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The University of Melbourne Environments & Design Student Centre


Ground Floor of the Baldwin Spencer Building

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Subject Code: ENVS10003_2014_SM1

Subject Name: Constructing Environments

Student ID Number: 634062

Student Name: Jialu Peng

Tutorial: T13 Assignment Name: A01 LOGBOOK INTERIM SUBMISSION (morning studio sessions) Assignment Due Date: Mar 21 2014 at 10:00 AM

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Student Signature: _______________________ Date _____________


Student Number


Student Name

Jialu Peng

Photo Source WEIBOďźš@fuckingoodthings


This week’s logbook includes... • Lecture - Paper holder • Tutorial - Timber tower • E-learning - Introduction to structural system & loads on building & basic structural forces & materials & natural env. influence culture env. & force path • Weekly quiz • Glossary

Arrows represent the load forces that acting on the paper holder

What is the strongest way to buit a paper holder?

During this task, we try to make a holder that can carry the weight of a brick by using a piece of paper. The most important thing is to figure out how can we make this piece of paper become stronger to hold.I compared two different shapes of the paper holder, and then analysing the load forces acting on them separately.


In figure 1.1, this shape is a CONE, that means there is a circle touching with the brick when it is holding the weight. In this case, although the touching area is less than it is in figure 1.2, there are more force beating points than it is in figure 1.2, so it means the weight can be distributed to several points, and each point can carry less loan. That will make sure the holder standing stably. Figure 1.3 is a more vulnerable shape than figure 1.2. It shows how is one part of the weight comes down through the path f1 to f2 to f3, when it meets f3, there is hanging in the air, and the beam of this path must collapse on the ground to meet a balance.



In figure 1.2, the weight of the brick has been distributed to four walls(feet), that means each wall(foot) has to hold 1/4 weight of the brick. And since the paper holder is vulnerable, it is very easy for the walls to fall down.

Figure 1.4 looks similarly with figure 1.1. Both of their loans of brick has been distributed into a lot. Actually I am wondering which one can


carry more weight. Figure 1.1 or figure 1.4? It seems the area of wall of figure 1.4 is more than the area of figure 1.1, while in my opinion, the shape of circle should be more stable than the shape of star. So let’s just leave this question for a moment.

Timber Tower

The material of this tower is TIMBER, it is some kind of so! timber which has some funny sme" (poisoning?). It’s not a heavy one.


The height of this tower is nearly more than 2/3 of my height. So it should be 1.3m roughly. The top part of this tower is cone, the basic of it is kind of a ellipse.



In picture 1, our group are building the basic of the tower. We choose a circle base, because the circle base does not have a shapely corner, and the corner will be a very vulnerable part in the structure, it we do not deal with it carefully, it is easy to fall down. Besides, the timber on the base part is arranged in a tight structure. In this case we can create a gate there, and make sure the timbers next to the gate are still stable. What is more, we also make two timbers stand up next to the gate to help lift the timbers of the gate. In picture 2, we make the timber work in a stagger on structure. It help us build up quickly. It is also a stable structure. In picture 3, we want to build up quicker, since the tower is relatively stable, we decide to make the timber turn over. Then the width of it will be as same as it is in picture 2, while the height is more than it is in picture 2. ANALYSING... a. After we make this tower very high, the bottom of it become more stable, because the gap between layer and layer is less than less. Actually it will be a nice time to remove the timber on the base and to create another gate, we did that, although the new gate is ever huger than the usual one, the tower still does not collapse.




b. When we build higher and higher, it becomes more and more difficult to add new level. Since some timbers is low and some timbers is high, the land is no longer on the standard horizontal level. There are many times, our tower crashed on the top. Fortunately, it was just the top of it.



KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(1)

Presenting the ‘invisible loads’

KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(2)

self-weight of roof ground pressure water pressure snow loads

wind loads earthquake loads

rain loads impact loads occupancy loads

Tension forces stretch and elongate the material. The amount of elongation depends on the stiffness of the material, cross sectional area, and the magnitude of the load.

When an external load pushed on a structural member, the particles of the material compact together. Compression forces result in the shortening of the material.

KNOWLEDGE MAPS Steel is stronger than timber in most compression/ tension.

Some materials require flexible, e.g. rubbers

from E-learning(3)

Sotropic (displays similar characteristics no matter which direction the forces come from)

Anisotropic (strength acts differently depends on where the forces supply)

how expensive the material, e.g. how far does material need to be transport, etc

basalt, a very hard material

Water damage and impact damage (e.g. wheel ruts, stiletto heels, old road level ) on basalt, we can figure out a little bit what did Melbourne look like before

Basalt is from volcanoes (north, west, north-west orientations have volcanoes in Melbourne)

KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(4)

Blue arrow: applied loans path Red arrow without shadow: reaction Dark shadow: Elements actually not work supporting

Applied loans = reaction, then the structure will be stable


G L O S S A RY ( W E E K 1 ) Load Path: a load path is a passageway that transfers loads on a building structure into the foundation system. Masonry: is the building of structures from individual units laid in and bound together by mortar. Compression: the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress. Reaction force: every force on one object is accompanied by a reaction on another, of equal magnitude but opposite direction. Point Load: refers to a point where a bearing or structural weight is intense and transferred to the foundation. Beam: one of structural elements

REFERENCE 1. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons 2. ENVS10003. W01 c1 Construction Overview. 3. ENVS10003. W01 M1 Introduction to Materials. 4. ENVS10003. W01 s1 Load Path Diagrams. 5. ENVS10003. Melbourne’s Bluestone. 6. Clare N. CONSTRUCTING ENVIRONMENT: BASIC STRUCTUAL FORCES [ %2001/Basic%20Structural%20Forces%201.pdf] 7. All photo sources were took by Jialu Peng (634062) 8.


This week’s logbook includes... • Lecture - Water tank • Tutorial - Balsa tower • E-learning - Structural system (2) & construction system & structural joints • Weekly quiz

week 2 tutorial session

Balsa Tower

That’s where we reach right now Following is what we plan to build

Above is the base of the tower look like. there are 16 beams to stabilize the bottom. The way to put these beams is also in the shape of triangle, the aim is same as its for the whole structure. In order to build the tower as high as possible, we decide to make a shape like above. Since the triangular structure is very stable. And the material we use is Balsa wood, it is a kind of light material, but it is easy to be broke if you fold it or twist it hard. Right side is the structure in the middle. There are 8 beams creating 4 crosses on the each facade. We use it to make the structure stable.

Above is the hilltop of the tower. We make the for major beams to touch at same point naturally. And using glue & scotch tape to stabilize it.

Water Tank (week 2 lecture session)

Figure 1.1


The rare material of this task is a taken-away box, several straws and s lot of pins. In order to hold the weight of a brick, we need to make this water tank as stable as possible. Looking into the whole picture, figure 1.1 is the water tank looks like originally. In figure 1.2, it shows how the bottom of four straws look like. I enlarger the bottom space of the straws, in order to add the touching space, in this case, the tank will stand more stably. In figure 1.3, it shows how is the straws and the major part of the tank connect together. There are two pins on the both of sides, so the straws will not move hugely. After done all above, the water tank can stand well by itself. Below is my test. As figure 1.4 shows, the water tank cannot even bear the weight of the bowl. So I make some improvement. The major problem is the column straws have been twisted inside. As figure 1.5 shows, I add four more stras on each side. It prevents the straws twisting inside or be strut apart. In figure 1.6, the water tank can hold the bowl successfully.



Figure1.6 Figure1.3


KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(1)

Structures we might found from very early building, e.g. in Egypt, Great Wall in China.

e.g. Swimming CubeďźŒ Bird’s Nest

e.g. sail, to catch the wind. A very effective ways to transfer loads down to the ground. e.g. Opera House

Active solar collection: Thin film photovoltaks

Reduced heat Island Effect Reflective cool roof

Protective Overhangs Passive solar Shading Wood trellis

Local Increased Sourced onsite PerMaterials meability hardscapes & e.g. Boulder parking permeable paves Bowlders

Group Office

Private Office

Natural Daylighting: continuous clerestory window on north facade Energy Efficient HVAC Thermal Mass: concrete, stained to resemble rammed earth has both energy as seismic resistance benefits

Active integrated shadOnsite ReNatural ing & light newable Daylight & Energy control Energy views: f;ow efficient Energy Effi:Geotherlighting to ceiling cient Up/ mal windows Down Lightalong south ing


Drought Tolerant Plants Natural Cross Ventilation

KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(2)

Structure system: 1.Superstructure: the vertical extension of building above the foundation. 2.Substructure: the underlying structure forming the foundation. 3.Columns, beams, and loadbearing walls: support floor and roof structure. Enclosure System: 1. Roof and external walls: shelter interior spaces from inclement weather; dampen noise. 2. Door: provide physical access. 3. Windows: provide access to light, air and views. 4. Internal walls: subdivide the interior spatial units. Mechanical systems: 1. Water supply system: provide potable water 2. Sewage disposal systems: removes fluid wast 3. Heating, ventilating & air-conditioning systems: condition the interior spaces 4. Electrical system: provide the electric power 5. Vertical transportation system: carry people upside down 6. Fire-fighting system: detect & extinguish fires 7. *Waste disposal & recycling systems

KNOWLEDGE MAPS from E-learning(3)

Photo 3.1

Photo 3.2

Photo Photo3.3 3.2


G L O S S A RY ( W E E K 2 ) Structural Joint: a junction when building elements meet without applying a static load from one element to another. Stability: a measure of the turbulence. Tension: the pulling force exerted by a similar solid oject on another object. Frame: a structural system that supports other components of a physical construction. Bracing: external to support the structure Column: a structural element that transmits, through compression, the weight of the structure above to other structural elements below.

REFERENCE 1. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction Illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons 2. ENVS10003. W02 c1 Construction Systems. 3. ENVS10003. ESD and Selecting Materials 4. ENVS10003. W02 s1 Structural Systems. 5. ENVS10003. W02 s2 Structural Joints. 6. [photo 3.1] Karl, J. Roller support. 7. [photo 3.2] Parliament Library building Domes. 8. [photo 3.3] Construction Series: Concrete crete.html 9. The other photo sources were took by Jialu Peng (634062)

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