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PORTFOLIO | JIAO ZHIHENG Selected works from 2013 to 2017


“Architectural solutions as products” A product is systematic, iterable, user-oriented, and influential. Those characteristics all contribute to its value. It is powerful to make a difference. The concept of “product” has always been my great guidance along the way. In my works, I prefer to consider every project as a more general solution or prototype in a broad background, and make it systematic and adaptive to achieve ambitious goals.

Main Works

01 Extension of Museum of North Bohemia Oriented from light

02 Distributed Librery Functional public space with columns

03 Berkeley Perdestrain Bridge Bridge design with structural primacy

04 Prototype of a Double-Layer Shell Structure prototype and digital fabracation

05 Ma-lao-wei Market Mapping A bottom-up research to discover a disappearing market

Other Works

Toolbox [python] Shortest path in architecture plan [grasshopper] Ancient Chinese architecture generation [processing] Map regenerate, blend and fill

Updated Works

Series of Works and Inspirations

01 Extension of Museum of North Bohemia Oriented from Light

Studio with students of Czech Technical University Instructor: Jiang Suqi, Chen Hui Collabrated Work with Liu Tian Spring 2016 North Bohemia Museum is located in Liberec,Czech Republic. It was built in 1895 and featured a replica of a classicist weaver house so typical for the Liberec region. The program of this studio is to design an extension for this museum to enlarge the space for exhibition. This design tried to respond the context through the respond to the sunlight. The sunlight here is special, since the solar altitude is very low here and could change dramatically everyday. I made the sunlight simulating script, and transformed it to the architecture mass, and made the renderings and plans. The source of the script creadit to Sifan Li.


//STAGE 01: SITE STRATEGY Operation The strategy is based on the site and local sunlight.

The extension part was put underground. In this way, the origin of the public garden and the facade appearance can be preserved in this context. Also, it creates a new spatial experiences different from the neo-classicism museum, which is the light incubator

The light incubator respond to the unique local solar altitude, which changes dramatically every day. To simulate and analysis the data of sunlight movement, the light incubator is designed to have different illumination in different seasons. The light is always on the inner wall during winter, and always on the floor during summer

Glass Cubes Above Around Place a number of glass cubes in the back yard of the museum.

Solar Altitude Simulation By simulating the moverment the sun, the trace of light on the under ground floor is fitted to a oval shape

Carve Space Create the underground space from the light-carving shape.

Extension of Museum : Light Incubator








1. Entrance hall 2. Cloakroom 3. Coffee-bar 4. Restaurant 5. Restroom 6. Lecture room 7. AV hall 8. Archeology exposition 9. Craft-Industrial production 10. Liberec region and Sudetenland exposition 11. Depositaries 12. Study hall 13. Joinery 15. Smithery 16. technological room 17. Wet processes room 18. Restorers' room 19. Clean workshop 20. PC room 21. Office 22. Boardroom 23. Kitchenette 24. Shower


02 Distributed Library Functional Public Space with Columns ARCH 100D studio Instructor: Kyle Steinfeld Individual Work Spring 2017

"In the Bay Area, a context in which ideas related to the 'sharing economy' predominates, we are motivated to recall one of the oldest models for managing and distributing a shared resource: the sharing of books... At a time when many similar civic institutions are under threat, and may be seen as static and outdated in the dynamic tech culture of San Francisco, this project seeks to resist the transformation of many functions of the library into a privatized 'book-sharing' service. To this end, we speculate on the reinvention of an existing form of distributed library: the bookmobile."--Program Introduction In my proposal, I tried to flnd the charactoristic of each site and read them as magnetic fields, which enables me to transform them and materialize them as realms of functional columns. It aimed to dispose the boundry of sites and create a coherent public space among the street, and create an atomsphere of reading, which would benefit all works of life.



From Paricles to Fields In the physical form-finding process, I chose magnetic powder as the media, which generated the notion of fields created by shapeless particles. This result was applied to the context of San Francisco, and thus fields composed by various sizes of column units came out. They created certain atomsphere for sites, and also had functional potantials such as public library.


Site [0]

Site [1]

Site [2]

Site [3]

Site [4]

Site [5]

From Fields to Functional Public Space Columns with different shapes and size would have different functions, such as the bookmoblie, benches, restroom, pavilian, etc. The program could be changed for different surroundings or requirement of people. Thus, a generalized library spreaded among the city could be found.

03 Berkeley Perdestrain Bridge Bridge Design with Structural Primacy Design and computer analysis of structure Instructor: R. Gary BLACK Collabrated Work with NIkita Tugarin Spring 2017 To extend the Bancroft Way to the Eastshore Freeway in Berkeley, a perdestrain bridge project was proposed in the course. To generate this proposal under a structural thinking, a bridge that is combined with similar units was proposed. Various size of units comes up to respond the width of freeway, and the monutain-like curve. Under the calculation of force such as wind force and gravity, the shape of each specific columns and railings are created. This course is based on the structure knowledge and analysis software tutorial (SAP 2000), where I always see it as a breakthrough to me. With the capability of accurate calculation of forces, the sound form based on structure principle could be addressed. Also, in this way, the simplicity of the changing form of the proposal is not ruined. I took charge in structural calculation and SAP2000 analysis and simulation, and made most of the drawings and diagrams


// STAGE 01: 00: SITE

Site The site is between a freeway and a street crossing a small lake in Berkeley

Mountain, forest, river The inspiration of the bridge is from the skyline of forest in the mountain, and the idea of combing serperated trees to a whole thing.

Seperate Bridge Units The bridge can be made from seperate units, they could support their load on their own, and restrain the overall structure when they are connceted

// STAGE 02: UNIT DESIGN Case Study Cirkelbroen Bridge • Author Studio Olafur Eliasson • Location Christianshavns Kanal, København K, Denmark • Project Year 2015 • Photographs Anders Sune Berg

"The bridge is made of five circular platforms, and it contributes to a larger circle that will form a pedestrian route around Copenhagen Harbour, where people – cycling, running, walking – can see the city from a very different perspective. I hope that these people will use Cirkelbroen as a meeting place, and that the zigzag design of the bridge will make them reduce their speed and take a break. "

Studio Olafur Eliasson, Cirkelbroen Bridge, 2015,

Step 1 Dead load support

Step 2 Release moment & shear

Using cable and column to hold the pad

Seperate the pad from the column to release moment and shear in the joint

Step 3 Wind load support

Stpe 4 Refine column section

Add cables beneath the pad. Two cables to restrain the wind load from one side.

Make the column to a "cigar" shape, in case of the buckling in the middle of the long skinny column. Make the widest part at the joint with the bottom cables


HSS diameter 18-1/2" thickness 1/4"

HSS diameter 19-1/2" thickness 1/4" STEEL CABLE diameter 18-1/2" thickness 1/4"

HSS (idealized) 48"x6" thickness 1/2"

HSS diameter 21" thickness 1/4"

HSS diameter 23" thickness 1/4"

HSS diameter 24" thickness 1/4"

HSS 10"x10" thickness 1/4"

Material System

HSS diameter 23" thickness 1/4"





Load Distribution 0.79

0.72 .792 00.7

Refer to the CALTRANS Bridge Design specifi cations and the preset in the course.

To simplify the load, the force is distributed to joints on the pad, based on the area around them



-0.05 -0.06

6.603E-04 91 -4.


-0.06 -0.05

6.603E-04 -0.13

Pedestrian live load = 90 PSF = 0.625 PSi Wind Load = 16.1 PSF

Z Y 41 -5.


Load on 4 corners = 0.625 PSi * 15840 Si = 9900# Load on inner points = 0.625 PSi * (15840+6336 ) Si = 13860# SAP2000 17.3.0

Axial Force Diagram (DEAD)

SAP2000 17.3.0

Kip, in, F

Axial Force Diagram (DEAD)

Kip, in, F

Adjust the section of the column Stress Check: Kl/r=131.86 From AISC Table C-50 _Slenderness: Allowable stress=Fa=8.57Ksi Ï&#x192;a=P/A=94.32Kip/ 17.86 Si= 5.28< Fa

Area=15840 Si Load=13680#

0 24 26











i 40

i 96

Area=6336 Si Load=9900#

length=1561.4 in radius=11.5 in

Calculation Model


Hand Rail Detail and Connection

Moment Diagram under Gravity

Hand Rail as Beam This hand rail system serves as beams for the panal. The height of the rail was developed based on the diagram of moment, in order to reinforce the structure and feel the force in shapes


Unit Expansion Expend the unit to 3 strips to form the whole bridge. Each unit scales based on the size of each pad, which is determined by the span of each unit and the height of columns. In the middle strip (STRIP B), there are several void spaces, which makes the whole structure more flexable and create a kind of intereaction between perdestrians and the water.









land small span

freeway large span



river bank

small span

Dead load

Axial force

X-Axis develop Due to the requirment of large span above the freeway(there should not exist columns that touch ground within the freeway), the unique parts of the bridge with doubled amount of cables are developed. To maintain the coherence, a mountain-like curve composed by top of columns is made, and the size of every columns and pads are determined

Axial force diagram Under wind load, this trible-rows structure could effectively digest those forces from one side, and maintain stability

Moment diagram When the unit stands alone, the column is easily get buckled under side forces. This trible-rows structure could solve this problem, reducing moment in the whole structure, and transform them into axial forces

Wind load

Y-Axis develop On Y-axial direction, three 'strips' of units are developed, in order to restrain the forces from horizonal direction, such as wind force and seismic force. With this three 'strips', the whole bridge becomes a statically indeterminate structure

// STAGE 04: CALCULATION [Material]

[Pedestrian load]

[Wind load]



[Load on points]


[Load on points]


[Allowable stress]


[Moment of inertia]


[Moment of inertia]



[Hand Rail]

[Moment of inertia] Calculation process and iteration


Stress check (single unit)

Pedestrian live load = 90 PSF Wind Load = 16.1 PSF

Kl/r=131.86 From AISC Table C-50 _Slenderness: Allowable stress=Fa=8.57Ksi Ď&#x192;a=P/A=94.32Kip/ 17.86 Si= 5.28< Fa

Refer to the CALTRANS Bridge Design specifi cations and the preset from the course. Pedestrian live load = 90 PSF = 0.625 PSi To simplify the load, the force is distributed to joints on the pad, based on the area around them


wable stress]



[Rational/ Inrational]


[Rational/ Inrational]

[Sum load]

[Rational/ Inrational]

Replacement check(wind load)

Replacement check(dead kiad)

Stress check

[Rational/ Inrational]

Buckling check

[Rational/ Inrational]

Buckling check

[Rational/ Inrational]

Buckling check

Stress Check (whole bridge) Axial Force max = -274.76 Kip Allowable stress = Kl/r = 6.109=119.6 From AISC Table C-50 _Slenderness: Fa = 10.55 Ksi Ď&#x192;a = P/A = 274.76/ 54.96 = 4.99 Ksi < Fa

Displacement Check Diagram

04 Double-Layer Shell Structure Prototype and Digital Fabracation Tongji DigitalFuture 2017 workshop Instructor: Archim menges, Martin Alvarez, Erik Martinez Collabrated Work with 4 people: Huang Liangbo, Chen Sijia, Liu Yongkang, Wang Bolun Summer 2017

The double-layer structure and wood sewing technique create a new context within digital fabrication. To explore the possiblities, we worked as a group to make the big structure. At the same time, I developed my own prototype under this context and set an adaptive rule that can be applied to any given surfaces. In this project, We as a group worked together to adjust and operate the KUKA robots to make the big wood shell, which serves as an initial of robotic fabracation and the notion of double layer structure. Then, I worked individualy to design my own proposal of a double-layer prototype. Finally, my proposals was accepted by instructors and all of my group menmbers cooperated to finish a 1:7 shell and the 1:1 prototype I designed and optimized the prototype of the hexagon structure individually, and took charge in the digital rebuild process. I made some of the drawings.



Collabrated work with all group members including instructors and students

Robotically Sewn Timber Technique As the context of this workshop, it provide a possiblity to use no screw and thin-piece meteral to create a structure that is rational and stable.

Manipulating Fabric As the context of this workshop, it provide a possiblity to use no screw and thin-piece meteral to create a structure that is rational and stable.

Colette Wolff, The art of manipulating fabric

Double-Layer Structure from Echinoids Section of an irregular sand dollar that showcases the structural morphology from which many biological principles were deducted.

Photo: Wolfgang Gerger, University of TĂźbingen.

//STAGE 02: PROTOTYPE Void in Double Layer from Echinoids In a double layer structure, the void between the two layers provide a thinkness for the the structure, which serves to generate rigidity. However, the required connection between two layers can no longer provide a void. Therefore, those connections can be seen as the weakpoint in the whole sturcture. To neutralize this negative effect, those connections' area should not support axial forces. 12 Gurn. T., [2015]

Godet Technique The Godet provide an upheaval effect, which enables the fabric or paper to keep in a certain shape

Colette Wolff, Godet, "The art of manipulating fabric"

Nature of Thin Material

z y

Based on the basic property of the paper, it has big size on X and Y direction and very small on Z. Therefore, the basic idea to make a thin-layer structure is to make it onlyaxial-force on the surface.


Made based on online diagrams of paper

Gaussian curvature When a surface has a constant zero Gaussian curvature, then it is a developable surface and the geometry of the surface is Euclidean geometry.

Eric Gaba, Gaussian curvture, Gaussian_curvature#/media/File:Minimal_surface_curvature_ planes-en.svg

Test [0]

Test [1]

Test [2] In the test among various types of structure, the hexagon was chosen for its stablility and capability to expand in two dimensions

Test [3]

Onedimensional expansion

Test [4]

Connection between two layers

Thinkness from void

Robust joint serve to pass compression

Twodimensional expension

Relatively weak joint serve to connect layers and units

Prototype Experiment



Generation 1 Making 'Godets' from the hexagon

NG JIAO Generation 2


Cutting holes to soothe the conflict between flat piece and bending piece. Make the curveture on the surface change coherently

Generation 3


Enlarge the holes to provide enough spaces for the operation of the sewing machine. Also, to make it 'thicker' between two layers



Generation 4 Cutting holes on edges to ensure the space for operation. Keep the visual coherence.


Generation 5 Expending 'tails' to ensure enough area for overlapping connections with other units Optimize



Holes For Avoid Folding In the original experiment, paper is folded and shows marks, which is harmful to the structure, due to the huge tension of tearing

Axial Force Pass through diagonal lines of the hexagon, where the distance between upper and lower layers is bigger, which ensure the enough strength to restrain axial forces

Weak Point The connecting parts of upper and lower layers can be seen as the weakest point, since the two layers overlaid here. Make it far from the path of axial force to keep the overall strength.

Holes For Sewing And Avoid Folding Enable the sewn mechine on KUKA robot to have enough operating space to get into the correct place to sewn

Holes For Sewing Enable the sewn mechine on KUKA robot to have enough operating space to get into the correct place to sewn


1 to 1 Scale Prototype & 1 to 7 Scale Model

Layout for Laser Cut In order to optimize the process of assembling, each units was divide into 3 same parts and 1 centeral part, referred to the case study of research pavilion in ICD, University of Stuttgart.

Sewing by Wood Sewn Mechine Use the same method developed in the previous wood sewing progress to fix the model.

Post-Operation with Thread Residue Clean and fix the thread residue to make the model stable

Overlay Joint The joint is designed for the sewn machine. The overlay feature makes it easy to operate and cut out by lazer cut machine


Paramatric Model Rebuild


Layout for Fabrication

Shell Shape

Decline The Accuracy

NURBS surface with intensive control lines

Decrease the amount of control lines to fit in the scale of model (1:7)

Reshape The Square Mesh to Hexagon Change the original mesh to a hexagon, and adjust the XY amount to make each hexagon to be regulated

Apply Script to The Mesh The script of generating units based on hexagon was developed, and was applyed on this mesh for 3D model and laser cut.

05 Ma-Lao-Wei Market Mapping Field Research and Bottom-Up Study Mapping workshop in Hunan University Instructor: Jason Ho, Chen Xuan Collabrated Work with 8 person Fall 2016

The task of the workshop is to research and study the Ma-Lao-Wei market-a market that arised spontaneously, and going to disappear because of the government. We are expected to explore different aspect of this market, such as economy, mechanism, people, etc. Our group chose veges on the ground as an entry point. By tracing the producing and disappearing of the veges, we learned a lot of the stories about this market, including the trash recycling mechanism in this market and in the city, different usage of veges in different conditions, stories of people who earn a live by those veges. I took charge in field research, especially follow and record different people throughout the day. I made the drawing of route of people, the drawing of Mrs. He 's family recycle, and a collage


//STAGE 01: VEGETABLE LEAVES TRACING Abandoned Vege As An Entry Point We chose leaves of vegetables on the ground as an entry point, in order to explore the whole system and mechanism of this Ma-Lao-Wei market, which was spontaneously formed by merchants and farmers. 01




04 02

03 05


In the market, some people would pick up those leaves of vegetables on the ground. Most of them did it intensionally .




The market runs from dawn to dusk. Everything plays the significant roles. So do the veges on the ground.

//STAGE 02: GRANNY'S LIFE WITH VEGETABLE LEAVES Mr. Wang Use those veges to make pickled vegetables in the market, and sell them in the same day in this market.

Mr. Zhao Staff in a restaurant Clean and use those veges as ingredient, in order to cut down the expenditures

Mr. Li Organizer of a fast food stall Clean those veges and show them as side dish.

Mr. Zhang Use those veges to feed his 12 hens in his yard, in order to harvast eggs.

Mrs. He Mix those veges with other organic stuff to feed pigs in her house

Route of Picking-Up

Profile of Vegetable Leaves Pickers

The vegetable leaves in the market are picked up by various people in different time and route. To illustrate the charactor of different people, the route of five of them were listed as layers above.

People who pick up the vegetable leaves use them in different ways for their own background and stories. Veges here could be ingredient for students, or for feeding animals in their house, etc. The usages are far beyond imagination.


Family pig husbandry

Heating/ Once per day

32 Litre 6 months for growing up


300 KG per pig

141 Litre Sale 17ÂĽ/KG


Slaughter House

83 Litre

as fertilizer

34 Litre Vegetable Field

23 Litre

Market Leaves Picking-Up 3 buckets per day

Recycle in Mrs. He 's Life Mrs. He is a good example of picking-up, and her life depends on those pigs she raises. She use the vegetable leaves and other organic stuff on the ground of the market to feed her pigs and as fertilizer, and thus she has many "equipments" for this usage. In this way, she could sell

Vegetable Leaves Recycle


Guildbook for Picking up Here is a poster to illustrate the whole mechanism of the trash recycle in the market as well as the mechanism of people who pick up veges. From this poster, you may easily pick up veges like an expert if you want.

Official Trash Disposal System Lack of garbage recycling

Heimifeng Waste Incineration Plant All garbage and waste in Changsha City would be collected to here finally, and they would be burned and buried in the Heimifeng Mountain

Garbage Transfer Station Garbage from different districts would be collected to here, and garbage here would be compressed to decrease the volumn.

District Garbage Station The trash trucks would collect those trash including veges to the district garbage for basic classify, waiting for being transported to the next station.

Picking-Up People People who pick up veges in the market would get the part they want before those veges are gathered and cleaned by market staff.

Trash Gathering in the Market Employees of the market gather the trash to certain place every day, and dumpsters would collect it next morning

OTHER WORKS Toolbox A series of tools I developed through design processes to solve problems.

[Map input]

[collision check]

[path library]

[start point]


[assign cost]

[previous cost]

[step points]

[end point]

Toolbox[0] Shortest Path

Application of Dijkstra's Algorithm Python script and grasshopper In this shortest path tool, I use Dijkstra's Algorithm to find the path and use heapq structure for sorting the data. The data of all possible paths are preprocessed and storaged.

Geometry Computation Instructor: Kyle Steinfeld Collabrated Work with Miao Li Spring 2017

Doukou: a modular in ancient architecture, represent the section of wood


[Level of architecture]

[Bay width]






Toolbox[1] Ancient Chinese Architecture Generation

Parametrize An Ancient Architecture Guild Book-"Qing GongBu ZuoFa ZeLi" Grasshopper The Ancient Chinese Architecture's modular system is based on the "Doukou", which is the 1/11part of "Dougong", the connection part between columns and beams. All the other components are determined by "Doukou" since the whole system is totally parametric.

Ancient Archvitecture Design Instructor: Liu Su Individual Work Spring 2016

Unit 3 Tutors: Students:

Immanuel KOH & LI Meizi JIAO Zhiheng | LIN Bo | XIONG Yuxuan | YANG Yue | ZHOU Wen

Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017

Toolbox[2] Map Regenerate, Blend and Fill Image recognition and processing Python script and Processing This tool is based on processing script concerning image recognition. The function is to generate bigger diagram map from small pixels, to blend two different maps to a single one, and to fill an area in a map with other maps.

AA Visiting School Instructor: Immanuel Koh, Li Meizi, Tom Verebes Collabrated Work with 4 people Summer 2017


Unit 3 Tutors: Students:

Immanuel KOH & LI Meizi JIAO Zhiheng | LIN Bo | XIONG Yuxuan | YANG Yue | ZHOU Wen

Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017

Blend Unit 3 Tutors: Students:

Immanuel KOH & LI Meizi JIAO Zhiheng | LIN Bo | XIONG Yuxuan | YANG Yue | ZHOU Wen

Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017

Fill Unit 3 Tutors: Students:

Immanuel KOH & LI Meizi JIAO Zhiheng | LIN Bo | XIONG Yuxuan | YANG Yue | ZHOU Wen

Architectural Association Visiting School AAVS Shanghai Summer School CITY SMART 7-15 July 2017

UPDATED WORKS For M:IPD This part represents slices of my works, which reflects my design process, thinking, experiences, and strategy.

HUMAN GESTURE Drawing Practice


KIOSK ON CAMPUS Perforated Steel Plate Material Installation & System First-year studio Instructor: Zhang Wei Collabrated Work with 5 people: Yu Haocheng, Wei Shuyi, Liu Rui, Qin Ling, Xie Xuan Spring 2014


Form-Finding With Plaster & Silicon Rubber First-year studio Instructor: Kyle Stenfield Spring 2017

PLASTER FORM JIG ver 1.0 Uncontrolled Pressure From Random Balls & Condom


Measurable Pressure From Balls In Four Axes

"SHUGUANG" COMMUNITY CENTER Factory Transformation Through Modular Design Third-year studio Instructor: Jiang Suqi Fall 2015



"LITTLE URBAN DESIGNER" Public Benefit Workshop For Primary School Students Off-Campus Activities Fall 2016

"LEARN SMART" Urban Morphology Model AA Visiting School Summer 2017

ANCIENT CHINESE ARCHITECTURE DESIGN Confucious' Temple Third-year Fall 2015

Profile for Jiao Zhiheng

Zhiheng Jiao|portfolio  

Zhiheng Jiao|portfolio