Page 1


GL A WONDE


The adventures of

ADYS IN ERL AND


Designing for Dementia Gladys in Wonderland

Master of Architecture Design Thesis Melbourne School of Design by Jil Raleigh

6 November 2015


Acknowledgements Thank you to Brian Kidd, Kirsty Bennett, Alison Withers, Alan Kong, Terri Preece, Jenny Donovan, Liz Rand, Freda Erlich and Alex Holland for their kind assistance during this semester. This proposal has been greatly enriched by your expert contributions. This thesis embraces and attempts to embody universal design principles. The word disease does not appear in reference to dementia in support of Alzheimer’s Australia’s destigmatisation effort. A visual impairmentappropriate font and 12-point type has been used to maximise legibility within the prescribed format.


Falling down the rabbit hole

Designing for Dementia : Thesis Statement The cognitive benefits of physical exercise and social interaction for persons with dementia are widely recognised. Maintaining engagement with the public realm is therefore critical in mitigating any decline in mental capacity, just as retaining individual agency is vital to engagement with the public realm. However, the current discussion on designing for dementia tends to focus on the private realm. In response to the Designing for Dementia brief, this work attempts to broaden the conversation to include the dementia experience in the public realm. This thesis presents a set of design principles specifically addressing the challenges of the dementia experience in the public realm. Intended to provide a guide to urban planners and designers, these principles are a distillation of knowledge gained through a study of dementia research, academic literature and related design guides; knowledge that is further informed by the analysis of a prototypical site (Errol Street, North Melbourne).


This thesis then offers a speculative proposal set in the year 2030. Despite all efforts, the public realm remains largely unimproved with respect to the dementia experience. Instead, wearable augmented reality devices have begun to compensate for lack of dementiafriendly design. Targeted at persons with prodromal or mild dementia, the PRO-d (Public Realm Orientation device) is one such device. Attached to a standard pair of spectacles, the PRO-d provides users with a virtually enhanced environment in order to improve legibility and, therefore, accessibility. The PRO-d is designed to aid navigation in the public realm, enabling persons with dementia (and other visually or cognitively impaired people) to more fully engage with their communities and retain a degree of independence. The design principles previously developed for dementia in the public realm have been translated to the augmented realm to act as a guide for PRO-d developers.

_ This proposal is explored via a routine journey made by our protagonist; 78-year-old Gladys, a North Melbourne resident with mild dementia. Meet Gladys in Wonderland.


DES FOR DE


SIGNING EMENTIA


Studio intent This proposal has been conceived in the context of an architectural design thesis studio, “Designing for Dementia,” lead by Mr. Brian Kidd, Senior Fellow at the Melbourne School of Design and pioneering architect in the field of dementia research and design. The studio brief is to design “a dementia-specific facility” based on an intensive review of research literature and architectural precedents (both contemporary and historical). This proposal attempts to shift architectural thinking beyond the private realm (interior environments) and into the public realm in order to fully address the most critical aspect of “designing for dementia;” the individual agency and well-being of persons with dementia.


Dementia Dementia is not a well-understood condition. No cure yet exists for such insidious cognitive decline, despite the efforts of medical researchers and practitioners. While knowledge of potential symptoms, triggers and preventative measures is continually accumulating, treatment remains rudimentary and basically ineffective.


“Lost in space” by Jonathan Franzen


Though the rhetoric surrounding dementia has calmed since the recent emergence of evidence refuting the predicted dementia “epidemic,� cognitive decline remains a frightening and debilitating affliction. This studio attempts to alleviate the adverse effects of dementia through design.


PRIN


DESIGN NCIPLES


Design principles The research, analysis and design work contained in this thesis is predicated on 3 sets of design principles, with 2 focusing specifically on dementia design practices: Principles of Universal Design, 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia and PLANET.


7 principles of universal design Developed by North American architect Ron Mace, universal design does not discriminate against users or occupants based on cognitive capacity, physical ability, age, gender or culture. In Mace’s words, universal design is: “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialised design.�


1. Equity 2. Flexibility 3. Simplicity and intuitive use 4. Perceptible information 5. Tolerance for error 6. Low physical effort 7. Size and space for approach and use (for instance, access for hoists)

7 principles of universal design:


10 principles of designing for dementia The 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia, developed by Prof. Richard Fleming and Kirsty Bennett of the University of Wollongong and championed by Alzheimer’s Australia, are derived from research literature and focus on the enablement and well-being of persons with dementia. The 10 principles are typically presented in the context of private (primarily interior) environments. This thesis aims to transfer the 10 principles from private environments to the public realm in order to investigate the implications of persons with dementia engaging with the wider built environment.


1. Safety and security (unobtrusively reduce risks) 2. Smallness (provide human scale) 3. Simplicity and good visual access (allow people to see and be seen) 4. Reduce unhelpful stimulation 5. Optimise helpful stimulation 6. Support movement and engagement 7. Familiarity (recognisable objects and environmental features) 8. Provide opportunities for a range of social interactions (to be alone or with others) 9. Encourage links with the community 10. Respond to a vision for way of life (facilitate enablement)

10 principles of designing for dementia (Fleming and Bennett, 2015):


PLANET PLANET is a set of design principles proposed by UK researcher, Dr Garuth Chalfont. PLANET, or Person, Location, Architecture, Nature, Energy and Technology, attempts to provide a framework for a more holistic approach to dementia care and design methodologies (Chalfont, 2007). Operating in harmony with the 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia, PLANET is focused on the interaction between persons with dementia and nature. PLANET encourages the creation of connection via an “edge” condition; a vital connection between private and public realms. An edge may be conceived of as a “sentry” location from which a person might interact with nature in relative security, despite any physical limitations. Such edges include window seats, courtyards, sunrooms and verandahs.


PERSON Level of engagement with the environment (physically, emotionally, sensorially) LOCATION Proximity to nature and availability of edge spaces ARCHITECTURE Architectural elements aiding engagement (doors, greenhouses, clotheslines) NATURE Types of nature available ENERGY Chi, or instinctive response to a place TECHNOLOGY Technologies aiding engagement (hearing aids, automatic doors, night lights)

Principles of PLANET (Chalfont, 2007):


PRO


THESIS OPOSAL


Thesis proposal Concern for the mental and physical well-being of persons with dementia is a prominent feature in the design of dementia-specific facilities. However, individual agency is commonly viewed as a risk (ironically) to the well-being of a person with dementia and (perhaps more to the point), to the integrity of the institution or party responsible for care. This notion of increased risk is mostly due to a perceived increase in the chances of injury or misadventure. Yet agency is fundamental to human existence and is arguably of greater importance to the person with dementia than any sort of objective measure of “health.” This proposal seeks to address the problem of “loss of agency” by acting to mitigate the risk implied by the regaining of individual agency by persons with dementia.


Well-being and individual agency through engagement with the public realm Physical activity is known to decrease the rate of cognitive decline in persons with dementia (Weuve et al., 2004). Venturing into the public realm (either walking or wheeling) is an almost universally available form of exercise. This free and readily accessible opportunity is all the more enticing due to an ample supply of sunlight (vitamin D) and fresh air. Traversing the public realm also facilitates social interaction and community engagement; another contributing factor in decreasing rates of cognitive decline. Therefore, engagement with the public realm is critical to maintaining both the well-being and individual agency of persons with dementia.


Engagement with the public realm with the assistance of A.R. This thesis proposes the development of an augmented reality device that allows persons with dementia to venture into the public realm. The device is essentially a navigational aid, combining existing technologies (photogrammetry, GPS) to enable users to engage safely and intuitively with the (exterior) built environment.


Safe for persons with dementia but not for villainous giant gorilla things


Design scenario (2030) Set in 2030, this design scenario presumes the normalisation of personal A.R. devices. Google Glass’ successors have saturated the mass consumer market (negating any stigma associated with assistive technology) and persons with emerging cognitive impairment (in their 70s and 80s) are au fait with smart devices.


King Charles III


Gladys The scenario focuses on a routine journey into the public realm undertaken by a protagonist, Gladys. Gladys is 78 and has lived in North Melbourne for 52 years; since she was married. 3 years ago, she noticed she had begun to have difficulty recalling appointments and, embarrassingly for her, the names of streets in her local area. One day, she lost her way coming home from the train station. This frightened her a little and made her somewhat reluctant to leave the house for fear of getting lost again. Gladys’ family doctor introduced her to the PRO-d (Public Realm Orientation Device), an assistive technology designed to be worn on her trips to the local shopping precinct or to visit her family. Her doctor assured her that using the PRO-d is just like wearing a pair of glasses; glasses you can talk to.


Gladys, our protagonist


Technological basis The device relies on 5 existing technologies; 2 established (cellular network / internet and GPS) and 3 at critical points of development (HMD, or head mounted display, photogrammetry and pattern / text recognition). The head mounted display (HMD) is close to genuine commercialisation, with the Google Glass and its competitors vying for supremacy in the imminent mass consumer A.R. revolution.


Various A.R. HMD


Depth-sensing cameras Photogrammetry (mapping environments via photography) is now about to become possible, in real time using just a mobile phone camera. Known as “depth-sensing cameras,� this technology is being developed by Qualcomm and is being trialled in video game scenarios. While the technology is currently only able to detect a series of stationary objects within a 2m radius, it is anticipated that this will advance significantly within the short term to deliver the capability required for the PRO-d proposal.


Qualcomm Vuforia Mobile Vision Platform: Smart Terrain for Depth-Sensing Cameras


In this proposal, the depth-sensing camera provides real-time terrain mapping and enabling the detection of objects (hazards or otherwise) in the immediate environment. This information is fundamental to the operation of the device and is at the core of the innovation in this proposal.

FIELD OF VISION OBJECT DETECTION RADIUS 9M


PROTAGONIST

HIGH RISK OBSTRUCTION DETECTION ZONE 2M


Pattern recognition and text interpretation Pattern recognition is a field of research focused on enabling computers and robotic devices to “learn” via patterns and regularities in data. Reading, until recently a task performed exclusively by humans, arises from such “machine learning.” Optical Character Recognition (OCR) is a familiar and well-established technology that converts images to editable text if presented with a stable, legible image. By contrast, reading in an exterior real-life context, while using similar textual analysis methods, is a far more challenging prospect for a computer, given the dynamic and unpredictable nature of the urban environment. However, such technology does now exist.


A text detection system has been developed to support navigation for blind or visually impaired persons, by detecting, interpreting and translating textual content to auditory information for the user. The system (known as Open Eyes-II) is effectively a “reading robot� contained in a wearable computer similar to the device proposed for PRO-d. In addition to disability support, automatic text detection and interpretation technology has the potential to revolutionise transport, security, image database search and retrieval systems, and other ubiquitous computing scenarios (Kang and Lee, 2002; Zandifar et al., 2002). The reading robot (or camera-computer partnership) must complete 4 operational modules in order to detect and interpret textual content in the environment (Bulacu et al., 2008): 1. text detection 2. text-pose estimation 3. camera motion 4. character classification.


Voice commands The PRO-d is activated by natural language voice commands, such as “I’m going to the bakery” or “show me the way to the pharmacy.” The device stores this information for reference (for instance, if the user departs significantly from regular routes or asks for assistance), operating on the basis of minimising interference with the user’s navigational approach unless deemed necessary.


DEPTH SENSING CAMERA

OBJECT MESH / 3D MODEL OF ENVIRONMENT

PATTERN RECOGNITION CAMERA

TEXT + PATTERN CONTENT

GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS)

USER LOCATION / TRAJECTORY

SPECIFIC: “ok glass, let’s go for a walk to the bakery”

GENERAL: “ok glass, let’s go for a walk”

USER INPUT VIA VOICE COMMAND

Device architecture

SMART EYEGLASS COMPONENTS SMART EYEGLASS OPERATIONS


review data doctor + user + programmer

record + analyse hazard display vs. user movement / response

“machine learning”: storage / integration of environmental data + behaviour patterns of user

USER RESPONSE

HAZARD MITIGATION VISUAL / AUDIO DISPLAY

HAZARD RECOGNITION ALGORITHM


A.R. “language� convention The device communicates information to the user by integrating graphic elements into the existing environment. Through real-time mapping and analysis of the environment, an enhanced but cohesive set of visual information is presented to the user via the HMD. The device relies on a visual language developed with dementia-specific requirements in mind. Part universal and part personalised, this system of signs enhances information already present in the environment that may not be accessible to persons with dementia without assistance. Colours have been selected based on two criteria; visibility and intuitiveness. The elderly typically suffer from colour agnosia; colours become less saturated, particularly colours with shorter wave lengths (blues, greens). Therefore, bright colours predominately in the red or orange range of the spectrum are preferred. However, as red and orange carry connotations of alarm or anger, purple and yellow (still quite visible) is used to for less urgent prompts. Obviously, universally recognised colour codes (for instance, the green man for road crossings) are maintained to avoid confusion.


TRAFFIC HAZARD

NO ACCESS

SAFE PATH REST OPPORTUNITY

DIRECTION HOME

NO ENTRY

ROUGH SURFACE

LOW CONTRAST OBSTRUCTION

PATH HOME

POSSIBLE CONGESTION


Customisation Numerous elements and settings may be adjusted in consultation with a person’s care network to suit an individual user’s needs and preferences. For instance, triggers for navigational aid may be adjusted to customise how far off course a user may go before visual prompts are offered. A hierarchy of alerts may also be developed according to the user’s particular strengths and limitations; determining how close an object might be before an alert is presented and what types of objects are emphasised over others in the environment. Voice commands may also be customised within a predetermined range of natural language combinations. Problematic areas of vision may be avoided; for examples, in the centre of vision (if the user has macular degeneration) or at the periphery. Textual prompts are generally minimised to avoid confusion and placed in a comfortably accessible zone (between foreground and head height relative to the user).


Low

Medium

High


Target market This device is intended for persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or prodromal (early stage) dementia. The device aims to assist “aging in place� by allowing persons with emerging cognitive difficulties (MCI or prodromal dementia) to remain in their homes and communities for longer. The PRO-d is aimed specifically at the 3-year period in which dementia symptoms have emerged, but a firm medical diagnosis has not yet been attained (Phillips, Pond and Goode, 2011). The device is not suitable for persons with severe dementia, though it will ease the transition from prodromal to mild and into the moderate stages of dementia.


Moderate

Mild

Distribution of dementia

30%

55%

Severe

15%


Care network The doctor advised Gladys to establish a care network to support her in her home and in her use of the PRO-d in her local environment. Her symptoms are not so severe that she is unable to manage, but having an established care network is critical to maintaining her well-being and in case of some decline. Gladys’ care network includes her daughter, her granddaughter, her neighbour, her doctor, her optometrist, her community care nurse and her local baker. Gladys has lived safely and independently in her home for 3 years with the assistance of PRO-d and her care network.


Data The PRO-d provides Gladys’ doctor and other network members with vital information regarding her level of physical activity and her physical and cognitive performance during this activity. The PRO-d records distance, average speed, route and heart rate.


Gladys’ PRO-d data export for the month of September


Integration with existing social programs PRO-d is intended to operate as part of a network of support and treatment programs. Numerous governments and not-for-profit organisations (Alzheimer’s Australia) have established various community education and action programs to provide much-needed support to persons with dementia. By 2030, such programs are likely to be fully evolved, meaning integration with assistive technologies is similarly likely to be prolific.


a guide to Becoming a dementia-friendly community rePort, SePtemBer 2014


StePS to create a dementia-friendly community

Kotter’S 8-SteP change model

Implementing and sustaining change engaging and enabling the whole community

creating a climate for change

1

create a sense of urgency

2

Form a powerful coalition

3

4

5

create a vision for change

communicate the vision

Remove obstacles and empower action

6

create short-term wins

7

Build on the change

8 Anchor the changes in community culture

Dementia-Friendly Guide September 2014

11


Overcoming barriers to engagement The PRO-d is designed overcome both the barriers confronted by persons with dementia when contemplating venturing into the public realm (fear of getting lost or having a fall), and the difficulties encountered during the course of these journeys (getting lost, trouble with interpreting signage or social cues, difficulty identifying hazards such as uneven surfaces or trip hazards).


SITE AN


NALYSIS


Street hierarchy Diversity in street type and form assists persons with dementia in maintaining concentration and orientation during a journey. A strong street hierarchy (achieved through including a variety of high streets, side streets and laneways, punctuated by squares and small parks) significantly contributes to this diversity. Deformed grids and avoiding symmetrical (90°) intersections is also advantageous. Persons with dementia (sensibly) view arterial roads as highly hazardous, preferring less busy streets (Mitchell, Burton and Raman, 2004). This area of North Melbourne has a high degree of street hierarchy, but is largely built on a symmetrical grid.Unfortunately, Gladys’ home is somewhat isolated from the by King and two other arterial roads (Hawke and Victoria Streets), causing her to perceive a barrier between her home and her local commercial precinct. TIP 01: Avoid infinitely repeated orthogonal grid arrangements and monotony in street form.


0

50m


Typological diversity Similarly, diversity in building typology increases environmental legibility for persons with dementia. Variety in colour, texture, form and motif (decoration) facilitates an increase in recognisability. Identifiable typologies (town halls, banks, hairdressers, convenience shops) are also beneficial, allowing persons with dementia to more easily interpret the function of buildings with or without the assistance of signage.

TIP 02: Preserve heritage landmarks, but avoid overregulating architectural form.

Landmark heritage Miscellaneous heritage

Derelict / abandoned

Large commercial / warehouse

Medium-density residential

Miscellaneous retail

Low-density residential


Positive features “Distinctive” or “commonplace positive features” have a significantly favourable effect on the emotional state of persons with dementia. “Positive features” include historic buildings, gardens, parks, areas of defined activity (cafes, tennis courts, lawn bowl greens) and some public art. In general, persons with dementia prefer spaces that are smaller, less formal and more active to the vast, formal areas commonly found in highly urbanised environments. Areas of defined activity are similarly preferred to programmatically ambiguous spaces, as persons with dementia are more easily able to interpret the cues for (and therefore choose to participate in) spatially defined behaviours. Hence, smaller parks and sporting venues (tennis courts or lawn bowl greens) are favoured over large, formal gardens and imposing public squares (Mitchell, Burton and Raman, 2004).


“Good” public art


Therefore, the generally smaller scale of inner Melbourne municipal features, such as those in North Melbourne, are well-suited to the proclivities of persons with dementia. A cluster of small parks and the town hall square (balanced by several intervening cafes) punctuate the environment, providing Gladys with an opportunity to escape the monotony of the Victorian terraces. However, the precinct’s parks tend toward a default solution for surplus space in urban eddies (a common rather than a “designed� space). This means the parks are often awkward in aspect and access. North Melbourne would benefit from a more deliberate distribution of green spaces, ideally with a greater degree of integration into the Errol Street itself.

TIP 03: Insertion of small green spaces midway along high streets to provide landmark and respite from congestion.

Square Park


Green spaces / public squares

0 50m


Negative features Conversely, “distinctive” or “commonplace negative features” have a significantly adverse effect on the emotional state of persons with dementia. “Negative features” include derelict spaces (vacant lots, abandoned or vandalised buildings), unconstrained rubbish, narrow or broken pavement, broken fences, unsanctioned paths, graffiti and (again) some public art (Sheehan et al., 2006). Some of these features would negatively affect a person with or without dementia. Others are clearly “era specific;” most obviously a negative opinion of graffiti. However, persons with dementia are more susceptible to distraction or emotional disturbance.


“Bad” public art


Therefore, it is worthwhile attempting to minimise (or at least maintain an awareness of) these features. Frequency of municipal services obviously has an important role in maintaining street orderliness. City of Melbourne tabled a report in 2013 that recommended increasing rates on vacant or derelict lots, demonstrating an available avenue of regulatory influence. Gladys’ immediate environment unfortunately contains one significant vacant lot adjacent to a frequented park. However, generally the North Melbourne precinct exhibits a minimum of “negative features.�

TIP 04: Incentivise development of vacant or derelict lots via rates levy. TIP 05: Maintain regular rubbish removal services.


Vacant lots / derelict buildings

0 50m


Crossing the road Walking speed is associated with cognitive performance, meaning the average walking speed of a person with dementia decreases as symptoms progress. With proximity to traffic already a significant concern, road crossings therefore pose a significant challenge to persons with dementia (and elderly pedestrians more generally). Crossings (particularly at busy intersections) may even deter persons with dementia from embarking on local walking expeditions. Pedestrian crossing times at lit intersections are typically calculated to allow for the average walking speed of the 15th-percentile of the general population (approximately 1.2m/s). However, the 15th-percentile of elderly and disabled pedestrians is equivalent to the 1st-percentile of the general population (approximately 1.0m/s).

Lit crossing zone Un-lit crossing zone


Crossing zones


At the corner of Errol and Victoria Streets (a crossing of 24m with a total allowed crossing time of 21 seconds), a person with a 1stpercentile walking speed (1.0m/s) exceeds the time allowed in making the crossing, even excluding the time taken to respond to the audio and visual “green man� prompt. This scenario is common in cities across the world, as pedestrians compete with vehicles for urban hegemony (Asher et al., 2012). While pedestrians with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or prodromal dementia (the target audience for this proposal) are not yet likely to have walking speeds less than the 1st-percentile, this example demonstrates that allowed crossing times are still frequently inadequate.

15th-percentile (1.2m/s) 1st-percentile (1.0m/s) 1st-percentile exceeding allowed crossing time


Errol / Victoria Street pedestrian crossing times as a fraction of total allowed crossing time.


In 2009, Singapore’s Land Transport Authority (LTA) installed sensors at lit crossings designed to provide flexibility in crossing times. Eligible pedestrians swipe a special card over the sensor to increase the crossing time by an extra 3 to 13 seconds (LTA, 2013).

TIP 06: Install sensors at selected crossings (near areas frequented by the elderly, the disabled or persons with cognitive impairments) so pedestrians are able to extend crossing times as required.


Senior crossing sensors in Singapore


City of Melbourne specifies a maximum allowable width for unlit road crossings (typically laneways and driveways) and stipulates the provision of a pedestrian refuge island in cases where this maximum is exceeded. This limitation, in combination with the lack of crossing time limit, means unlit crossings do not pose a significant problem in terms of crossing duration. Unfortunately, unlit crossings are hazardous due to the inherent lack of vehicle and pedestrian signals. Such crossings are generally similar in surface treatment to the surrounding ground surface, meaning persons with dementia (susceptible to distraction and having difficultly distinguishing between low contrast elements) are not alerted to the hazard presented by an imminent crossing.

TIP 07: Mandate high contrast crossings (lit and unlit).


Walking distances Proximity to municipal, retail, medical and social services is critical to “aging in place.” Walking is frequently the dominant mode of independent transport available to persons with dementia (as well as elderly people more generally), so relatively short walking distances to services and points of interest is vital to maintaining agency and community engagement. Gladys’ essential services (bank, doctor, pharmacy, post office, supermarket, hairdresser) are fortunately within a 10-minute radius (or approximately 400m at 1.0m/s, allowing for a short intermediary rest stop) of her home. This is made possible by the mixed-use, medium-density development typical of inner Melbourne suburbs. Gladys’ case illustrates the advantages of “aging in place” in a fine-grained urban context.

< 2-minute 4-minute 6-minute 8-minute 10-minute POI


0

50m


Rest opportunities Rest frequency is related to walking speed; persons with dementia require rest opportunities at shorter intervals than the general population (being generally elderly). While park benches are typically located at 50 to 80m intervals along high streets in inner Melbourne, the journey to the high street is often characterised by long distances between rest opportunities. Mobility walkers may be used to circumnavigate this deficiency. However, occasions arise when a walker is unavailable or impractical. Relying on the availability of personal mobility aids is not ideal and not compatible with the principles of universal design.


Distribution of rest opportunities (park benches)


The most difficult part of Gladysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; journey to her local high street is from her home to the corner of Errol and Victoria Streets (a distance of 180m and gaining 3m in altitude, with 3% peak slope). This is fortunately a relatively short distance; many people choosing to â&#x20AC;&#x153;age in placeâ&#x20AC;? must walk much further to reach essential services. This reinforces the need for municipal authoritiesto encourage fine-grained development to minimise excessive concentration of services and therefore minimise walking distances (benefitting all residents, regardless of ability). Councils must also consider the provision of seating (park benches) along residential streets as well as high streets, with particular attention paid to residential streets with > 3% slope.

< 1% (1 : 100) 2% (1 : 50) 3% (1 : 33) 4% (1 : 25)


This reinforces the need for municipal authoritiesto encourage fine-grained development to minimise excessive concentration of services and therefore minimise walking distances (benefitting all residents, regardless of ability). While City of Melbourne stipulates at 50m minimum interval between park benches, this seems only to apply to high streets. Councils must consider the provision of seating (park benches) along residential streets as well as high streets, with particular attention paid to residential streets with > 3% slope.

TIP 08: Install park benches or provide equivalent rest opportunities along residential streets at maximum 250m intervals for â&#x2030;¤3% slope and 150m for >3%.


Landmarks and latent environmental cues Persons with dementia rely on distinctive environmental features for critical orientation information. Members of the general population also obtain this sort of information from environmental features, but persons with dementia tend to more consciously attain navigational cues from these prompts in order to maintain a particular route. Environmental features can be separated into “landmarks” (historic buildings, distinctive structures, places of personal significance, public art works) and “latent environmental cues” (tram stops, post boxes, park benches, large trees). A proliferation and, critically, a variety of familiar landmarks and latent environmental cues form part of the network of information that allows a person with dementia to remain orientated in the public realm. Gladys’ route affords her regular stimulation by latent environmental cues, though the monotony of the City of Melbourne planter boxes and park benches means she relies more on landmarks at either end of Errol Street (the former town hall, historic pubs and the park monument).


Distribution of landmarks / latent environmental cues

0 50m


Post box


Planter

0

1m

Latent environmental cues


Park bench


Weird fountain

0

1m

Latent environmental cues


Park monument


Disued underground toilet

0

1m


Ugly postmodern commercial development


Landmarks Former town hall

0

10m


Signage Curiously, signage may not be the most effective way-finding mechanism of the collection of cues available to persons with dementia (Mitchell, Burton and Raman, 2004), though this has been disputed, with some claiming signage to be of more use than landmarks and latent environmental cues (Sheehan et al., 2006; Blackman, Schaik and Martyr, 2007). In either case, signage is typically overabundant and visually complex, making for a potentially disorienting experience for persons with dementia. But even simple or explicit signage can prove difficult to interpret. Many signs rely on symbols to convey meaning. Dementia typically manifests as a decline in episodic memory, while semantic memory remains intact, meaning persons with dementia are less able to interpret abstract symbols, icons or maps. Therefore, text-based signs are of more use to a person with dementia than symbol-based signs. The elderly often also experience colour agnosia (difficulty distinguishing colours), meaning signage with low contrast markings are rendered illegible.


Distribution of “good” and “bad” signage

0 50m


To be of maximum benefit, signs should be explicit and minimal, with large, dark lettering on a light background. Recognisable colours are also useful (for instance, a red sign indicating the location of the post office). Signs should be just above or as close as possible to eye level for maximum visibility, as elderly persons with dementia may have some restriction on head and neck movements, or some loss of peripheral vision.

TIP 09: Mandate principle signage of premises be simple, large, dark lettering on light background.


“Good” signage


Visual permeability The visual permeability of an urban environment has a significant influence on the navigational abilities of persons with dementia. Visual access along a route, particularly at intersections, allows pedestrians to identify distant environmental features (typically landmarks) and therefore plan a route relative to those features. A high degree of visual permeability is particularly important for persons with dementia, whose route planning is quite conscious and deliberate (and often involves â&#x20AC;&#x153;imagining the routeâ&#x20AC;?) (Mitchell, Burton and Raman, 2004).

TIP 10: Provide visual access along street axes to vital landmarks.


Visual permeability

0 50m


Physical permeability The physical permeability of an urban environment is determined by terrain characteristics, the frequency of road crossings, efficiency of footpath networks and the degree of physical congestion along pedestrian routes. A high degree of physical (and visual) permeability seems to imply an orthogonal grid arrangement, with wide streets and necessarily large, symmetrical intersections. However, as discussed in relation to the benefits of typological diversity, persons with dementia tend to experience long, wide and straight roads (or paths) as unfathomable and ambiguous (and therefore intimidating) (Mitchell, Burton and Raman, 2004). Therefore, the need to provide physical and visual permeability must be balanced against providing a sense of security. TIP 11: Provide lit pedestrian crossings at regular intervals.


Physical permeability


Congestion Congestion may be physical, visual or auditory, and contributes significantly to confusion and anxiety in persons with dementia. The disorientation that may arise from congestion in the public realm may cause a person with dementia to lose concentration and therefore possibly lose track of their location and the purpose of their journey. Congestion in the urban public realm is typically in the form of excessive signage, crowds, outdoor cafe and restaurant seating encroaching on the pedestrian thoroughfare, heavy traffic, emergency sirens, tram bells, children shouting. Persons with dementia may choose to avoid peak travel times and crowds, but other forms of congestion are more difficult to predict. While persons with dementia in general prefer active, â&#x20AC;&#x153;vibrantâ&#x20AC;? street spaces, the congestion often caused by cafes and restaurants (particularly through outdoor seating) may also contribute to increased confusion and anxiety.


Physical congestion due to crowds / encroachment by outdoor cafe and restaurant seating


Though City of Melbourne stipulates a minimum width of 2m is to be maintained between a premises and outdoor seating, this “pedestrian clearance” zone is typically congested. Patrons and staff frequently cross the zone, often carrying food or beverage items. Perambulators, walking frames and pets also often encroach on this zone, further reducing the area available for pedestrians to pass. Recognising that outdoor seating contributes significantly to the vibrancy that is valued by persons with dementia (and the community generally), the abolition of such seating arrangements is not advocated. Instead, a solution balancing the needs of business owners, patrons and pedestrians is recommended.

TIP 12: Increase minimum pedestrian clearance distance to 2.4m and relocate outdoor seating adjacent to premises, so the “pedestrian clearance” zone is between the seating and the kerb (patrons and staff no longer cross paths with pedestrians).


Depiction of outdoor cafe and restaurant seating regulation (City of Melbourne Outdoor Cafe Guide, 2008)


The negative effects of congestion are somewhat mitigated by visual permeability and the presence of landmarks or latent environmental cues that serve as re-orientation prompts in a moment of disorientation.

TIP 13: Provide additional (and appropriate) signage near to potential sources of noise >70dB (tram stops, road crossings).


Moments of auditory congestion / distraction

0 50m


Risk of a fall Unexpected changes in ground level or texture present a significant hazard to persons with dementia. Though the visual distortions that arise in the more advanced stages of dementia do not affect those with prodromal or mild dementia, shallow or low contrast steps may still not be properly visible to elderly pedestrians (often with limited peripheral vision or colour agnosia). Fear of a fall is a common reason for the elderly (including persons with dementia) to avoid venturing into the public realm. Therefore, mitigating the risk of a fall is critical to facilitating public engagement. The ideal solution for reducing the risk of a fall is to completely avoid the inclusion of steps and slippery or uneven surfaces. However, in the interest of practical implementation, high contrast surfaces may be used to enable pedestrians to readily distinguish between the hazardous surface and the surrounding ground level.


Rough surfaces / low contrast or shallow steps at entrances


Surprisingly, a significant number of commercial buildings along Errol Street (and elsewhere in Melbourne) have entrances (typically in the form of a single step) that do not comply with contemporary design standards or universal design principles; a vestige of superseded compliance regimes.

TIP 14: Incentivise compliance works in existing premises (via levy on business registration fee or similar) to eradicate non-universal access. Mandate painted kerbs to achieve contrast between surface treatments.


Pavement in Istanbul


Sunlight and shade A combination of reduced sunlight exposure (leading to vitamin D deficiency) and increased susceptibility to heat stress or heat-related illness means a balance between sunlight and shade is critical for elderly pedestrians (including persons with dementia). Trees and awnings Gladysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; route provide her with a reasonable opportunity to choose between sunlight and shade.

TIP 15: Provide a balance of sunlight and shade (trees and awnings) tailored to local climate.


0

50m


TIP 01: Avoid infinitely repeated orthogonal grid arrangements and monotony in street form. TIP 02: Preserve heritage landmarks, but avoid overregulating architectural form. TIP 03: Insertion of small green spaces midway along high streets to provide landmark and respite from congestion. TIP 04: Incentivise development of vacant or derelict lots via rates levy. TIP 05: Maintain regular rubbish removal services. TIP 06: Install sensors at selected crossings (near areas frequented by the elderly, the disabled or persons with cognitive impairments) so pedestrians are able to extend crossing times as required. TIP 07: Mandate high contrast crossings (lit and unlit). TIP 08: Install park benches or provide equivalent rest opportunities along residential streets at maximum 250m intervals for â&#x2030;¤3% slope and 150m for >3%.


TIP 09: Mandate principle signage of premises be simple, large, dark lettering on light background. TIP 10: Provide visual access along street axes to vital landmarks.

TIP 12: Increase minimum pedestrian clearance distance to 2.4m and relocate outdoor seating adjacent to premises, so the â&#x20AC;&#x153;pedestrian clearanceâ&#x20AC;? zone is between the seating and the kerb (patrons and staff no longer cross paths with pedestrians). TIP 13: Provide additional (and appropriate) signage near to potential sources of noise >70dB (tram stops, road crossings). TIP 14: Incentivise compliance works in existing premises (via levy on business registration fee or similar) to eradicate non-universal access. Mandate painted kerbs to achieve contrast between surface treatments. TIP 15: Provide a balance of sunlight and shade (trees and awnings) according to climate.

Dementia-in-the-public-realm design tips

TIP 11: Provide lit pedestrian crossings at regular intervals.


Design principles for dementia in the public realm This rigorous site analysis (and the design “tips” generated) have been combined with a study of the relevant research literature and distilled into a new set of principles; “Design Principles for Dementia in the Public Realm.” To be used in conjunction with the existing design principles previously acknowledged (Universal Design, 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia and PLANET), this set of principles attempts to provide specific and implementable actions for designers, rather than the vague guides currently available to communities. Therefore, while obviously not exhaustive, these principles are intended to begin the process of developing practicable actions to designers interested in creating a dementia-friendly public realm.


PRINCIPLE 01: Provide â&#x20AC;&#x153;edgesâ&#x20AC;? in public spaces (create sense of protection or security while allowing view) to offer opportunity for passive involvement in community activity. PRINCIPLE 02: Create discernible street hierarchy by varying width, or providing distinguishing features (landmarks, latent environment cues) that are visible from the street intersections. PRINCIPLE 03: Provide universally legible signage combining explicit language and symbols at regular intervals (at intersections and along streets). PRINCIPLE 04: Provide contrasting surfaces for changes in level or surface treatment (particularly to delineate pedestrian and vehicular zones). PRINCIPLE 05: Provide adequate rest opportunities. PRINCIPLE 06: Balance the provision of sunlight and shade. PRINCIPLE 07: Encourage creation of small, active spaces and discourage vacant / derelict lots via financial incentive.


EXPERT REVIEW


Interviews with various dementia experts Aside from the contact with dementia design professionals kindly facilitated by Brian Kidd, and regular design reviews conducted by Brian (himself very experienced in designing for dementia), the research base of this thesis was expanded to include a designer focusing on universal design and a healthcare professional specialising in cognitive impairments (specifically dementia).


The designer Jenny Donovan, Architect. Director of Healthy Communities (an“inclusive design” practice), Lecturer at the Melbourne School of Design The following is a paraphrased summary of Jenny’s comments during a discussion about this proposal and about designing for dementia more broadly: “Quality of life depends on health, participation and security.” “Agency is a universal good. In my experience, some form of agency is wanted in all cultures. Ian Gough talks about this sort of thing in his work on human needs.” “A near miss is as bad as a fall in terms of loss of confidence.” “Universal design is not a zero sum game. Be aware of the potential to, through making design decisions appropriate to one group, inadvertently create negative effects on another group. Like dementia gardens where children are not allowed to or cannot play. This kind of segregation is not a good thing.” “Why not use the device as an evidencegathering tool? Like a Fitbit.”


The healthcare professional Liz Rand, Occupational Therapist CDAMS (Cognitive, Dementia & Memory Service) Caulfield Hospital, Melbourne. Liz believes the device will be of most use to people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or in the prodromal stage of dementia. The level of assistance required at the very beginning of this period (0-3 years) is likely to be very low as navigation does not generally become a problem (particularly in familiar environments) until people are on the verge of an official diagnosis of dementia. Fortunately, only 1 in 3 patients go on to develop dementia; the others stabilise, or even improve. However, Liz agreed that developing a familiarity with the tool while still relatively capable cognitively would be advantageous, as the user would become accustomed to the device and be better able to use it in the event of cognitive decline. She approved of setting the scenario in 2030, as the technology would be familiar to that group of elderly persons. The current cohort has significant difficulty in adopting assistive technologies due to a lack of basic familiarity with computing.


During the prodromal period, casual observers may not notice a person has early stage dementia. However, some assistance is required to carry out routine (yet reasonably complex) activities, like grocery shopping. Liz warned against providing too much visual complexity, as this is more likely to confuse than assist the user. It is also important not to overcompensate for a user’s lack of ability, as any “brain training” provided by expeditions in the public realm would be negated (though “brain training” may or may not be effective in the treatment of dementia). Liz believed the device would integrate very well into the existing care structures (informal or community care networks, CDAMS and other health services). Liz suggested the device be able to be linked to smart home systems and the smart phone of a relative or carer for the purposes of occasional monitoring. Liz also believed that any ethical issues arising from using the device (privacy, surveillance) would be similar to those already encountered in the formation and maintenance of care plans. This sort of dilemma, balancing potential risks and benefits, is assessed on a case-by-case basis (consulting with all concerned parties).


Design principles for dementia in the augmented realm A set of design principles has already been developed as part of this thesis project (Design Principles for Dementia in the Public Realm) through a process of reviewing the available literature relating to dementia in the public realm (including existing design principles) and conducting a thorough analysis of the site (Errol Street in North Melbourne). Applying this knowledge and design philosophy to this thesis proposal (for an augmented reality device for persons with dementia), another set of design principles is now proposed, adapting and building on the principles previously discussed (Universal Design, 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia, PLANET, Design Principles for Dementia in the Public Realm); â&#x20AC;&#x153;Design Principles for Dementia in the Augmented Realm.â&#x20AC;? Again, while not exhaustive, these principles provide the structure for the (simulated) implementation of this thesis proposal, as shown. However, the existing principles ultimately provide the foundation of this project; the relevant principles are noted where applicable.


PRINCIPLE 01: Minimise visual prompts. Provide necessary information only to avoid confusion, or loss of opportunity for cognitive exercise. PRINCIPLE 02: Avoid obstructing information already present in the environment (allow multiple cueing). PRINCIPLE 03: Avoid visually obstructive prompts (except in cases of extreme hazard / danger where warning is required). Integrate prompts into the real environment where possible. PRINCIPLE 04: Provide intuitive / universal colours and symbols if possible (minimise amount of new information the user must become accustomed to). PRINCIPLE 05: Anticipate potential hazards. Provide advance warning of potential hazard to user to minimise risk, but use properly calibrated prompt to avoid creating undue worry / panic. PRINCIPLE 06: Superimpose contrast for changes in level or surface texture, or to distinguish between surface funtion (footpath, road).


A.R. EP


ISODES


Applying the principles The following episodes track a typical journey of Gladysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; along Errol Street. The following principles apply to the proposal in its entirety. Universal Design: 2. Flexibility 3. Simplicity and intuitive use 4. Perceptible information 5. Tolerance for error 10 Principles of Designing for Dementia: 1. Unobtrusively reduce risks 2. Provide human scale 5. Optimise helpful stimulation 6. Support movement and engagement 8. Provide opportunities to be alone / with others 9. Encourage links to the community 10. Respond to a vision for way of life PLANET: Nature Location (edge spaces) Technology Other principles apply only to particular episodes, as noted.


0

50m

EPISODE 8

Location of A.R. episodes

EPISODE 7

EPISODE 6

EPISODE 5

EPISODE 4

EPISODE 3

EPISODE 2

EPISODE 1 EPISODE 9


LATENT ENVIRONMENTAL CUE :

LANDMARK : UGLY POSTMODERN BUILDING

USER FIELD OF VISION

LATENT ENVIRONMENTAL CUE : ROOFING IRON FENCE

ROUGH SURFACE / UNHERALDED TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

EPISODE 1 : BEGINNING THE JOURNEY


POTENTIAL HAZARD ANTICIPATION : DEMARCATION OF CONGESTION ZONE

OBJECT DETECTION RADIUS 9M

“Since I started using the glasses, it’s gotten a lot easier to get out and about. I’m much less worried about losing my way now and things are easier to understand than before because of all the little augmenting messages.” - Gladys, PRO-d user

MOVING VEHICLE MARKER : LOW HAZARD = MODERATE COLOUR CONTRAST

PASSIVE NAVIGATIONAL AID

POWERBOX


EDGE MARKER : HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC + NARROW FOOTPATH = MULTIPLE HAZARD CUEING REQUIRED

EPISODE 2 : WALKING UP THE HILL

FAMILIARITY


“Gladys is a terrific gardener, you know. She doesn’t do too much of that these days, but her dahlias are still her favourite. That’s why she set up the glasses to show her a big lot of flowers when she goes about. Cheers her up.” - Moira, Gladys’ neighbour

VISUAL ENHANCEMENT : USER PREFERENCES = DISPLAY OF FAMILIAR FLOWERS

R.L. GRASS PATCHY UNDER SHADE OF TREE

LANDMARK : MONUMENT IN PERIPHERAL VISION (LIMITED UTILITY)

LANDMARK : UNDERGROUND TOILETS (DISUSED)


DEMARCATION OF PEDESTRIAN ZONE LIMITS

PEDESTRIAN CROSSING : HIGH CONTRAST + ACTIVE / NON-ALARMING COLOUR

PUBLIC TRANSPORT = BEYOND USER BOUNDARY CONDITION. SOURCE OF >70DB SOUND = DISTRACTION >> DISORIENTATION

PASSIVE NAVIGATIONAL AID POSITIONED + ORIENTED FOR MAXIMUM USER VISIBILITY

EPISODE 3 : CROSSING THE ROAD


ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING BUTTON

“Gladys has some trouble telling the difference between the red and green man on the far side of the road. Hard to distinguish if you’ve got a combination of colour agnosia and cognitive difficulties. The PRO-d is programmed to provide her with a larger, brighter image, making crossing the road much easier.” - Jonathan, Gladys’ optometrist

ENHANCED EDGE CONDITION : ALERT USER TO TRANSITION BETWEEN VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONES

ENHANCED PEDESTRIAN CROSSING SIGNAL PROJECTION


POTENTIAL HAZARD ANTICIPATION : DEMARCATION OF CONGESTION ZONE PASSIVE NAVIGATIONAL AID : ENABLE USER TO MAINTAIN INTENDED ROUTE

EMPHASISE APPROACHING OBSTACLE : PEDESTRIAN (AVOID OBSCURING IDENTIFICATION BY USER)

REST OPPORTUNITY : 7M PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY CAFE SEATING

EPISODE 4 : PASSING THE CAFE

ENERGY (RESPONSE TO PLACE)


“Gran’s specs are pretty excellent. It means that if I’m up for an R.L. visit, we can go up to the cafe and if it’s busy, I don’t have to physically help her to manoeuvre into a seat and read out the specials board for her. Means she’s a bit more independent.” - Ruby, Gladys’ granddaughter

ENHANCE LOW CONTRAST OBSTACLE


REST OPPORTUNITY : MODERATE EMPHASIS TO ALLOW PRIORITISATION OF DESTINATION LATENT ENVIRONMENTAL CUE : FLOWERBOX

EMPHASISE OUTLINE ONLY : TEXTUAL INTERPRETATION NOT REQUIRED (EXISTING TYPEFACE HIGHLY LEGIBLE)

RAPIDLY APPROACHING OBSTACLE : PEDESTRIAN (PRIORITISE WARNING OVER IDENTIFICATION)

EPISODE 5 : ARRIVING AT THE BAKERY

LOCATION (EDGE SPACES)


LANDMARK : GRAFFITI WALL (SUBJECT TO CHANGE)

“Gladys is my favourite. Apparently those glasses show her the menu, so she doesn’t have to ask me to read it all out anymore. Not that I mind at all. I’m kind of thinking about getting a pair of ARs myself now.” - Pip, Errol Street bakery attendant

ROAD EDGE / TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

ROUGH SURFACE / UNHERALDED TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER


MOVING VEHICLE MARKER : EXTREME HAZARD = PATTERN / VERY HIGH COLOUR CONTRAST

PARTIALLY OBSTRUCTIVE INTERVENTION (EXTREME HAZARD ONLY)

EPISODE 6 : AVOIDING TRAFFIC


“My biggest worry with Mum was her going out by herself and getting lost or having a fall. Traffic is a bit of a concern too. But the PRO-d glasses help her with directions and give her plenty of warning about moving vehicles. It really takes a lot of the risk out of her leaving the house.” - Maddie, Gladys’ daughter

ROAD EDGE / TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

ENHANCE EDGE CONDITION : ALERT USER TO TRANSITION BETWEEN VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONES


PEDESTRIAN BEYOND RANGE : NO MARKER REQUIRED

SIGN INTERPRETED + OPENING HOURS SOURCED FROM INTERNET

ENERGY (RESPONSE TO PLACE)

UNIVERSAL NO ENTRY

NO ENTRY MARKERS : HIGH CONTRAST / NON-ALARMING COLOUR

EPISODE 7 : ARRIVING AT THE LIBRARY LOCATION (EDGE SPACES)


>300M TRAVELLED = INCREASED CHANCE OF USER REQUIRING REST : HIGH CONTRAST MARKER

“I love to go up to the library and sit in the window seat and have a look through the magazines and watch the world go by. Sometimes I get there a bit early, but I don’t mind sitting and waiting out the front if I know it won’t be too long until it opens.” - Gladys, PRO-d user

PEDESTRIAN : MINOR HAZARD (LOW CONTRAST MARKER)


TEXT + SYMBOL + COLOUR = MULTIPLE CUES AVAILABLE TO USER

A.R. SIGNAGE REQUIRED (EXISTING SIGNAGE NOT VISIBLE ON APPROACH0

LANDMARK : WEIRD FOUNTAIN

LATENT ENVIRONMENTAL CUE: LARGE TREE

EPISODE 8 : ARRIVING AT THE POST OFFICE


“Gladys’ PRO-d metrics are a really useful way for us to see how she’s going. She’s really increased her physical activity to a much more healthy level as she’s gotten more familiar with the device. Getting outdoors and keeping up the exercise means social interaction too, which is great for her general well-being.” - Mark, Gladys’ community care nurse

LATENT ENVIRONMENTAL CUE: POST BOXES


PATH HOME : UNIQUE COLOUR + “FOLLOW” SYMBOL

OBJECT DETECTION RADIUS 9M

EXISTING SIGNAGE REPEATED + ENHANCED

EPISODE 9 : RETURNING HOME


“Gladys’ metrics indicate a slight improvement in her blood pressure because she’s exercising more, but is also more relaxed while she’s at it. I’ve noticed that her personal confidence has improved significantly too since she started with the PRO-d. I find this is pretty common amongst my older patients who use the PRO-d.” - Olive, Gladys’ GP

ROAD EDGE / TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

HIGH RISK OBSTRUCTION DETECTION ZONE 2M


A.R. S


SCENES


PROVIDE MULTIPLE CUES EMPOWER USER TO ENGAGE WITH PUBLIC REALM

SCENE 1 : DEPARTURE


PROVIDE DATE / TIME ORIENTATION


USER METRICS RECORDED FOR ANALYSIS / MONITORING

SCENE 2 : KING STREET


SUPPORT USER CONFIDENCE : PROVIDE SPATIAL ORIENTATION

TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

ROUGH SURFACE MARKER

ENHANCE EDGE : DELINEATE VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONE


SCENE 3 : INTERSECTION 1


PROMPT : CROSSING BUTTON SUPPORT NAV. PROCEDURES

PROVIDE SPATIAL ORIENTATION (SUPPORT USER CONFIDENCE)


DELINEATE CROSSING ZONE

SCENE 4 : INTERSECTION 2


AVOID OBSTRUCTING CUES ALREADY PRESENT

ENHANCE EXISTING CUES NOT READILY DETECTED

MAINTAIN HIERARCHY OF CUES THROUGH CONTRAST


TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER (MOVING VEHICLE)

TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

ENHANCE EDGE : DELINEATE VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONE

SCENE 5 : PARK


ENHANCE ENVIRONMENT : USER PREFERENCES SUPPORT POSITIVE EXPERIENCE WITH PUBLIC REALM


ROUGH SURFACE MARKER DELINEATE CROSSING ZONE

SCENE 6 : ERROL ST 1


ENHANCE LOW CONTRAST OBSTACLES

ENHANCE EDGE : DELINEATE VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONE


PROVIDE MULTIPLE CUES

ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (MOVING PEDESTRIAN)

SCENE 7 : ROUTE MISCALCULATION


SUPPORT MAINTAINING INTENDED ROUTE ENHANCE EXISTING CUES NOT READILY DETECTED


EMPHASISE LOW CONTRAST OBSTACLES

SCENE 8 : FOOTPATH CONGESTION


PROVIDE PROMPTS IN USER FIELD OF VISION

ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (MOVING PEDESTRIAN)


PROVIDE SPATIAL ORIENTATION (SUPPORT USER CONFIDENCE)

IDENTIFY REST OPPORTUNITY

SCENE 9 : DESTINATION 1


EMPHASISE ENTRANCE

EMPHASISE ENTRANCE CONGESTION ZONE


ENHANCE POTENTIALLY DESIRED OBJECTS

SCENE 10 : DESTINATION 2


D ALERT USER TO RESTRICTIONS ALERT USER TO NEARBY PERSONS

ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (AT REST PEDESTRIAN)

PROMPT : SERVICE LOCATION SUPPORT NAV. PROCEDURES


STRESS INCREASE LIMITED BY PROVISION OF MENU PROMPT

SCENE 11 : DESTINATION 3


PROVIDE SUMMARY BASED ON USER PREFERENCES

IDENTIFY BASED ON ONLINE FACIAL RECOGNITION DATABASE


PAYMENT PROMPT

SCENE 12 : DESTINATION 4


ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (AT REST VEHICLE)

SCENE 13 : ERROL ST 2


TASK PROMPT

EMPHASISE ENTRANCE

EMPHASISE ENTRANCE CONGESTION ZONE


SCENE 14 : EXTREME HAZARD 1


EXTREME HAZARD ALERT (DELIBERATELY OBSTRUCTIVE)

ENHANCE EDGE : DELINEATE VEHICLE / PEDESTRIAN ZONE ROUGH SURFACE MARKER


SCENE 15 : EXTREME HAZARD 2


EXTREME TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER (MOVING VEHICLE)

EXTREME HAZARD ALERT (DELIBERATELY OBSTRUCTIVE)


IDENTIFY REST OPPORTUNITY

SCENE 16 : LIBRARY 1


“CLOSED” PROMPT

ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (MOVING PEDESTRIAN)


ALERT USER TO RESTRICTIONS

SCENE 17 : LIBRARY 2


ENHANCE EXISTING CUES NOT READILY DETECTED

PROVIDE POSITIVE / ENCOURAGING INFORMATION


SCENE 18 : DISTRACTION 1


IDENTIFY SOURCE OF DISTRACTION (NOISE > 70DB)


PROVIDE RE-ORIENTATION PROMPT POST-DISTRACTION

SCENE 19 : DISTRACTION 2


ENHANCE ENVIRONMENT : USER PREFERENCES

SCENE 20 : DISTRACTION 2


SUPPORT USER CONFIDENCE : PROVIDE SPATIAL ORIENTATION

TRAFFIC HAZARD MARKER

CONTINUED RE-ORIENTATION SUPPORT


ENHANCE EXISTING CUES NOT READILY DETECTED

PROMPT : CROSSING BUTTON SUPPORT NAV. PROCEDURES

SCENE 21 : INTERSECTION 3


AVOID OBSTRUCTING CUES ALREADY PRESENT


DELINEATE CROSSING ZONE

SCENE 22 : INTERSECTION 4


ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (MOVING PEDESTRIAN)


ENHANCE EXISTING CUES NOT READILY DETECTED

EMPHASISE LOW CONTRAST CHANGES IN LEVEL

SCENE 23 : HOME 1


SCENE 24 : HOME 2


ALERT USER TO OBSTRUCTION (CAT) EMPHASISE FAMILIAR ELEMENTS IN ENVIRONMENT


PROVIDE DATE / TIME ORIENTATION

PROMPT USER TO DOCK / CHARGE DEVICE

SCENE 25 : HOME 3


REFER


RENCES


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PRECE


EDENTS


V.R., A.R. and wearable computing In 1960, Austrian scientist Manfred Clynes coined the term â&#x20AC;&#x153;cyborg.â&#x20AC;? More than half a century on, virtual and augmented reality devices have at last reached a level of sophistication warranting the appellation.


The development of “wearable computing” (or simply, “wearables”) has paralleled the trajectory of V.R. and A.R. technologies.


With notable exceptions (Morton Heligâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Sensorama in 1955 and the Oculus Rift in 2012), the quest to integrate computing power and human senses has continued undeterred by a pattern of almost total commercial failure.


Ivan Sutherland, with his revolutionary head mounted display (HMD) (1966) (also titled â&#x20AC;&#x153;The Sword of Damoclesâ&#x20AC;?), pioneered the quintessential form of wearable computing. Variations of his original HMD still dominate the wearable market (most famously Google Glass).


Practically since the inception of V.R. and A.R., the medical field has been identified as a worthy (and potentially profitable) application of V.R. and A.R. technologies. CC Collins developed the first such device in 1977; a wearable cameratotactile vest for the blind.


Wearable A.R. remains on the periphery, seemingly constrained by Mooreâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Law, as V.R. continues to dominate the market via the video game. But the inevitable increase in computing power and the concurrent reduction in hardware size (coupled with anticipated market appeal activated by the smart device revolution) leads inescapably to the eventual omnipotence of A.R. A critical turning point in the trajectory of A.R. was marked by the release of Googleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Glass in 2012.


Glass Google Glass is perhaps the most infamous of the recent commercial forays into augmented reality product design. Consisting of an optical head-mounted display (OHMD) and operated by natural language voice command, Glass is the direct operational precedent for this proposal.


Glass v. smart phone weather app


Shelved by Google in January 2015, Project Glass failed to impress in daily use. Benefits to the average user unclear at best. But, as often happens with V.R. and A.R. technologies, Glass showed significant promise in medical applications.


A.R. and Parkinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s

Dr John Vines, Roisin McNaney and Dr Ivan Poliakov of Newcastle University are currently investigating the potential for augmented reality devices (in this case, Google Glass) to act as assistive aids to persons with Parkinsonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Disease. Users walk with the aid of a video prompt (a person demonstrating an even walking pace) to assist in prevailing over difficulties in maintaining physical continuity and speed.


Glass is also used to monitor gait, aid patients to walk for a short period continuously, prompt patients to take medication at specific times of the day, and prompt name recall by facial recognition technology (Knapton, 2014; Anashkina, 2015).


V.R. and dementia VE-HuNT (Virtual Environment Human Navigation Task) is a research endeavour led by Prof. Eduardo Macagno of UC San Diego in partnership with the Qualcomm Institute. An immersive, 1:1 scale virtual environment (known as NexCAVE) is used to test the navigational abilities of persons with cognitive impairments. Navigation in space is a critical skill that commonly declines with age or with the onset of cognitive impairment. VE-HuNT is designed to measure the manner and rate of this decline through longitudinal observation of participants.


VE-HuNT (Virtual Environment Human Navigation Task) is a research endeavour led by Prof. Eduardo Macagno of UC San Diego in partnership with the Qualcomm Institute. An immersive, 1:1 scale virtual environment (known as NexCAVE) is used to test the navigational abilities of persons with cognitive impairments. Navigation in space is a critical skill that commonly declines with age or with the onset of cognitive impairment. VE-HuNT is designed to measure the manner and rate of this decline through longitudinal observation of participants.


A.R. and smart homes The smart home movement is rapidly transitioning from science fiction to reality. Smart home design relies on augmented reality technologies (the phenomena known as “ubiquitous computing” and “the internet of things”). The IKEA Concept Kitchen and the CSIRO “smart, safe, sensor home” prototype serve as adjacent precedents to the A.R. device proposed in this thesis, presenting opportunities for seamless integration from the private to the public realm.


Design fiction “Augmented City 3D” and “Domestic Robocop,” part of the “Augmented (Hyper)Reality” series by AA graduate and filmmaker Keiichi Matsuda, provides a direct (if dystopian) precedent for A.R. interaction in the public realm.


Crowd-sourced A.R. â&#x20AC;&#x153;Exhausting a crowd,â&#x20AC;? a web-based work by Kyle McDonald for the V&A, demonstates the fallibility of environmental interpretation and the inadequacy (and hilarity) of arbitrary A.R. annotation.


Stop-motion narrative technique “Walking in War’s Path” uses stop-motion photography to compellingly describe the devastation of war in Israel and Gaza.


A.R. in cinema

A recurring theme in film, A.R. is typically portrayed as a military apparatus. Classically in James Cameron’s “The Terminator” (1984), such depictions no doubt mirror contemporary research activity within military organisations.


Augmented reality is blended with A.I. and depicted with uncharacteristic subtlety in Spike Jonze’s “Her” (2013).


Designing for Dementia Gladys in Wonderland

Master of Architecture Design Thesis Melbourne School of Design by Jil Raleigh

6 November 2015


Profile for Jil Raleigh

Gladys in Wonderland  

Designing for Dementia: Master of Architecture Design Thesis, Melbourne School of Design.

Gladys in Wonderland  

Designing for Dementia: Master of Architecture Design Thesis, Melbourne School of Design.

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