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Constructing   Environment   Week   7   studio   journal   Jianpeng   Deng,   657598   This   week,   the   e-­‐learning   section   mainly   focuses   on   the   new   materials   for   construction.  First  of  all,  ETFE  is  one  of  the  new  materials  which  is  the  cushions   are   manufactured   from   multiple   layers   of   ETFE,   is   a   modified   co-­‐polymer;   An   example  is  the  swimming  cube  in  Beijing  and  its  very  outer  structure  is  made  of   cushions  with  triple  layers,  that  as  a  part  of  the  cushions  inflects,  it  comes  apart   and   allows   the   light   to   come   in.   ETFE   is   originally   developed   for   the   space   industry   and   it   is   unique   because   it   does   not   degrade   under   ultraviolet   light   or   atmospheric   pollution.   Cross   Laminated   Timber   (CLT),   which   is   another   new   material,  is  an  industrially  prefabricated  timber  panel  of  superior  strength.  CLT’s   structural   performance   is   comparable   with   pre-­‐cast   concrete   and   it   uses   a   formaldehyde-­‐free  polyurethane  structured  adhesive,  which  helps  to  make  CLT   more   environmentally   friendly;   moreover,   lightweight   is   another   advantage   of   this   material.   On   the   other   hand,   we   are   also   introduced   a   process   called   refabrication,   an   example   of   which   is   bamboo   flooring   and   cork   insulation;   the   similarity   between   them   is   that   the   manufacturing   process   is   long   and   time-­‐consuming,  but  the  materials  are  very  of  use  in  construction.       Besides,  the  topic  for  this  week  is  roof  systems;  we  are  introduced  in  detail  about   the  key  concepts  of  roofs,  for  instance,  there  are  three  types  of  flat  roofs,  frame,   concrete  and  hybrid,  it  is  very  important  to  know  that  all  of  them  require  water   proof,  otherwise  if  there  is  too  much  rainwater  on  the  roof,  it  will  turn  out  water   leakage.  Apart  from  the  big  pictures  of  roof  systems,  we  are  also  introduced  the   small  details  of  them,  such  as,  gutter,  flashing  and  purlin.  For  example,  gutter  is   commonly  made  of  metal  positioned  below  along  the  eave  of  roofs,  the  purpose   of   which   is   to   collect   and   divert   water   from   a   roof.   Picture   1   is   shown   in   the   following  page  that  is  the  paper  generally  covers  the  topic  of  roof  systems.  


Picture  1  

  The  in-­‐class  activity  for  this  week  is   an  on  site  visit  at  the   building  that  is  still  under  construction.  It  is  an  apartment   building   with   9   storeys   and   55   apartments,   and   75%   of   which   has   been   completed.   Image   1   on   the   right   is   the   building.   It   is   introduced   that   the   building   is   mostly   made   of  concrete,  but  steel  is  mostly  used  for  the  top  floor.       In   Image   2   shown   below,   we   can   see   that   masonries   are   used   to   build   the   inner   walls,   and   the   masonries   are   hollow   inside   maybe   because   it   can   leave   space   for   steel   and  concrete  to  reinforce  walls.  Also,  there  is  an  opening                     Image  1   framed   with   timbers   in   between   the   wall,   which   is   most   likely   to   put   a   door   in   the   future.   The   opening   is   necessary                                                               Image  2  


On   the   ceilings   in   every   floor,   there   are   main   components   attached   with   it,   such   as   water   pipe   and   electric   wires.   Image   3   on   the   right,   shows   how   and   where   the   systems   are   being   located.   Some   pipes   are   made  of  copper  to  transfer  gas  and  water  to   every  storey  from  bottom  to  the  top.  On  the   other   hand,   sewerage   pipes   direct   wastes   from   the   top   down   to   the   underground   sewerage  system.      

Image  3  

In  the  following  images,  here  we  come  to  one  of  the  rooms.  

                  Image  4                               Image  5                               Image  6   Of   all   these   three   images,   we   can   see   that   the   room   is   decorated   by   a   layer   of   plastic  board  on  ceiling  as  well  as  the  inner  wall.  In  Image  4,  we  can  clearly  see   through   the   opening   on   the   ceiling,   there   is   an   access   panel   and   some   service   components  that  have  been  mentioned  above.  In  Image  5,  the  fire  sprinkler  head   is  installed  on  the  ceiling,  and  this  is  to  meet  the  fire  rating  90/90/90.  In  Image  6,   the   wall   that   we   can   see   wires   go   through,   there   is   also   fire   rated   wall   system   about  the  wall.  


In   Image   7,   we   see   that   the   window   doorframe   is   made   of   aluminum   and   galvanized  

steel,  

as  

this  

metal  

is  

advantageous   in   several   aspects,   such   as   lightweight,   corrosion   resistance,   ductility   and   recyclability.   Besides,   the   window   door   is   sealed   with   rubber,   in   order   to   prevent   rainwater  from  leaking  into  the  apartment.     Image  7  

 

  Image   8   is   taken   in   a   stairway   where   we   can   see   there   are   sheet   steels   underneath   the   concrete   stair;  it  is  said  to  be  the  concrete   formwork   that   hold   the   shape   and  when  the  concrete  dries  out,   the  sheets  will  be  removed.  

Image  8  

  The   image   on   the   left   shows   the   floor   system   as   well   as   the   ceiling.   It   is   rather   to   be   a   two-­‐way   slab   that   there   are   reinforcing   steels   in   between   the   concretes;   also,   they   are   precast   concrete   that   pieces   of   concrete   plate   are   ‘glued’   to   become   the   floors.   Moreover,   there   is   steel   structure   built   below   the   floor   system,   where   the   gap   in   between   will   be   placed   pipes   and   wires;   and   the   ceiling   will   be   made   by   attaching   plastic   board   underneath   the   Image  9  

 

steel  structure  in  order  to  make  it  look  better.  


The   image   on   the   right   is   taken  in  the  ninth  floor  of   the  building,  which  is  also   the   very   top   floor   of   it.   The   structure   here   has   very   big   differences   from   the   other   floors,   in   terms  

Image  10  

of   the   materials   used.   Steel   framing   is   clearly   seen   in   the   image,   they   are   painted   in   yellow   because   it   helps   protect   the   steel   from   corrosion.   Moreover,   the   roof   system   is   rather   to   be   double   span,   that   there   are   thick   steel   joists   placed   horizontally   below   the   steel   channels;   also,   it   is   said   that   the   span   for   the   steel   joists  is  12  meters.  To  be  more  specific,  it  is  galvanized  steel  roof  that  refers  to   the  fabrication  about  the  roof.  More  images  are  shown  below  about  this  floor.  

Image  12  

Image  11  

       

In  Image  12,  there  we  see  diagonal  steel  strap  bracing  welded  to  studs  and   runners,  and  the  secure  strap  connection  to  stud  and  runner  with  a  steel  gusset   welds.  The  purpose  of  this  is  an  extra  support  for  the  roof  structure.  Also,  we  also   see  access  panels  that  connect  to  kitchens,  bathroom  etc.,  as  well  as  downpipe   vents,  sewerage  and  the  water  pipes  for  water  service.        


The  Image  13  &  14  show  that   the  surface  of  the  very  top   roof  system,  it  is  said  to  be   the  plain  plate  form  that  has   2  degrees  sloping,  so  that  it   could  catch  more  rainwater.   In  order  to  prevent  the  

Image  13  

corrosion  from  the  metal   sheets,  they  are  already   coated  and  also  more   protection  works  are  done,   for  example,  there  are  three   gutters  in  different  locations   to  direct  the  water  down  to   the  ground  sewerage,  so  it  

Image  14  

means  there  are  different  output  to  distribute  rainwater;  it  is  connected  to  the   white  box  shown  in  Image  15,  the  hole  of  which  is  extra  access  when  too  much   water  in  the  gutters.  Moreover,  flashing  is  also  another  work  to  protect  steel   sheet  from  corrosion.    

                                                                  Image  15  

         


This  

is  

one  

of  

the  

apartments   that   locates   in   the   eighth   floor,   here   we   see   the   concrete   column   near  the  guide,  this  is  one   of  

the  

column  

that  

support   the   floor   system   above.   Moreover,   there  

Image  16  

are   the   stocks   of   the   wall   materials   that   are   up   to   the   standard   of   fire   rating.   Walls   will   be   built   on   where   the   yellow   steel   frame   structures   are,   so   that   the   boundaries  will  be  clearly  settled  and  also  to  prevent  noise  from  one  apartment   to  another.     In   this   image   on   the   left,   there   are   roof   trusses   that   support   the   roof   in   some   ways,   divert   the   force   to   the   walls  nearby.   Image  17  

 

  Image   18   shows   there   is   a   timber   placed   in   the   gap   of   steel   doorframe,   it   is   acting   as   a   joint   as   well   as   a   kind   of   reinforcement  to  hold  the  opening  firmly.    

Image  18  


Week 7 studio journal 2