA L PA RKIN G COM M ERC IA L PATH EN E RG Y WE TL A N D

By reco n f i gu r i n g t h e u s e s fo r t he buil dings t he re is a p oten t i a l to i n t r o du ce a h ighe r m a s s of re s ide nt s to t h e city. Fo c u s i n g t h e a tte nt io n to it s re s ide nt s t he r ed ist ri b ut io n of t h e bu i ldi n gs us e s is de te rm ine d by it s lo cat ion . Thi s p u s h e s co mme r cia l bus ine s s e s tow a rds th e m a in st r e e t s a n d r e s i de n t i a l fa cing t he a dj a ce nt ne ig h b orh oo d . 71


TH E C L E A N S E R TY P OL O G I E S

S UN -L IG H T

CA P TU R E T h e h i g h ce i lin gs allow n a t u r a l li g ht to p en e t rate thr ou g h .

M IX-U SE

MU L TI-F U N C T IO NA L R O O F M IX-U SE L EV EL S

DIS TR I B U T I O N N ew p r og r a ms are i m p le m e n te d in to t h e exist in g b ui ld i n g s to m aximize t h e p ote n t i al of t h e spaces.

I N SE R T

PEDE STRIA N S

VEH ICL ES

Ped e s t r i an s a n d veh ic les are c ir cu la te d i n to t h e bu ildin gs.

G E N E R AT E U s e s r i ve r m o rph o lo gy to c lean a n d c apt u re w ate r.

P R OP O SE D Cr e a te s t h e s y mbio t ic re la t i on s h i p bet w e en t h e re p r og r a m m ed bu ildin gs an d wo r k i n g la n d sc ape.

STEPS POOL S


TOPS

73


TH E C L E A N S E R D E E P A XON - S E C T I O N

R E - PURPOSE D

CL EA N SIN G

PU BL IC SP A C ES


T h is sh ows how the systems over l a p a nd wor k to get h e r to cr ea te the new r el a tionship, in bo t h t h e inter ior a nd exter ior of the l a ndsca pe an d bu ilding typolog ies

VEH ICU L A R A CCE SS M I X ED- US E

75


TH E C L E A N S E R S E A SON A L W E T L A ND

CLEANS I NG

RU N

ST EP S


P E D ES TRI AN WALK S E A SONAL W E T LAND

POOL S 77


TH E C L E A N S E R

RE P R OG R A M M I NG B U I L D I NG S REPURPOS I NG

Mu lti-u se IN TERIO R

A CTIVE ROOF TOP

RE-PU RP O SING IN TERIOR


79


TH E G EN E R ATO R NAT U R E + M A C H I NE

The Generator is located on the southern end of Vernon where the community of Maywood and the Los Angeles River meet. The generator proposes to connect the surrounding community to the existing infrastructure that channelizes the Los Angeles River. The generator takes advantage of the channelization of the river by establishing a kit of parts that apply Nature + Machine’s framework to the site (Capture + Clean + Generate + Distribute). The site intends to increase public infrastructure within and along the river by providing areas of open space, pathways, and ecological interventions that generate public activity throughout the river. These small scale interventions frame the beginning of larger river machine interventions that occur in the next phases of development.


81


N AT UR E + M A C H IN E PHASE 2

T H E G E N E R ATO R e 26th st

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave


0 250

750

1750

83


TH E G EN E R ATO R EXI ST I N G M A P

PROPOSED SITE The Generator was inspired by the opportunity to reconcile disparate systems: the Los Angeles River and the surrounding community. The river would continue to perform as a river machine and work in the idea of a mechanical edge, where ecological processes shared between with the landscape and the river can occur.

The development of the site proposes to cut out a portion along the edge of the river where water can be captured and delivered to the river. In the bank of the channeled river, a kit of parts will generate ecological conditions that capture the water and cleanse it.


e 26th st

PROPOSAL

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave

GATEWAY TO VERNON

0 250

750

1750

EXISTING RIVER EDGE CONNECTIVITY

EXISTING DIMENSION 500’ 25’ 300’

+ RAIN

PROPOSED DIMENSION 960’

500’ 25’ 300’

0 150’

450’

1050’

CUT

MONOLITHIC MOUNDS

FILL

85


TH E G EN E R ATO R PL AN

1.

2.

3.

4.

0 150’

SIT E P L A N 1. GATEWAY ENTRY INTO VERNON 2. LOS ANGELES RIVER INDUSTRIAL PARK 3. MONOLITHIC MOUNDS 4. RECREATIONAL PLATFORMS

450’

1050’


e 26th st

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave

0 250

750

1750

The proposal for the Generator looks at bringing the river to the community and the community to the river through an exchange of events that are dependent on seasonal rain events. The circulation into the site shares a symbolic relationship between the flows of people and water. During rain events water from the community is channeled to the river and the site becomes inundated as water leads into the river. This process into the site is expressive of how people flow in and out of the site. INDUSTRY MONOLITHIC MOUND

BIKE PATH ATLANTIC BLVD RECREATION CENTER

OPEN SPACE PLATFORM

RIVER EVENTS

87


TH E G EN E R ATO R KIT O F P A R T S

The kit of parts allows for recreational interventions to occur within and along the Los Angeles River, where members of the community can inhabit these areas along the river. The use of the kit of parts is dependent on the flows within the riverbank, where baseflow activities can occur during drought season. The low flow channel is often inundated with water and can be used as a channel for kayaking.

During medium to low rain events, the network of paths can still be accessible for use along the river. During high rain events, overbank activites collect and capture water and dispurse it into the river.

OVERBANK FRESHES BASEFLOW

OVER


RI V E R MODE L RIFFLE RIFFLE

RIFFLE RIFFLE

FFLE

FFLE

POOL

POOL

POOL

POOL

OOL

OOL

STEP

STEP

STEP

STEP STEP STEP

RUN

RUN

RUN

RUN RUN RUN

RBANK

FRESHES

BASEFLOW

89


D I ST R I B U TO R M A CH I N E +NAT U R E

Lo c a t e d a t t h e fr ei ght y a r d , t he lan d is ut i l i z e d a s a st or a ge ca pa ci t y o f th e i n d u s t r y ’ s shi pment of good s . T h e a d j a c e n c y of t he fr ei ght y a rd to th e r a i l y a r d s become a n effi ci en cy o f the t r a n s p o r t a t i on of good s. T ak e n i n t o c onsi d er a t i on of t he typ es of s y s t ems wi t hi n Ver non, th e trans p or t a t i on a l l ows t he net work o f sy s t e m s t ha t i nt egr a t e t he sym b i o t i c r e la t i onshi p of i nd ust ry, re s id e n t s , a n d comm er ci a l uses o uts i d e of V e r non. Thi s i s t he hu b o f th e e x i s t i n g f abr i c t ha t ut i l i zes the ri v e r r e s o u r c e sy st em . The i nd ustry is th e n a b le t o obt a i n t he benefi ts o f c o l l e c t i n g a d ja cent wa t er s f o r va r i o u s u s es such a s t ext i l e, re nd e r i n g i n d u st r i es, a nd mor e.


91


26th st

N ATUR E + M A C H IN E PHASE 3

T H E DI S T R I B U TO R e 26th st

bandini blvd

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave


0 250

750 93


TH E D I ST R I B U TOR PR O P OSE D S Y S T E M S

A s th e s y s t e m l oca t es i t sel f nex t to th e l os a n ge l es r i ver , t he r i ver flo w g o e s i n c on j u nct i on wi t h t he fl ow o f the r a i l s a n d r oa d s. t hi s a l l ows m axi m u m a c cessi bi l i t y of wa t er to th e b u i l d i n gs consi st i ng of i nd us try, re s id e n t i a l, a n d com m er ci a l . wi t h th e b u i l d i n gs nest ed on t he r i ver, it al l o w s w a t e r i nfl uence ba sed on the e l e va t i on of t he r el a t i onshi p bet w een th e r i v e r a n d l a nd .

WE TL A N D TOPOG RA PHY

PROPOSE D ROA D S PROPOSE D RA IL S

0

250

750

1750


M ATT SCH EM E

ROAD S

RA I L S

RIV ER

0

250

750

1750

95


TH E D I S T R I B U TOR PR O P OSE D S Y S T E M S

as th e s i t e u ti l i zes t he r i ver a nd the e x i st i n g s i t e cond i t i ons, t he bui ldin g typ o logi e s , f low of t r a nspor t a t i o n , and w a t e r f low cont r i but es t o t he re l at i on s h i p of sy m bi ot i c sy st ems.

BU IL D IN G S RIVE R PROPOSE D R O A DS PROPOSE D R A IL S


PRIM A RY IN D U STRIA L BU IL DIN G

P RIM A R Y Primary

SECON DA RY MIXED U SE COMME RCIA L RESIDE N TIA L IN D U STRIA L PU BL IC U SE

S ECO NDARY Secondary

RA IL S G OOD S

GOO DS

ROA D S

RIV ER F L OW RIV ER PROPOSED ROA D S PROPOSED RA IL S

97


TYPI CAL SEA S O N RECREAT IO NA L OPPORTUNIT Y

IN D U STR IA L M IX U SE

IN D U STR IA L

WE TL A N D PATH

THE D I S T R I B U TO R

SE CTI ON


F L O O D SEA S O N

99

F L OOD BU F F ER

IN DU STRIA L O PPO RT U NIT Y W ITH W AT ER CON SU MPT IO N

TRA N SP O RT AT IO N CL EA NING WIT H VE G E TAT IO N A ND WAT ER


TH E D I ST R I B U TOR TY P I CAL S E A S O N


W ith resilien t water system s , it is able to u tilize water th ro u g h lo w in flo w levels fro m the river.

101


TH E D I ST R I B U TOR F LO O D SE A S O N


A s the in flu x o f water flo w gat he r du rin g hig h er flo o ds seaso ns . The water allo w p o ten tial u s e in systems.

103


TH E C O L L E C TO R N AT U R E + M A C H I NE

The Collector is a 56-acre site located at the curve of the Los Angeles River in the city of Vernon, specifically where Soto St. and Bandini St. intersect. As the city consolidates industry to the river, mixed used opportunity will develop both in the landscape program and the architectural program. Landforms are manipulated to create a river morphology that can capture water in the case of a flood season as well capture people with recreational use. As industry consolidates on the river the building structures will interact with the landscape creating opportunities to capture water or create surfaces for multi use functions during dry periods. A symbiotic relationship between water, landscape, architecture and community will arise from The Collector. Contextually The Collector offers views to the Los Angeles skyline, the San Gabriel Mountains and the Pacific Ocean.


105


N ATUR E + M A C H IN E FINAL PHASE

e 26th st

T H E CO L L E C TO R

soto st

seville ave

e 37th st


bandini blvd

e vernon ave

107


TH E C O L L E C TO R SI TE P L A N

e 26th st

Keynotes 1. Dam 2. Roof Top Parks 3. Collecting Pools 4. Skywalks 5. Pipe Waterway 6. Existing Street

4 5

Scale 1”=200’-0” 0’

200’

400’

1000’

3 1 e 37th st bandini blvd

6

Pr o p osed Lan d s c a p e Pla n

soto st

seville ave

2

Pro po s e d Hydro lo gy P l a n

e vernon ave


e 26th st

e 37th st bandini blvd

soto st

seville ave

e vernon ave

Architecture

Skywalks Streets

bandini blvd

Water Flow

e vernon ave

Landscape

Site

Cir cu l at i on Eff i c i e n cy

T he proce s s to a c hi eve T h e Colle ctor s for m ca m e from r iver m or phology a nd bu i ld i ng typ es a s th ey re l ate to nat u ra l proce s s . A ser ies of m ou nd s a re c re ate d to ca pt ure water . T he hi gh s lope s a llow for d a m m in g a n d d i ver t i ng water to colle ct i ng p o o l s. T h e water flow w i ll be d i ver te d a s it enter s T he Colle ctor c re at i ng a s eries of pool s . T hi s water ca n be e xt ra cted at a ny t i m e by i nd u s t r y or ca n b e relea sed ba c k i nto t he e xi s t i ng r i ver . At tim es w he n T he Colle ctor i s i n a d r y state, re c re at i ona l progra m s s u c h as p a r k s a nd w i ld er ne s s ce nter s ca n em erg e. T he e xi s t i ng s t re et i nfra s t r u ctu re is ke pt a nd e xpa nd e d a s pe d e s tr ia n s a re m ove d i nto s kywa l k s t hat l i n k f ro m bu i ld i ng to bu i ld i ng. S oto St . A n d B a nd i ni St . w i ll now a l s o m erg e in a n d ou t of bu i ld i ngs i n ord er to c reate a m ore effi c i e nt for m of d e l iver y a nd d i s t r i bu t i on. Arc hite ct u ra lly th e s t r u ct u re s w i ll i ntera ct w it h th e l a n d a nd water i n ord er to c re ate system s of u s e by i nd u s t r y a nd com mu n ity . A l i ne a r bu i ld i ng ty pe w i ll conn ect to t he e xi s t i ng u r ba n gr i d w hi le b r id g in g t he ga p a c ros s t he r i ver . At p o ints t he s t r u ct u re s w i ll cu t t hroug h l a n d a nd l a nd w i ll cu t t hrou gh build in g s a llow i ng for a new type of p ro g ra m t hat i nte grate s l a nd a nd bu i ld in g . T h is w i ll a llow for ve nt i l at i on, co m m u n ity c re at i on a nd water i nfra s t r u ctu re.

109


TH E C O L L EC TOR OPP O R T U NI T Y

RE CR E AT I O N A s i n d ustry cons olidates i nto m i x- use b u ilding s tru ctu res the p otent i a l for recreational areas w ill d evelo p . Ut i li zi ng the rooftops for par k s ys tem s a s we ll the new river forms w i ll b e p rogra mmed for recreational u s e . Th e a rch itectu ral prog ram w ill s er ve p r i m a r i ly indu s try on the lower leve ls a n d a s t he bu ilding ris es s maller s i ze un it s wi ll accommodate res idential l i v i n g, educat i on and commercial p ro g ra m s. In dustry will thrive by s h ar i n g resources with one another an d a sym b i ot i c relations hip between nature a n d i n du s try w ill develop.

Architectural Program

Landscape Program

Open Space Commercial Education Housing Light Industry Heavy industry


111


TH E C O L L EC TOR OPP O R T U NI T Y

C OL LE CTI N G PO O L S

Seville Ave.

Roof Top Park Pipe Water System

Th e p otential for The Collector to ca pt ure water varies on the s eas on of ra in . In t h e ca s e of a larg e s torm eve nt Th e Co llector has the potential to ca pt ure la rge amou nts of water a nd e it h er sto re or dis tribu te the water. Bui ldi n gs can u ptake this water a nd use it for i n du s try, commercial a nd re si dent i a l. W ith water pres ent t he l an dsca p e p rog ram will res u lt in d i fferent use t h a n at dry s eas ons .

Recreational Opportunity

Soto St.

RIFFLE

POOL

STEP

RUN


Skywalk

Mix Use / Industry

Water Up t ake

113


MO DE L

N AT U R E + M A C H I NE


115


M A CH I N E + N AT UR E C ON CLU SI O N

T h e goa l of V er non i s t o c o ns o l i d a t e t he ci t y i nt o a ne tw o r k i n g s y st em t ha t funct i ons as a s y m b i o t i c r el a t i onshi p b e tw e e n i n d u st r y , r esi d ent s, a nd th e r i v e r . W i t h t he r esi l i ency th ro u gh t h e l a nd sca pes a nd arc hi t e c t u r e , t he ur ba n fa br i c of th e c i t y w i l l f eed off ea ch ot her to c re a t e a w o r ki ng Ver non i n r el a t io n to i t s s u r r o u n d i ngs.


117


M A CH I N E + N AT UR E EXTE R N A L R E F E R E NC E S

h ttp : / / w w w . s y mbi osi s. d k/ en T h e Age n c y of Ma ppi ng, Ja mes C o rn er Co m b i n a t or y Ur ba ni sm: The Comp lex Behavio r o f Co llective F o rm, Tho m M ayn e D ra w i n gs - T h e Ma p La nd sca pe, Nadia A maro so G rap h i c I n t e gr i t y a nd Ma ppi ng Co mp lex ity, N adia A maro so T h e M a p - A r t of Ja mes Cor ner , Nadia A maro so M ap s , M a p p i n g , Mod er ni t y , Deni s Co sg ro ve Sta l ki n g D e t r oi t , Geor gi a Da ska l akis USG S , Ar c GI S


Than k yo u : AND REW WIL COX S WA G ROU P JAME S BA CE RRA CI T Y OF VE RN ON

119


M A CH I N E + N AT UR E


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