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FROM

Healing Gardens TO

Therapeutic Cities

JIANGHEZI ZHENG


TABLE OF CONTENTS

THE ANALYSIS OF THERAPEUTIC GARDENS Nikkei Manor Elderly Care Facility 2015 | research project

THE APPLICATION OF THERAPEUTIC GARDENS Puget Sound Veterans Hospital 2016 | capstone deisgn build project

GRAFT Missing Link of Ballard 2015 | individual project

TECTONIC PLATES Reveal Highway 99 2015 | individual project

CULTIVATING HEALTH Rab Psychiatric Hospital 2015 | study abroad design build project


The Analysis of Therapeutic Gardens - Nikkei Manor Elderly Care Facility Project Type: Research Project Duration: 6 weeks | Autumn 2016 Individual Contribution: Conducting the Majority of the fieldwork, Refining Questions and Method, Producing Written Report and Presentation

A therapeutic garden is a specific type of landscape that has been designed to promote human health within a natural environment both physically and psychologically. Since the designs of therapeutic gardens vary greatly depending on the specific kind of populations the gardens are serving for, the goal of the research is to understand the healing components of a therapeutic garden and apply them to various circumstances. In this project, we first did a post evaluation on the Ichi-Go Ichi-E Garden, which is used primarily by Japanese American senior residents of the apartment complex Nikkei Manor. I helped analyzing the use patterns of the garden by residents and staff through observation, mapping, surveying and interviewing. By analyzing the success of the project, we hope to answer the question of how to design effectively given different potential users, site conditions and programs. This research project focused on an in-depth exploration and investigation through design for improved well-being - physical and psychological health. Then I integrated my findings and knowledge to help coming up with a design solution for a new project: a capstone design/build project leading by Professor Daniel Winterbottom for the Veteran’s Affairs Hospital. The garden will serve veterans who are suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other stress-related symptoms. The analysis and evaluation of the site are based on knowledge gained from the lectures, readings, and interviews of the staff and residents. Using seven universal design principles we were been able to determine success of the site.


BACKGROUND INFORMATION

INTERVIEW QUESTIONS

Nikkei Manor is an assisted living elderly care

Residents:

facility located in the International District in

• Do you use the garden? If so, how? If not, why

Seattle with 50 private apartment units of different. The residents are mostly Japanese American seniors with an average age of 76.

not? • Do you feel that the cultural references are

evocative of Japan?

The majority of residents are refugees from

• Is movement through the garden relatively easy?

World War II and some of them are limited in

• What do you feel that the garden is missing?

English. Staffs: • Do the residents feel safe in the garden? • How is the garden used? • How often is the garden used? • What activities does the garden facilitate? • Are there accessibility issues?

USE PATTERN Physical

SEVEN UNIVERSIAL DESIGN PRINCIPLES

Social

Equitable Use

Visual

Flexibility in Use Simple / Intuitive

MENTALLY CONNECTED AND SAFE ENVIRONMENT

Perceptible Info. Tolerance of Error Low Physical Effort

VISUAL

PHYSICAL

PROMOTE HEALTH

SOCIAL

Size & Space for Approach & Use


ANALYSIS Cultural Elements “This garden turned out exactly as what I imagined a Japanese garden would be.” - Toshiko Okamoto, 92

The cultural symbolic references are one of the most successful part of the garden. They are really evocative of Japan and give residents a sense of home. The Japanese literal and symbolic cues are given by lots of details. Cranes represent longevity. “Jade” is used to symbolize protection/luck. Lotus menas noble and elegant.


Walking

The Younger Residents/ Better Physical Conditon (40%)

The use of the patterns in the garden is altered by the different age groups and difficulty in accessibility by the users. The younger residents who didn’t need any help walking use the garden more actively and often verses the older residents. They love walking in a loop, and sometimes they will take rest under the shelter area when it is rainy.

The Older Residents/ Limited Physical Conditon (60%)

The older resident with a walker expressed she barely used the garden even in a warm day. If she does, she will just slowly walk to the gathering area next to the water feature, which is facing the entry.

Sitting

All the residents and staffs have a strong preference to sit outside in the garden.

Viewing

All the residents spend the majority of their time indoor.

The aging generation, especially the ones with limited physical conditions get tired easily. It is important to provide many seating areas to encourage people to go outside. Also, designing different seating opareas is crucial for a successful therapeutic garden.


Through the interviews we understand that the garden is mainly used from late spring to early fall mostly during the sunny days, since the senior generation is more sensitive to weather and temperature changes.

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2

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5

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9

10

11

MORE COVERED AREA 12

Late Spring to Early Fall

The only shelter in the garden is situated in the east corner with no connection from the entrance. Both residents and staff mentioned that it is hard for the older residents to use the garden in the rainy day, since there is no sheltered connection with the existing shelter.

The garden provides opportunities to be social as well as solitary. One resident, Misao Korekiyo (96) mentioned she loved reading the Reader’s Digest with a cup of tea in the garden. The sittings outdoor encourage them to go outside, which promote both their mental and physical wellness. Generally, comparing to the residents, the frequencies of staff members using the garden are higher. Staff members use the garden for taking breaks and having meetings.

Plants with different fragrances, textures and interests would increase sensory stimulation and sensory interaction. For elderly, seeing the pass of time will help with their cognition and reduce depression and stress. The residents said even viewing the garden from indoor, they felt relaxed.


The Application of Therapeutic Gardens - Puget Sound Veterans Hospital Project Type: Capstone Design/Build Project Duration: 10 weeks Design + 10 weeks Construction | Winter & Spring 2016 Studio: L ARCH 474 + L ARCH 475

Every year, Professor Daniel Winterbottom leads a design / build capstone studio in hopes to give back to the community. This year we are privilege to work with Veterans and Friend of Puget Sound to create a healing garden for the Puget Sound Veterans Hospital. Our site is located next to the emergency room, so our goal is to create a refuge for veterans, staffs and families to reduce their stress, anxiety and exhaustion that a hospital environment can create.

More than

1,500 recently returned vets are amputees.

Thery are suffering from lingering pain in backs, necks, knees or shoulders.

20% of vets experience traumatic brain injuries. 14% of vets said PTSD or depression seriously impaired their daily functioning.

Mental health issues including violent behavior, depression and alcohol abuse are the most common health problems.


Triggers color RED will remind them of blood

Sudden sound or harsh sound

Bamboos will be triggers for vets who served in Vietnam

Visually complex patterns

FIRE

Vets prefer seats with high backing to make sure they are fully protected

Top Existing site conditions

Bottom Left Consulting design professionals and physical therapy students from MSU Bottom Right Stakeholders meeting


Phase 1-a : Senscape Duration: 4 weeks Group Members: Jena Gerry, Gina Kim, Jianghezi Zheng (Alexis), Yutong Zhu, Aryuna Poselenova Studio: L ARCH 474 Advanced Design Studio

In the first part of design phase, students were divided into 6 teams and each team should come up with a design solution. With constant collaboration between the occupational therapy students from Western Michigan State University, physical therapists and patients, we understand patients are usually in their gowns need a covered area in order to use the garden all season. I apply the findings from research, which are more covered area, home environment connections, sensory stimulation and interation, and help come up with our design: senscape.


The form of the shelter is inspired by the organic flow of Pacific Northwest cascades. There are 8 months of rainy days in Seattle, so the shelter provides an all-season opportunity for patients and staffs to experience the garden and get healed in. The use of shelter is equitable. There is a seamless transition between wheel chair seating area to general seating. Veterans with wheel chairs can easily park next to the seating and talk to the person on the seating without feeling different.


Phase 1-b : Garden of Earth and Sky - SKYROOM Duration: 6 weeks Group Members: Fern Huynh, Jianghezi Zheng (Alexis) Studio: L ARCH 474 Advanced Design Studio

After presenting to our clients, the design was synthesized. The garden of Earth and Sky is about re-orienting one’s position in relation to the sky and earth and reconnecting users to the greater natural landscape to ‘get away’. Also, we are taking the idea of creating a seamless transition between the garden and hospital, revealed in the seating, paving, and geometry of the site. Then we broke up into different teams to tackle different aspects of the design, my partner and I were in charge of “skyroom”.

Photo Credit: Mike Siegel / The Seattle Times


Teams

SKYROOM


SKYROOM BENCH The skyroom is consisted of up and down benches that create a diverse seating which also blends into the lobby area. After talking with the OT students, we decide the back of the seating is ascending from 18 inches above the bench to 36 inches and reclined at a 13 degree in order to lead people’s sight to the sky and help relieve stress from the intervertebral disc. The backing is translucent to allow people to see the vegetation. Material wise, the structure is made of 1” x 4” x 18” teak wood slats and 2” x 2” silver tubes.

Wheelchair User Seating


Phase 2: Construction Duration: 10 weeks Studio: L ARCH 475 Community Design/Build Studio

During the first part of construction, I was in the workshop preparing the metals for skyroom bench, when my partner was on site to pour the concrete for footings. After we measure, cut, welded and painted the metals, the whole classs moved to our site to install wood slabs, yards of soil and plants. After two intense quarters, we were be able to see and be involved in all espects from ideas and designs to construction.


WEEK 7 - 10 WEEK 3 - 6

WEEK 1 - 2

ORIGINAL SITE


graft.

- The Missing Link

Project Type: Individual Project Duration: 10 weeks | Autumn 2015 Studio: L ARCH 403 Cultural Landscape Studio

This studio explores the changing nature of an urban site where one culture is trying to retain its identify, yet new cultures are emerging. The project shows a way to heal the urban environment. By applying the red cedar tree bark form, which is inspired by Ballard’s own thriving lumber culture, I hope to graft layers of industrial culture, market culture and the histories, through the sensory interation of heritate materials and planting. The goal of this project is to enhance history identity as well as improve environmental and social performances.


MISSING LINK

BURKE - GILMAN TRAIL

Our site is Ballard’s “Missing Link” of the Burke Gilman Trail. With strong industrial ties, Shilshole Ave NW is home to various industrial shops. With railroad running on Shilshole Ave, the area is very unfriendly to pedestrians and bicyclists. Just one block away, Ballard Ave NW features a very different culture, one filled with restaurants and shops, as well as a very popular year-round farmer’s market.

DANGEROUS - Bicyclists - Pedestrians

Ba

lla

rd

Av

e

Sh

ils

ho

le

Av

e

NW

NW

STRESS - Traffic - Parking - Compressing Environment

UNPLEASANT - Lack of Green - Disorganized Telepoles


Storymaps Natural VS Industrial Map

Telepole & Traffic Map

Danger Map

Master Plan 24 Ave NW

NW MARKET ST Nordic Heritage Museum

LL BA

AR

Hiram M. Chittenden Locks

NW VE YA W AR LE EN AV

Ballard Oil Company

D

SH ILS

N VE EA

R HO W Salmon Bay Sand & Gravel

Ballard Mill Marina

Pedestrians Bicycles Railroad Vegetation

0

200’

400’

800’

Traffic Analysis Thursday 7 am

Low

High

Thursday 6 pm

Thursday 12 pm Traffic Volume

NW MARKET ST

Traffic Volume

NW MARKET ST

Low

High

Traffic Volume

NW MARKET ST

Low RD LLA BA

RD LA

RD LLA BA

L BA

EN AV W

W

W

EN AV

EN AV

W

EN AV RE

Pedestrians

Bicycles

Bicycles

Cars

Cars

Boats

Boats

Boats

Trucks

Trucks

Trucks

Pedestrians Bicycles Cars

W EN AV RY LEA

HO ILS SH

W

EN AV RE

W EN AV RY LEA

HO ILS SH

W

EN AV RE

W EN AV RY LEA

HO ILS SH

Pedestrians

High


Truss Pattern Steel Wall for Planters

A

rd lla

Ba

Shelter

Av e

Fa rm

er

s’

M

ar

ke

to

n th e We e k e n d s

Planter Bench with Cast Iron Protectors on the Sides

B

ils

Sh le

ho

Plan View

e Av

Steel Truss Pattern Water Runnel

Wood Bench & Wood Inserted Paving

Plan View

0

Plan

20’

40’

80’


Concept Diagram

Bench Planter

Red Cedar Bark

Planting

Pattern

Wood Paving

Steel Mansory Wood Concrete Cast Iron

Bench

Lighting

Shelter

Concrete Paving

Fountain

Material Diagram

People - Native American History (Native Edible Plants)

Market Culture

Aster tripolium

Industrial Culture Native American History

Rubus fruiticosa

Vaccinium myrtillus

Trifolium repens

- Natural History (Native Water Treatment Plants)

Natural History

zelkova serrata

Fraxinus latifolia

Cornus controversa

Deschampsia caespitosa

Elymus glaucus

Industrial Culture

Wood

Cast Iron

Steel

Concrete

Pervious Paving

People - Market Culature (Nodic Aromatic Edible Plants)

Program Diagram Helichrysum italicum

Salvia officinalis

Rosmarinus officinalis

Lavandula angustifolia

Mansory


Planters Shelters

Bench Planters Lighting

Model of Ballard Ave

BALLARD AVE: A Street Park with Outdoor Sittings

Section of Ballard Ave with Outdoor sittings


Shilshole Ave: Sa on y Ba nd Sa

s

& a Gr

• Keeping Pedestrians and Bicyclists Safe While Solving the Traffic Problem for Industries.

l ve

Industries Pedestrians

y Ba vel on ra lm G Sa nd & Sa

• An Urban Corridor for Wildlife.

lm

od fo ea n t S tio en a id o r Tr orp C

• A Pleasant Alternative to the Surrounding Industrial Site.

Bicycles

Cars

d te gs a Sa arin M

Trucks

Rail

Transportation Diagram

Vignette of Shilshole Ave Showing Sittings, Bicycle Paths and Planting with Seasonal Foliage


SMART PARKING SYSTEM

REVERSE PARKING

Since the train only runs three times a week, the railroad will be transfered into temporary parking lots with smart parking system.

Since Shilshore Ave is very industrial, the design of reverse diagonal parking makes the loading and unloading process more effiecient. The train is coming in 30 mins, please move your car. 14 ft

ECO-CORRIDOR

SAFETY

Planting more native plants helps improving habitat connectivity and creating overpasses and underpasses for wildlife.

A safety alternative for bicyclists and pedstrians from the busy traffic on the two sides. Also let the industries work more effieciently.

Section of Shilshole Ave Incoporating A Pedestrain Corridor


Tectonic Plates - Reveal Highway 99 Project Type: Individual Project Duration: 10 weeks | Winter 2015 Studio: L ARCH 302 Urban Sites Studio

Located under Highway 99 in Belltown, the site was dark and unsafe with load and annonying traffic on the highway and transit population living under the it. The design aims to bring the light and harmony back to the neighborhood, to create a safe and comfortable space for the residents and to invite more people and to engage the community.

Site Analysis Diagram

Annoying Traffic Sound

Highway Cut the Neighborhood

Transient Population


Perspective developed from concept model to solve the huge hight drop

Concept Model

Concept Diagram

Goal


WEAVE: 5% ADA access with water runnel and lighting as railings. Green walls on the vertical side of the plan and pocket green wall on the horizontal side. Benches are view points provded around the Honey locust. Plan

1st Ave

RIFT:

Battery St

Rain garden with various height grasses.

Western Ave CLUSTER: Main gathering space with bent benches and lightings, planted with honey locust.

OPEN: A free and direct entry for people from Wester St., benches provided along the grasses.


Working Model

Bell St Cafe

FAULT: Various height, color smell plants planted in different height geometries planted in. People can sit or walk along the plants, lighting and waterfall.

REFLECT: Green roof cafe with a pond and lighting bridges.


Cultivating Health - Rab Psychiatric Hospital, Croatia Project Type: Design/Build Project Duration: 4 weeks | Summer 2015 Studio: L ARCH 402 Neighborhood Design Studio

Every year, Professor Daniel Winterbottom leads a study abroad program in Croatia. In the second part of our program, we constructed one of the four therapeutic gardens in Rab Psychiatric Hospital Campus. This is a aromatic garden. I did most of the grading preparation and wood preparation, designed the patterns on the sides of the shelter, and made three digital perspectives for our clients.

Inspired by Croatia’s most breathtaking scenery and the longevous olive trees on the Island Rab, we hope as small as a drop in the sea, our design will make a difference to the patients. Overtime, they wil be healed by ripples of fragrance through interaction.


Finished Construction Product without Plants

Photo Credit: Holly Chan

Rendered Perspective with Plants


Photos indicate our construction process, which includes building the earthwork and the structure. The summer in Croatia is constantly over 100F, this project is a challenge for all of us physically and mentally.


Rendered Perspective with Plants


Other Works SKETCHES


ARCHITECTURE FILM PHOTOGRAPHY

PAINTING


Jianghezi Zheng