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Ochil Landscape Partnership Project Outline for Archaeological Investigation and Analysis at Dollar Glen, 2011-12


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Introduction

The National Trust for Scotland (NTS) property at Dollar Glen (NS 96128 99300) is located on the north edge of the town of Dollar, in the Parish of Dollar. The heavily wooded Glen is in contrast to the bare grazing which characterise the lower slopes of the Ochil Hills above Dollar. The Glen is itself dominated by Castle Campbell, which sits upon a spur between the Burns of Care and Sorrow and commands extensive views across the valleys of the rivers Devon and Forth. The Ochil Hills in the area are relatively low, and “the central part of the parish, in which the town is situated, forms a somewhat large and lightly sloping plain with a southern exposure, and beautifully interspersed with hamlets, farm houses, and enclosures.” (Imperial Gazetteer of Scotland, 383). The Glen is flanked on the west side by Dollar Hill (344m) and on the east by Glook Hill (222m), while above the Castle is Saddle Hill or Craiginan Hill (498m) which partially masks one of the highest of the Ochils, White Wasp (643m).

This current document sets out the scheme of works for excavation to be carried out over a period of two weeks, during the summer of 2011, as part of the Trusts Thistle Camp initiative and in partnership with Dollar Museum, Dollar Community Council and Clackmannanshire Council. 2

Historical background

The history of settlement in the area of Dollar Glen can be traced back to at least the Bronze Age (c.2000 – 600BC), as demonstrated in the nineteenth century discoveries of burial cairns and barrows in Old Dollar itself. In addition, a Bronze Age cinerary urn was uncovered at Kellyburn Park in 1957. It is also likely that earlier activity may have taken place within the Glen and though a Neolithic stone axe is known to have been discovered within Castle Campbell in 1856, this alone cannot be considered as evidence for earlier settlement.

The main indicator of human activity in the Glen is Castle Campbell, the chief lowland stronghold of the Earls of Argyll from the late fifteenth century. Though the earliest remaining element of the castle (The Tower) dates from the fifteenth century, the mound on which it is built may indicate a longer sequence of occupation. The exact date of the construction of the Tower is unclear, though the earliest mention of the Castle lands comes in a charter dated 9 April 1465, which explains that the Stewarts of Innermeath and Lorne held the lands of the Bishop of Dunkeld. They were subsequently referred to as ‘the ecclesiastic lands of Dollar or Gloume.’ The name Castle Gloume is associated with the earliest history of the castle, and it was only with the passing of ownership of the lands to the Earl of Argyll that st

it became known as Castle Campbell. Colin Campbell, who was created 1 Earl of Argyll in 1457, had inherited a part of the estate through marriage to Isabel Stewart, one of three Stewart heiresses. st

Coincidentally, the other two also married Campbells and in 1481, the 1 Earl had begun the task of consolidating the estate under his sole ownership. This had been achieved by 1489, when James IV allowed Argyll to change the name of his lowland stronghold from Castle Gloume to Castle Campbell

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by an Act of Parliament. The Castle remained in the hands of the Earls of Argyll and in 1703 the 10th st

Earl was created the 1 Duke of Argyll. John Knox, the radical 16th century Scots Protestant minister states in his ‘History of the Reformation in Scotland’ that in 1556 he “passed to the old Erle of Ergyle, who was then in the Castle of Campbell. Where he tawght certaine dayis.” Traditionally he is said to have preached to a large congregation and administered the sacrament from a rocky knoll to the south of the Castle over Kemp’s Score. Though the site is known as ‘John Knox’s Pulpit’ it is more likely that his sermon was delivered from within the Castle itself. In the struggles following the signing of the National Covenant in 1638 by the majority of Scots nobles, in defiance of Charles I, the roles of the young Earls of Argyll and Montrose had a strong bearing on th

st

the history of the Castle and Dollar. Archibald, the 8 Earl and 1 Marquis of Argyll supported the Covenanters and by 1644 sat in direct opposition to Charles’ unpopular Catholic religious stance. Montrose, on the other hand, although supportive in principle of the Covenanting cause as a domestic religious issue, could not abandon his king. Montrose defeated a Covenanting force at Tippermuir to the west of Perth in 1644 and Argyll was despatched to meet the King’s army. Argyll’s army was routed at Inverlochy and forced to flee, pursued by Montrose’s men, and it is thought that in 1645 as a prelude to the battle of Kilsyth, the Macleans of Montrose’s army put Castle Campbell to the torch along with all but one of the houses of Dollar and Muckart. No conclusive evidence in support of this version of events currently exists, and it is more likely that the Castle remained occupied throughout this period. “In point of fact, in 1648, three years after the alleged destruction, Argyll had a garrison in the Castle under Mr. William Blaikburn as ‘Captane’…” (Cruden 1992, 22). The surrounding lands, however, were probably laid waste by the Macleans, and this destruction may well have included a large proportion of the Dollar Glen forest as well as the nearby villages. The fall of Castle Cample is perhaps most likely to have occurred in 1654, when General Monck (commander of the Cromwellian Government army in Scotland) writes from Sterling that ‘Some small parties of the enemy are abroad in the country and on Monday and Tuesday nights last burnt Castle Campbell, an House belonging to the Marquesse of Argyll…’. This destruction certainly marked the decline of the Castle, and it ceased to function as them main lowland residence of the Earls of Argyll from that period. In 1805 George, the 6th Duke, sold the Castle and lands to a local estate owner, Crawfurd Tate of Harviestoun. In 1859 he sold it to the Globe Insurance Company from whom it was in turn purchased by Sir Andrew Orr. The estate remained in the Orr family and a nephew of Sir Andrew, Mr J.E. Kerr of Harviestoun, inherited the land in the early twentieth century, From the seventeenth to the nineteenth centuries the fast flowing water from the Glen contributed to Dollar’s development into a prosperous industrial town, its wealth based in part on the production of textiles in water-driven mills. The wool industry was connected closely with nearby Alva, where the

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production of textile goods was completed. Though also possessing notable coal deposits and stone and metal quarries and mines, Dollar became chiefly known as a centre for the bleaching of linen. This was begun in 1787 by a Mr Haig and at its height the process covered an area of over 12ha (30 acres) in the parish The town bleachfield (closed in 1893) where newly made linen was laid out and wetted to lighten it, was situated directly adjacent to the current southern boundary of the Trusts property, and is now a public recreation area.

The land comprising Dollar Glean and including Castle Campbell was gifted to the NTS in 1950 by John Ernest Kerr of Harviestoun and is held inalienably. Castle Campbell is in guardianship to Historic Scotland. 3

Previous Research

No previous archaeological investigation has taken place at Dollar Glen, though excavations within the Castle Campbell were undertaken in 1982. Though no further reference beyond that given on page 29 of Historic Scotland’s guidebook (see bibliography) can be found at this time. 4

Objective of Excavation

The central aim of the investigation is to enhance our knowledge and understanding of human activity in Dollar Glen, and to use this knowledge to inform the decisions made by the Trust in its ongoing conservation management. It is also intended that this first phase of investigation will inform further community investigation in 2012. This will be achieved through a combined programme of excavation and electronic survey. Excavation will focus on 2 main areas: 1. The remains of two rectangular structure and associated boundary/trackway earthwork located at the north-western boundary of the Trusts holdings. 2. The possible remains of two huts (NS99NE33) measuring 5 by 11m and 8 by 6m, located on a narrow prominence at a bend on the Burn of Sorrow at the western boundary of the Trusts holdings. The electronic survey will aim to record all the features excavated and to place them within their geographical context, including all other identified sites within the vicinity. 5

Methodology

The project methodology will conform to the appropriate Standards and Guidelines of the Institute for Archaeologists. Desk-based and other background research Historic research will be carried out by members of the Ochil Landscape Partnership in association with the Dollar Museum. This will comprise an assessment of the available historic documentation and cartographic evidence pertaining to past settlement and land use in Dollar Glen.

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This information will be used to inform excavation analyses and will be included within the final report and, where appropriate, included in any future publication pertaining to the investigation. Electronic Field Survey Prior to excavation all the features targeted during the investigation (see list above) will be electronically recorded using an EDM so that all features, excavation trenches and material uncovered therein can be properly geographically referenced.

Excavation It is intended that up to 4 archaeological trenches will be excavated over the course of the investigation. The general location of these trenches and the features to be targeted are shown in Figures 1 to 4. In the first instance these trenches will be no greater than 2 by 3m (or the equivalent area). But should it be deemed necessary during the course of the excavation these may be extended to establish the full extent of any archaeological features that might be discovered. Field recording (sub-surface remains) All sub surface remains will be identified through a system of unique context numbers and recorded using written pro forma context sheets, photographs and 1:20 scale drawings. The recording system used will relate the site and excavation areas to the National Grid and the Ordnance Survey datum; relate all plan and section drawings to the site plan; maintain written registers of all plans, drawings, photographs, special finds, samples, etc and compile records on suitable, durable materials. Mere mechanical recording of material will not, however, absolve the archaeologist from the need to interpret, as far as possible on site, the nature and meaning of deposits, features and the site itself.

Field recording (standing remains) All principal vertical surfaces of any structure will be measured and drawn. The survey will record salient features and analytical detail but need not extend to a full stone-by-stone survey. All features of note will be given a written pro forma description, and will be identified by a system of unique context numbers. Descriptions will, as appropriate, include details of dimensions, location, fabric, form, matrix, geology, mouldings, markings, presumed dating (where applicable), and stratigraphic information. The position of all described features will be recorded on at least one plan or elevation.

Post-Excavation Analyses Post-excavation analyses will be carried out by the archaeologists of the National Trust for Scotland in conjunction with suitable external consultants. 6

Products

The investigation will produce, as a minimum, the following:

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a) A digital photographic record (conforming to current RCAHMS standards and guidelines) will be required of all exposed subsurface layers and features, as well as the internal and external elevations of any standing remains.

b) Detailed scale drawing of any excavated sub-surface features and architectural details. c) Scaled plan of any building footprints, to which all other photographs and illustrations will be related.

d) Data Structure Report.

This report will be prepared broadly in line with the appropriate

Institute for Archaeologists Standards.

Following the introductory sections (including a

narrative summary in layman’s terms of the main findings, an indication of the constraints and limitations of the report, and an indication of how the report has been set out), the report will provide an analysis of the excavations findings. This will be followed by narrative descriptions of the elements of the archaeological features and built structures germane to the objectives of the project outlined above, probably ordered by phase.

If it is possible to provide an interpretation of the development of Dollar Glen over time, this and any other appropriate interpretation should follow the descriptive section. The report will be fully referenced. Copies of this Project Outline, Scheduled Ancient Monument Consent and any written variations will be reproduced within an appendix. The report will be illustrated by plans, elevations, details, sketches and photographs as appropriate. Along with a list of finds, samples, contexts and photographs.

e) A summary report for submission to Discovery and Excavation in Scotland will be prepared and the project data will be entered into OASIS: Online AccesS to the Index of archaeological investigationS (http://www.oasis.ac.uk/scotland/). 7

Logistics

The NTS Group Archaeologist, Daniel Rhodes, to whom all queries of a technical nature should be addressed, will manage all investigation and analyses and supervise all on-site activity. Relevant permission will be sought from Historic Scotland and the Local Authority Archaeological Service prior to the commencement of any fieldwork. th

Fieldwork will be carried out over a one-week period from July 30 to August 4th. Days 1 to 5 (July 30th – August 3rd) will be staffed by the NTS Thistle Camp Volunteers and Days 6 to 8 (August 4th to th

6 ) will be open to all members of the Ochil Landscape Partnership, Dollar Young Archaeologists Club and other local participants.

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Access Access will be open to all visitors throughout the course of the investigation. Though notification of group visits will be necessary and participation in excavation will be restricted to those days outlined above. Health and safety All appropriate health and safety checks will be carried out by the NTS prior to the investigation and all individuals taking part in fieldwork will be covered under the NTS insurance providing they register with a member of staff and provide an emergency contact number (this can be provided upon arrival to the site). One member of NTS staff trained in emergency first aid will be present on site at all times.

Publicity The project and its results may be publicised through the local or national media. Any publicity must be handled by or through the NTS and the Ochil Landscape Partnership. . 8

Reporting Procedures

Reporting timetable Two copies of an research report (which should include all illustrative material) will be provided within six months of completion of the field element. Report production and distribution The NTS will provide bound copies of the final report to all stakeholders accompanied by a disk containing a digital version of the final report, all images produced during the project, any information databases which may have been compiled as well as digital survey information as AutoCAD LT 2004 and DXF/DWG files suitable for use on a PC running Windows XP. In addition, the NTS will submit one bound copy to the local authority SMR and one to the NMRS (along with the entire Project archive). Copyright of the reports and all other information (including electronic information) will rest with the NTS, but members of the Ochil Landscape Partnership will have the right to use the reports and the survey results free of charge in relation to non-commercial activities or to promote the work of the Partnership. 9

The archive

The primary archive will be deposited with the NMRS, and will include all original field records and notebooks, alongside a full set of catalogued photographs. The archive will be prepared to standards agreed with the NMRS and will be deposited with them within six months of completion of the final report.

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Collection and Disposal Strategy for Artefacts and Ecofacts

The NTS will submit a reporting form and a copy of the Project Report to the Treasure Trove Unit within three months of completion of the final report outlining what material it currently holds pertaining to the current project, and thereafter follow the Treasure Trove process as advised by the TT Unit..

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References Beveridge, D., 1888, Between the Ochils and the Forth, 269-287 Countryside Development Commission, 1981, Buildings of Architectural and Historical Interest, 22, 23 Crawford, J., 1986, Held in Trust, 137 Cross, M., 1994, Bibliography of Monuments in the care of the Secretary of State forScotland Cruden, S., 1953, Castle Campbell Ministry of Works Official Guide Cruden, S., 1981, The Scottish Castle Department of the Environment, 1976, ‘Donations’ PSAS 108, 384 Drummond, A. I. R., Old Clackmannanshire Gibson, W., 1883, Reminiscences of Dollar and Tillicoultry, and other districts adjoining the Ochils, 1925 Groome, F. H. (ed.), 1882, ‘Dollar’ in Ordnance Gazetteer of Scotland: A Survey of Scottish Topography, Statistical, Biographical and Historical Harvey Johnston, G., 1977, The heraldry of the Campbells Lindsay, M., 1986, The Castles of Scotland, 120-3 Lynn, J., and Hughes, A., 1966, ‘Parish of Dollar’ in Gilfillan, J. B. S. (ed.), The Third Statistical Account of Scotland: The Counties of Stirling and Clackmannan, 575 MacGibbon and Ross, 1887-92, The Castellated and Domestic Architecture of Scotland, Vol I, 202 Mylne, A. 1845, ‘Parish of Dollar’ in The New Statistical Account of Scotland, vol VII: Dunbarton, Stirling and Clackmannan Northern Ecological Survey, 1992, Report: Castle Campbell NTS (various contributors), 1991, Dollar G len Paul, R., 1905, Castle Campbell, a historical sketch RCAHMS, 1933, 11th Report with Inventory of Monuments and Constructions in the Counties of Fife, Kinross and Clackmannan RCAHMS, 1978, ‘Clackmannan District and Falkirk District, Central Region’ in Archaeological Sites and Monuments Series 1 no. 36, p. 10 RCAHMS, 2008. Well Sheltered & Watered: Menstrie Glen, A Farming Landscape near Stirling. Scottish Development Department, ‘Dollar’, List of Buildings of Architectural and Historical Interest Stanley, J.A., 1985, First Management Plan for Dollar Glen Unpublished MSc Thesis Stevenson, J. B., 1985, Exploring Scotland’s Heritage, 72 Sturrock Collection Catalogue 1889, no. 545, 46

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Swan, A., 1987, Clackmannan and the Ochils Tabraham, C., 1986, Scottish castles and fortifications Watson, J., 1792, ‘Parish of Dollar’ in Sinclair, ed., 1978 reissue), The Statistical Account of Scotland 1791-99, 750 Welsh, T. C., 1972, ‘Dollar’ in DES 1972 Wilson, S. M. (ed.), 1859, TheImperial Gazetteer of Scotland.

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Figures

Figure 1: Map of north part of Dollar Glen showing area to be investigated in relation to Castle Campbell.

Figure 2: Overview of area of investigation, looking north-west. Showing building remains and trackway/boundary.

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Figure 3: View of remains of Structure 1, looking south-east.

Figure 4: View of Structure 1 and Structure 2, looking south-east.

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Ochil Excavation Site  

Ochil Excavation Site

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