TOP TEN ART MOVEMENTS
MEET THE AUTHORS
Hello, this is the ePortfolio of Danielle LaTrice Nichols. I am currently a freshman at Indiana University Bloomington. I am majoring in Visual Arts Education. I seek to teach in Indiana and pursue a future career in School Administration.
The content of this book includes the top 10 art movements that have occurred over the course of the past two centuries. Danielle and I collaborated writings to create this book to teach students about the art movements that have shaped art to this day. I am a student at Indiana University seeking a bachelors in General Studies and a minor in Social Welfare Advocacy. The current educational system deserves teachers who expand their students knowledge by using E-books.
Caravaggio, San Gerolamo, 1605 - 06
The baroque art movement began in the 1600s when Martin Luther posted his 95 theses to the doors of the Catholic Church. These theses called for the change in the church. The Catholic church began to hire artists to create biblical paintings to influence people Through these commissions most works of this period were created.
INTERACTIVE 2.1 Baroque Art Gallery
The most important artist of the time were Caravaggio, Annibale Carracci and Artemisia Gentileschi.
Please view this video of examples of Baroque art. When done with the video hit the escape key (esc) to return to the book.
These artists and others sought to engage the viewer into the piece in different ways.
GALLERY 2.1 Baroque Artists
Caravaggio- The Entombment 1602 - 03 In this piece you can see the characteristics of Baroque work. A strong contrast between light and dark. Composition formed to draw the eye to the subject of the piece. AN intense spiritual context.
Of course not all painters were male. One prominent example of art from this period is Artemisia Gentileschi. She was a female painter who achieved just as much fame as her male counterparts. Her work is a great example of the difference between male and female painters.
Artemisia Gentileschi, Madonna and Child, 1609
Male painters often painted female subjects with features they preferred. Small petite statures, pale skin, pretty eyes, and often naked. The image to the right is a great example of a male artistâ€™s female figure. Notice how Mary is depicted as fair and very pretty. Pompeo Batoni, Madonna and Child, 1742
Female artists often painted females similar to the average woman. These women had wrinkles, tan skin, and large physical statures made for working. Notice how Mary is larger and not as attractive.
REVIEW 2.1 Baroque Art Review
Question 1 of 3 Which is not a characteristic of Baroque art?
A. strong contrast between light and dark B. bright, rich colors C. spiritual context D. Movement and energy
Figure 1.1 LION AU SERPENT, 1832 ANTOINE-LOUIS BARYE (1795-1876)
Romanticism emerged around the 1800’s in Britain and France with focuses on the imagination and emotion. This period moved at such a fast pace as a response to the disillusionment of Enlightenment values and reason also known as Neoclassism. This movement had various basic aims: return to nature and the belief in goodness of humanity, rediscovery of the artist as a creator, and the delight of senses and emotions over reason and intellect.
© WEB GALLERY OF ART
Figure 1.2 D U T C H B O A T S I N A G A L E ,18 01 O I L O N C A N VA S JOSEPH MALLORD WILLIAM T U R N E R ( 17 7 5 – 1 8 5 1 )
Landscapes were popular in this movement and evoked specific moods based on the portrayed landscape. A significant theme to romanticism is that nature can change direction without any warning sign in which humans have always found difficulty defeating. In relationship to landscapes, the most notable artist during this period was Joseph Mallord William Turner. After moving in with his Uncle in 1785, Turner began to express interest in painting. Not long after at the age of 14 Turner enrolled in the Royal Academy of Art school and was accepted into the school the following year. He had a keen eye for architecture and advanced in oil and watercolor painting. Most of Turner’s paintings included some kind of natural catastrophe or violent event such as shipwrecks,
fires, sunlight, storm, rain, and fog. He referred to light as God and therefor was expressing his spirituality in the world. As Turner matured he began to focus more on recreating pure light scenes with objects that were unrecognizable. The color scheme of romanticism stemmed from naturalistic colors and mostly focused on dark shades of greens, browns. yellows, and blues. Romantic art work techniques and effects ranged from highly detailed to indistinct watercolor washes. Application and execution was completely up to the artist, and that’s what defined Romanticism for recapturing the artist as a creator.
Figure 1.3 THE PARASOL, 1777 OIL ON LINEN FRANCISCO DE GOYA (1746-1828)
REVIEW 3.1 Romanticism What caused the Romanticism period?
© 2014 NELLA BUSCOT
Figure 1.4 LE DÉPART DES VOLONTAIRES DE 1792/ LA MARSEILLAISE, 1833-36 FRANÇOIS RUDE (1784-1855) THIS SCULPTURE IS LOCATED ON MARSEILLES LOCATED IN FRANCE.
B. Neoclassicism C. World War D. Religion
Claude Monet, The Cliffs at Etretat, 1885
IMPRESSIONISM Impressionism began when a group of artist revolted against the traditional use of salon. A salon was an official exhibit of work that was chosen by a jury of artists. These works often fit the mold of the traditional works the Academy of Artists felt were the most important. Of the artists who participate in this movement., the most prominent were Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, Edgar Degas, and Berthe Morisot. 11
Claude Monet, Soleil Levant, 1872
This piece uses the characteristics of Impressionistic work. The paint is applied in dots that from a distance are blended together. The lines of the pieces are sketchy and appear â€œunfinished.â€? Light, bright colors are used to paint the subject matter. INTERACTIVE 4.1 Impressionism
This piece uses the same characteristics as the piece by Claude Monet. The work uses sketchy lines and paint is applied in dots or dashes. However, this piece portrays light in a flickering movement. Â This can be seen on the dancers of the left. They move gracefully while the lights flickered off and around their figures.
Pierre Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette, 1876
POST IMPRESSIONISM (LATE 1880’S-EARLY 1990’S)
Figure 3.1 ÂŠ MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORT PARAU API, 1892 PAUL GAUGUIN (1848 â€“ 1903)
Post Impressionism unfolds in reaction to the Impressionism period where the artists became more free in what he painted and how he painted it. During the 19th century, the camera was invented and there was no need for painters to have to replicate reality because there was an easier way. The artist did not paint the quick impression anymore. Therefor these painters returned with more independence with more distinct techniques that are also diverse. Impressionism techniques are what gave this period its name with artists making short, broken brushstrokes that barely convey forms, simple colors, and an emphasis on the effects of light.
The artists of Post Impressionism exclusively worked independently while consistently demonstrating some abstract tendencies. Early leanings toward abstraction paved the way for the radical modernist exploration of abstraction that took place in the early twentieth century. This type of art opened up a new world of modern art. The Postimpressionists had learned about using light, shadows, and colors in their art from the Impressionists. They wanted to add their own new ideas to art. They began to try new subjects, techniques, perspectives, and shapes to express their thoughts and emotions in art.
COURTESY OF WWW.GEORGESSEURAT.ORG A SUNDAY ON LA GRANDE JATTE, 1886 GEORGES SEURAT (1859-1891)
"I was walking along the road with two friends. The sun set. I felt a tinge of melancholy. Suddenly the sky became a bloody red. I stopped, leaned against the railing, dead tired. And I looked at the flaming clouds that hung like blood and a sword over the blue-black fjord and city. My friends walked on. I stood there, trembling with fright. And I felt a loud, unending scream piercing nature." - Edvard Munch, The Scream, 1893
Expressionism is defined as “a manner of painting, drawing, sculpting, etc., in which forms derived from nature are distorted or exaggerated and colors are intensified for emotive or expressive purposes”. The artists during this period had a way with developing a style notable for its harshness, boldness, and visual intensity. They used jagged, distorted lines; crude, rapid brushwork; and clashing colors to depict emotionally charged atmospheres. Many of their works express frustration, anxiety, disgust, discontent, violence, and generally a sort of wild intensity of feeling in response to the ugliness in the usual reality, and the possibilities for modern life.The Expressionist movement started in Germany. These artists wanted to paint about emotion and this wasn't a completely new idea in art. Other artists like Vincent van Gogh had been doing the same thing. However, this was the first time this type of art had been given a name.Expressionist art tried to convey emotion and meaning rather than reality. Each artist had their own unique way of "expressing" their emotions in their art. In order to express emotion, the subjects are often distorted or exaggerated. At the same time colors are often vivid and shocking. Figure 4.1 MADCHEN MIT ZOPFEN / YOUNG WOMAN WITH PIGTAILS, 1917 KARL SCHMIDT-ROTTLUFF (1884-1976)
Art is a form of an outlet to expressing feelings and emotions. See if you can find the emotions that are depicted in expressionism art.
In this painting a lady is standing in the foreground wearing a dark green jacket. She is looking sort of down and to the side. There are two couples in the background walking away from her. You get the feeling that maybe she is lonely or has lost someone recently. One of the ladies in the background has turned to look back at her, perhaps feeling sorry for her.
LADY IN A GREEN JACKET, 1913 (AUGUST MACKE) (1887-1914)
CUBISM The Cubism movement began in Paris in 1908 when Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso joined together and invented the first phase of Cubism.
Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso, 1912
INTERACTIVE 7.2 Journey Through Art History - Cubism
Cubism is divided into two stages: Analytical and Synthetic. Analytical Cubism is dominated by the analysis of form. Artists break down the subject into geometric shapes, circles, squares, triangle, and so on. Analytical:separating something into component parts or constituent elements
In Synthetic Cubism, the subject is broken down into elements that are then collage onto a page. First, you would take the image and look at its colors and pick items like cloth, magazine scraps and such to add to the canvas. Synthetic:attributing to a subject something determined by observation rather than analysis of the nature of the subject
Please watch the two videos below. Each video gives a brief biography of Picasso and Braque, the two creators of Cubism.
INTERACTIVE 7.3 Pablo Picasso Biography
INTERACTIVE 7.4 Georges Braque Biography
The piece is an example of Analytical Cubism. Notice how the piece uses squares, rectangles, and triangles to make the subject. This one of the key elements of analytical cubism. Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick, 1910
The piece is a great example of Synthetic cubism. Subjects were still broken down into geometric shapes but bright colors are used to portray the subject qualities. A rough wood grain is used to describe the violin and table. Black and flesh tone describe the person sitting at the table. Juan Gris, Violin and Playing Cards, 1913
Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Time, 1931
SURREALISM Surrealism began in 1910 in France when writers called for a change in writing where the subconscious and dreams where the most important subject matter. Surrealism art uses dreams and subconscious images as its subject matter. If you can dream you could paint it. Art used various images blended together to form a non existent art piece. A hand may become a tree while a tree may become a hand. 24
The image to the right is Salvador Daliâ€™s The Persistence of Time This piece uses a landscape with non related elements to create a vivid dreamlike piece. The clock are seen melting on various objects. The background is brightly lit which contrast the background well. The piece becomes ominous or nightmare like.
This piece use a flat, less detailed plane for a background. The head, glove, and sphere are painted with extreme detail, causing a dream like effect.
Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love, 1914
ABSTRACT EXPRESSIONISM (MID 1940’S)
Abstract expressionism was introduced in the mid 1940’s after World War II with a messy and energetic approach to paint application. In the time of its sudden appearance, critics and the contemporary audience interpreted the work as youthful opposition and hardly worthy of the name “art”. It is considered an art form that reveals the artist’s process in which the process becomes the subject of the art itself. First glance of art work produces a simplistic notion that children can create art that resembles its kind. Abstract expressionist artists generate the interplay of skills and unplanned occurences to determine a painting’s outcome. These artists also ignored Old World brush application methods and instead invented a new way to apply paint by incorporating dramatic and experimental behaviors. The purpose of artists creating abstract expressionist art was to unconver personal feelings through making art in hopes for some type of transformation. Because this movement sprouted after WWII, the physicality in the art work is exhibited by the artists exploration through inner turmoil, anxiety, and distress.
Characteristics ✴ Alternative application of paint, usually without a recognizable subject that leans toward formless shapes in brilliant colors. ✴ Dripping: paint is dripped or poured onto the canvas ✴ Smearing ✴ Slathering ✴ Flinging lots of paint on to the canvas ✴ Sometime paintings have loosely written words. ✴ In relation to Color Field artists, carefully filling the canvance with zones of color that create tension between different shapes and hues.
A.K.A Abex Action Painting Color Field Painting Gestural Abstraction The New York School
“MY PAINTING DOES NOT COME FROM THE EASEL. I PREFER TO TACK THE UNSTRETCHED CANVAS TO THE HARD WALL OR THE FLOOR. I NEED THE RESISTANCE OF A HARD SURFACE. ON THE FLOOR I AM MORE AT EASE. I FEEL NEARER, MORE PART OF THE PAINTING, SINCE THIS WAY I CAN WALK AROUND IT, WORK FROM THE FOUR SIDES AND LITERALLY BE IN THE PAINTING” -‐ JACKSON POLLOCK 27
MOVIE 9.1 Conversation with Philip Guston
Watch the video on the left of Philip Guston commenting on how he feels about critics and analytics of his work. Think about how you would feel once people were talking about your work of art. Imagine how your view of your work would change based on the ideas and opinions of others.
One main feature of Hofmann’s paintings is the placement of lines to develop a sense of space. Hofmann developed a specific technique called “Push and Pull” that proves an illusion of space on a canvas within an abstract style.
© PHOTO SMITHSONIAN AMERICAN ART MUSEUM/ ART RESOURCE/SCALA, FLORENCE PAINTER III, 1960 PHILLIP GUSTON (1913-1980
INTERACTIVE 9.1 Push and Pull Technique
Speaking with Joseph Ablow in 1966, Guston discussed his process: “ . . .this dialogue of myself with this, was that I make some marks. It speaks to me. I speak to it. We have terrible arguments going all night for weeks and weeks. “Do I really believe that?” I make a mark, a few strokes, and I argue with myself. Not ’Do I like this or not?’ but ‘Is it true or not?’ and ‘Is that what I mean? Is that what I want?’ But there comes a point when something catches on the canvas, something grips on the canvas. I don’t know what it is. I mean, when you put paint on a surface, most of the time it looks like paint. Who the hell wants paint on a surface? You take it off. You put it on, it goes over here, it moves over a foot. As you go closer, it starts moving in inches not feet, then half-inches. There comes a point when the paint doesn’t feel like paint. I don’t know why. Some mysterious thing happens. . . . .But then there comes a time, if you persevere long enough, when the paint seems alive. It’s actually living, and there is some kind of release. That’s all I can tell you. . . . I think a lot of artists who paint have that experience, in one degree or another, of this release where their thinking doesn’t precede their doing.”
POP ART Pop art was created to combat the seriousness of abstract expressionist art.It used bright colors, modern stars (like Marylin Monroe or Elvis Presley), and popular images. These images often became advertisements for companies.
Roy Lichtenstein, Oh, Jeff . . .I love you, too . . . but, 1964
Although this pieces doesnâ€™t use bright colors, it uses a popular image, Elvis Presley. Elvis Â Presley a famous singer is replicated 8 times a in a fun slow motion effect. Andy Warhol, Eight Elvises, 1963
Lichtenstein created images that are very similar to comic panels from the time period. The images are brightly colored.
Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with Ball, 1961
A.K.A Minimal art work came about during the • ABC Art mid 1960’s in New York. Simple obstruc• Minimal Art tion of a regular form is what makes minimalism a movement. The sculptures made • Literalist Art • Reductivism of extremely simple, geometric forms us• Rejective Art ing different materials such as: fiberglass, plastic, sheet metal, or aluminum. And the material would either be left unpainted or completely painted with bright industrial colors. Like the painters, minimalist sculptors attempted to make their works totally objective, unexpressive, and non-referential. The reason minimalism was so different was because it challenged the viewer's to actually interact with the object. This led to a new importance of the physical space in which the artwork is in.
"The Art Story: Minimalism Movement." The Art Story: Minimalism Movement. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Apr. 2014. http://www.theartstory.org/movement-minimalism. htm. Galitz, Kathryn. "Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History." Romanticism. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 Apr. 2014. <http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/roma/hd_ro ma.htm>. Gersh-Nesic, Beth. "What Is Abstract Expressionism? - About.com." About.com Art History. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. http://arthistory.about.com/od/modernarthistory/a /abstract_expressionism_10one.htm. Guston, Philip. "Conversations with Philip Guston." Interview. Michael Blackwood Productions, n.d. Web. 19 Apr. 2014. "Jackson Pollock." ' Biography. N.p., n.d. Web. 14 Apr. 2014. http://www.jackson-pollock.org/biography.jsp. "Make Your Own Word Search with Discovery Education's Puzzlemaker!" Make Your Own Word Search with Discovery Education's Puzzlemaker! N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Apr. 2014. http://puzzlemaker.discoveryeducation.com/Wor dSearchSetupForm.asp?campaign=flyout_teach ers_puzzle_wordcross. "Minimalist Art Movement, 1960." Minimalist Art Movement, 1960. Maria Domenica, 24 Mar. 2013. Web. 16 Apr. 2014.
http://www.tuttartpitturasculturapoesiamusica.co m/2013/03/Minimalist-Art-Movement.html>. "MoMA Learning." MoMA. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Apr. 2014. https://www.moma.org/learn/moma_learning/the mes/abstract-expressionism. "Push and Pull Puzzle." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 22 Apr. 2014. http://www.pbs.org/hanshofmann/push_and_pull _001.html. "William Turner - The Complete Works." William Turner - The Complete Works. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Apr. 2014. http://www.william-turner.org/. Caravaggio, Entombment http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ e/e1/Michelangelo_Caravaggio_052.jpg Carracci's Ceiling of the Farnese Palace http://artwatchinternational.org/wp-content/uploa ds/2012/11/Carracci_Farnese_Ceiling_fresco_15 97-1602.jpg Carracci's Ceiling of the Farnese Palace (Detail) http://www.kenney-mencher.com/pic_old/1300_1 700/carracci_farnese_ceiling_fresco_venus_and _anichises_1597_1601.jpg Artemisia Gentileschi, Madonna and Child http://omnparts.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/0 2/artemisia-gentileschi-madonna-and-child-600x 819.jpg Pompeo Batoni, Madonna and Child,
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 9/95/Wga_Pompeo_Batoni_Madonna_and_Child. jpg
http://37.media.tumblr.com/cf4f733353739fc3d4 ca1ed4d2df80f9/tumblr_n2k5wfnnbE1rqheglo3_ 1280.jpg
Claude Monet, The Cliffs at Etretat
Roy Lichtenstein, Oh, Jeff . . .I love you, too . . . but
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ d/da/Claude_Monet_The_Cliffs_at_Etretat.jpg Claude Monet, Soleil Levant, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 5/54/Claude_Monet,_Impression,_soleil_levant.jp g
http://images.cdn.fotopedia.com/flickr-92819302 81-hd.jpg Andy Warhol, Eight Elvises http://arrestedmotion.com/wp-content/uploads/2 009/11/warhol-eight-elvises.jpg
Pierre Auguste Renoir, Le Moulin de la Galette
Roy Lichtenstein, Girl with Ball
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 2/21/Pierre-Auguste_Renoir,_Le_Moulin_de_la_G alette.jpg
Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso
INTERACTIVE 2.1 Baroque Art Gallery https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6zxP4QqfG8
INTERACTIVE 4.1 Impressionism
Georges Braque, Violin and Candlestick
http://uploads3.wikipaintings.org/images/george s-braque/violin-and-candlestick-1910.jpg Juan Gris, Violin and Playing Cards http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 7/7c/Juan_Gris_-_Violin_and_Playing_Cards_on_ a_Table.jpg Salvador Dali, The Persistence of Time http://odmev.zrc-sazu.si/conference-cpbm/files/i mage/call/dali-persistence-of-memory.jpg Giorgio de Chirico, The Song of Love
INTERACTIVE 7.2 Journey Through Art History Cubism https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZmleObExoo U INTERACTIVE 7.3 Pablo Picasso Biography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I8RTot9hxhA INTERACTIVE 7.4 Georges Braque Biography https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yKHXrEKhn_ Q
This interactive text book is for Fifth grade students enrolled in an visual arts class. This book serves as a basic groundwork for understa...
Published on Apr 25, 2014
This interactive text book is for Fifth grade students enrolled in an visual arts class. This book serves as a basic groundwork for understa...