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citizens of no place: a collection of short stories


  

                       

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CONTENTS  Index  Acknowledgements  Foreword by John McMorrough

1. Conversations with a Developer the story: on imagination

2. Noah’s Ark, In Space the story: on rituals the installation: on orientation / Phalanstery Module (2008) interview with Jimenez Lai by Mason White

3. Point Clouds the story: on subjectivity the installation: on parametricism / Point Clouds (2009) interlude: on affordances

4. Big Box Robotz the story: on spectacles interlude: on irregularity the images: black-out city interlude: city of urban robotz

5. Babel the story: on verticality the studio: on politics interlude: on density


6. Drifting Cities of a Past the story: on power the studio: on decontextualization interlude: on economics

7. Teleportation and the Everywhere City essay: towards a total sameness story: on transitional spaces

8. On Types of Seductive Robustness the story: on uniqueness the installation: on poche / The Super Briefcase (2010) interlude: the context of knowledge

9. The Future Archaeologist the story: on history poster: this, that interlude: on expertise


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2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Christmas Gifts 5 years running: year 1. year 2. year 3. year 4. year 5.

LEGO mountain bike PS2 puppy Toshiba Satellite P20.

Christmas Menu 5 years running: year 1. year 2. year 3. year 4. year 5.

(elephant.)

Turkey Roast Turkey Roast Alaska King Crab Turkey Roast Turkey Roast

December. Su

M

T

W

R

F

Sa

01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

(favourite vacation points in Americas.) (hippo.)

vegetable meat dairy fat starch

15% 30% 18% 12% 35%


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(fireworks of parts were shot into space; the Ark was constructed in low-gravity next to the International Space Station.)


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(an ambiguous orthographic drawing of a typical dwelling unit in zero-gravity.)

(an unfolded dwelling unit.)

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entry/exit

sleep

socialize

ingest / excrete

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do people still go through great pains to keep their grass green? so... tell us, stranger.

are people stil killing each other?

do people still work jobs they hate so they can buy shit they don’t need?

we have much to learn from you.

without the sun, the moon... we no longer have such things as “year” or “month”. we have a complete different perception of “time”.

we even kept all the rituals that goes along with the calender.

but we kept the earth calender anyway.

you know. we want to remain human...


learn?

I have a wife! a kid! a mortgage!

letâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s build him a dwelling unit and get him settled.

passion...

this is exactly why why you that is exactly you must stay. you you must must stay. must teach us passion.

teach us passion.

let me go!


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stop calling me â&#x20AC;&#x153;strangerâ&#x20AC;?...

chapter 1 ends. (citizens going home.)


           



7Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;3Â&#x152;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x2030;0Â&#x2026;Â&#x160;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201A;Â&#x160;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x160;Â&#x2019;Â Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x152;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2DC;Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x2026;Â&#x2039;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x2122;Â&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2030;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â Â&#x2026;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x201E;Â&#x160;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A; Â Â&#x2026;Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;Â&#x20AC;Â Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â Â&#x2019;Â&#x201A;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x201E;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2014;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;Â&#x161;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2026;Â :Â&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2039;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x2122;Â&#x201E;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2030;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2013;Â Â&#x2019;Â&#x201A;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;~Â&#x17D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192; cupied. The distinctions between orthographic drawings become obsolete. To this end, the installation is a Â&#x20AC;Â Â&#x2013;Â&#x192;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2013;Â Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x2026;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2039;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â&#x2020;Â&#x152;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â?Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â&#x201A;Â&#x192;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2021;(Â&#x2122;Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x2030;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2019;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2013;Â Â&#x2019;Â&#x201A;Â&#x192;Â&#x17D;~Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â?Â&#x17D; Â&#x201D;Â&#x201A;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2026;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2039;Â Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;,Â&#x2020;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x152;Â&#x17D;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x160;Â&#x160;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2019;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2122;Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x2030;Â?Â&#x201E;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2013;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x17D;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x2122;Â&#x17D;Â Â&#x201A;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x201E;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2020;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2014;Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x17D;Â&#x2026;Â&#x201D;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x17D;Â&#x201A;Â Â&#x17D;~Â&#x2026;Â&#x2013;Â&#x2020;Â&#x160;Â&#x20AC;Â&#x2026;Â&#x192;Â&#x2026;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x2C6;Â&#x201E;Â&#x160;Â&#x17D;$Â Â&#x192;Â&#x152;Â&#x201E; tectural program and activities become overpowered by the instinctive interpretations of our bodies against measurable dimensions. This installation is derived from a comic story written and illustrated by Jimenez about a group of citizens riding a Noahâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Ark Spaceship to a new planet far away.


75$16&5,37%(7:((1-,0(1(=/$,0$621:+,7( )Ž~

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On Parametricism Our physical activities are patterns of architectural program. If we scale it up large enough, we will see the potentials of how we can appropriate surfaces and conditions for our desirable use. In other words, the arrival ”…„†€’…€ŒŽŽ†ŠˆŽ”…ƒŽ…’„€Ž‚€„…†Œ…–ˆŠ~Ž…–™Ž‰…—†–~Žƒ€„™Ž…”„†„…†


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Culture in the age of globalization has overcast a general disappointment towards the deficiency of diversity in the metropolis. Over the last few centuries, technological advancements in mobility and communications have facilitated a high level of interconnectedness. Numerous cosmopolitan cities are assimilating one another at an extremely expeditious pace. Taipei invades Flushing, Timesquare invited to Hong Kong, The Eiffel Tower exports to Tokyo, Oâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;Hare is resides in Frankfurt, Atlanta and Phoenix, The Ostankino Tower is erected in Berlin, Shanghai and Toronto, as for Levittown â&#x20AC;&#x201C; its resurrection is in Dubai. If this process is to continue forever, cities will gradually work towards a total sameness. Cultural mixing is no longer a question of virtue or beauty of a location, because each updated version of the metropolis has a palatable appendage of some other place and a further removal of heterogeneity. Indeed, the globe is becoming a sequence diagram rendering a flattened network of connected activities in a set of dispersed but specialized economic districts. More than that, this sameness is massiveness: the cosmopolitan city engulfs the urban, suburban, the rural and wilderness until every place is filled with ubiquity. One might ask: what about culture? What about identity, diversity, individuality? Throughout history, humans have never displayed resistance towards useful technology or convenience. The result of every progression in mobility and communication is a new architectural/urban form, and a new way of living. It is important, then, to first establish that culture is not nostalgia. Culture is not tradition. Culture is the everyday method of living.

Towards a Total Sameness


Manhattan is flanked by two major transportation waterways. A grid is laid down with horizontal and vertical vehicle/pedestrian routes. It is important to note that the defining mode of transportation in New York City is its subway system. Because the island is slender in its north-south axis, the subway lines follow that direction for the most part. Also because of the orientation of the subway lines, it takes more effort to travel in the east-west direction than north-south. With this nature, communities within the city began to stratify. 23rd and 7th is relatively close to 14th and 5th, but it takes three transfers on the subway, thus resulting in a half hour commute. Comparatively, the much further north-south commute from 125th and Broadway to 23rd and 7th takes the same amount of time.

artery routes of these cities determines the street life of the commuters and the physical scale of public spaces. Ultimately, these are factors that make up the culture of a metropolis.

Mobility determines the scale of the metropolis. What is more, mobility is the governing factor for the shape, size, and street life of the metropolis. Mobility is the culture and vitality of the metropolis. Famous cities such as Paris, Barcelona, Venice, Philadelphia, Manhattan, Brasilia, Los Angeles and Phoenix were all located by a strategic decision based on geographic advantage for military or economic reasons. Furthermore, the circulatory routes of these cities are so iconic that their Nolli Plans alone are emblematic enough for identity recogni tion. Most importantly, the velocity on the

1. MOBILITY AND MEMORY

public space. It works like a very long, linear piazza with many rhythmic interruptions of speed-changes. The experience of street life defines the memory of the Barcelona.

becomes less about making a transitional connection, but a civic infrastructure that functions more like a

When Ildefons CerdĂ  laid down the urban design for Barcelona, a major preoccupation was the orientation of the streets. Orientation affects the quality of sunlight and the amount of green. Some diagonals were drawn in to cut through the orthogonal matrix, creating several opportunities for public activities. Also, because of its pedestrian nature, the speed at which La Rambla is experienced is quite slow. Being a diagonal street, La Rambla has several points of The street intersection with north-south/east-west streets.

Village, Alphabet City and other communities formed around the subway. Disconnectedness creates moments of discreteness in the metropolis, when different forms of mobility interact with one another.

Transportation means has denounced physical distance as the chief obstacle between locations. Soho, the West


available method of transportation, communication and construction.

What if we are already doing the best we can?

While it is easy to scrutinize 20th century suburbs, can we pause to contemplate Roman Colonies briefly? Archeologists and art historians intensely analyze the characteristics and development of Roman Art and Architecture. It is not the elite scholars that made Rome what it is, but the best

With every technological revolution, we witness new idealistic master plans for emerging cities. Private ownership of automobiles, for example, propelled Frank Lloyd Wright to propose the Broadacre City where everyman owns an acre. Los Angeles and Phoenix are two cities similar to Wrightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vision. Both are extremely low in density and building height; their physical footprints are much greater than older models like Paris. They can be summarized as being composed of numerous communities of decentralized Suburbs. All communities satisfy a consumer check-list of desirable elements, and they are relatively cheap to build. Mass-produced to meet a level of sameness, it is difficult to differentiate Fountainhill, AZ from Venice, CA. Everything is half an hour away from everything else, as superhighways I-10 or the 202 Loop ensures that.

tropolis.

is the determining factor of the development of heterogeneity and diversity within the me-

However, the best examples of large-scale ubiquity produced by the advent of mobility are Suburbia and Subdivisions. With Barcelona and Manhattan,

one thing is clear: speed


The Silk Road, then, is the first instance of the Temporary City phenomenon. It is simultaneously the largest and slowest architectural detail known to mankind. Spanning over 7500 km, it serves as a corridor connecting two civilizations rich in local resources, such as silk, spices, raisins and nuts. The ancient Roman name for China was Seres, meaning the land of the silk. The Chinese name for Roman Empire was Daqin. It literally means “Great Qin”, Qin being the founding dynasty of the Chinese Empire. The Romans occupied one extreme position on the trade route, with the Chinese located on the other, hence the mirror name.

longer, over-extended version of this transition?

What if the connection between two destinations endures months, even years? What if a person spends more time in transition than in destination; could the temporality of transitional space finally attain some level of meaning?

about a destination somewhere else, never here. Here does not matter, because here never lasts long enough to be meaningful. This is La Rambla Nuova, an expanded route connecting two arrival points of desirability; only this one takes 8 hours to cover 9000km. The time experienced in transit has a certain impermanent ambiance. But what if we consider a

following remarks: The contemporary city is like the contemporary airport; convergence is possible only at the price of shedding identity. The Temporary City is generic. Globalization is best illustrated in the airport: it is a collection of everything remarkable

City is situated in the path that connects Permanent Cities. The Temporary City possesses strikingly similar qualities to the 20th century airport. In the essay Generic City, Koolhaas makes the

and history into its identity, forcefully. The Temporary City is like a parasite that lives off of a few Permanent Cities elsewhere; fortunately the Temporary

of mobility replaces the route it lives on.

The Temporary City can never be more meaningful than a very large transitional space, and sometimes cities struggle to instill culture

If the circulatory infrastructure of the traditional cities constitutes culture, can we project a further equivalence on the macro-level? If a city flourishes based on its physical adjacency to a route connecting two desirable destinations, it is vulnerable to a quick death when a newer, faster, and better mode

2. TEMPORALITY OF TRANSITIONAL SPACE

These

lived space and lived time.”

Dunhuang is not a place.

tion, but for a brief visit rather than a place to reside in. As Gunter Nitschke eloquently states: “place is the product of

for Dunhuang. Today, Dunhuang is a tourist trap. It is still a place of attrac-

Can the implementation of landmarks in a Temporary City elevate its status as a destination? That has not been the case

Dunhuang, another oasis trade post, had a different afterlife. Like Qarahoja, its life as a productive city ended upon the closure of the Silk Road. Fortunately, over the course of ten centuries, nearly five hundred caves were filled with Buddhist sculptures and paintings. It has managed to create a landmark and identity for itself beyond a simple transitional stop point.

The story of Qara-hoja continues for as long as the Silk Route was active: the oasis town benefits from the centuries of passerby and flourished into a very sizeable city. Unfortunately, Qarahoja was never well-documented enough due to its cultural and historical insignificance. After the Age of Discovery when merchants found alternative ways to trade and travel, this vast transitional space was left to ruins.

stories could all be fake.

ing stories about a location never experienced by the recipient.

stay, but never anything permanent. The citizen spends more time in transit than at arrival points. Can we, then, assert that this merchant is not familiar with his home? Fortunately, over the span of 7500km the DSTC has several converging points. For example, the merchant would spend a night or two every year at the oasis city Qara-hoja in Uyghur, meeting fellow merchants en route. In such a point of collision, merchants exchanges goods and information. This exchange is based on a memory of somewhere else, fabricat-

are in a rather restless plight. They are officially without a mailing address or neighbours, nor do they have any expectations for temperature, rainfall, or natural disasters from day to day. In this awkward scenario, the merchant will have a place to

Inhabitants of transitional space between Daqin and Seres were commonly merchants with camels. This massive transitional spaces can be noted as the Daqin-Seres Temporary City, (DSTC here forth) and its citizens


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The planet is encumbered with distinctive resources in numerous dispersed areas. These resources include raw materials such as minerals, crops, animals, lumber, water, and perhaps most importantly fossil fuel. In the past, geographical isolations allowed civilizations to independently develop local techniques in processing distinct resources in unique but intuitive ways. The abundance of natural resources in certain locations in conjunction with a comfortable climate often led to successful civilizations. The trading of goods and information often led to a merging of different techniques, enabling different ethnicities to produce more advanced artifacts. This mixing often included cultural baggage, introducing religion, music and literature.

Perhaps the best defining factor for destination is desirability. The question relates to the abundance of resources and the level of physical comfort. In Chapter 10 of the book Guns, Germs and Steel, author Jared Diamond summarizes that the geographical advantage of Eurasia allowed its peoples to prevail over their counterparts in the Americas, Africa and Australia. The Americas spans a much greater distance north-south (9000 miles) than east-west: only 3000 miles at widest, narrowing to a mere 40 miles at the Isthmus of Panama. That is, the major axis of Americas is north-south. The same is here for Africa. In contrast, the major axis for Eurasia is east-west. Ultimately, the east-west orientation affected the rate of spread of crops and livestock due to climatic and geological ubiquity. Possibly, it influenced the interaction of writing, wheels, and other inventions between civilizations. That basic feature of geography thereby contributed heavily to the very different experiences of Native Americas, Africans and Eurasians in the last 500 years.

3. DESTINATION AND DESIRABILITY

Technology fabricates culture. Every minute of this economy scripts out desirability and destinations. Culture is the way we live. Culture is the structure of global networks overlooked as the mere practicalities of production. While reformers continue to advocate for enjoyable public spaces with no obvious relational connections to any day schedules of any persons in any labour forces, their calendar continues. Culture is not the odd 2% leisurely weekend time spent in well-designed public spaces that are physically or relationally distant from citizens. Culture is inherent in the 80% of the waking hours people operate businesses, and perhaps the discrete passing moments in their emotional solitudes during some idle weekday afternoon. Michael Speaks aptly points out that â&#x20AC;&#x153;innovations in architectural practice have been ignored even by theorists addressing pragmatism.â&#x20AC;? If we accept that technology is method, and that the everyday method of the here and now is the high culture, then perhaps we are just ready to accept the banality of our times.

Currently, the global economy has a specific structure that documents the distribution of cost, demand and supply of material and labour resources. Government policies in certain geographical locations of the world result in lower costs of physical labour, while natural abundance in certain raw material can drive down the costs of production. With better technology to move goods and information around the world relatively cheaply, there is a new graph of supply and demand. This graph can map the world into an abstract diagram no longer focusing on political borders, but on economic gains. This is especially the case with our ability to converse via the internet instantaneously, and travel by air. The world becomes a flattened sequence/network diagram that illustrates the physical and relational connections between time, activities and resources. It is as though time spent in transition is diluting in its meaning. A semiconductor business in San Jose can have its raw materials harvested in Argentina, processed in Mexico, pre-assembled in Taiwan, assembled in Korea, inspected in Japan, marketed in the Netherlands, packaged in San Bernardino, then advertised around the world. Of course, the fossil fuel came from Kuwait and its toxic industrial waste returns to China. Each destination presents an economical/technical/natural resource, enough so a new dot is marked on the network diagram.


you thought they can only pirate DVDs.

Corbusier’s masterpiece Notre Dame Du Haut in Ronchamp was duplicated exactly in Zhengzhou. Just when

official did what he could to turn his strip of land into something worthwhile seeing: somewhere in his remote industrial and residential district, he proposed to rebuild his favourite international architectural landmarks worldwide, along with a mix of best-of vernacular architecture. Most notably, Le

The interchangeability of landmark is not unique to the Disneyfication of Manhattan or Orlando. As David Hickey points out, Las Vegas is filled with masses of the fake real. However, the Las Vegas fake real still cannot compare to the Chinese effort of the landmark relocation program. Most commodities are Made in China nowadays; but the reciprocal impact is that China is learning the western trends of fashion. Zhengzhou, the growing industrial capital of Henan province, is not exactly a place full of exciting attractions. In 1997 however, an ambitious local government

Manhattan pre-1980 would travel to Times Square with caution. Now the tourist would purchas a souvenir with caution, worrying if they were Made in China.

The frictionless nature of communication and mobility in the 21st century has enabled countless corporations to leap beyond political borders, introducing ubiquity into every market. Starbucks, for example, is often considered a threat to the native ecosystem of coffee industry. For that matter, the Disney Empire is worse: it instills a consolidated memory in all children. When all geographic districts around the world begin eating the same fast-food, drinking the same soda, watching the same movies and talking about the same icons, heterogeneity yields way to quality goods and entertainment. When a tourist visits Orlando, it is highly likely someone would suggest Disneyworld as a landmark to him/her. The identity of Disneyworld is the rebuilt visions of various key landmarks around the world, and most of the souvenirs were Made in China. With regards to identity, diversity or individuality, there can be no greater destruction done to the concept of localism than Disneyfication. A tourist to

4. CORPORATE SAMENESS

tions around entire map of the world, deploying the same citygrids and same civic landmarks, prescribing to the same mass media, celebrating the same calendars and eating the same ethnic foods.

circulatory infrastructure of the city, while the latter is an abstract network of resources. In the Physical City, circulation adjacencies and iconic façades are extremely crucial. In the Relational City, it only matters where the destinations are, the near-instantaneous communication and mobility can override transitional space. We can create a network of corpora-

Consider two simultaneous cities: one that is physical, another which is relational. The former is simply the architectural and

from Cummins’ times, he employs only the elite. We can see how dated his list is now. As cities like Toronto and Denver endorse Liebeskind’s fashionable sameness around the world, we can abstract an urban pattern of 20th century architecture: form follows fame.

A similar phenomenon occurred in Columbus, Indiana. J. Irwin Miller, owner of the Cummins Engine Company, a local concern manufacturing diesel engines, instituted a program in which Cummins would pay the architects' fee on any building if the client selected a firm from a list they compiled. The plan was initiated with public schools. It was so successful that Miller went on to defray the design costs of fire stations, public housing and other community structures. Columbus has come to have an unusual number of notable public buildings and sculpture, designed by such individuals as Eero Saarinen, I.M. Pei, Robert Venturi, Ceasar Pelli, Richard Meier and others. Six of its buildings, built between 1942 and 1965, are National Historic Landmarks, and 60 other buildings sustain the Bartholomew County capital seat's reputation as a showcase of modern architecture. Unlike the literal copies of the Chinese phenomenon, Columbus displays a frantic thirst for good taste. Claude-Nicholas Ledoux’s most famous work, Royal Saltworks at Arc-et-Senans, was a monarchy funded project near Besançon. He had aspired to use urban design and architecture to lead to an ideal society. The city is designed in a hierarchical order while many of the buildings themselves take the form of their function. (i.e. the brothel looks like a giant penis.) When the literal level fails to signify fashion or meaning, you can only hire the signature architect whom in-the-know will appreciate. Considering the list of architects


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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Others believe that the really distinctive forms of contemporary art and thought have made a quantum leap beyond all the diverse sensibilities of modernism, and earned the right to call themselves â&#x20AC;&#x153;post-modernâ&#x20AC;?. I want to respond to these antithetical but complementary claims by reviewing the vision of modernity with which this book began. To be modern, I said, is to experience personal and social life as a maelstrom, to find one's world and oneself in perpetual disintegration and renewal, trouble and anguish, ambiguity and contradiction: to be part of a universe in which all that is solid melts into air. To be a modernist is to make oneself somehow at home in the maelstrom, to make its rhythms oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s own, to move within its currents in search of the forms of reality, of beauty, of freedom, of justice, that its fervid and perilous flow allowsâ&#x20AC;?


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