Page 1

JIA WENG Research and Design Portfolio


Jia Weng 546 Main Street Apt#529 New York, NY10044 6467177512 jiaweng@umich.edu

Degree

Resume

/2012-2013/ The University of Michigan Ann arbor, Michigan, USA -Master of Urban Design -3.8 GPA Graduate High Honors /2007-2012/ Tsinghua University Beijing, China - Bechalor of architecture

Professional /2013 -Present/ Kohn Pederson Fox Associates New york, NY, US - One Shenzhen Bay Contribution: Construction Adminitration, Design of park pavilion, T7, Villa 1, Rendering, Compition file preparation 2

Professional

★ Recognition

- Hundson Yards Contribution: Presentaiton file preparation, Rendering, Modeling - Dongjiadu Retail plan layout

/2015 Winter/ Jacques Rougerie Competition 1st Prize Exhibition in MIT Keller Gallery Neck Of Moon

/2013-Present/ Designearth(E.Jazairy andR. Ghosn) Ann arbor, MI, US -Research and Design Competition Contribution: Conceptual Design, Graphic Design, Representation

/2015 Summer/ Cityscape Competition First Place MIPIM Asia Competition First Place One Shenzhen Bay

/2013 Mar/ Morphosis, Intern New York, NY, US - FAB building of Cornell, New York Contribution: Renderings /2012 Feb. 2012 Jun./ Atelier FCZJ (Yungho-Chang), Intern -The modern art museum of Tianjin E-gu corporation, Tianjin, China Contribution: conceptional design, digital model, diagram,physical model - Tongzhou canal club, Beijing, China Contribution: detail design, physical and digital modeling, construction drawings

/2014 Summer/ Jacques Rougerie CompetitionShortlisted Sea Our Land: Cloud culture city /2013 Winter/ 2014 London organic skysraper competition-Honorable mention CCC: Cloud culture city Drawing cited to Drawing For Architects by J. McMorrough The Belly Of A Mountain /2013 Summer/ City vision competition honorable mention 4.7: A geographic stroll around the horizon /2013 Spring/ Paper presentation Offshore urbanization: Algeciras Maritime infrastructure /2013 Winter/ “Spree” student exibit The belts /2012 Summer/ Merit scholarship


4 ★

Campus Matrix

16

a practice of event transformation trough reparcelization

Neck of The Moon ★

24 ★

30

The belly of A Mountain

Offshore Urbanization Algeciras maritime infrastructures

★ Content

36 Sea Our Land between the roof of the world and the mouth of the ganges ★

42 4.7 ★

48

a geographic stroll around the horizon

One Shenzhen Bay A realization of the “Chinese Dream”

58 Paranoid Critical Method Mind therapy towards “irrationalism”

3


campus matrix

CAMPUS MATRIX

2012 Winter Individual work

4

urban void


section name

1

Condominium

2

Dormintory

3

Affordable housing

4

Shopping mall

5

College

6

Auditorium

7

Research lab

8

Community center

9

Incubator

5


Campus Matrix: a practice of event tranformation trough reparcelization

campus matrix

Deodoro is located in northwest Rio, occupying a segment of one of the three significant voids that establish the city’s image. There are four main elements found within the region’s borders: urban fabric, military camp, Olympic facility and the void. As a result of the military camp’s presence, the site is fragmented, and characterized by a series of isolated enclaves. The project positions the void as an opportunity to articulate the four elements, thus weaving together urbanization and ecosystems into a single cohesive unit. In deference to the existing topography found on the site, four view corridors have been identified and utilized as a method for organizing the site. These corridors not only articulate different enclaves but also can increase accessibility to the negative space and connect existing and new neighborhoods.

[1] Manuel of declonialization, Sandi Hilal, Alessandro Petti and Eyal Weizman, Sallotobuono studio, Italy

6

In order to reinforce the notion of “event tranformation“, the method “reparcelization“1 is used to enable the ground of the campus to be public. The ground of Deodoro with its militarized memory will be covered by a new carpet. The block and the built will be reorganized by the new logic of campus. The logic is no longer determinde by the built, but by the urban void, the unbuilt. In this way, the void is no longer negative, it serves as a glue, stiching together different segments in Deodoro.

1 Connected voids: the ecosystem is broken by the bridge of urbanization. The stretegy is to connect the negative space recreate a whole eco-system.

2 Viewing corridor: The value of the view and the voids is generated by the viewing corridors identified by the Olympic facilities.

3 Voids as glue: As an opportunity, voids can be considered as the glue, which will be used to articulate the existing and the coming neighborhoods.


campus matrix 7


Projections: Collective urban design toolkit for post Olympic city grounds

campus matrix

Team: Jia Weng, Justin Garrison, Sneha Lohoteker

However, all of the conditions described above is about to change under the pressures of the global mega- event. Because of the public nature of campus’ ground, the studio as a whole decided to use campus as a catalyst to trigger the transformation. Collectively, eleven different design approaches are experimented on different part of the site.

[1] Content: Patent office for universal modernization. Rem Koolhaas, Netherland.

8

The issue of property boundary caused the discontinues ground condition of Deodoro. Due to the heavily militarized atmosphere in Deodoro, in the past, the urban fabric, the military camp and the void barely exchange anything with each other. They are internally digest everything. They are using their own human, natural and space resources without sharing them, even if they are so close to each other.

The project “urban design toolkit“ serves as projections for those similar issues in global cities. Formally, the projects are divided into six tools, they are our patent1 towards post mega-event city grounds. The tools are landscape, reparcelization, mat, axial, mediation and mega-structure. The six tools provide different attitude to the ground (keep original, reorganize..)


campus matrix 9


REPARCELIZATION

MAT

projections for post Olympic city ground

LANDSCAPE

abstract Through geographic, ecological, and infrastructural system the landscape plays a formative role in the development of the site. This organization generates enclaves with various programs which are connected by the ground, linking the site together. 10

abstract The surface of the site is marked by undgrounding the site,. It suggests a transformation of the first fifteen centimeters of the ground. through reparcelization it allows for a new meaning and understanding the site and its uses

abstract The mat proposes its distinct identity through loose scaffolding based on an organizational system superimposed upon existing conditions with an interplay of movement, waiting, repetition and variation through built form. This strategy generates a hard edge while also allowing the city to flow through the network of various program


AXIAL

MEDIATION

MEGASTRUCTURE

projections for post Olympic city grounds

abstract Axial development generates a distinct linear form of centrality which equally qualifies built and unbuilt spaces with activities and uses. This type of organization solidifies a sense of flow, direction, and orientation that magnifies existing and proposed conditions.

abstract This strategy attempts to blur the boundaries between distinct hard edges which resulted in disconnected enclaves generated from infrastructural lines. Through expanding and dissolving built and unbuilt programs the approach begins to mediate movement and development joining the separated grounds.

abstract This approach uses a singular structural framework that allows multiple and distinct programs to coincide while mitigating the conflict between infrastructural intersections through sectional separation. Through architectonic means and a hybrid of programs, the strategy generates imageabliity and an urban destination

11


Studio publication

Campus Rio publication

Campus Rio: Post Olympic city ground

12


Ann arbor 2013 8X10 in 180 pages

Campus Rio publication 13


neck of the moon

NECK OF THE MOON

2013-present Personal Work

★ Jacques Rougerie Competition 1st Prize Exhibited in MIT Keller Gallery

16

space/mountian


section name 17


Neck Of The Moon

Team: El Hadi Jazairy, Rania Ghosn, Jia Weng, Mingchuan Yang, Shuya Xu, Sihao Xiong, Victor Lee. Text written by E. Jazairy

neck of themoon

Contribution: Conceptual development, Space station laika modeling/ drawing, Main rendering drawing

18

[fig.1] View of the space station Laika

“Orbital debris poses a risk to continued reliable use of space-based services and operations and to the safety of persons and property in space and on Earth,” observe NASA and the European Space Agency. This problem is especially significant in geostationary orbits, where satellites cluster over their primary ground targets and share with space debris the same orbital path. At that height as well, orbital debris will normally continue circling the Earth for centuries or more. New satellites are continuing to be launched at a growth rate of over a hundred each year and most of these launches will contribute to increase the risks and detrimental effects of Earth’s orbiting junkyard. The project proposes to clean up the orbital environment by compacting targeted space debris into a new satellite planet that orbits the Earth. Rather than displacing the debris to a lower altitude, a large tug with a robotic arm approaches and compacts large objects at high altitudes. In a continuous development from atom to nebula, the compacted mass grows organically into planet Laika, the earth’s second moon. For Laika was appropriately a stray creature that orbited the earth; its cyborg namesake was similarly once propelled from the earth. They have a vital generative role in humanity’s journey into the space and information age. We are Odysseus as we travel collectively from ape to human and eventually, after leaving the planet, to starman-angel.


neck of the moon 19


20

neck of the moon


neck of the moon 21


22

section name


section name 23


the belly of a mountain

THE BELLY OF A MOUNTAIN

2013 Spring Personal work

★ Published in “Drawing for architecture“ by Julia Mcmorrough

24

mountain


section name 25


The Belly Of A Mountain

Team: El Hadi Jazairy, Jia Weng, Yuhsiang Lin, Dongye Liu. Text written by E. Jazairy

the belly of a mountain

Contribution: Concept development, Design/Drawing of Corcovado Mountain Section

26

[fig.1] section of the mountain Corcovado

The mountains Sugarloaf, Corcovado and a profile of hills around Guanabara Bay mark the Carioca landscapes from tourist postcards to the imaginaries of artists and urbanists. “I am attracted to free-flowing, sensual curves,” noted Oscar Niemeyer, “the curves that I find in the mountains of my country, in the sinuousness of its rivers, in the waves of the ocean, and on the body of the beloved woman.” While the figure of the city has developed in relation to its geographical contours, the rapid urbanization of Rio de Janeiro has butted against its mountain ranges often revealing the “other” side of the Urban Condition. Along with the expansive informal housing situation, the city faces the challenges of growth and provision of support infrastructure such as energy facilities, transport/logistic zones, landfills as well as steel and petrochemical processing industries. These urban programs not only consume valuable real estate, but also generate environmental externalities of heat, gas, smoke, waste and ash. Such constructions perpetuate a representational duality between the urban condition and an idealized nature. The Belly of A Mountain proposes a vision that ties the topography of Rio and the expansions of its urban infrastructures by organizing the city around a series of excavated mountain bellies. Rather than sacrificing the mountain to urbanization or preserving nature in the city, the project considers the mountain system as a potential internal volume that can


the belly of a mountain 27


the belly of a mountain

accommodate the infrastructure and civic cores of the city. The green slops make available open-air park and reboots the lungs of the city and its ecological lives. The belly of the mountain operates as a green machine in the carioca garden. The hollow mountain’s infrastructural core takes in the city’s objects absorbing existing cemeteries, water purification plants and other industrial facilities. Through a metabolic process, airborne pollutants, municipal waste, grey water, and dead human bodies produce clean energy, purified air, and fertilizers to the city. Beyond its functionalist urban operations, the mountain crates function as a sanctuary that celebrates the lives and memories of its citizens. Through a series of crematorium grottos, Cariocas retreat from the everyday life of the city into the belly of the urban machine. At sunset, they overview from its peaks a silhouette of mountain ranges, green slopes, chimney smoke mists, and large settlements, all chanting the love of their city as recently baptized a World Heritage status in the urban cultural landscape category.

28

[fig.2] program and process


the belly of a mountain 29


offshore urbanization

OFFSHORE URBANIZATION: ALGECIRAS MARITIME INFRASTRUCTURES

2012 Winter Academic Individual work

★ Paper Presentation to Gibraltar Strait Travel Studio

30

water territory


Safe water

Cargo Bunkering shipping Passenger

Passenger

Maritime service

section name

Cargo Bunkering shipping

Safe water

Passenger

Maritime service Cargo Bunkering shipping Bunkering

Cargo shipping

Passenger Maritime service

Refinery

Safe water

Flow and density

Flow and density

Bunkering

Cargo Passenger shipping

Storage terminal

Barge

Fleet operation

31


Offshore urbanization: Algeciras maritime infrastructure

Algeciras is a port city located in the south of Spain, and is one of the largest city on the Bay of Gibraltar. Being the only natural mouth between Atlantic ocean and Mediterranean, ports near Gibraltar strait are the most important intermediator hubs in the region.

fig.1 JUAN CARLOS I

offshore urbanization

The port of Algeciras, along with The port of Gibraltar, Tangier Med and Ceuta, serves the passing ships in four categories: container, cargo, tranship and bunkering. The ports each have their own strength and focus, competing with each other but at the same time working collectively to support the movement of the ships.

Sovereignty disputes “The two parties and people from Gibraltar are tied to a concept of sovereignty that belongs to the past“ Sr. Matutes, Span’s Foreign Minister

fig.2 OUTER ISLA VERDE

The water territory near Gibraltar strait is disputed by three countries: Algeciras, Gibraltar and Morocco. The regional sovereignty disputes is the legacy of the strait’s historical geopolitical organization. The ships’ movement are limited by the sovereignty lines, especially for those fishing related ships.

[1] Gibraltar port authority

32

[2] Algeciras port authority

The water territory of Britain, the port of Gibraltar hwave been frequently invaded by spain fishing vessel in recent years. Recorded by the Ministry of Defence

fig.3 CAMPAMENTO


Gibraltar strait

Access

to Tangier

fig.5 Soveriegnty Disputes

offshore urbanization

to Ceuta fig.4 Infrastructure

33


in Gibraltar, there were 197 incursions between Jan. 1 and Nov. 30, 2012 that compared to 67 “unlawful incursions“ in 2010 and 23 in 2011.1\

Algeciras maritime infrastructure

offshore urbanization

Algeciras along with the other ports near Gibraltar serves as an intermediator hub at the Mediterranean region. There are cooperation and competition that ports face within the logistic chain. The port facilities in Algeciras are the results of the competitions.

34

The port of Algeciras is Spain’s number one port located in an exceptional geostrategical point. On the crossroads of the world’s main cargo shipping lane. As an intermediator hub, the port of Algeciras is an important platform in the west Mediterranean for container transhipment. In order to compete with other ports, Algeciras has a magnificent shelter and drought natural conditions. The port also started to improve the connection between the port and its natural primary and secondary hinterlands Bunk sell is another major service near Gibraltar strait. Three main ports are competing on that field. The major oil refinery terminal is located near San Roque, but it is not until recent year Algeciras starts to develop its own oil refinery terminal in order to cover the services as much as possible. The bunk sell also has its own regulated selling area in Algeciras, where as in Gibraltar it is mor randomly servedDue to the geographic importance of the Gibraltar strait, as the choke point, it is not only the most

important hub for ships and migrants, but also the only path for birds migrants. The strait is also a main habitat for whales and dolphins, they travel across the strait to breed. These movements are disguised by the water territory disputes. The ports are wasting human and nature resources to compete with each other. It is time for us to imagine a scenario of collaboration beyond the sovereignty line. In the scenario the strait will be populate with floating maritime infrastructures. Those infrastructures are located in the conjunction of the way for different species and activities, such as tourists, ships, wild birds and whales. And the infrastructures are designed in a way to serve all the parties of users. It will have cranes for cargos, oil reservoir for tankers, green infrastructure to clean all the pollution and generate food and oxygen for the birds and whales. Each one of the infrastructure will be treated as a selfsufficient island. They are connected with each other by shipping routes.


Greetings from Algeciras

fig.7 Facing page, Algeciras new scenario.

offshore urbanization

fig.6 Section drawing of Algeciras new port facilities

35


Sea Our Land

SEA OUR LAND

2014 Winter Personal Work

★ Jacques Rougerie Competition Shortlist

36

water territory


section name 37


Sea Our Land:

Between the Roof of the World and the Mouth of the Ganges

Team: El Hadi Jazairy, Jia Weng, ShuqiHe, Chen Lu, Cheby E. Jazairy

Sea Our Land

Contribution: Concept Development, Production of the final rendering/ collage and process drawing

38

[fig.1] phasing diagram of “Sea our land�

Climate change is no longer a distant possibility but an ominous reality. Global temperatures have recorded unprecedented increases. The length and timing of seasons are changing. The frequency and severity of floods and cyclones accompanied by rising sea levels are increasing and exceeding all predictions including those of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). In short, climate change has become one of the defining challenges to policymakers, industry, and civil society in this century. It has become a development, investment, economic, and social issue, which affects most sectors. The South Asia Region will bear the brunt of climate change impacts. A stark signal of the impending future is the timing and intensity of the May 2008 Myanmar cyclone. This natural disaster left around 85,000 dead and many others missing, with millions of survivors becoming homeless and with food production severely impaired. In August 2008, torrential rains in Laos led to flooding caused by the swelling of the Mekong River to its highest levels in 100 years. Flash floods in Japan led to the evacuation of nearly half a million people, Typhoon Nuri in the Philippines and floods in Vietnam and China led to deaths, displacement of victims, and to heavy material losses. Havoc wreaked by floods and hurricanes is an all too frequent occurrence in many countries in the region, particularly in cities where people and assets are heavily concentrated. Given the impending devastation associated with future climate-change related disasters, it has become vital to change the way we build and

Governmental agencies construct the infrastructure of protection. It consists of a linear corridor of shelters planted in the groundevery kilometer and a system of hard and soft infrastructure of storm protection.

Islanders adapt to rising sea levels by aggregating flexible floating units to the linear backbone.


-10 Elevated Fixed Shelter-

-Wave Breaker-

-Mangrove Soft Protection

Sea Our Land

-Bridge Connection-

-Floating Barges For Resource-

-Mangrove Soft Protection

-Aquaculture

-Existing Island Partially Flooded

-Existing Island Totally Flooded

39


manage our cities. Despite governmental policies in Bangladesh to relocate populations from the lowlands to the highlands, and the construction of shelters and berms, the issue of flooding, aggravated by climate change has become critical. The country is running out of land and its number of “climate refugees� is exploding. The massive displacement of vulnerable populations enduring climatic distress will become a problematic policy in the longer term. Adaptable living environments should constitute the basis response for human settlements, as unstable atmospheric condition will constitute the new reality of the future.

Sea Our Land

SEA OUR LAND is a city for a changing world. It is a prototype urban structure that addresses physical and social needs in view of the growing challenges of climate change in a heavily urbanized South Asian context. It is a floating structure moored to a linear backbone of shelters on piles, a structure that adapts to the tidal changes and varying water levels, making it invulnerable to flooding, storms and sea level changes. It is designed to use renewable energy, harvest hydroponic vegetables and rainwater, and to encompass

aquaculture. In order for the island population to develop a sense of ownership of this project, the idea would be to organize through local authorities an interactive dialogue with the island inhabitants of both genders. It is important for the viability of the project, beyond its technical features outlined above, that it is so developed as to be made fully responsive to the culture, traditions and way of life of the islanders.

40

[fig2] vision of the forthcoming sea level rising era


Sea Our Land 41


4.7

4.7: A GEOGRAPHIC STROLL AROUND THE HORIZON

2013 Spring Personal work

★ CITYVISION Competition Honorable Mentaion

42

water territory


section name 43


fig2. Estadio do Maracana

fig3. Aterro do Flamengo

fig5. Aqueduto da Carioca

fig6. Favela Bairro

4.7

fig1. Catedral Metropolitana de Sao Sebatiao

fig4. Morro do Corcovado

fig9. Pao de Acucar

44

fig7. Sambadrome Matques do Sapucai

fig8.Praia de Copacabana


4.7: A Geographic Stroll Around The Horizon

skyline. The sea forms a continuous surface for the collective, upon which silhouettes of floating city icons appear along the journey. Around sunset, at the moment when the neon-pink sun slips below the horizon, everyone stops, stands and claps: a nightly salute to city, sea and sky. Such Aristotelians celebrate that philosophy begins in wonder, and that to wonder beyond the horizon –the urge to know beyond the conceivable– is itself the engine of the polis and its civic life.

4.7

A Geographic Stroll Around the Horizon expands the spatial and cognitive imaginary of the city of Rio de Janeiro to its ocean-hinterland. Countering the abstraction of the sea into a logistical zone of capitalist fantasies, the project draws on the horizon as a geographic aesthetic that renders legible the offshore territorial project. Set at a distance of 4.7 kilometers for an observer standing on the Earth’s surface, the distance to the visible horizon at sea has been historically important as it represented the maximum range of communication, vision, and knowledge.. The horizon, a geography of our infinite longing, reclaims the political

consciousness of the urban and the spatial condition of the ocean by projecting a constellation of urban objects between Rio’s coast and the oil offshore. In a synecdochal strategy, ten of Rio’s most iconic sites are projected into a linear archipelago on the continuous surface of the ocean. Calculated in relation to the optics of vision, the respective distances between urban islands extend the limit of the perceivable in an unobstructed metric space. The archipelago constructs as such a new scale of inhabitation against a figured

45


* contribution of myself


One Shenzhen Bay

ONE SHENZHEN BAY

2013-present Professional work

★

Cityscape Award First Place MIPIM Asia Gold of Residential Category HK AIA Shortlisted

48

urban void


The The belts belts 49 49


One Shenzhen Bay: A realization of the “Chinese Dream� Team: Marianne Kwok, John Winkler, Jungsoo Lee, Jia Weng, Tian Jiang, Jina Kim

One Shenzhen Bay

Resoponsibilities: Construction Administration for south phase, including retail podium and residential tower T8, landmark tower T7 Design and documentation for landmark tower T7, park pavilion, cafe pavilion,

This project also presents an unique typology. Instead of being designed/ invented by architects, this typology with villas standing on tope of the retail podium is a realization of people’sfantasy of their ideal home. It is driven by the real estate market.

[1] Site photo of OSB north side club

50

Located in the newly developed Shenzhen bay, One Shenzhen Bay is a high density mix-used project that is closely connected to the city center by subway. The project is aiming at the high end of the real estate market, construction and marketing quality are highly controlled by the architect (KPF). The design team is evolved in the marketing, tendering, programming, decision making process since 2009 to present. As an real estate project, OSB is very successfully situated, It has own many international development competitions and earned billions of YUAN for the developer: Parkland

Real estate has been the sole method of investment for most Chinese people. However, the land policy in that the ownership of condos are only 70 years made it impossible for most Chinese people to possess a single family house, but it did not prevent them from fantasizing it. Through the luxurious development, the residents buy their way to the single family house fantasy that they obtained half from the ancientagriculture society, and half from the imagination of American suburb presented in hollywood movies. Capital makes it possible


The belts 51


Mixed use tow

Residential tower Shenzhen mountains

The belts

Shenzhen @1979 Population 30,000

Park Pavilion It doesn’t matter if a cat is black or white, as long as it can catch mice

Villa #1

Park P

Retail Podiu

Shen

52


wer

Residential tower Shenzhen @2015 Population 12 million

The belts

Pavilion

Villa #6

um

nzhen Bay

53


One Shenzhen Bay 54

section 01

section 02


section 04

section 05

section 06

The belts

section 03

55


Paranoid Critical Method

PARANOID CRITICAL METHOD

2012-present Personal work

56

Illustration


57


Paranoid Critical Method Mind therapy towards “irrationalism”

Paranoid Critical Method

Personal illustration work Media: water color paper, ink, water color

The concept “critical paranoia” was first introduced to the architectural world from art and literature domain by Rem Koolhaas. In “Dali and Le Corbsier”, a section from “Delirious New York”. Paranoid critical method was described as “a conscious exploration to the unconscious”. PCM is a type of tourism happened within one individual’s mind. The tourism is believed by some scholars physically impossible, as surrealism in built environment only exist in a very personal and rather indirect way1 “ It may be argued that the sureal in architecture does not exist” remarked Kenneth Frampton. The illustrations included in this section are the souvenirs I brought back from my personal journey of sanity into the realm of paranoia.2 Rather than diving deeply in to the unconsciousness, the boundary of reality and fantasy, conscious and unconscious, present and past, real and surreal, live and dead seems more interesting to me. Despite the scantiness of theory on architecture in surrealism, I still believe there is a gap exist between the two end. In there just as Rem Koolhaas remarked “the definitive catalogue is destroyed, or at least upset” The therapy of PCM denies the default and the norm, it works against the prejudice created by education and experience, at the same time offers a fresh start. PCM is indeed a mind therapy instead of a practical theory for surrealism architecture. This reinforcement therapy washes off prior knowledge and provide a fresh start for design.

58

[fig.1] Ripples

Speaking for myself, it is working.


Paranoid Criticle Method 59


paranoid critical method

- Made of star-

60

- Wearing Manhattan-


Paranoid Criticle Method

-Hypnosis-

-Picking Shadow-

61


6 Projects Selected From 2012-2015

Jiawengportfolio2015  

Admitted to YSoA M.E.D, GSD MDes ULE, Waitlisted to MIT SMarchS Architecture

Jiawengportfolio2015  

Admitted to YSoA M.E.D, GSD MDes ULE, Waitlisted to MIT SMarchS Architecture

Advertisement