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Exploited Piscaries Fish for Thought in Territorial Waters Jimmy Ta | Architectural Association Landscape Urbanism MSc 2017 - 2018


Abstract This thesis focuses on United Kingdom coastal communities in relation to the fish industry. The fish industries revolve on the dichotomy between wild caught fish and the aquaculture business. Although the fish industry makes up a small percentage of the country’s economy, the fish industry provides an importance to the consumption of fish, especially the consumption of fish and chips in the United Kingdom. Statistically, most fish caught and raised in the United Kingdom are exported elsewhere, whereas most consumed fish in the country comes foreign countries. Through these coastal communities supplying the fish from domestic and foreign fish sources, the global economy is influencing the way the fish market supply local consumers with fish. The fish are influenced by the quota system and the marine policies implemented on marine territories, thus influencing the way communities interact with domestic and foreign waters. The research also looks at marine parks and marine protected areas that influence the coastal communities, in this case local fishermen. The boundaries examine the conflicting territorial boundaries of fishing waters and limitations it plays toward the local fishermen. This research expands its scope of work by examining aquaculture case studies to extrapolate techniques. These techniques expand the potential scope of work fishermen communities with small scale management and fish population expansions. Through long term planning and imposing numerous design renditions, future fish hatcheries and micro aquaculture studies the potential benefit towards fishermen communities within coastal communities. The research specifically studies Britain’s Ocean City, Plymouth.

Britains’ Ocean City~


Architectural Association School of Architecture Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018 Directors | Alfredo Ramirez Eduardo Rico Studio Master | Clara Oloriz History and Theory Tutor | Douglas Spencer Technical Tutors | Andrew Barkwith Claudio Campanile Giancarlo Torpiano Gustavo Romanillos Vincenzo Reale


01 | 02 |

Contextual Boundaries

Prologue

Excessive Seafood Deals Atlas

03 |

Plymouth Grounds

04 |

Exploited Seafood

Site Reconnaissance

Boundaries Social Formation

05 |

Fish for Thought

Aquacultural Techniques

Introduction <08> National Marine Park <10> ICES Chart (Area 27) <12> Second Largest Fish Market <14> Aquaculture Leading by Value in EU <16> Introduction <18> Caught or Farmed <20> Exports and Imports <21> Plymouth Port Landings | England <22> Ijmuiden Port Landings | Netherlands <24> Lerwick Port Landings | Scotland <26> Introduction <28> Sutton Harbour <30> Interview <32>

Introduction Artificial Natural Parks Case Study_Yellowstone Eddystone Rock Limits Unnatural Boundaries Processing Boundaries

<34> <36>

Introduction Intensive Aquauculture Farming Semi-Intensive Aquauculture Farming Extensive Aquaculture Farming

<44> <46> <47> <50>

<38> <40> <42>


80% of UK fish is exported to the EU

UK Global Economy

Aquaculture 205,134.00 Tonne Production

Wild Caught

80% of UK consumed fish is imported from the EU

498,926.00 Live Tonne Landing

UK is the leading aquaculture producer by value in Europe

Vessel_Typologies Plymouth, UK

English Channel

Beamer

Trawling

Ring Netting

Plymouth Sound

Eco-Agriculture Aquaponics

Aquapod Located_La Paz, Mexico

Leroy Located_Bergen, Norway

3D Ocean Farming

Ocean Forest Farming

BioAqua Located_England, UK

Free-Range Fish Farming

Veta La Palma Located_Sevilla, Spain

Greenwave Located_New York, USA

Fish Pen Farming

Extensive Techniques Extensive Techniques

8 | Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

Rod’n’Line

Aquaculture_Case Studies

Semi - Extensive Techniques

Local Fisheries Supplying UK’s GDP

Potting

Marine Harvest Located_Scotland, UK


| Prologue

Marine Protected Areas MPA Special Protection Areas (Specific Avian Species) Special Area of Conservation (Specific Species) Ramsar Sites (Intertidal / Subtidal Habitats) Sites of Special Scientific Interest / Areas of Special Scientific Interest ( High Conservation Value) Marine Conservation Zones ( Marine Protection Management) Marine Nature Reserves ( Flora, Fuana, or Geological Features) National Marine Parks ( Marine Recreation)

+ MPAs

Plymouth, UK + Extensive Farms

+ Smell Vessels

+ Large Vessels

- Marine Protected Areas + No Take Zones

+ Extensive Farms/Semi Extensive Farms

+ Large Vessels

+ Marine Parks

No-Take Zones (Full protection)

Stakeholders

Figure 01

Plymouth Trawler Agents Ltd.

Small Scale Vessels

Large Scale Vessels

Figure 02

Her Majestyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Naval Base _Devonport

Figure 03

National Marine Park

01

Contextual Boundaries This chapter discusses the contextual background of the United Kingdom exhibiting different marine constraints, such as national marine parks and marine water boundaries. This leads to the background information that frames the conflict between the different stakeholders and the political boundary constraints. This results in the social and economic discussion in British coastal communities, such as Plymouth. In the case of Plymouth fisheries, conflict arises due to the intricacy of stakeholderâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s interests within the marine territorial rights. With the rise of fishing communities, there is a disproportion of the fish market system. The selling of fish has been monopolised in various market scales and fish quality. Through the monopoly of selling fish domestically, market and economic values drive the social formation of the landscape. The landscape becomes a sprawl of fish with the displacement of local fish to local communities throughout the United Kingdom.

Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

|9


National Marine Park

United Kingdom currently do not have a single designated national marine park. What does a national marine park mean? National marine parks give this impression of a positive effect to a community and benefit marine areas environmentally. However, a national marine park is not the case of providing environmental protection. The notion of a national marine park is the celebration of marine activities, thus protecting the interest of economic prosperity and marine tourism such as marine recreation and leisurely angling and fishing (Rutgar). At first glance, the notion of marine parks provides the notion of marine conservation, but it is quite different from a no-take zone, marine reserves, or special protection areas. In the case of marine parks, not all marine parks are created. For example, Plymouth in United Kingdom currently have various type of special interest groups and different protection zones (Marine protected Areas in the UK). Not all protection areas are created equal. The designated no-take zones in the United Kingdom are located at specific locations (Mzgoulton). Marine Protected Areas in Plymouth, United Kingdom, do have designated areas of protection. However, a proposal of a future marine park in Plymouth described by a local member of parliament, Luke Pollard, to be the first in existence within the United Kingdom (Pollard). The marine park is acting as an agent to promote the celebration of recreation in Plymouth to boost the economy of Plymouth. Pollard describes the marine park to not intrude with the local fishermen and the naval activities. This is described to not impact current stakeholders. On the contrary, the marine park must be planned and managed with the consideration of these stakeholders. The idea of the marine park does not affect the fishermen or naval bases directly, but does not talk about the fish population impacts and the habitats that exists within the waters of local territorial waters.

10 | Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

Figure 1.1

Figure 1.2


Figure 1.3

Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Photograph by Yaxin Zhao Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

| 11


Exclusive Economic Zone

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12 | Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

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ICES Chart (Area 27) In the territorial seas of Europe, water bodies are divided into different segments. The International Council for the Exploration of the Sea Chart, ICES, arbitrarily determines the territorial boundaries of European waters. These waters are dictating the location of where fishermen can fish within specific boundaries. These bodies of water are an act of territory power and control over economic consumption. The act of mapping provides the power struggle delineates the economic prosperity and resources in specific regions. In The Birth of Territory, Stuart Elden describes the land as a territorial resource in the relation of power (Elden 804). In the case

of the British seas, the sea is the territorial resource. The power struggle of the sea is the marine resource, fish. The territorial struggle of fish causes the divide of the arbitrary lines, thus defining the various unnatural boundaries into sea charts, ICES. In the case of Plymouth, fishermen are confined to the sea boundary. However, many other constraints would include the subdivision of the sea charts into fish catching zones, for instance 7f or 7e (ICES). Fishermen are confined to these political boundaries based on the defined parameters of the territorial power struggles of fish resources.

Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

| 13


Second Largest Fish Market Plymouth fisheries is known to be one of the largest fish markets in the UK. Plymouth is known to bring large quantities of fish at the port. But does that mean the port is bringing all the fish locally? Plymouth appears to be bringing in about ÂŁ1,000,000 in the market. Many of the fish does not belong to this port. There is a disproportion of where the fish are coming from (Rossiter). Not all fish is coming from the Sutton harbour, but the fish is coming from local ports in south Devon county, fishing in the British channels (Heslop). Larger fishing ports such as Newlyn bring in larger domestic imports Plymouth for fish grading and weighing to be sold at an online auctioning platform. This provides the convenience of the fishermen to make profit. However, the profit margins are brought in by the larger vessels, but then the larger vessels offset the cost of the smaller vessels, thus balancing the overhead cost of

14 | Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

running the facility of the fisheries (Heslop). Historically, Plymouth moderate sized fishing community. The fishing community initially started without the current Plymouth fisheries market. The market consisted of a smaller facility that housed the fish in the open air without any storage unit. This created a health sanitation concern with the open market, which allowed the local fishermen to unite and built a facility to meet health standards. The model is created by fishermen and for by fishermen (Heslop). Overtime, the market grew and expanded to online auctioning. This created more growth to the market that is an agent that supplies the demand of local port beyond Plymouth (Plymouth Trawler Agent, Ltd.). The implementation of the market allowed the fishermen to sell their fish to the Plymouth fish market so buyers can purchase their fish directly from the market, as the market served as a middleman for the fishermen. This created a mutual relationship between the agents and the fishermen.

As the market expands, the buying and selling of fish become concentrated in Devon county. This created a monopoly of the fishing market to be managed in one area. By looking at the economic construct of Plymouth, fisheries played an important role in the mode of production. This fueled the convenience of capitalism by proximity of the local market and sales (Cosgrove 43). The fishing economy and mode of production drove the incentive to expand the market, thus create a social formation of the fishing market within southwest of the United Kingdom (Cosgrove 67). It is the fishing economy that drives the social construct of the fishing within the Plymouth market. However, the market is a sustainable market and necessity of the local region, despite the monopoly of the fish market place.


Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Photograph by Jimmy Ta Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

| 15


Intensive Aquaculture | Figure 1.4

Atlantic Salmon | Figure 1.5

Aquaculture Leading by Value in EU

companies, such as Marine Harvest, combats this issue with anti-biotics as supplements (Ellis 3).

Contrasting the fishing industry, United Kingdom provides a strong background in fish farming. In the current aquacultural industry, United Kingdom leads as a major producer in tonnage. The country exhibits strong fish farming, mainly in the salmon industry (Ellis 3). The country is providing a strong fish production to meet the demands of consumers. However, the industry is skewed in the quality of fish as each fish farm are not all created equal. Take salmon farming for example. Salmon farms are farmed intensively, yielding high quantities of salmon production. The drawback is the fish quality is infested with sea lice and diseases. Many fish

In other cases, micro farming techniques such as aquaponics, Bioaqua, provides a water cycling system that integrates vegetables with fish. The fish benefit from the plants cleaning the water, while the plants benefit from the fishesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; nutritious fecal matter. These case studies that can be served as a model of techniques to supplement the fishing industry. With the higher consumption and demand for fish, aquaculture can potentially add to the scope of fish in the industry. As a thought for enhancing the fish industry, some micro lobster farms are established in Padstowe and other hatchery farming systems are good examples of seafood conservation efforts.

16 | Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

Aquaponics | Figure 1.6

The hatchery systems can provide the benefit of replenishing targeted species (National Lobster hatcheries). In addition to species replenishment, maritime management can be implemented such as no-take zones to allow species to grow for future seafood stock, thus allow seafood to spill over for catches and consumption. Similarly seen at the Medway estuary, east of London, fishermen manage conservation zones that foster the growth of future fish stocks for future catches (New Economic Foundation).


“ How to Farm a Better Fish. The world now produces more farmed fish than beef - and that’s just the beginning. “ (Joel K. Bourne, Jr. and Brian Skerry, National Geographic)

Figure 1.7

Scallop Farming | Figure 1.8

Lobster Farming | Figure 1.9 Plymouth Grounds // Prologue

| 17


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18 | Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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| Atlas

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Excessive Seafood Deals United Kingdom plays an important role in the global fishing economy. More than half of the fish in the United Kingdom are exported outside of the country. While most UK consumed fish are imported mostly from the European Union. The global economy plays a role in the territory it faces with the fishing policies and maritime boundary limits (Carpenter 4). As the mode of fish production increases, the economy plays a role in shaping the territoriality of the economic sea boundaries (Elden 800). Through capitalistic interests, nautical boundaries are drawn to define where fishermen can go.

Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

| 19


Figure 2.1

Caught or Farmed Globally, fish are continually to trend on dinner plates. Regarding the seafood industry, the United Kingdom have been historically fishing for many years. Culturally, coastal communities fished as part of their local economy and has been engraved in the seafood consumption as oppose to fish farming (Bourne). Fish farming is relatively a good practice in theory, creating the sustainability of seafood on our plates. However, the concern is the scale of the aquacultural farming. The scale of the farming contributes to the negative impacts of the environment and food quality (Bourne). This leads to the question of which is better, caught fish or farmed fish? Debating between

20 | Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

the two-different mode of production, the fishing industry will have a difficult time to shift towards aquaculture. However, aquaculture creates opportunities and potentials to supplement the fishing industry. Aquaculture industry does not have to remain in the conventional sense from production to direct consumption. Based on the UK aquacultural statistics, some of the aquaculture contributes to the production and releasing of fish. This creates a hatchery system that allows the replenishment of fish populations (Ellis). This is a similar case in which aquaculture farming can contribute to the fish population such as the no-take zone shown in Medway estuary. This is when the fishermen manage the marine reserve to keep the future fish

stock(New Economic Foundation). With the growing rate of fish consumption, the fish industry must change its mode of production. Economic democracy has created a fish market that is not regulated. The fishing economy has created a social formation, causing the territorial shift and culture understanding of how fish is consumed in the UK (Elden 804).


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Exports and Imports The fishing industry is a complex system with different quotas for each fish and different exclusive economic zones. Most of the fish caught in the United Kingdom exported to a foreign country, approximately 76% (Carpenter 4). Since the seas have economic exclusive zones, EEZ, fishermen throughout Europe and United Kingdom fish in the same EEZ and 12 nautical mile sea limit boundary. By allowing the fish vessels to catch seafood in the same boundaries, European Union and United Kingdom are able to share the allowable catches by trading amongst each other(Carpenter 18). However, Brexit plays a role of gaining British seas all for themselves. This notion of British seas lead to a surplus

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Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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24 | Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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Ijmuiden Port Landings | Netherlands This port is one of the largest yielding fishery in European Union.

Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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26 | Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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Lerwick Port Landings | Scotland This port is one of the largest yielding fishery in United Kingdom.

Excessive Seafood Deals // Atlas

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Sutton Harbour | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

28 | Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance


| Site Reconnaissance

Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

03

Plymouth Grounds River Plym | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Plymouth is a city composed of the Plymouth Fishery market, Navy dockyards, and breakwater defences. There have been different conflicts with the marine waters with the catches, maritime management planning, economic disparity in different boroughs, and physical barriers. As a part of our class, we have interviewed various academics, local auctioneer, and restaurant to understand the different type demographics playing a role in Plymouth community. In addition to the interviewees, we examined various physical conditions such as the harbour, river Plym, Tamar estuary, and the Plymouth fish market.

Plymouth Sound | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance

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Plymouth Fisheries Market | Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

Local Food | Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

Sutton Harbour The Sutton harbour is home to the fishermen community and the Plymouth fisheries market. The fish market are agents representing fishermen, but a facility that stores live catches to be graded, weighed, and sold on an electronic auctioning mechanism. This serves as an important infrastructure for the fishermen and created by the fishermen. The harbour serves as a place for the fishermen all of types to dock recreational boats and small fishing vessel. As for the larger vessels, companies such as Interfish Ltd. sell their fish through the market, but do not dock their boats at the Sutton Harbour (Heslop).

30 | Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance

The facility serves as the refrigerator to keep fresh fish ready for the auction. All fish are shipped and brought to this facility for grading, weighing, and pricing services. As a result, all fish are brought and sold all at the same day. Fish are brought early in the morning and afternoon to be sorted and then stored to be sold in the morning. The fish are brought from the Plymouth port and local Devon port locations as well. Major ports within Devon county include Newlyn, handling large quantity landings. Although Newlyn has their own shout auction, prices are conveniently sold online through Plymouth fisheries to get a more accurate and better price on the market (Heslop).

Sutton Harbour Docks | Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

In relation to the fishing community and locals, the fishermen want to keep the Sutton Harbour for themselves rather than sharing it with the public. There has been some talk from the city to boost the economy by integrating tourism to the Plymouth Fisheries market. Today, the fisheries do not have a touristic welcome entrance to the fisheries, but rather an industrial aesthetic. The fishermen like to keep to themselves and remain in the Sutton Harbour for commercial fishing purposes. However, integrating tourism with the attraction of the harbour and fishing culture can boost the overall economy of Plymouth (Wilson).


Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

Plymouth Fisheries storage | Photograph by Yaxin Zhao

Fishing Gear Typologies | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Photograph by Kai Zhu Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance

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Seafood Restuarant Waiter | Harbour Seafood Restuarant

Photograph by Kai Zhu

“Most of the fish at this restuarant comes from the Plymouth fisheries. You have a few that actually comes from China.”

Jon Miles | Coastal Engineering, Plymouth University

Photograph by Kai Zhu

“There is the main breakwater that protect Plymouth Sound area and you got the Mount Batten breakwater to defend the Sutton Harbour.”

Photograph by Kai Zhu

Gillian Glegg | Head of Marine Sciences, Plymouth University

Photograph by Kai Zhu

“National parks are not for conservation of ecosystems or it’s not preservation of lifestyles, but it is celebrating things about those areas with recreation.”

“Plymouth is quite a poor city overall. The city is looking for a boost in the economy. Tourism is one of the sectors. There is the fishing community, but they are a small group. There is still quite a lot of industry that rely on the waterfront.”

Olivia Wilson | Spatial Planning, Plymouth University

Photograph by Kai Zhu

“There are some potential for current energy at the entrance of Devon Port in the Tamar Estuary.”

Gregorio Iglesias | Coastal Engineering, Plymouth University

32 | Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance


Plymouth Sound | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Sutton Harbour | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Sutton Harbour | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

River Plym | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

“I think about 80% of the fish in our waters are caught by foreign boats. You have limits as well. You got a 6 mile limit and 12 mile limit. All government will ban all boats fishing between six and twelve miles, so our fish are sitting there watching the European boats fishing the fish just off here.”

Smeaton’s Light Tower | Photograph by Jimmy Ta

Figure 3.1

Mark Heslop | Auctioneer, Plymouth Trawlers Agent Limited Plymouth Grounds // Site Reconnaissance

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| Social Formation

04

Exploited Seafood Boundaries Nautical boundaries and the fishery policies have a direct impact to the social conflicts within the fishermen community. Nautical mile sea limit boundaries have been playing a role in where fishermen can catch their fish. This causes a change in the way fishermen interact with the marine resources, such as exploiting the spillovers of no-take zone boundaries. In addition, it creates an economic turmoil in the coastal fishing industry, causing disproportionate imports and exports of fish with the European Union. This comes a struggling battle between the effects of Brexit and how marine boundaries play a major role in the dichotomy between the fishermen and marine protection areas.

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Figure 4.1

Native Americans of Yellowstone | Figure 4.2

Artificial Natural Parks Case Study_Yellowstone In the case study of Yellowstone National Park, United States, the prairie lands of Yellowstone thrived with various wildlife such as bison, elk, coyotes, and wolves. The landscape was controlled by the Native Americans from this region, culling the bison and elk population as a management. The Yellowstone landscape was manipulated by the Native Americans for many years, as Native Americans were part of the landscape (Nightingale). Overtime, colonial Americans moved to the Midwest west and the railroad company eventually passed by Yellowstone as a resting area. This created a tourist attraction to see the sublime landscape.

36 | Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation

Eventually the thought was to conquer the landscapes. Colonial view on wild landscapes were savage and unforgiving, thus wild landscapes had to be tamed and conquered to be improved upon(Nightingale). The advertisement to see the sublime Yellowstone National Park led to the displacement of Native Americans and discriminating slaughter of apex predators of the Yellowstone National Park, wolves. This led to the demise of the forests and over population of elks and bison. Without wolves and Native Americans, Yellowstoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s natural ecosystem was imbalanced until wolves were reintroduced to the park, thus rebalancing the ecosystem again (Nightingale).

The social construct of the displacing Native Americans is reflected on the boundaries of territoriality (Elden 800). Boundaries are continually to shift, and it becomes difficult to understand where the resources and limits are. Native Americans migrated with the landscapes as oppose to western colonials who felt the need to fix landscapes. Migratory animals are difficult to define a set limit boundary to indicate where population is moving. Conservation becomes difficult to define, thus criticising the act of mapping as a conventional way to preserve wild populations since the map was made by the makers, but does not necessarily mean wildlife will follow the set boundaries(Dodge 54).


Wolf

Figure 4.5

Elk

Figure 4.4

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Figure 4.6

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Figure 4.11

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Figure 4.3

Squirrel

Figure 4.9

Yellowstone wolf hunting | Figure 4.14

Yellowstone Bison | Figure 4.14 Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation

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Eddystone Rock Limits Described in Rethinking Maps: New Frontiers in Cartographic Theories, performative maps serve a purpose of creative a sanctuary zones for targeted species regarding conservation. However, animals do not follow the same mapping patterns as the creator of the maps (Dodge 57). This is problematic for the reason fish in marine protected areas are not fully protected. There would be spill-over beyond the protection zones, thus creating a territorial phenomena of fishing vessels hovering along the perimeters of the set boundary limits. In the case of Plymouth National Marine Park boundaries, limits are currently in the process of being defined. In this case, the marine park is discussed to be set out towards the Eddystone Rocks, the original Smeatonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lighthouse location (Glegg). The set boundaries are such arbitrary set boundaries as many stakeholders and constraint information must be considered. This creates almost a shifting boundary of how marine park must be cognizant of the recreational vessels impacting the environmental ecology of the fish habitats, thus limiting the long-term fish diversity of the catches for fishermen vessels (Glegg). Boundaries and marine protected areas must consider the boundary limits as a way of negotiating the various types of stakeholders.

Eddystone Rocks | Figure 4.15

Marine Protected Area Types No take Zones Special Protection Areas (SPA) Special Area of Conservation (SAC) Ramsar Sites Marine Conservation Zones (MCZ) National Marine Parks

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Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation

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Lamash Bay

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40 | Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation


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Not all boundaries are created equal. In the case of marine protected areas, there are different type of protection zones, such as no-take zones which provides full ecological protection to special areas of conservation protecting specific species and preventing specific development, i.e. gas lines and cables (Griffin). In the case of no-take zones, a wildlife sanctuary can facilitate the idea of a breeding ground for wildlife to replenish its population, thus benefiting the long-term effect of the coastal fisheries. However, the boundaries are considered arbitrary due to the unpredictability specie spawning locations. The shifting boundaries must be considered as a management over the coarse of specie management.

No - Take Zone | Lundy

In addition to the shifting boundaries of fish species, fishermen vessels tend to follow the fish, thus changing their course. This eventually creates a domino effect that reflects the management of fish spawning locations along with their marine protection areas, fishermen vessel boundaries along with their constraint limitation of exclusive economic zones and nautical mile limitations.

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Processing Boundaries This is a tool initialising negotiated boundaries between fisheries, optimal fish locations, and built structures to influence the behavioral vessel routes and fish stock. The simulation runs three iterations: located breakwaters at the Plymouth sound, Tamar mudflats, and River Plym. The breakwaters challenge the current flow of fishing vessel routes and the optimal placement of aquacultural site locations. This then help inform the decision making based on the positive and negative impacts breakwaters have on Plymouth sound. Breakwaters by Kai Zhu Aquaculture, Fish Routes, and Vessel Routes by Jimmy Ta

42 | Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation


Exploited Seafoods // Social Formation

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44 | Fish for Thought // Aquacultural Techniques


| Aquacultural Techniques

Fish for Thought

United Kingdom is one of the leading fish farming industry in the European Union with highest yield in tonnage and third per value (Ellis). With United Kingdom yielding large quantities, various types of aquaculture are produced in the United Kingdom. This chapter examines the various types of aquaculture methodology to further understand the different kind of techniques that can be deployed on maritime boundaries to supplement the fishing industry. This could lead to not only production and consumption, but a subcategory of aquaculture emerge as hatcheries to replenish fish stock for the future of marine ecosystems and fishermen economy.

Fort William Fish Processing

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Marine Harvest

Intensive Aquaculture Farming Intensive aquaculture focuses on the mass production of fish rather than the quality of the fish. In this case, Marine Harvestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s salmon farms exhibited high concentration of diseased fish and a sea lice problem(Fraser). Because the fish are confined in small spaces, the salmon live stock suffers from various diseases and pest problems, which are typically solved by supplementing the fish with antibiotics and occasional pesticides to eliminate disease(Fraser).

46 | Fish for Thought // Aquacultural Techniques

Invervailort, Scotland UK (one of many farming sites)

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Semi-Intensive Aquaculture Farming Semi-intensive aquaculture focuses on the mass seafood production, but with a goal to sustain itself without added antibiotics. In the case of Leroy, the company tries to focus on the production of fish in mass production, but to supplement the fish living conditions with symbiotic sea fauna and flora (Lerøy). Leroy focuses on the production of mussels to feed to fish, farm seaweed for wrasses or lumpfish spawning to eat sea lice, and create artificial reefs to eliminate the accumulation of concentrated fecal matter.

Avløypet, Hardbakke, Norway (One of many farming sites)

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Aquapod

As for the case of Aquapod, the approach utilises the broad area of the ocean as an advantage. The goal is to create mass production of fix, but confined fish produces negative impacts in one stagnant location. By producing throughout the vast ocean, the fish swims and moves with the structural unit. This creates an advantage of minimal maintenance and dispersing nutrients from the fish production (Earth Ocean Farms).

48 | Fish for Thought // Aquacultural Techniques

Esterito, La Paz Mexico (Location Varies due to movement)

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Greenwave is a company founded in New York, United States, focusing on the production of sustainable polyculture. Most of their production consists of seaweed and seasonal shellfish (Greenwave). By doing so, this creates a seasonal rotating crop that allow a more resilient farming that can resist specific weathers in different seasons. In addition to the higher yield of production, the crops promote different food products on the dinner plate such as seaweed used as noodles. Seaweed and shellfish end up complimenting each other by filtering the sediments in the water together, thus creating a symbiotic relationship between the different crops(Greenwave).

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Aquaponics

Extensive Aquaculture Farming Extensive aquaculture focuses more on the quality of the fish within a smaller yield. In the case of Bioaqua, the farming focuses on aquaponic systems that allow the recirculation of water from the fish and the crops in a closed loop system. In addition, Bioaqua provides an aquaponics programme that allows local communities to take part of classes to either start micro production or commercial production(Bioaqua). As a result, the quality of the fish is sought after as oppose to the mass production of an intensive farm.

50 | Fish for Thought // Aquacultural Techniques

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On the different scale spectrum, Veta La Palma provides an integrated ecological reserve that serves as a symbiotic relationship between the birds and farmed fish. The aquacultural system imitates a natural system without any added food for the fish, which allows a better cost management to the fish livestock. Veta La Palma proves to be the ideal example of fish farming without any supplemental additives to the livestock(Veta La Palma).

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Model: Veta La Palma_Extensive Technique Best Locations: Brackish Waters and Rivers Production: Shellfish, Fresh/Saltwater Fish

Model: Marine Harvest_Intensive Technique Best Locations: Far or Near from Shore Waters Production: Pelagic Fish Model: Aquapod_Semi-Intensive Technique Best Locations: Far from Shore Waters, Drifting Locations Production: Pelagic Fish

52 | Fish for Thought // Aquacultural Techniques


Model: Aquaponics_Extensive Technique Best Locations: Indoor Facilities Production: Freshwater Fish, Vegetables

Model: Leroy_Semi-Intensive Technique Best Locations: Far from Shore Waters Production: Pelagic Fish, Mussels, Seaweed

Model: Greenwave_Semi-Intensive Technique Best Locations: Near from Shore Waters Production: Clams, Mussels, Oysters, Scallops, and Seaweed

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54 | Epilogue


Epilogue Fishermen in coastal communities face a future conflict with the change in policies and fishing boundary limitations from the effects of Brexit. The economy is a major driver of the territorial shifts in maritime boundaries, thus creating a war of resources. In addition, a proposal for a national marine park faces a marine management planning. This dichotomy between marine parks and fishermen communities challenges the negotiations of marine protection areas and fishermen nautical mile limitations. This creates a complex relationship of managing a future for the fishermen. However, marine parks boundaries must be looked at critically to define ephemerality of fish boundary limits. Through aquacultural techniques, supplemental fish production will need to negotiate the needs between fishermen community and the ecological health of marine water bodies.

Epilogue

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Works Cited Bioaqua. “Consultancy.” Bioaqua Farm, bioaquafarm.co.uk/ consultancy/.

National Marine Park.” Luke Pollard, 29 May 2017, www.lukepollard. org/nationalmarineparkcall.

Bourne, Joel K., and Brian Skerry. “How To Farm a Better Fish.” National Geographic, www.nationalgeographic.com/foodfeatures/ aquaculture/.

Plymouth Trawlers Agents, Ltd. “Plymouth Trawler Agents Limited.” Plymouth Trawler Agents, 2018, www.plymouthtrawleragents.com/.

Carpenter, Griffin. “Not in the Same Boat.” New Economic Foundation. Cosgrove, Denis E. Social Formation and Symbolic Landscape. University of Wisconsin Press, 1998. Dodge, Martin, et al. Rethinking Maps: New Frontiers in Cartographic Theory. Routledge, 2011. “Earth Ocean Farms.” Earth Ocean Farms, www.earthoceanfarm. com/.

Rossiter, Keith. “Plymouth Fish Market Brings in Record-Breaking £1million Haul.” Plymouthherald, 3 Nov. 2017, www.plymouthherald. co.uk/news/business/plymouth-fish-market-brings-record-726737. Rutgar. “What Is the Difference between Marine Reserves and Marine Parks? -.” Book Your next Adventure Trip Today, The Scuba Page, 5 Feb. 2018, rushkult.com/eng/scubamagazine/marine-reserves/. Veta La Palma. “Welcome to VETA LA PALMA.” Veta La Palma Parque Natural, www.vetalapalma.es/index.asp?LG=2. Wilson, Olivia, Et al. “Spatial Planning, Interview.” 22 Mar. 2018.

Elden, Stuart. The Birth of Territory. The University of Chicago Press, 2013. Ellis, Tim, et al. “CEFAS.” Aquaculture Statistics for the UK, with a Focus on England and Wales, Cefas, Jan. 2015, assets.publishing. service.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_ data/file/405469/Aquaculture_Statistics_UK_2012.pdf. Fraser, Douglas. “Scottish Salmon Farming’s Sea Lice ‘Crisis’.” BBC News, BBC, 14 Feb. 2017, www.bbc.co.uk/news/ukscotland-38966188. Glegg, Gillian, Et al. “Plymouth National Marine Park, Interview.” 22 Mar. 2018. “GreenWave.” GreenWave, www.greenwave.org/greenwaveorg/. Griffin, Kerry. “Habitat and Communities: Marine Reserves and Marine Protected Areas.” Marine Reserves and Marine Protected Areas | Pacific Fishery Management Council, 9 Dec. 2013, www.pcouncil. org/habitat-and-communities/marine-protected-areas/. Heslop, Mark, and Jimmy Ta. “Plymouth Trawlers Agent Ltd, Interview.” 22 Mar. 2018. “ICES.” ICES Website, www.ices.dk/Pages/default.aspx. Lerøy. “Ocean Forest.” Lerøyseafood, www.leroyseafood.com/en/ sustainability/innovation/ocean-forest/. “Marine Protected Areas in the UK.” Marine Protected Areas in the UK, jncc.defra.gov.uk/page-5201. Monbiot, George. “The UK’s Marine Reserves Are Nothing but Paper Parks | George Monbiot.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 10 May 2012, www.theguardian.com/environment/ georgemonbiot/2012/may/10/uk-marine-reserves. Mzgoulton. “‘No-Take’ Marine Reserves in the UK.” Enviro-Blog, 11 Nov. 2014, mzgoulton.wordpress.com/2014/11/11/no-take-marinereserves-in-the-uk/. National Lobster Hatcheries. “Home Version 3.” The National Lobster Hatchery, www.nationallobsterhatchery.co.uk/. New Economic Foundation. “Protecting Fish and Livelihoods in the Medway.” Blue New Deal, www.bluenewdeal.org/story/protectingfish-and-livelihoods-in-the-medway/. Nightingale, Neil, Et al. Unnatural Histories: Yellowstone. Narrator by Deborah Maclaren, BBC Four, BBC, 22 Oct. 2015, www.bbc.co.uk/ programmes/b011wzrc. Pollard, Luke. “Luke Calls for Plymouth Sound to Be the UK’s First

56 | Works Cited


Figure List Figure 1.1 Pollard, Luke. “Luke Calls for Plymouth Sound to Be the UK’s First National Marine Park.” Luke Pollard, 29 May 2017, www.lukepollard. org/nationalmarineparkcall. Figure 1.2 Gladstone, William, and Michelle Voyer. “Marine Parks for Fish and People: Here’s How to Do It.” The Conversation, 28 Mar. 2018, theconversation.com/marine-parks-for-fish-and-people-heres-howto-do-it-33092. Figure 1.3 Monbiot, George. “The UK’s Marine Reserves Are Nothing but Paper Parks | George Monbiot.” The Guardian, Guardian News and Media, 10 May 2012, www.theguardian.com/environment/ georgemonbiot/2012/may/10/uk-marine-reserves. Figure 1.4 Atlantic Aquaculture Mission to Norway. “Memos from the Mission.” Memos from the Mission, Wordpress, 17 Aug. 2017, memosfromthemission.files.wordpress.com/2015/08/bantry-farmshot.jpg. Figure 1.5 Council, Photographer: Norwegian Seafood. “Atlantic Salmon.” Norwegian Seafood Council, About Us Seafood.no About Us Contact Us +47 77 60 33 33 Mail@Seafood.no Visiting Address Norwegian Seafood Council Stortorget 1PO Box 6176 N-9291 Tromsø Norwegian Seafood Council To Top, fromnorway.com/learn-more/ seafood-encyclopedia/salmon/. Figure 1.6 Bioaqua. “Consultancy.” Bioaqua Farm, bioaquafarm.co.uk/ consultancy/. Figure 1.7 & 1.8 Bourne, Joel K., and Brian Skerry. “How To Farm a Better Fish.” National Geographic, www.nationalgeographic.com/foodfeatures/ aquaculture/. Figure 1.9 “Science Explains Why Lobster Is so Expensive.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 17 July 2015, www.businessinsider.com/why-islobster-super-expensive-2015-7?r=UK. Figure 2.1 Bourne, Joel K., and Brian Skerry. “How To Farm a Better Fish.” National Geographic, www.nationalgeographic.com/foodfeatures/ aquaculture/. Figure 3.1 Plymouth Trawlers Agents, Ltd. “Plymouth Trawler Agents Limited.” Plymouth Trawler Agents, 2018, www.plymouthtrawleragents.com/.

Figure 4.5 ClipartPNG.com. “Wolf PNG Clip Art - Best WEB Clipart.” Cliaprt PNG Pictures, clipartpng.com/?1479%2Cwolf-png-clip-art. Figure 4.6 “Coyote.” VS Battles Wiki, vsbattles.wikia.com/wiki/Coyote. Figure 4.7 Prieto, Clara, and Amanda Lloyd. “Badger.” The Mammal Next Door, www.mammalnextdoor.co.uk/badger-mammal-hero. Figure 4.8 “ReaScan® Ab-Dect Puumala IgG.” Reagena - Puumala Virus in Bank Voles - Reascan® Ab-Dect, reagena.com/en/products/infectiousdiseases-zoonoses/puumala-virus-rodents-reascan-ab-dect/. Figure 4.9 “Squirrel PNG.” http://www.freepngimg.com/png/17996-squirrelpng-picture Figure 4.10 “Fox PNG.” http://animal-jam-clans-1.wikia.com/wiki/File:Foxtransparent-background-image.png Figure 4.11 “Free Image on Pixabay - Aspen, Tree, Painted Tree, Nature.” Aspen Tree Painted · Free Image on Pixabay, pixabay.com/en/aspen-treepainted-tree-nature-2086185/. Accessed 15 Apr. 2018. Figure 4.12 “Willow PNG.” http://animal-jam-clans-1.wikia.com/wiki/File:TreeClipart-Weeping-Willow-River.png Figure 4.13 Hatch, Cory. “Debunking the Canadian Super-Wolf.” Jackson Hole Daily, 31 Aug. 2016, www.jhnewsandguide.com/opinion/columnists/ signal_fires/debunking-the-canadian-super-wolf/article_0c77b040fca5-5051-976a-bab4db274a82.html. Figure 4.14 Teufel, Alex. “Culling the Last Wild Herd of Bison in Yellowstone National Park.” My Yellowstone Park, 9 May 2017, www. yellowstonepark.com/park/culling-last-wild-herd-bison. Figure 4.15 Phare d’Eddystone Rocks au large de Plymouth *Lieu : Manche Ouest, 8 Milles au Sud de la baie de Plymouth *Date : 2005 *Auteur : photo personnelle Figure 4.16 “ICES.” ICES Website, www.ices.dk/Pages/default.aspx.

Figure 4.1 Williams, Paul. “How Natural Is the Natural World? Unnatural Histories BBC4.” The Iron Ammonite, 5 June 2011, www.ironammonite. com/2011/06/how-natural-is-natural-world-unnatural.html. Figure 4.2 Staff. “Legend of the Sheepeater Indian Tribe in Yellowstone.” My Yellowstone Park, 27 Sept. 2013, www.yellowstonepark.com/park/ yellowstone-sheepeater-tribe-ledgend. Figure 4.3 Beaver. “Home.” Beaver PNG, pngimg.com/download/31325. Figure 4.4 “Elk PNG.” DeviantArt, lg-design.deviantart.com/art/ElkPNG-297952331.

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58 | Epilogue


Epilogue

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Exploited Piscaries  

Architectural Association Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018, Term 2 (Work In Progress)

Exploited Piscaries  

Architectural Association Landscape Urbanism 2017-2018, Term 2 (Work In Progress)

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