Page 1

LOGBOOK

for constructing

CONTENTS!

!

3.1.1~3.3.1 4.1.1~4.3.1 5.1.1~5.3.1 6.1.1~6.3.1 7.1.1~7.2.1 8.1.1~8.3.1 9.1.1~9.3.1 10.1.1~10.2.1 remaining

! ! ! ! !

week 3 week 4 week 5 week 6 week 7 week 8 week 9 week 10 week 1~2

2

P E N G

63406

J I A L U


3.1.1

WEEK3 Tutorial section

!

WALKING AROUND THE CAMPUS

E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE structure elements/structural geometry & equilibrium SYSTEM footings & foundations MATERIAL brick/block/stone CONSTRUCTION mass construction: masonry KEY TERMS


3.1.2

SLAB/PLATE

structural elements

the loads is applied across the slab; loads will be distributed to beams below; sometimes loads could be transferred in 2 direction

STRUT compression element (within the trust)

TIE tension element (been pull apart) carry loads; transfer loads through/to footing/slab below

WALLS

key structural elements BEAM PANELS SHEAR DIAPHRAGM

as a bracing system to prevent building overturning; without this, you need bracing system which might consists struts/ties

material that has been used

mass construction

they are all strong in compression but weak in tension • • • •

STONE EARTH CLAY CONCRETE

has the tendency of changing shape (top is in compression; bottom is in tension); it will be stretched apart; material used should be both support compression & tension, e.g. timber, steel

(hard; resists abrasion) (compressive strength) (good thermal mass) (durable)

NON-MODULAR • •

MODULAR • • • •

clay brick mud brick concrete block ashlar stone

concrete rammed earth monolithic stone (columns & beams)


3.1.3

•

footings and foundations the picture of basement

FOUNDATION DEEP FOOTINGS

SHALLOW FOOTINGS

are used where soil conditions are unstable & the required soil bearing capacity is inadequate; loads is transferred from the foundations down to levels where bed rock, stiff clay, dense sand/gravel is located

END BEARING PILES extend the foundations down to rock/ soil that provide support for the building loads

FRICTION PILES rely on the resistance of the surroundin g earth to support the structure

are used where soil conditions are stable & the required soil bearing capacity is adequate close to surface of the ground; load is transferred vertically from the foundation to the ground

PAD FOOTINGS help to spread a point load over a wider area of ground

STRIP FOOTINGS loads from a wall/a series of columns is spread in linear manner

RAFT FOUNDATION provides increased stability by joining the individual strips together as a single mat


3.1.4

masonry

it’s a particular subset of mass construction

definition: refers to building with units of various natural/ manufactured products; usually with the use of mortar as a bonding agent

properties: the units together act as a monolithic whole

VERTICAL ELEMENTS • •

walls columns/piers

HORIZONTAL & CURVED SPANNING ELEMENTS • •

beams/lintels arches

SPANNING/ENCLOSING ELEMENTS • •

vaults domes


3.1.5

bricks

Brick is a standard size masonry unit made out of clay, its proportions may vary sightly depending on types and countries but it will always be a hand sized unit

PROVENANCE: Bricks are manufactured from clay/shale which is shaped and then hardened by a firing process (in a kiln)

3 TYPES: • • •

extruded & wire-cut machine moulded handmade

WAYS TO BE ARRANGED:

PROPERTIES: medium - high; can be scratched with a metallic object

hardness

medium; can be broken with trowel

fragility

very low ductility

ductility

! ! ! ! ! !

very low flexibility & plasticity

! !

medium - low; becomes soaked only if placed in prolonged contact with water

flexibility/plasticity porosity/ permeability

! !

medium; approximately 2~2.5 more dense than water

! !

poor conductors of heat and electricity

! !

typically very durable

! !

high; can be re-used with no change or crushed to be used as recycled aggregate

! !

tends to be locally produced; the firing process adds to its carbon footprint

! !

generally cost effective but required labour coasts should also be considered

density conductivity durability/life span reusability/ recyclability sustainability & carbon footprint cost


3.1.6

blocks

PROPERTIES:

Block is a standard size masonry unit made out of concrete. There is a large range of sizes and proportions available in order to suit different purposes.

PROVENANCE: Blocks are manufactured from cement/sand/gravel/ water. The manufacture process involves mixing/ moulding/curing.

CLAY BRICKS VS CONCRETE BLOCKS CONCRETE BLOCKS: shrink for several reasons; the cement paste reduces in volume as it hydrates & drying shrinkage occurs as water is lost to the atmosphere. • CLAY BRICKS: tend to absorb moisture from the atmosphere & gradually expand. •

!

Movement joints are required for each material

medium - high; can be scratched with a metallic object

hardness

medium; can be broken with trowel

fragility

very low ductility

ductility

! ! ! ! ! !

very low flexibility & plasticity

! !

flexibility/plasticity porosity/ permeability

medium - medium; some concrete blocks are sealed to reduce the opportunity for water absorption

! !

medium; approximately 2~2.5 more dense than water

density

! !

poor conductors of heat and electricity

conductivity

! !

typically very durable

! !

durability/life span

medium; sometimes re-used with no change but more often crushed to be used as aggregate in other concrete products

reusability/ recyclability

inclusion of recycled & waste products from other processes is allowing a positive reduction in carbon footprint & increase in sustainability for many concrete products

sustainability & carbon footprint

! !

example of vertical movement joint; ! ! impede the generally cost effective but labour penalties are often applied as bricks to the larger format units mean construction usually progresses at a expand faster rate

cost


3.1.7

stones

PROPERTIES:

PROVENANCE: 3 types of stone: • igneous :is formed when molten rock (lava/ magma) cools! • sedimentary :is formed when accumulated particles are subjected to moderate pressure! • metamorphic :is formed when the structure of igneous/sedimentary stone changes when subjected to pressure/ high temperatures/ chemical processes

ELEMENTS & UNITS •

! ! ! ! • ! ! ! ! ! •

MONOLITHIC they are so difficult to transferred, not common used today ASHLAR they tend to be flat face

RUBBLE

they have been manipulated a little bit, but not smooth; they need skills to be placed

large range generally igneous is hardest, then metamorphic & then sedimentary

hardness

largely geometry dependent (thickness to surface area ratio)

fragility

most stones have very low ductility

ductility

! ! ! ! !

most stones are rigid (very low flexibility & plasticity)

! !

flexibility/plasticity porosity/ permeability

large range (pumice is very porous, granite is not)

! !

largely depending on stone types; stones most often used in construction (granite/marble/sandstone/slat) are 2 1/2 to 3 times more dense than water

density

!

generally poor conductors of hear & electricity

! !

typically extremely durable

! !

conductivity durability/life span

very high; can be re-used with no change or re-worked into new shapes for new uses

reusability/ recyclability

transport energy is the main factor (local stones have low carbon footprints); stone sourcing has a high environmental cost

sustainability & carbon footprint

! ! ! !

largely dependent on labor and scarcity )how common/rare the stone is)

cost


3.2.1

WALKING AROUND THE CAMPUS

lot 6 cafe

underground carpark & south lawn (195)

arts west student centre (148)

stair on west end of union house (130)

beaurepaire centre pool (101)

structure system: frame/skeletal structural system major structural elements: concrete columns; beams; concrete flat roof slabs main material uses: glass window; concrete wall & roof; aluminum doors, rubber sealer - basically strong material

the structure is expressed; the joints between columns & roof is fixed joint.

structure system: concealed solid structural system major structural elements & materials: concrete arches & vaults, columns; steel framework inside the concrete column the steel framework is concealed.

structure system: hybrid structural system major structural elements & materials: steel trusses & timber beams; roof with cladding; brick wall; concrete strut: window glass structure system: single structure of a staircase major structural elements & materials: beams, wires, flat decking all made up of steel. structure system: frame system major structural elements & materials: brick walls, steel columns & beams; window glass sunlight can be get in day & night to save energy

the structure is expressed; the joints between columns & roof is fixed joint.

fixed joint.

the structure is expressed; the joints between columns & roof is fixed joint.


3.2.2

north court union house (130)

frank tate pavilion (west of sidney myer asia centre (158)

structure system: membrane structure major structural elements & materials: membrane shielding; steel ties & columns.

structure system: hybrid system major structural elements & materials: steel cladding; timber floor; timber truss; steel beam & columns; concrete plate. expressed structure, fixed joint.

new Melbourne school of design under construction - from various sides (133)

structure system: frame structural system major structural elements & materials: steel truss

old geology south lecture theatre entry structure (156)

oval pavilion (north side of oval)

structure system: frame structural system major structural elements & materials: steel columns, steel, brick wall, steel roof; glass door

structure system: steel frame system major structural elements & materials: timber roof; wood columns; concrete wall & floor.

steel column & tie are highlighted in blue and pink separately


3.3.1

KEY TERMS moment: the forces that produces rotation of a body upon a point or a line.

!

retaining wall: walls that support the superstructure above and enclose a basement, holding back the soil.

!

pad footing: footings that help to spread a point load over a wider area of ground.

!

strip footing: the spread footings of foundation walls.

!

slab on ground: a structural engineering practice whereby the concrete slab that is to serve as the foundation for the structure is formed from a mold set into the ground.

!

substructure: the foundation, the lowest section of a building constructed partly or wholly below

REFERENCE!

!

1.ENVS10003. W01C1 structural elements http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wQIa1O6fp98&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. W03C1 footings & foundations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAcuwrecIz8&feature=youtu.be 3. ENVS 10003. W03M1 introduction to mass construction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Au2upE9JN8&feature=youtu.be 4. ENVS 10003. W03M3 introduction to masonry http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC8Hv8AKQ8A&feature=youtu.be 5. ENVS 10003. W03M3 bricks http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4lYlQhkMYmE&feature=youtu.be 6. ENVS 10003. W03M4 stone http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Vn5_dk4RtQ&feature=youtu.be 7. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons 8.STRUCTURAL CONCEPTS geometry & equilibrium https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/courses/ENVS10003_2014_SM1/WEEK%2003/GEOMETRY%20AND%20EQUILIBRIUM.pdf

!


4.1.1

WEEK4 ! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE span & spacing/beams & cantilevers SYSTEM flooring & framing system MATERIAL concrete/pre cast concrete/in situ concrete/the pantheon example of roman concrete KEY TERMS

Tutorial section WRTING UP ‘SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING DRAWING CONVENTIONS’ questionnaire


4.1.2

•

steel framing systems takes various forms, with some utilizing heavy gauge structural steel members and others using light gauge steel framing.

floor and framing systems

traditional timber floor framing systems use a combination of bearers (primary beam) & joists (secondary beams)

steel flooring

The span of the bearers determines the spacing of the piers/stumps and the spacing of the bearers equals the span of the joists.

it sometimes combine with concrete slab system to where the particular benefits of steel framing & shallow depth floor slab systems are desired

slabs of various types are used to span between structural supports.

http://www.google.com.au/imgres? imgurl=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.kithomes.net.au%2Fdiypics %2Felevated-floor.jpg&imgrefurl=http%3A %2F%2Fwww.kithomes.net.au %2Fslab&h=187&w=450&tbnid=u3lR7K8vQe QFXM %3A&zoom=1&docid=1zWipFXQlAS1RM&hl =zhCN&ei=a6R4U7aQEcXYkQXhx4GQDA&tbm= isch&ved=0CIUBEDMoIzAj&iact=rc&uact=3 &dur=422&page=1&start=0&ndsp=52&biw= 2271&bih=1237

a slab which spans in 2 directions


4.1.3

concrete PROCESS: formwork is the term used for the temporary support or moulds used to hold the liquid concrete in place until it becomes hard

1. concrete is permeable. If the steel bars are too close to the surface they will not be protected from moisture & oxidation. This will cause aesthetic & structural degradation. 2. concrete is vibrated to get rid of the air bubbles that get caught during the pouring process. These bubbles can compromise the structural performance of the element, or result in the element failing

CONSIDERATIONS:

PROVENANCE: •

if too much water is added to the concrete mix, the final concrete will not be strong enough (weak) if too little water is added, the concrete mixture will be too stiff and it will be very difficult to work with (unworkable)

REINFORCEMENT: Since concrete is very strong in compression but is weak in tension; to improve this, steel (very strong in tension) reinforcement in th form of mesh/bars is added

FINISHES: bush hammered

sandblasted

exposed aggregate http://www.google.com.au/imgres? imgurl=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.constructionphotography .com%2FImageThumbs %2FA023-00025%2F3%2FA023-0 0025_Placing_and_spreading_pu mped_in_situ_concrete_to_reinforc ed_slab.jpg&imgrefurl=http%3A %2F %2Fwww.constructionphotography .com%2FDetails.aspx%3FID %3D1652%26TypeID %3D1&h=480&w=478&tbnid=L9L SGQe3_owF8M %3A&zoom=1&docid=vmuE8a0jn 9AJaM&hl=zhCN&ei=RaV4U6fNIc3ikgXJ4YHQA g&tbm=isch&ved=0CF4QMygFM AU&iact=rc&uact=3&dur=599&pa ge=1&start=0&ndsp=57&biw=227 1&bih=1237

in situ concrete

raked finish

board & batten boardmarked


4.1.4

PROPERTIES:

in situ concrete USES:

• • •

pre cast concrete • • •

hardness

low; can be chipped with a hammer

fragility

very low ductility

ductility

! !

footings retaining walls bespoke (non standard) structural elements

! ! here is the basement wall between structure piers down under the ground

high; can be scratched with a metallic object

! !

low flexibility & plasticity

! !

flexibility/plasticity

medium - low; depending on proportions & components

porosity/ permeability

medium - high; approximately 2.5 more dense than water

density

! ! ! ! !

USES:

poor conductors of heat and electricity

retaining walls walls columns

typically very durable

conductivity

! ! ! !

durability/life span

medium - low; can be partially re-used when crushed to be used as aggregate for new concrete elements

! !

high embodied energy; non-renewable; long lasting

! ! !

generally cost effective; labour dependent for formwork & pouring

reusability/ recyclability sustainability & carbon footprint cost


4.1.5

span and spacing

beams and cantilevers

the pantheon example of roman concrete http:// www.google.c om.au/imgres? imgurl=http %3A%2F %2Fwww.uh.e du%2Fengines %2Fpantheonv iews.jpg&imgr efurl=http%3A %2F %2Fwww.uh.e du%2Fengines %2Fepi1345.ht m&h=381&w= 550&tbnid=U0 NiRJ2Q_KRRM M %3A&zoom=1 &docid=TzOd KuEJfRlPCM& hl=zhCN&ei=Mqh4U 6S4HYqykgWU wIDQBQ&tbm =isch&ved=0C GIQMygKMAo &iact=rc&uact =3&dur=230& page=1&start= 0&ndsp=55&bi w=2271&bih= 1237


4.2.1

WRTING UP ‘SCALE, ANNOTATION AND WORKING DRAWING CONVENTIONS’! questionnaire

Provide an example of the dimensions as they appear on this floor plan? What units are used for the dimensions?

TITLE BLOCK List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page: consultant! key plan! client & project! drawing title & drawing number! ‘table of issue’

-

What might be important? project name/drawing name/direction pointing north/building project members/ scale

-

unit: mm

-

drawing set p. A21-02

Is there a grid? What system is used for identify the grid lines? -

Yes, there is grid. The grid lines is indicated by numbers

How are windows and doors identified? Provide and example of each. Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings?

-

the door is identified like this

What is the purpose of the legend? -

it explain the symbol on the drawing, and show the structure more detail/clear.

Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing.

Illustrate how floor levels are noted on the plan?

-

DRAWING CONTENT! - plans What types of information is shown in this floor plan -

inside structure of ground floor! room name! material of the wall! floor level! mechanical system! dimension! context of wall! fire rating

-

here is annotated;! in order to shows the detail of construction method.

Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing.

Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? -

-

this annotates the relative page

the floor level is noted like this

here is some detail of construction that has been changed


4.2.2

What types of levels are shown on the elevations? illustrate how levels are shown in relation to the elevation.

DRAWING CONTENT - ELEVATIONS

illustrate how the doors and windows are identified on the elevations

drawing set p. A30-01

-

What type of information is shown in this elevation? how does it differ from the information shown on the plan? -

the information is more specific! the external content of the building! the height of the building! some relative surrounding

Is there a grid? If so, how/where is it shown? -

Are dimensions shown? if so, how do they differ from the dimensions on the plan? provide an example of the dimensions as they relate to the elevation.

there is no grid.

Find where this elevation is located on the plans -

What types of information on the elevations are expressed using words? Illustrate how this is done -

they are drawn as how they look like in reality

where new information has been added! or something has been changed into another

the elevation is indicated on plan like this

DRAWING CONTENT - SECTIONS drawing set p. A40-01

What type of information is shown in this section? How does it differ from the information shown on the plan and elevation? -

the length of the building is showed.

-

the aim of the room is showed


4.2.3

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on the sections

DRAWING CONTENT -DETAILS

Provide examples of how different materials are shown on drawings at this scale.

drawing set p. A46-01 -

What sorts of things are detailed? -

-

there are some details in structure of particular part, e.g. the detail of link.! some materials has been illustrated, e.g. insulation material

Are the details compressed using break lines? Why?

there are some details in material of particular part! we can see the timber roof, brick wall on this drawing

Find where this section is located on the plans.

-

-

the materials are much more detailed drawing! we can see the use of insulation on this drawing

Find the locations of these details on the plans, elevations and sections.

the section is located here

-

the section in the break lines is the enlarged picture of the original section, it shows more details and more clear in structure.


4.3.1

KEY TERMS joist: the parallel supporting of beam.

!

steel decking: steel corrugated to increase stiffness and spanning capability.

!

span: the entire distance measured between two structural support.

!

girder: the main beam

!

concrete plank: hollow centre/solid flat beam used for floor or roof decking.

!

spacing: distance between bearers, stumps and joists.

REFERENCE!

!

1. ENVS10003. W04C1 floor system http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=otKffehOWaw&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. W04M1 concrete http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c1M19C25MLU&feature=youtu.be 3. BEAMS AND CANTILEVERS https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/courses/ENVS10003_2014_SM1/WEEK%2004/BEAMS%20AND%20CANTILEVERS.pdf 4. SPAN AND SPACING https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/courses/ENVS10003_2014_SM1/WEEK%2004/SPAN%20AND%20SPACING.pdf 5. ENVS 10003. W04M2 in situ concrete http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3zW_TBGjfE&feature=youtu.be 6. ENVS 10003. W04M3 pre cast concrete http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=scYY-MMezI0&feature=youtu.be 7. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

! !


5.1.1

WEEK5 ! E-learning! Outline

Tutorial section CONSTRUCTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM

STRUCTURE short & long columns/walls, grids & columns SYSTEM wall systems/frame MATERIAL from wood to timber/ timber properties & considerations/ engineered timber product SITE WORK gehry’s own home - wrapping KEY TERMS


5.1.2

•

walls, grids and columns

frames be established through bracing/ sheer walls/ by making the joints rigid

since the stud is very slim and long, there is nogging placed to prevent it to bend or buck

lintels

ply bracing the reinforcement is placed in the core of the block the outside is brick, inside is concrete, and there is a insulation layer in between


5.1.3

short and long columns COLUMNS vertical structural members designed to transfer axial compressive loads

SHORT COLUMNS • •

shorter in length & thicker in cross-section the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is less than 12:1 fail by crushing (shear) when the compressive strength is exceeded

timber

PROPERTIES:

medium - low; most timbers can be reasonably easily marked

hardness

medium - low; geometry dependent, generally will not shatter/ dark

fragility

low; some timbers in their green state can be manipulated into a range of shapes

ductility

! ! ! !

high flexibility & medium plasticity

! !

flexibility/plasticity

high; varies depending on seasoning, finishing (protection) & fixing

! !

extremely varied depending on timber type

! !

poor conductors of heat and electricity

! !

porosity/ permeability density conductivity

can very durable; varies depending on types, seasoning, durability/life span finishing (protection) & fixing

LONG COLUMNS • •

taller in length & slimmer in cross-section the ratio of effective column length to the smallest cross section dimension is greater than 12:1 fail by buckling

! !

very high; second hand timber is very desirable

! !

very low embodied energy; fully renewable if correctly sourced

! !

generally cost effective; labour dependent for on-site work, but also suited to highly efficient factory based manufacturing processes

reusability/ recyclability sustainability & carbon footprint cost


5.1.4

•

from wood to timber

advantage: best grain shows on face good wearing surface for floors, furniture - radial face preferred for coatings - lower width shrinkage on drying - less cupping & warp than other cuts - can be successfully reconditioned disadvantage: - slower seasoning - nailing on face more prone to splitting -

advantage: season more rapidly less prone to splitting when nailing - wide sections possible - few knots on edge disadvantage: - shrink more across width when drying - more likely to warp a& cup - collapsed timber more difficult to recondition -

advantage: dimensional stability - less prone to warping, cupping - less wastage in milling disadvantage: - wedge shaped cross section - more difficult to detail - more difficult to stack -

KNOTS:

not so useful in construction, it doesn’t last long

weak points; cause slope of grain

you want the knot in the top of the beam, because the top of the timber is in the compression, and the bottom of the timber is in tension. Timber can break if you pull apart the knot


5.1.5

STRUCTURAL NATURE OF WOOD DIRECTION STRENGTH STIFFNESS

grain direction: determines the structural performance of wood

timber is strong parallel in both compression(strong parallel) & tension(stiff parallel)

but weak perpendicular to grain

http:// whistleforth ewind.blogs pot.com.au/ 2011/05/ case-studyfrankgehry.html


5.2.1

CONSTRUCTING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM PREPARATION:! material 1. balsa wood 2. super glue 3. sticky tape 4. cutting mat 5. pencils & erasers • printing the right scale [1:20] on the paper; stick the paper to the board

column

FIRST FLOOR

What we are trying to build is a two floor structures, it is the kitchen of Oval Pavilion

wall

ground floor

SECOND FLOOR

studs

timber roof frame

our working board

the area we try to construct

beam

the structure system is frame system; the load path of it is relatively simple.

column


5.2.2

joints

1. top: pin joint bottom: pin joint performance: bend a lot

3. top: pin joint bottom: pin joint performance: bend a little

2. top: pin joint bottom: fixed joint performance: bend less than last one

4. top: pin joint bottom: pin joint middle: nogging! performance: nearly don’t bend


5.3.1

KEY TERMS stud: a vertical framing member that cut to a accurate length to be used in framing system.

!

nogging: a horizontal timber placed between vertical studs or beams to give lateral support.

!

lintel: a horizontal supporting member, placed above an opening such as a window or a door, that carry the weight of the wall above.

!

axial load: load applied along the line of an axis of an object.

!

buckling: sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of an axial load before the yield stress of the material is reached.

!

seasoned timber: dried timber, come from the wood with moisture content less than 15%. REFERENCE!

!

1. ENVS10003. W05C1 walls, grid and column http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vq41q6gUIjI&feature=youtu.be 2. SHORT AND LONG COLUMN https://app.lms.unimelb.edu.au/bbcswebdav/courses/ENVS10003_2014_SM1/WEEK%2005/SHORT%20AND%20LONG %20COLUMNS.pdf 3. ENVS 10003. W05M1 from wood to timber http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YJL0vCwM0zg&feature=youtu.be 4. ENVS 10003. W05M2 timber properties and considerations http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ul0r9OGkA9c&feature=youtu.be 5. ENVS 10003. Gehry’s own home http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqn2bYoO8j4&feature=youtu.be 6. ENVS 10003. WO4M3 engineered timber products http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0YrYOGSwtVc&feature=youtu.be 7. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons


6.1.1

WEEK6 Tutorial section PRESENTATION

! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE trusses/plates & grids SYSTEM roofing strategies & systems MATERIAL introduction to metal/ferrous metals/nonferrous metals BUILDING spanning spaces KEY TERMS !


6.1.2

โ€ข

roofing systems FLAT ROOF pitch: 1ยบ ~ 3ยบ

PITCHED & SLOPING ROOF

are generally flat plates of reinforced concrete; the top surface is sloped DIFFERENT KINDS OF ROOFS towards drainage points and the entire roof surface finished with CONCRETE ROOFS: applied waterproof membrane

pitch: > 3ยบ tile need to be 15ยบ or higher; sheet metal roofing can come down to much lower, like 5ยบ

STRUCTURAL STEEL FRAMED ROOFS: FLAT: consist of a combination of primary & secondary roof beams for heavier roof finish such as metal deck/concrete; roof beams & purlins for lighter sheet metal roofing. SLOPING: consist of roof beams & purlins & lighter sheet metal roofing PORTAL FRAMES: consist a serious of braced rigid frames (2 columns & 1 beam) with purlins for the roof and girts for the walls.

TRUSSED ROOFS: constructed from a series of open web type steel or timber elements

SPACE FRAMES: 3D plate type structures that are long spanning in two directions

LIGHT FRAMED ROOFS:

! ! !

http:// www.ar boretaoak.co m/ product s/ orangeri es/

GABLE ROOFS HIP ROOFS


6.1.3

•

metal

PROPERTIES: varied; depending on types

hardness

low; generally will not shatter or break

fragility

high (due to their atomic composition

ductility

! ! ! ! ! !

high flexibility & medium plasticity

! ! !

flexibility/plasticity

medium - high flexibility & high plasticity (while heated)

porosity/ permeability

generally impermeable - used for guttering, flashing etc

density

! ! ! !

high (from 3x density of water for aluminum to 19x density of conductivity water for gold)

! !

durability/life span

can very durable; varies deepening on types, treatment, finishing (protection) and fixing

!

high

! !

very high embodied energy; recyclable and renewable if correctly managed

! !

generally cost effective (can be very material - efficient and an economic option)

reusability/ recyclability sustainability & carbon footprint cost


6.1.4

ferrous metals

IRON

non-ferrous metals ALUMINIUM

COPPER -

DISTINCTIVE PROPERTIES magnetic very reactive good compressive

-

• • •

TYPES wrought iron cast iron

-

IRON ALLOYS: STEEL

DISTINCTIVE PROPERTIES very strong & resistant to fracture transfers heat & electricity can be formed into many shapes long lasting

TYPES & USES 1. structural steel 2. steel sheeting 3. stainless steel alloys

• • •

reddish very malleable & ductile good conductor of heat & electricity roofing material heating pipework electrical cabling

-

very light non-magnetic pure one is soft

• • • •

window frames door handles cladding panels power coating & anodization

ZINC -

LEAD

can be toxic very soft, highly malleable, ductile relatively poor conductor of electricity resistant to corrosion roof cornices tank linings flashing strips for waterproofing

brittle at ambient temperatures; but malleable at 100 to 150 ºC

galvanishing

TIN

-

-

silvery-white metal • lining lead pipes malleable highly crystalline structure resists distilled, sea, soft tap water • bearing BRONZE • clips • electrical toughness connectors resistance to corrosion • springs

BRASS

hot rolled steel cold formed steel reinforcing bars cladding & roofing coil, sheets, bars, wire, etc

-

malleable relatively low melting point not ferromagnetic

TITANIUM -

excellent corrosion resistance high strength - to - weight ratio

cladding

-

• •

used where friction is required used in fitting


6.1.5

•

trusses

•

plates & grids


6.2.1

PRESENTATION


6.3.1

KEY TERMS rafter: extend from the wall plate to a ridge board or ridge beam, supports the sheathing & covering of roof.!

!

purlin: the several horizontal structural members that support roof loads and transfer them to rood beams.

!

cantilever: the structural element that anchored at one end, overhangs.

!

portal frame: load applied along the line of an axis of an object.

!

eave: overhanging lower edge of a roof.

!

soffit: underside of overhanging roof eave.

!

alloy: combination of two or more types of metal.

!

top chord: the top member of a stress that extend from end to end connected by web members. REFERENCE:!

!

1. ENVS10003. W06C1 roof systems http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q5ms8vmhs50&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. W06M1 introduction to metals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RttS_wgXGbI&feature=youtu.be 3. ENVS 10003. W06M2 ferrous metals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SQy3IyJy-is&feature=youtu.be 4. ENVS 10003. spanning spaces http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zx4tM-uSaO8&feature=youtu.be 5. ENVS 10003. W06M3 non ferrous metals http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EDtxb7Pgcrw&feature=youtu.be 6. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

!


7.1.1

WEEK7 ! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE arches, domes & shells MATERIAL rubber/plastics/paints BUILT-ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS detailing for heat & moisture/moisture & thermal protection KEY TERMS !


7.1.2

detailing for heat and moisture flashing is required here

eaves protect walls

forces to be considered: • gravity: use slopes & overlaps • surface tension & capillary action: use drip or break • momentum:move through simple gaps • air pressure differential:through a complex labyrinth

a window joint the wall: high risk area for penetrating

building’s flashing •

• • •

sloping roofs so that water is collected in gutters which then discharge water to downpipes overlapping cladding & roofing elements sloping window and door sills and roof/wall flashings sloping the ground surface away from the walls at the base of buildings weatherboard overlaps

opening: • planned: windows, doors, skylights • unplanned: poor construction workmanship • deterioration of material remove opening:seal the openings with • sealants (e.g. silicone) • gaskets (e.g made from artificial rubbers) http://www.google.com.au/imgres? imgurl=http%3A%2F %2Fwww.wbdg.org%2Fimages %2Fenv_wall_3.gif&imgrefurl=http %3A%2F%2Fwww.wbdg.org %2Fdesign %2Fenv_wall.php&h=290&w=460&t bnid=EijM_2y1nh0tfM %3A&zoom=1&docid=CL5pjiiSUuo aSM&hl=zhCN&ei=Qi15U8XWJcWikwXqwICIC A&tbm=isch&ved=0CCkQMyghMC E4ZA&iact=rc&uact=3&dur=442&p age=3&start=124&ndsp=76&biw=2 271&bih=1237


7.1.3

plastics

used in roofing/walling; use it replace glass sometimes

act as seal; help to separate different metals

radiation can be controlled by: • reflective subfacces: reduce building elements from becoming warm/hot; e.g. low-e glass • shading systems: prevent radiation striking the building envelope; e.g. verandahs, eaves, solar shelves, bilnds, screens & vegetation

paints • • •

used prior to plastic patins (water based) very good high gloss finished can be achieved not water soluble (brushes to be cleaned with turpentine)

• •

most common today (except where particular finishes are desired) durable and flexible tools and brushes can be cleaned with water

strategies to stop air leakage: • eliminating opening/air present at the opening/a force to move air through the opening • wrapping the building in polyethylene or reflective foil sarking to provide an air barrier • weather stripping around doors and windows and other openings

large areas of exposed thermal mass can be used to absorb and store heat over a period of time. materials traditionally used for thermal mass includes: masonry/concrete/water bodies

conduction can be controlled by: • thermal insulation: to reduce heat conduction • thermal breaks: made from low conductive materials like rubbers and plastics to reduce the heat transfer from outside to inside • double glazing: the air spaces between glass panes reduces the flow of heat through the glazed elements


7.1.4

PROPERTIES:

rubber PROVENANCE • •

• • -

hardness

low; generally will not shatter or break

fragility

high (when in heated state); varies (in cold state)

ductility

!

natural rubber synthetic rubber

! !

TYPES & USES

! !

natural rubber seals gasket & control joints flooring insulation hosing & piping synthetic rubber epdm neoprene silicone

CONSIDERATIONS •

harder rubbers resist abraision, softer rubbers provide better seals

weather related damage, especially sunlight

high flexibility, plasticity and elasticity

! !

all rubbers are considered waterproof

! ! !

approx 1.5 x density of water

! !

very poor conductors of heat and electricity (ie useful insulators)

! !

flexibility/plasticity porosity/ permeability density conductivity durability/life span

can very durable

! !

high

reusability/ recyclability

!

embodied energy varies greatly between natural rubber (very low) and synthetic rubbers (medium); renewable if correctly sustainability managed & carbon

! !

generally cost effective

footprint cost


7.2.1

KEY TERMS drip: the break between two surfaces to prevent capillary action of moisture.!

!

vapor barrier: material used to prevent the moisture into structure.

!

gutter: shallow channel along the eaves for collecting water from roof.

!

parapet: the part of a wall that extend above the roof level.!

!

down pipe: pipe carry rainwater from roof to ground level

!

flashing: sheet of material that prevent water flowing into a structure from an angle/joint.

!

insulation: material that is poor conductor to heat & electricity.

!

sealant: provides effective seal paginating the passage of moisture & air.

REFERENCE!

!

2. ENVS10003. W07C1 detailing for heat and moisture http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Lhwm8m5R_Co&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. WO7M1 rubber http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OPhjDijdf6I&feature=youtu.be 3. ENVS 10003. W07M2 plastics http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5pfnCtUOfy4&feature=youtu.be 4. ENVS 10004. W07M3 paints http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WrydR4LA5e0&feature=youtu.be 5. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

! ! ! !


8.1.1

WEEK8

Tutorial section 1:1 DRAWING TASK

! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE door & windows strategies for openings STRUCTURAL CONCEPT geometry & moment of inertia MATERIAL glass/glass skins BUILT-ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS deformation KEY TERMS


8.1.2

door & window frame terminology it can be made up of different material:! timber! metal ! aluminium!

!

http://www.google.com.au/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2Fwindowspriceguide.com%2Fwpcontent%2Fuploads%2F2011%2F10%2Freplacement-window.jpg&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F %2Fwindowspriceguide.com%2Finstallation%2Funderstanding-basic-replacement-windowterminology&h=394&w=470&tbnid=K7JAaIj-hWRnQM %3A&zoom=1&docid=4z1fArYxq7ygsM&hl=zhCN&ei=F9B4U9LiCYmQkAXanIDQDw&tbm=isch&ved=0CHkQMygZMBk&iact=rc&uact=3&dur =4893&page=1&start=0&ndsp=65&biw=2271&bih=1237

different types of door:! security door! flash pedal door! traditional door

deformation

geometry & moment of inertia


8.1.3

glass

PROPERTIES: TYPES:

• •

flat glass shaped glass

PRUDUCTION PROCESS: •

FLOAT GLASS

high; can be scratched with a metallic object

hardness

high; differs depending on the type of glass (tempered glass is not as brittle as float glass)

fragility

! ! !

ductility

very low

! !

vert high flexibility & plasticity when molten.low to very low flexibility/plasticity when cooled TYPES:

1. clear float glass 2. laminated glass 3. tempered glass

!

porosity/ permeability

non-porous/waterproof

! !

medium-high; approximately 2.7x more dense than water (more dense than concrete)

density

! !

conductivity

transmits heat and light but not electricity

! !

typically very durable - chemical, rust, and rot resistant

! !

durability/life span

very high

! ! !

typically high embodied energy and carbon footprint but ease of recycling.reuse makes it a popular sustainable product

! !

generally expensive to produce and transport

reusability/ recyclability sustainability & carbon footprint cost


8.2.1

1:1 DRAWING TASK

TASK: During the tutorial, we will need to draw a 1:5 detail an blow it up to a 1:1 drawing on the A1 paper. drawing set p. A60-02

fire resistant plaster board thermal insulation timber packing concret plate vapour barrier steel member MATERIAL NEEDED:! - scaling ruler - pencil & eraser

flashing

wall lining joint sealant

cavity flashing

ANALYSING THE SECTION:! - the section I chose is ‘service area roof’.

vapour barrier

weep hole

brick exterior wall wall tie


8.3.1

KEY TERMS window sash: a framework of a window which panes of glass are set.!

!

deflection: to bend or turn from a straight line.

!

moment of inertia: the mass property of a rigid body that defines the torque needed for a desired angular acceleration about an axis of rotation.

!

door furniture: fixtures on the door; such as handle, lock,etc.!

!

stress: pressure on an object

!

shear force: the force acting on body which tends to slide one portion of the body against the other side of the body.

REFERENCE!

!

1. ENVS10003. W08C1 openings: doors and windows http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g7QQIue58xY&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. WO8M1 glass http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_I0Jqcrfcyk&feature=youtu.be 3. ENVS 10003. glass skins http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NW_GibnyBZc&feature=youtu.be 4. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

! ! ! ! !


9.1.1

WEEK9

Tutorial section SITE VISIT

! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURE stress and structural members/joints & connections/movement joints STRUCTURAL CONCEPT geometry & moment of inertia MATERIAL composite materials SITE WORK finish work CONSTRUCTION construction detailing KEY TERMS !


9.1.2

•

construction detailing

help people within danger situation or make stairs safer

choose material that can cope with local environment

the corner’s material selection


9.1.3

composite materials MATERIALS

e.g. the safety glass

MONOLITHIC

materials are: - a single material or; - materials combine so that components are undistinguished ( e.g. metal alloys)

combination of materials which differ in composition or form remain bonded together retain their identities & properties act together to provide improved specific/synergistic characteristics not obtainable by any of the original components acting along

COMPOSITE

materials are: - created when two or more materials are combine in such a way that the individual materials remain easily distinguishable

4 main types

fibrous

laminar

particulate

hybrid

e.g. products containing discontinuous/ continuous fibres

e.g.sandwich panels

e.g. gravel and resins

e.g. combinations of two/more composite types

some examples fibre reinforced cement (FRC) •

uses: cladding for exterior/interior walls, floor panels benefits: will not burn; resistant to water & termite damage; resistant to rotting & warping; reasonable inexpensive

fibreglass •

uses: translucent roof/wall cladding benefits: fire resistant; weatherproof; relatively light weight & strong

aluminium sheet composites •

uses: cladding material in interior & exterior benefits:lighter weight; less expensive; weather resistant, unbreakable, shock resistant’ seamless

timber composites •

uses: beams (floor joists & roof rafters), trusses benefits: maximum efficiency; cost effective; easy to install; easy to accommodate services

fibre reinforced polymers •

uses: decking (external cladding); structural elements like beams & columns benefits:high-strength FRP materials with glass or carbon fibre reinforcements provide a strength-to-weight ratio greater than steel; corrosionresistant


9.1.4

joints & connections

finish work


9.2.1

SITE VISIT

ONSITE CONCRET SLAB:

THE HOLE & STAIN ON THE WALL:

-

-

PRECAST CONCRET COLUMNS:

-

-

-

-

-

The slab was built onsite. There is no beans through the slab. There are some grid pattern of plywood formwork on the slab, which used to shape the concrete

There are concrete ceiling & concrete wall & cornet columns. They are all precast concrete. Columns has the responsibility to transfer loads. The concrete columns are reinforced with steel rods, which inside the concrete columns and extend into the floor. So they are both strong in FIRE PROTECTION: tension & compression.

The line in the middle of the concrete shows the joint of two precast concrete plates.

The soldier piles were built onsite and were pouted into the holes. We can see some stains on the concrete wall, that’s because the environment of the carport is wet, and it is not waterproof, so the stain is left on the wall.

-

TASLK: During the tutorial, we will go off campus for a site visit, in order to understand the construction process of a site.! OUR LOCATION: 127-129 Murray St. DESCRIPTION OF THE ENTIRE OVERVIEW:! - a residential apartment building with four stories. - a hybrid structural system

-

DRAINING SYSTEM:

These pipes is for safety. They can protect the building from fire accident & maintain the fire safety rating of the apartment.

-

-

-

The apartment has identical layout, that means the location of its water pipe and draining system are the same. Here is the location of bathroom. There are some sewage pipes on the surface.


9.3.1

KEY TERMS sandwich panel: panel that formed by bonding two thin sheets of different materials.!

!

bending: occurs when a force is applied, the object will curve.

!

skirting: the board placed at the base of interior wall, where the base and vertical frame meet.

!

composite beam: a beam combing different materials retain their character and improve the structural characteristic.!

!

shadow line joint: the area where having a small gap.

!

cornice: any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element.

REFERENCE!

!

1. ENVS10003. W09C1 construction detailing http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqVwAV7yJCI&feature=youtu.be 2. ENVS 10003. WO9M1 composite materials http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Uem1_fBpjVQ&feature=youtu.be 3. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

! ! ! ! !


10.1.1

WEEK10 ! E-learning! Outline

STRUCTURAL CONCEPT dynamic loads MATERIAL building materials BUILT-ENVIRONMENT PROFESSIONALS a tale of corrosion/collapses & failures/lateral supports/heros & culprits KEY TERMS !

Tutorial section Continue the work of last week & presentation


10.1.2

•

heros & culprits issues to consider when selecting materials

only 1% of products are still in use 6 months later -

HEALTH AND IEQ

-

WASTE/ RECYCLING/ RECYCLES

-

ENERGY USE AND EMBODIED ENERGY

-

-

POLLUTION

-

LIFE CYCLE

reduced life span asthma/bronchitis nausea headaches sick days comfort

reduce VOCs: paints/sealers/adhesives/ particleboard/carpets reduce particles/dust: horizontal shelves/ floor coverings/loose fibre products green cleaning practices: vacuuming/ chemicals

wasteful: cost money to buy/replace/ dispose limited resources takes up space breed disease

renewable/abundant resources: agricultural products/earth/timber timber: recycled/plantation/RFA waster: reduce/reuse/recycle; minimise use of composites

climate change; greenhouse effect; global warming wasteful pollution from energy production

minimise embodied energy: extraction/ manufacture/transport optimise lighting: general/task/switching optimise appliances: fridges/dishwashers/ office equip

smog ozone layer depletion acid rain toxicity radio activity eutrification & nutrification dioxins

minimise waster: choose materials that don’t contain toxins national pollutant inventory choose natural materials choose organic

not a problem but a way of looking for the best solution


10.1.3

•

collapses & failures

expose to the sun; it’s not possible for the painter to paint the inside face, that cause rapping or cracking

the fascia is very thin & wide

to think about: is the glue strong enough; is it the right material to put on the plywood?

the seal between the gap is not well done

• copper oxidisation

the first solution: the two materials were separated at their junctions by a layer of shellacimpregnated cloth

the second solution: the original iron armature frame was replaced with a Teflon-coated stainless steel structure. The selection of stainless steel was made after extensive corrosion resistance testing and consideration of the physical properties of the stainless steel and how well it would work with the existing copper skin.

a tale of corrosion


10.1.4

lateral supports

they are structural elements that resist & collect lateral forces in the horizontal planes of a structure and transfer them to the vertical bearing elements.! roofs & floor slabs that are constructed from rigid materials such as reinforced concrete or steel frames with sufficient bracing are considered to be diaphragms

they are structural systems that are constructed with rigidly connected joints. The joints of these frames provide a continuous interface between the horizontal & vertical elements and make the frame rigid enough to act as a monolithic unit under the impact of lateral loads,

they are essentially truss structures that provide diagonal paths for moving the lateral loads through the structure in the vertical planes.

they are connections placed between the foundation and the substructure that allow the substructure and superstructure to move independently of the foundation during earthquakes

they are structural elements made of didid materials that resist lateral loads in the vertical plane. They collect the lateral loads from the horizontal resisting elements and transfer them to the foundation.

the way to strength the structure:


10.3.1

KEY TERMS shear wall: a wall that made of rigid materials which resists lateral loads in the vertical plane.!

!

soft storey: floors which are made more flexible and are susceptible to lateral loads.

!

braced frame: a structure that provide diagonal paths for moving the lateral loads through the structure in the vertical plane.

!

lifecycle: the length of time a building is expected to serve its function.!

!

defect: any condition that detracts from the appearance, strength, durability of an object.

!

fascia: board used on outside vertical face of a cornice.

!

corrosion: oxidation of a material by exposure to chemical action.

!

IEQ: indoor environment quality.

REFERENCE:!

!

1. ENVS10003. W010S1 lateral supports https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BodoWgcQapA 2. ENVS 10003. W10C1 collapses and failures http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yNEl-fYRi_I&feature=youtu.be 3. ENVS10003. W10M1 heroes and culprits http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FhdfwGNp_6g&feature=youtu.be 4. ENVS 10003. W10M2 tale of corrosion http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IqhvAeDjlg&feature=youtu.be 5. Francis D.K.Ching. (2008). Building Construction illustrated (4th Edition). John Wiley & Sons

! ! !


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