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BRICKS BY PETERSEN: INFORMATION AND PRICES

(EURO)

IT IS NOT SIGNIFICANTLY MORE EXPENSIVE TO BUILD WITH BRICKS FROM PETERSEN TEGL BRICKS/ M2

PRICE/ BRICKS

PRICE/ M2

PRICE/ FACADE

TOTAL CONTRACT PRICE

PRICE/ STOREY M2

INDEX PRICE/ BRICK

INDEX FACADE BRICKWORK M2

INDEX/ PRICE STOREY M2

Standard brick

64 stk/m2

0,40

287

422,148

14,961,200

2,992

100

100

100,0

Waterstruck brick, Petersen Tegl

64 stk/m2

0,76

315

462,630

15,001,682

3,000

192

110

100,3

Waterstruck blue tempered brick, Petersen Tegl

64 stk/m2

1,39

355

521,797

15,060,850

3,012

350

124

100,7

Kolumba™, Petersen Tegl

40 stk/m2

4,77

457

671,272

15,210,324

3,042

1200

159

101,7

Assumptions: All prices in Euro 5,000 m2, laid out as 20 X 50 m in five storeys: 15 x 20 x 2 + 15 x 50 x 2, reduced by area for windows/glass areas (30%), reduced facade area total 1470 m2 The price per m2 facade is including wages.

BRITISH SEAL OF APPROVAL

FACTS ON BRICKS AND FROST In countries with moist and cold winters with many changes from frost to thaw, bricks must be frost resistant. Nørholm Watermill, which was built in 1792 – the year after Petersen Tegl was founded – is a good example of brickwork that is unaffected by frost. Petersen Tegl mainly uses clay from the surroundings of the brickworks, where clay has been dug for brick production for many centuries. At Petersen Tegl the clay is pugged, formed and pressed using techniques dupli-

cating the methods in use when all work was manual. The method gives the clay the optimum texture with capillars and air voids leaving room for the water to expand when it freezes, without damaging the brick. The fact that bricks can absorb water does not in itself constitute a risk of frost damage. Petersen Tegl’s bricks are clinker-fired, of course. Frost damage on clinker-fired bricks appeared only when, about 100 years ago, the

worm press was invented. The worm presses the clay into the mould, forming a layered texture, which is clearly seen in the three red bricks (3). Due to the texture of the clay*, these layers may work as “flat” capillaries, sucking full of water. When the water freezes, these layers are pressed apart, and frost cracking may develop, which is clearly seen in the perforated brick (4). When the worm press produces the bricks correctly, the result is frost resistant bricks.

*) Clay is plastic, and why is that? An electron microscope reveals that clay minerals consist of plates and discs. When water enters the space between them, it forces the clay plates – discs – together, making it possible to mould the clay into bricks, tiles, etc. Dry plates – discs – can be separated but if water enters the space between them, they ‘stick’ together and are mouldable. Nørholm Watermill 1

2

3

4

The Petersen Magazine is now officially recognised by the Royal Institute of British Architects’ (RIBA) Continual Professional Development scheme (CPD) and forms part of RIBA’s training material. The CPD scheme involves a network of educational institutions and accredited providers, and includes activities that improve architectural knowledge and skills. Continuing education is provided via seminars, conferences and the reading of academic literature and journals, and these activities are converted into hours and points. From now on, RIBA’s members can award CPD points for each edition of the Petersen Magazine they read. Petersen is proud to be part of the CPD scheme’s over 500 network members. The RIBA seal of approval is an honour for Petersen Magazine, which describes the use of brick, the use in architectural contexts and other aspects of designing with brick. RIBA’s training programme is recognised by the Chartered Institute of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE) and the Chartered Institute of Building (CIOB). For further information about the CPD scheme, please refer to: www.architecture.com Petersen Magazine is published twice a year. The print run of approx. 88,500 is sent to architects and other interested parties all over the world. In the UK, it is enclosed along with Architectural Review and sent to approx. 4,000 subscribers. The magazine can also be ordered by e-mail from: info@petersen-tegl.dk

1: Brick from Nørholm Watermill. With its optimum pore structure the brick has been impervious to frost damage for more than 200 years. Broken / Cut 2: Coal-fired brick from Petersen Tegl. The pore formation is optimum, and no frost damage will occur. Broken / Cut 3: Brick produced in a worm press. The clay is layered, and frost damage has occurred. 4: Perforated brick with frost damage. Photos: Søren Petersen PUBLISHER PETERSEN TEGL A/S NYBØLNORVEJ 14 DK-6310 BROAGER P: +45 7444 1236 E: INFO@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK WWW.PETERSEN-TEGL.DK

CHIEF EDITOR ANNETTE PETERSEN ARCHITECT MAA E: ANNETTE@ZINCK.INFO

EDITOR IDA PRÆSTEGAARD ARCHITECT E: IPR@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK

LAYOUT ZANGENBERG DESIGN

C O N S U LTA N S P E T E R S E N T E G L DENMARK DENMARK EAST CHRISTIAN TEITUR HARRIS P: +45 2463 9235 E: CTH@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK DENMARK WEST AND FUNEN TORBEN SCHMIDT P: +45 2028 4355 E: TSC@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK

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GERMANY GERMANY WEST REINHARD BAASCH P: +49 170 4818 870 STEPHAN BAASCH P: +49 170 2705 530 E: STEPHANBAASCH@GMX.DE

GERMANY EAST HARTMUT REIMANN P: +49 170 5565 792 E: HARTMUTREIMANN@ HOTMAIL.DE COLOGNE, GERMANY SOUTH/NRW SWITZERLAND, GERMAN SPEAKING REGION AUSTRIA BACKSTEIN-KONTOR GMBH P: + 49 221 546 33 99 E: INFO@BACKSTEIN-KONTOR.DE

NETHERLANDS LUCASSEN STEENINDUSTRIE P: +31 (0) 26 3121236 E: BJORN@LUCASSEN-SI.NL E: LINEKE@LUCASSEN-SI.NL BELGIUM LUCASSEN STEENINDUSTRIE P: +31 (0) 26 3121236 E: BJORN@LUCASSEN-SI.NL

POLAND CENTRUM KLINKIERU SCHÜTZ P: +48 58 56 37 201 E: BIURO@CENTRUM-KLINKIERU.PL

NORWAY MURDIREKTE AS SIMEN BØE P: +47 2339 2010 E: SIMEN@MURDIREKTE.NO SWEDEN KAKEL & TEGEL AB P: +46 40 611 1146 E: INFO@KAKEL-TEGEL.COM

PRINT ZEUNER GRAFISK

PRINT RUN 88.670

REPRO EHRHORN OG HUMMERSTON

UNLESS OTHERWISE STIPULATED, ALL ARTICLES AND OTHER TEXTS BY IDA PRÆSTEGAARD ARCHITECT/ EDITOR

EXPORT

C O N S U LTA N S - O T H E R

EXPORT - OTHER COUNTRIES STIG H. SØRENSEN P: +45 4014 1236 E: SHS@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK

PETERSEN - BRICK BEAMS STEEN SPANG HANSEN P: +45 2142 7962 E: SSH@PETERSEN-TEGL.DK PETERSEN - PAVERS DENMARK EAST ANNEMARIE HARRIS P: +45 7444 1236 E: AHA@PETERSEN-KLINKER.DK DENMARK WEST TINA KJÆR LOICHTL P: +45 3063 4912 E: TKL@PETERSEN-KLINKER.DK


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MAGAZINE

ABOUT

INNOVATIV E CAPABILITY

Photo: Philip Vile

As Henry Ford is reputed to have said about the Model T: "Customers can have their cars in any colour they like as long as it's black!" Around 200 years ago, Petersen Tegl was a traditional brickworks producing red and yellow brick. Since then, the company has successfully adapted to a modern world in which a black Model T Ford just would not satisfy everyone. Product development is now a key driving force at the brickworks, which produces a wide range of formats, idioms, nuances, firings, textures and surfaces. The range of water-brushed, coal-fired bricks was extended in the spring of 2011 and now encompasses 31 colours. The collection of handmade building ceramics – Kolumba™ – has also grown and now offers 28 variants. This edition of Petersen Magazine presents a selection of the new masonry products, as well as examples of the new clinker programme, which has more than 50 varieties. New types of brick or tile are often the result of customer requests. According to a legendary, but true, story, Christian A. Petersen was once sitting with an architect at a restaurant in Venice, when the architect peered at his caffe latte and remarked that this was the colour he wanted for his bricks. Petersen provided him with exactly that. Working closely with the customer is the key for Petersen Tegl. The work at the plant is organised in a way that lets customers take part in the development process – all the way from the preparation and mixing of the clay to the moulding and firing. Every stage of production is looked after by employees capable of refining and adjusting the process with great precision. This high degree of flexibility makes it possible to comply with the majority of requests for special colours and idioms. When a building requires masonry in unique shapes and glazes, Petersen’s special moulded brick department works hand in hand with the customer to provide the perfect product. The recent extension to Sorø Town Hall is a prime example of this process. The architects Fogh & Følner designed, and Petersen Tegl produced, a programme of double-curved, glazed wall tiles to clad some large, rounded parts of the building. Petersen Tegl focuses on producing unique bricks and clinkers which help endow buildings or outdoor spaces with their own unique idiom. This is, quite simply, a large part of the brickworks' raison d'être. Petersen may not be the biggest brickworks in the world – but it is certainly one of the most innovative.

Starting with this edition, Petersen Magazine has been officially recognised by the Continual Professional Development Scheme (CPD) of the Royal Institute of British Architects (RIBA), making it part of RIBA's training materials.

BRICKWORK

AND

RESPONSIBLE

ARCHITECTURE


The brick used in Bateman’s Row is D71, which is made with Danish yellow clay. Clay slurry is used to ease the soft clay out of the mould. It sticks to the surface when the brick is fired with coal, generating the unique play of colour, with white, yellow and green tones. The bricks in Bateman’s Row are in British format, i.e. 65 mm high.

“Everybody who mentions the building talks about the bricks. It’s because they look pretty well edible. People associate them with butter, sugar, fudge – and sunshine.” Architect Soraya Khan

“Everybody who mentions the building talks about the bricks. It’s because they look pretty well edible. People associate them with butter, sugar, fudge – and sunshine. It’s an interesting phenomenon, and highly unusual that people make so much of a building material.” So says architect Soraya Khan, spouse and partner of Patrick Theis. They moved into their newly built house in Bateman's Row a year ago. Petersen Tegl met them in their spacious, sunny living room with fantastic views of London. The new building’s delicate simplicity means it has great appeal not only to the couple’s friends but also in professional circles. Named the London Building of the Year in 2010, it received the RIBA Award in 2010 and was also nominated for the prestigious Stirling Prize (which went to Zaha Hadid).

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It was an official requirement that the building's two upper floors be retracted from the façade. This has been a boon to both the architecture and the practicality of the building.

BATEMAN’S ROW

MOUTHWATERING BRICK IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CITY’S FASHIONABLE SHOREDITCH DISTRICT, LONDON ARCHITECTS THEIS & KHAN – ALSO A MARRIED COUPLE – HAVE BUILT A COMBINED HOME AND STUDIO. ACCORDING TO THE ARCHITECTS, THE BRICKS USED IN THE FAÇADE ARE PARTICULARLY IMPORTANT TO THE IDENTITY OF THE BUILDING.

The architects are in no doubt that the choice of brick deserves much of the credit for all the recognition. The project was driven by the desire to combine a studio with a family home for the couple and their four children. Khan and Theis have worked together for 30 years – at home since they became parents. In 2000, they purchased an industrial building and car park from the 1950s on the corner of Bateman’s Row and French Place. They ran their studio there for a couple of years before work on the new building really got going. To fund the project, parts of the new building were designed to be rented out. The family home occupies the upper three floors and the studio is on the first floor, parts of which are also rented out to other businesses. The building also contains three small flats. There is an active arts scene in Shoreditch, so the

basement was converted for rental as exhibition space, which involved excavating deeper into the ground to provide extra headroom. The basement and ground floor are both rented by a gallery that needs rooms with little to no daylight. “In our experience, quality pays. Our tenants are enthusiastic about the building and the materials. In fact, there was competition for space,” Theis recalls. The design of the building had to comply with various requirements. A portion of the land had previously been used as a car park, so the building next door had been able to put in windows overlooking it, most of them without planning permission. Legal or not, the neighbour claimed the right of disposal over a portion of the land as compensation for losing the windows. Another requirement was the Right of Light, which means that windows

An external concrete staircase at the top of the building links the two terraces that belong to the flat.

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A gallery that was looking of rooms without daylight rents the basement floor. The first floor serves as a large, spacious studio for Theis & Khan.

that have been in place for 20 years must not be obstructed. To comply with this, the two upper floors had to be retracted from French Place – but this turned out to be an advantage. "We would have been tempted to build it all the way out if it had been possible. Instead, it benefited the architecture by scaling down the floors and creating terraces,” Khan explains. The finished building is simple, modern and sculptural. Its scale and proportions suit the neighbourhood, and it reflects its surroundings in a precise yet understated manner. The façade towards French Place has relatively deep window niches that relate to the Victorian-style building next door. Towards Bateman’s Row, the glass panels are bigger and flush with the façade, in response to the great glass towers of the City. Generally, the

façade and window proportions are based on the golden section. Shoreditch is a lively area, with plenty of nightclubs, so the ground floor has a dark, glazed covering of facing brick. When the architects were designing the rest of the façade, there was no doubt – it had to be light brick, which reflects the classic yellow “stock brick” used throughout London and the south of England in the early 20th century. “We looked at endless types, from England and elsewhere in Europe,” they recall. “Friends told us about Petersen Tegl, and once we had seen D71, we were in no doubt – this was it! We are very pleased with the decision. The very light stone has a glow that we couldn’t find elsewhere. To achieve the light surface we wanted, we chose a light mortar that doesn’t kill the brick’s delicate colour.

Soraya Khan and Patrick Theis have been partners at home and in work for 30 years, and have had a studio together for just as long.

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Third floor

Fourth floor

First floor

Second floor

Basement

Ground floor

The other materials all match the brick as well, of course, including the grey tone in the Schüco window frames. We didn’t consider brick to be exclusively an exterior material either. The Petersen brick is coal-fired, and the diverse, dark plays on colour in D71 beautifully match the shades of the slate floors that occasionally appear alongside the brickwork.” Theis and Khan found themselves in the unusually demanding position of being both client and architect: “Every step of the way all sorts of decisions had to be made, the books had to balance, and we were under pressure the whole time. We are glad that we stuck to the brick. Different aspects of the details and materials often make all the difference between buildings. In Bateman’s Row, the identity of the building emanates mainly from the bricks.”

Bateman's Row Client: Theis & Khan Architect: Theis & Khan Structural engineer: FJ Samuely and Partners Cost Consultant: Stephen Cuddy Main Contractor: Silver Interiors Design and Build Ltd. Photos: Philip Vile

The third floor is one big room comprising a living area, kitchen and dining area.

Batemans Row / prizes: Shortlisted for the RIBA Stirling Prize 2010 2010 RIBA London Building of the Year Daily Telegraph British Homes Awards Mixed Used Regeneration Development of the Year 2010 Hackney Design Award 2010


The coal-fired red brick gives the façade of the new city hall the dynamic and varied surface that the architects wanted. The brick also creates a sense of material cohesion with the original red-brick part of the town hall, built in the late 1800s.

TOWN HALL EXTENSION · BY PROFESSOR CHRISTOFFER HARLANG PHD.

COHERENCE IN CONTEXT AS PART OF THE PROGRAMME OF AMALGAMATING DANISH LOCAL AUTHORITIES, A NUMBER OF TOWN HALLS HAVE ADDED NEW EXTENSIONS. ONE OF THEM IS SORØ TOWN HALL. CONSISTENTLY UNDERSTATED YET EFFECTIVE ARCHITECTURE BINDS OLD AND NEW TOGETHER AS A COHERENT UNIT.

It was a different world back in the late 1920s when le Corbusier designed his white villas. Using Palladio as a reference point and cubism as inspiration, he cultivated pure, prismatic architecture. Like the classical temple or the Renaissance villa, his white buildings would reign over the landscape, over the valley, the mountain and plain. Since then, landscapes and cities have changed radically, and so have the challenges faced by architecture. Open countryside has become suburban, density has increased all over the planet, and the idea of architects building on an empty field in order to master their surroundings has very limited, if any, grounding in reality. Something is always there already, be it concrete structures and buildings or traditions, customs and tonality. The challenges faced by contemporary architects are no less daunting than those faced by their predecessors. They need to be able to decipher often highly complex structures, as well as patterns and forms of settlement, as the basis for their own architectural concepts. They need to make themselves familiar with the existing buildings’ moods and the features that endow them with character prior to even starting to express their own visions. As a result, the best architects of the future will be recognised by their ability to highlight their own concepts in dialogue with that which is bequeathed to them by history. Several different traditions in contemporary architecture reflect this, but in the Nordic countries, empathy with context has always played an important role in architects’ self-understanding. Indeed, this is the very foundation for the work of the Danish architectural studio Fogh & Følner – both

A large portal in the new building provides access to the well-proportioned new town-hall yard, a great asset for town hall and city alike.

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The tile-clad rectangular volume contains office and meeting space. It is not connected to the ceiling, but stands separately, like a piece of furniture in the building.

when restoring buildings and when conjuring up new ones on the drawing board. Their most recent project was a difficult extension to the town hall in Sorø, a building that had previously evolved in three distinct stages. The oldest part is the former station building, which has all the hallmarks of a public building. This was followed by a series of somewhat random extensions, which the architects Ib and Jørgen Rasmussen eventually expanded to form a larger unit in 1980. The new town hall is on the outskirts of Sorø. To reflect the fact that a town hall is traditionally located in the centre, Fogh & Følner have added two new red-brick wings that endow the new amalgamated building with a presence that intensifies the urban nature of the surrounding streets. The second architectural concept was to bring together new and old sections in such a way that, despite their somewhat uneven quality, they nevertheless exude architectural coherence and a single, strong identity. This strategy allows Fogh & Følner to clearly signify the building’s identity as a town hall, a form of identification not inherent in many public and private office buildings of the 1960s and ’70s, when architectural thinking was decidedly unhierarchical.

The new layout is extremely simple. The extension is a three-winged construction on two floors, with two wings facing the road and a third linked to the existing town hall. This creates the strongest space in the unit, i.e. the new, big and very beautiful inner courtyard. The yard is rooted in Nordic architectural history, and constitutes, in a highly convincing manner, an atmospheric counterpoint to both the town hall itself and to the distinctive spatial quality of the whole town. There is a relaxed dignity to this lovely space, confirming that an architecture inspired by humanist ideals and which revolves around encounters between people still resonates. It does not arise by itself, however; it is achieved by means of material effects and by the proportions of its elements and parts. In this case, via exquisite interaction between the apparently contradictory – very restricted and very free – aspects of the buildings’ character. One prime example of this is the effects that arise between the red-brick surfaces and the white tile-clad façades. The whole thing is underpinned by the consistently understated yet effective architecture, in which a sophisticated use of motifs and solutions present in the existing buildings binds old and new together to form a coherent whole. The consistent use of red Petersen bricks in the tight façades and in the rhythmic sequences of simple windows with white, painted shutters

The circular staircase, the office and the meeting room are all separate parts of the architecture.

The contrasts in colour and materiality create a successful interaction between the white-tile cladding and the red brick.

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Whether experienced from the inside or outside, the spiral staircase that leads up to the town hall chamber has the appearance of a tile-clad sculpture.

The company J. Ole Pedersen set the 4,144 custom-made tiles.

and apertures is a refinement of Ib & Jørgen Rasmussen’s robust but also very distinctive style. The interpretation is, however, completely new. It has a lighter and brighter air to it, which is primarily due to more fragile dimensioning, but also due to greater consistency in the proportions of the construction’s individual elements. It all looks very simple, but the final product was preceded by great tenacity in pinning down an architecture that explores its roots, and which uses what is already there in order to create something new.

LAST PIECE IN THE JIGSAW

New addition to Sorø Town Hall Client: Sorø Kommune Architect: Fogh & Følner Arkitektfirma A/S Landscape architect: Nørgaard & Holscher Landskabsarkitekter Engineer: Niras A/S Rådgivende Ingeniører Bricklaying contract: Pihl & Søn A/S Subcontractor: J. Ole Pedersen A/S Murermester Photos: Anders Sune Berg

Plan: The extension is highlighted blue.

Some of the areas in the new town hall – the circular stairway to the council chamber and a rectangular conference room – are clad externally with glazed, white ceramic wall tiles. The tiles were inspired by the foyer of the original town hall, which has pillars of glazed, dark-brown brick. Petersen Tegl developed the new, glazed tiles, spending three months, along with the architects, experimenting with colour, lustre, texture and formats. The outcome was a white shade that is very close to the tile Petersen Tegl developed in 2004 for the renovation of the 1937 Arne Jacobsen petrol station on Strandvejen, north of Copenhagen. The structures to be laid have complicated shapes, so Fogh and Følner designed a programme of varied, double-curved wall tiles specifically for Sorø Town Hall. It was an exciting moment when the 4,144 custom-made tiles in many shapes – all individually numbered – arrived at the building site. The jigsaw puzzle worked perfectly, with the highly competent bricklaying company J.O. Pedersen A/S only needing to cut a very small number of the tiles.

Johan Fogh and Lars Møller Andersen (Fogh & Følner) collaborated on the project.

The architects hand designed a special range of white wall tiles for Sorø Town Hall.

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THE BIGGEST NORWEGIAN CREMATORIUM

SPROUTING FROM THE EARTH ALFASET CREMATORIUM IS UNCONVENTIONAL. LARGE GLASS PANELS PROVIDE GLIMPSES OF THE FURNACE ROOM. OTHER FAÇADES ARE OF BLUE-TEMPERED BRICK AND HARMONISES BEAUTIFULLY WITH THEIR SURROUNDINGS.

The path to Alfaset’s main entrance meanders past the large windows in the furnace room, where the cremations take place.

“A crematorium is primarily a processing plant with specific technological and logistical needs. But it also has to comply with other, equally important requirements. It has to be an agreeable place to work, and walking through its doors has to be a positive experience for mourners paying their last respects,” explains architect Espen Eskeland of arkitektene as. Along with fellow architects Dyrvik AS and landscape architects Grindaker AS, his company won a Nordic competition in 2006 to design Alfaset Crematorium, which opened in 2009 The 2000-m2 crematorium – one of the biggest in the Nordic Region – is in Alfaset Cemetery, close to a chapel, which was to form part of the finished unit according to their brief. The crematorium consists of a rectangular main building, which sprouts from the terrain, and a number of smaller blocks that serve administrative and other ancillary functions, and which lean against the main building. Coffins are received via an entrance

to the east and passed through a refrigerated space to the furnace room. Ashes and urns are processed and stored in the southern part of the building. The furnace room has large glass panels facing the cemetery. It has a bright and friendly air, with plenty of daylight. The staff are able to watch the seasons change, and passers-by can see into the room. The openness is unconventional, but accepted as a positive element of the design by both relatives and staff. The architects wanted the building to look as if it sprouts from the earth, so the textures and colours of the materials had to fit into the surroundings. The roof on the main building is planted with grasses and sedum, and the surface appears to be a continuation of the surrounding planes. “The choice of cladding was between concrete, natural stone and brick – all of which would harmonise with the burial vault’s brick façade,” Eskeland recalls. “We eventually opted for a blue-

Before the cremation, relatives gather around the bier in a large room with a skylight. Large glass surfaces line the façade of the furnace room (bottom).

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tempered brick, D91, by Petersen Tegl. The brickwork has a beautiful materiality and shimmers in many different shades of grey, which has associations with natural stone. And, as a bonus, the Petersen brick turned out to be less expensive than natural stone,” Espen Eskeland concludes. Alfaset Crematorium Client: City of Oslo, Funerals Department Project Manager: COWI AS Contractor: Tronrud Entreprenør AS Architect: arkitektene as, arkitekt mnal npa espen eskeland Dyrvik arkitekter AS Interior designer: arkitektene as, arkitekt mnal npa espen eskeland Dyrvik arkitekter AS Landscape architect: Grindaker Landskapsarkitekter AS Photos: Nils Petter Dale

In the evening, subdued outdoor lighting allows visitors to move safely around the terrain bathed in a pleasant atmosphere.


On arrival by car, visitors to the crematorium park on a the same level as the roof, which is covered with sedum. From here, a staircase leads down to the main entrance.

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Biers are driven into the long open-ended room, from whence they enter the crematorium through a copper-clad entrance.

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THE HAUTE COUTURE OF BRICK IN NEW COLOURS AND LOOKS Petersen Tegl’s range of hand-made, hardfired architectural ceramics for brickwork and paving – Kolumba™ – has been expanded with 11 new colours. Kolumba, now available in 28 varieties, is produced using centuries-old craft traditions. After processing the clay, the bricks are handmade in wooden moulds, then dried and fired. By firing them at different temperatures, the stones are endowed with varied textures and beautiful shades of colour. The standard format for Kolumba™ is 528 x 108 x 37 mm but the product is also available

in customised sizes. Petersen Tegl also tries to comply with all requests for special colours or surfaces. Kolumba™ was developed in 2000 jointly by Petersen Tegl and the Swiss architect Peter Zumthor for the Kolumba™ Museum in Cologne. Kolumba™ is now increasingly popular in construction projects all over the world. The new Kolumba™ products are: K4, K23, K36, K40, K41, K44, K46, K47 K49, K60 og K96

Kolumba™ is now available in 28 different colours. The standard size is 528 x 108 x 37 mm. Photos: Søren Petersen

NEW COLOURS I N WAT E R - B R U S H E D , C O A L - F I R E D B R I C K Eight new colour variants have been added to the existing range of water-brushed, coalfired brick. It now comprises 31 bricks in a rich colour palette, further enhanced by light and dark shades introduced during the coalfiring process. The brickworks can also produce special colours to meet customers’ needs. The machines used to manufacture the bricks are based on age-old methods, so they look hand-made – which they would have been in 1791, when the brickworks in Broager first began production. As a result of the firing technique, there may be a certain amount of variation in terms of dimensions, cracks and deformations, just as in old, hand-made bricks. Along with the

The coal-fired brick is available in a total of 31 colour variants, including the eight additions. Photos: Søren Petersen

Product development is a top priority at Petersen Tegl, and is an almost daily activity. Ideas and input for new bricks are largely based on customer requests for special looks and colours. Tommy Andresen and Kim Reinecke, who are responsible for the development of brick and Kolumba™, respectively, transform these requests into reality. Photos: Anders Sune Berg

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play on colours, these discrepancies breathe life into the façade, and do not affect the durability of the bricks. All of the bricks are mixed before they leave the brickworks – and arrive on pallets, ready for use. The coal-fired brick is available in the standard formats: DNF: 228 x 108 x 54 mm HF: 220 x 105 x 65 mm FF: 228 x 108 x 40 mm*) The new bricks are called: D23, D42, D46, D47, D73, D92, D96 og D97 *) available on request


CLINKERS

COME VISIT! Three visitors’ gardens showcase a wide range of Petersen clinkers to provide inspiration for paving patterns. The visitors’ garden in Copenhagen: Det Kongelige Danske Haveselskab Pile Allé 6, DK-2000 Frederiksberg Entry from Frederiksberg Runddel Always open.

The visitors’ garden on Funen: Byggecentrum Middelfart Hindsgavl Allé 2, DK-5500 Middelfart Open Monday-Sunday and holidays 10:00-17:00 The visitors’ garden in Southern Jutland Petersen Klinker A/S Nybølnorvej 14, DK-6310 Broager Always open.

A selection of the 50+ clinkers available from Petersen. Photos: Anders Sune Berg

EVEN GREATER CHOICE N E W, E X T E N D E D C L I N K E R R A N G E Petersen Tegl’s clinker range is, of course, characterised by the same high quality as the hand-made bricks produced at the brickworks. To accommodate as many of our customers’ requests as possible, we have extended our range and now offer more than 50 different types of clinker. Some are manufactured according to the old methods and are hand-made in wooden moulds. Others are produced by machines that imitate handiwork, while others are extruded. All of the clinkers are made of rich, raw clay from Germany or Britain with a certain amount of slate content. At the brickworks, the clay is mixed with terracotta, which is crushed and fired clay – and also an old term for hard-fired earthenware. The clinkers are fired at approx. 1,100 degrees, which is possible because of the their clay composition. The high firing temperature

makes the clinkers extremely hard. This means that they are also highly water-resistant, making it hard for moss and algae to gain a foothold. The proportions of iron oxide and lime in the clay determine the colours of the clinkers, ranging from yellow to pink to red. A special play on colours occurs when the firing takes place using only gas and without oxygen. The process, called reduction or blue tempering, produces a beautiful, blue-black hue. Petersen's clinkers are available in a wide variety of standard formats. Of course, we also seek to comply with all requests for special colours, looks and sizes. All Petersen clinkers are colourfast, frost-proof, and weather- and acid-resistant. They are hardwearing, and most can be produced as road-coverings. All Petersen clinkers comply with the European standard EN/1344.

The visitors’ garden on Funen Byggecentrum Middelfart

Annemarie Harris and Tina Kjær Loichtl are responsible for advice and sales in Petersen Clinker. The photograph was taken in Charlottehaven in the Østerbro district of Copenhagen. Photos: Anders Sune Berg

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CLINKERS

The split-level style of the courtyard makes the division into separate spaces seem natural. On the upper level, grass is planted between the clinkers, which engenders a sense of nature and fertility.

Storage sheds are beautifully built into the surrounding teak fence.

HOUSING ASSOCIATION SLOTSGÅRDEN

WITH SIMPLE TOUCHES, SCHUL LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTS HAVE CREATED BEAUTIFUL FUNCTIONAL YARDS IN A HOUSING ASSOCIATION IN FREDERIKSBERG, COPENHAGEN

Successful architecture almost always depends upon a good underlying main theme, and this applies equally to building houses and creating gardens or courtyards. At the bottom of Frederiksberg Bredgade, just behind Frederiksberg Town Hall, Schul Landscape Architects have transformed a rundown yard into a delightful little oasis by deploying a sound and suitable main theme. The yard also features a number of simple, practical features, which have been refined down to the smallest detail. Originally, the yard – or rather, the three smaller yards – was covered with asphalt and pavements were laid along several of the

façades, making the spaces look smaller and more fragmented. The materials’ quality certainly did not harmonise at all with the fine 19th-century Frederiksberg building, which houses 34 housing association tenants and three commercial tenants. As well as transforming the yards into a welcoming place to eat, play, sunbathe or just hang out, the brief was to provide storage for bicycles, tools, etc. “Both myself and the residents wanted to link the three yards together and enhance the residents’ sense of ownership,” explains Jonas Schul. “The solution was an open fence, designed as a simplified paraphrase of the balcony parapets. It means the internal doors

The renovation includes plenty of space for parking bicycles. The gateway to the courtyard is clad with sound-absorbing wood in the same format as the clinkers.

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CLINKERS AS UNIFYING ELEMENT can be kept permanently open, which stresses the unity of the housing association.” A new clinker surface was used to create visual cohesion across all three yards. The consensus was that the clinker should be high quality, it should be slip-resistant, have a handmade look and not be bevelled. An inspiration trip was arranged to Petersen Tegl. Six samples were presented and a tenants committee debated their merits. They opted for B141B – a water-brushed, hard-fired clinker made of English clay. Its play of colour in dark-red and rust-brown beautifully suits the red brickwork of the building.

“Its handmade look endows the clinker with a timeless and basic quality,” Schul continues: “For us, the theme of quality is ever present. We always recommend to our clients that they invest in good materials that age beautifully. In this case, the Petersen clinkers not only make a positive contribution to the way people experience the site, they also enhance the overall value of the property.” The largest yard is on two levels, which Schul regards as a gift: “The top area is the sunniest. Here, we sowed grass between the clinkers, which gives the courtyard’s surfaces a beautiful variation. The different levels of terrain are incorporated into a stair system

A simply designed piece of furniture – a combined bench and plant box – serves as space-generating element.


CLINKERS

“We always recommend to our clients that they invest in good materials that age beautifully. In this case, the Petersen clinkers not only make a positive contribution to the way people experience the site, they also enhance the overall value of the property.” Landscape architect Jonas Schul

with built-in benches and a sand pit. We have also introduced a great deal of variation in vegetation, so there are seasonal variations in the yard for most of the summer.” The harmonious character of the yard in Frederiksberg is not least due to the architects moderating the use of effects. They only added elements that have both a practical function and an understated elegance. These elements include combined benches and flower boxes in teak, tool sheds built into the periphery of the yard, and wire systems overgrown with honeysuckle and akepia – which make the yard green without casting annoying shadows.

Renovation of yard, Slotsgården. Client: Andelsboligforeningen Slotsgården Landscape architect: Schul Landskabsarkitekter Photos: Anders Sune Berg

The hard-fired clinker creates a dynamic and varied surface in the three interlinked courtyards. The dark-red and brown play on colours beautifully matches the red brickwork of the façades.

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CLINKERS

Historically, granite has been used for paving in central Malmö. On the square outside Moderna Museet, it is interspersed with strips of red clinkers.

NEW INTERACTION BETWEEN MUSEUM AND SQUARE

STREET ART Granite plinths act as benches and as elements that divide up the space.

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The area in front of Moderna Museet in Malmö has undergone a genuine metamorphosis recently. The roads and parking spaces have become an inviting square, and motor vehicles now have to make do with a single one-way street. The transformation was achieved with the help of new paving and a number of elements designed to create a sense of space. Historically, the streets and squares of Malmö have been covered with natural stone, and where possible, this is still the preferred material in the oldest parts of the town. The square in front of Moderna Museet – right in the city cen-

tre – is covered with small granite stones in a single cross bond. A path of large granite stones runs along the façade, which is pleasant to walk down. There are also welcoming benches made of solid granite. To link the materials of the square to the red-brick museum façade, the landscape architect Karin Sjölin laid lines of red clinkers that radiate out from the building at five-metre intervals. For this purpose, she used Petersen B07 clinkers. With their play of colours in shades of red and their rectangular format (210 x 50 x 70 mm), the clinkers are a perfect

visual match for the museum. The hardfired 100% frost-proof tile has been laid vertically, and resists the weight of the traffic. Square beds planted with ivy, trimmed hedges of yew trees and newly planted sweetgum trees bestow a green ambience upon the square. The square at Moderna Museet in Malmö Client: The Malmö Streets and Parks Department the Real Estate Office Architect: The Malmö Environment Department, landscape architect, Karin Sjölin Contractor: NCC Photos: Anders Sune Berg

With their play of colours in shades of red, the strips of paving clinkers match the brickwork on the façade.


As part of Gjesingparken’s renovation, the old brick façade was removed and replaced with new brickwork. All of the windows have been replaced and the roofs now have eaves and are covered with zinc and felt.

A HOUSING ESTATE CHANGES ITS SKIN

GJESINGPARKEN IN ESBJERG THE SOCIAL HOUSING IN GJESINGPARKEN HAS UNDERGONE EXTENSIVE RENOVATION OF THE BUILDINGS' WEATHER SCREEN. PETERSEN HAS TALKED WITH ARCHITECT JENS PETER RAMSAGER FROM PALUDAN RAMSAGER AND THE DAB PROJECT MANAGER TORBEN ANDERSEN, BOTH OF WHOM PLAYED SIGNIFICANT ROLES IN THE MAJOR PROJECT.

The façades in coal-fired brick – D36 – exude a beautiful, bright and dynamic air. New French windows create a nice relief in the wall surface. A slightly darker brick – D48 – was chosen for the plinth, as well as for the dark joints, which make the houses seem less tall.

In climate terms, Esbjerg has a relatively exposed environment, and the problems in Gjesingparken had been getting worse for years. The houses’ weather screens were leaking, resulting in serious problems with draughts, cold and damp. On top of these direct inconveniences, the conditions were ideal for mould, which was confirmed in several of the apartments. The physical degradation spoke for itself. But time had also long since caught up on the 70s architecture with sombre, dark façades, balcony railings and lintels made of concrete, which seemed to weigh down the entire façade. Something had to be done. In 2004, the Esbjerg Social Housing Company and DAB invited submissions to an architectural competition, which was won by the Paludan Ramsager company, which specialises in renovating social housing. The project – which turned out to be challenging and long – had begun.

“At one point, the through flow of tenants in Gjesingparken was about 38% a year. Now there are waiting lists. It is reasonable to conclude that quality pays.” Project Manager Torben Andersen | 15


The appearance of the façades facing the courtyards has also been radically altered. The brickwork has been renewed, concrete panels have been replaced with zinc, and doors are now highlighted with black-painted corrugated panels that extend up the full height of the façade.

In September 2010 – six years later – the transformation was complete and Gjesingparken now has brand-new architectural qualities. The old brick façades have been removed and replaced with new brickwork. The walls’ foundations have been moved out to provide room for masonry-fill insulation of the façades. French windows have been installed, providing fine relief in the large wall surface. All of the windows have been replaced and the roofs now have eaves. One of the outdoor elements is the newly established and successful recreational areas between the houses.

The joint project has involved the residents – represented by areas boards and a building committee - Paludan Ramsager and DAB, which run Esbjerg Social Housing Association, which Gjesingparken is part of. The renovation, which cost a total of DKK 165 million is cofunded by the National Building Foundation, BRF Kredit, Esbjerg Social Housing Company, the local residents and Esbjerg City Council. The costs have also led to slight increases in the rents for the 320 apartments.

Pernille Krusel Bertelsen of the DAB Landscape Group has created a new green garden space between the houses. In one of the yards, a large, undulating concrete sculpture serves as a piece of play furniture.

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It is DAB’s role to assist the developer in making good financial and quality decisions. “We make the calculations that underpin the applications to the various funding bodies and we manage the project until building work is finished,” says Torben Andersen, who was in Esbjerg about once a week in the seven years that the project lasted. Andersen also provided architectural consultancy services: “It has been a great pleasure – along with Gjesingparken’s building committee and the architects – to help to raise the quality of the estate – and the choice of the right brick played a key role.”


A low wall meanders diagonally through the yard and separates the play area from the rest. The walls are made of the same brick used for the plinths.

Architect Jens Peter Ramsager also found the collaborative nature of the project inspiring and positive: “The building committee had strong opinions and flatly rejected, for example, our first suggestion for a new façade cladding. So we had to go home and think again. As part of the process, we went on study trips with the building committee to look at bricks. This was when the residents realised that a brick is not just a brick, and a joint not just a joint. Little by little, we narrowed down the options to a bright, warm brick. The varied plays on colour from the bricks bestows a beautiful, dynamic idiom up-

on the brickwork. For the plinth a slightly darker brick, D48, was chosen. Combined with dark joints it means that the houses optically seem a little lower.” Andersen welcomes the decision: “In DAB we are big fans of Petersen Tegl. The brickworks makes bricks of a quality well beyond what you can buy elsewhere. A machine-washed brick is just as durable, but you don’t need to be an expert to appreciate the quality of Petersen's brick. It is not architectural affectation. I have heard several say that Gjesingparken has almost become the most beautiful built up area in Esbjerg.”

The architectural enhancements in Gjesingparken can be enjoyed solely for the aesthetics. The renovation has however had consequences that are even more interesting. “In the past, empty flats stayed empty for a long time, which of course was problematic for the department's finances,” Andersen explains. “It has clearly become more attractive to live in Gjesingparken, and the residents appreciate the good new materials. At one point, the through flow of tenants was about 38% a year. Now there are waiting lists. It is reasonable to conclude that quality pays”

Gjesingparken consists of 320 homes spread over 15 residential blocks clustered around five yards.

Gjesingparken used to have dark façades, balcony railings, concrete lintels above the windows concrete and roofs without eaves.

Gjesingparken, Esbjerg Client: Gjesingparken Social Housing Association Architect for renovation: Paludan Ramsager Project management: DAB Landscaping: DAB Landscape Group Construction: MTHøjgaard A/ S Photos: Anders Sune Berg

“It has been a great pleasure – along with Gjesingparken’s building committee and the architects – to help to raise the quality of the estate – and the choice of the right brick played a key role.” Project Manager Torben Andersen | 17


“Like a sculptor who creates a living work of art from a rough stone block, we wanted to produce a piece of sculpture that surprises and seduces.” Architect Reinier Ubels.

VILLA VOESENEK

SCULPTING A HOME THE CLIENT WANTED A MODERN HOUSE, MADE OF NATURAL MATERIALS AND WITH A TIMELESS IDIOM. APART FROM THAT, REINIER UBELS OF MIX ARCHITECTUUR HAD FREE REIN TO DESIGN A VILLA FOR A FAMILY WITH TWO CHILDREN IN BREDA, THE NETHERLANDS.

Vertical, hovering pillars break the architecture's horizontal movement, and create a bold relief in the façade.

The exterior of the villa has long, horizontal lines, accentuated by Kolumba, which measures 528 x 108 x 37 mm. A large and beautiful brick façade faces the street.

The layout of the house is simple and works well. A double-height hallway leads into the big open kitchen in the centre, which serves as the spatial focal point for the whole building. The kitchen provides access to the living room, dining room, swimming pool and master bedroom. The first floor has three bedrooms and a lounge. The architecture plays on the contrast between closed and open spaces. The streetfacing façade is narrow and closed, while the lower floor opens up into the garden. A single-storey wing facing onto the garden contains an indoor swimming pool and features a

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large glass panel that slides away to provide full access to the large wooden deck. The general outline of the villa is defined by two flat-roofed cubes – one a single storey, the other two storeys high – which merge into each other. “Like a sculptor who creates a living work of art from a rough stone block, we wanted to produce a piece of sculpture that surprises and seduces,” Ubels explains. “By cutting and carving into the block, we created sculptural effects that reflect the way in which the house is organised. We knew from the start that the building material was crucial

and that the façade would have to be light. A number of materials for the façade were rejected as too alien, but in Kolumba™ K91 we found the right idiom – a real brick, of the kind we know so well from the Dutch building tradition, but with a different materiality and an exciting size and shape. To emphasise the sculptural nature of the building, the bricks have been used everywhere – in the ceilings, the crowning walls, the lintels, and even the letterbox. Both as a whole and in every detail, Kolumba™ is the defining material.”

Villa Voesenek, Breda, the Netherlands Client: The Voesenek family Architect: MIX architectuur, Ede Engineer: A.V.S Engineering BV Interior designer: Erik Koijen Landscape architect: MTD Landschaps Architecten Contractor: Nederlandse Bouw Unie BV, Etten Leur Photos: Paul Kozlowski


< The architects conceived the building as a raw stone block that they would then be able to shape. In line with the treatment of the house as a single mass, Kolumbaโ„ข was used in almost every detail, including the letterbox.

The house opens onto the garden via large glass faรงades. The grey shades are aligned with the colour of the bricks.

< Large patches of horizontal slatted screening are part of the street-facing faรงade.

Plan, ground floor. >

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Access to the building is via the brick foundation, the street-facing façade of which is relatively closed.

The long element clad with tropical timber rests on the brick foundation and is cantilevered at both ends.

VILLA ON THE EDGE OF THE WOODS

KOLUMBA AS METAPHOR JUST OUTSIDE THE TOWN OF HEESCH, IN THE NETHERLANDS, STANDS AN IMPOSING NEW FAMILY HOME. IT CONSISTS OF A LARGE, OBLONG STRUCTURE BALANCED ON AN L-SHAPED FOUNDATION. THE TWO ELEMENTS EVOKE ASSOCIATIONS WITH A TREE LYING ON A PILE OF EARTH – AN EFFECT THAT IS WHOLLY INTENTIONAL.

The mixture of K43 and K57 approximates the earthy tones of red and anthracite that the architects wanted. Some of the bricks protrude from the surface, which enhances the impression of an earthwork.

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The bedroom on the first floor of the wooden construction looks out over the brick section of the house.

The fireplace in the living room is built from the same brick as the rest of the house.

“Caught unawares by a violent thunderstorm while deep in a forest, you’d look for a big tree that has already fallen and seek shelter under it until the storm passes – and that’s precisely the image that inspired us architecturally,” explains Annemariken Hilberink of HilberinkBosch Architects. The explicit figurative inspiration is also clearly reflected in the choice of materials. “The foundation was to resemble ramparts made of earth, so we concentrated on three things: the bricks’ colour, dimensions and robustness. We didn’t want to use standard Dutch bricks. Nor did we want the colour of the mortar to dominate the overall impression of the walls. We wanted as big a brick and as little mortar as possible.” “Kolumba™ K43 and K57 – which we mixed

– have similarities with layers of earth, and colours that vary from red to anthracite. Kolumba™ is 528 mm long, and offsetting the bricks enhances the impression of an earthwork. Kolumba’s strength is another advantage. The bricks are fired so hard that they almost don’t absorb water. This meant we were able to use them at the top and bottom of window frames without any extra covering, which was important for the sculptural simplicity we were looking for,” explains architect Geert Bosch. Atop the heavy foundation balances “the toppled tree” – a steel structure covered with Louro Preto, an FSC-approved tropical hardwood. At one end, the wooden construction is supported by angled steel columns, some load-bearing, others playing a primarily aes-

Plan. Ground floor and first floor.

thetic role. The other side of the wooden construction is cantilevered seven metres, and shades and frames the terrace. To enhance the sculptural, abstract idiom, none of the blocks have eaves of any kind. The architects were in no doubt when it came to choosing materials, which were essential for the desired effect: “We didn’t find the same earth-like quality in other bricks. Cheap bricks are a false economy. The saving is minimal and brick is absolutely crucial to the overall impression made by a building,” Bosch concludes.

The villa in Heesch was nominated for the Fritz Höger Prize 2011 for brick architecture.

Villa in Heesch, the Netherlands Client: Private Architect: HilberinkBosch architecten, Geert Bosch & Annemariken Hilberink Engineer: van Nunen, Rosmalen; Frans Kerkhof Photos: Paul Kozlowski

“Cheap bricks are a false economy. The saving is minimal and brick is absolutely crucial to the overall impression made by a building.” Architect Geert Bosch

The materials used in the house – earth-coloured brick and wood cladding – harmonise beautifully with its woodland location.

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The Choga Zambil ziggurat – temple pyramid – in the Khuzestan province was built by an Elamite king about 1260 BC. The ziggurat’s base area is 105 x 105 m, and its original height was 52.5 m.

Christian Petersen examines the 3,500-year-old brick in Choga Zambil. The ziggurat consists of a core of unfired clay with a 2-metre-thick outer casing of fired brick.

A JOURNEY IN TIME AND BRICK TILE MANUFACTURER CHRISTIAN A. PETERSEN RECENTLY TRAVELLED TO WHAT USED TO BE KNOWN AS PERSIA – NOW IRAN – WHERE SEVERAL ARCHITECTURAL MASTERPIECES BEAR WITNESS TO THE SUSTAINABILITY OF BURNT CLAY.

< Karim Khan’s fortress in Shiraz has circular corner towers with a beautiful brickwork pattern. < Construction and decoration are closely intertwined throughout the Wakil mosque in Shiraz (1760), where the vaults have a sophisticated brick pattern.

To visit Iran is to visit one of the great civilisations of world history. It is also home to unique buildings dating back several millennia. Among the remnants from the pre-Islamic era is the step pyramid known as a ziggurat. After the rise of Islam 1,400 years ago, building mosques became the ultimate form of construction, and the Seljuks were among those to leave behind impressive edifices in many parts of the country. In the 13th century, the Mongols conquered Persia, and art and architecture made further progress under their dominion. An astonishing degree of architectural continuity has been preserved throughout all of the political and religious changes in Persia. Despite the influences from both east and west that fuelled continual innovation, a distinctive Persian character has always been retained. It is a continuity also reflected in the building materials. For thousands of years, architecture in this part of the world has been heavily influenced by one material in particular, i.e. clay in all its forms – from rammed clay walls and sun-dried bricks to tiles and ceramics. Clay was used for both regular houses and major monuments, and was often the only material used in a building. Due to the scarcity of wood, the Persians developed advanced construction techniques, e.g. using brick to form the vaults that are so characteristic of their architecture. On his expedition through Iran, Petersen and his friends visited some of the most outstanding examples of Persian architecture. This selection of photos provides an insight into some of those architectural wonders. The pictures are chronologically arranged. The journey through time and brick begins in the upper-left corner and continues clockwise.

The Al Wakil mosque in Shiraz dates from 1722 and is built almost entirely from brick. However, the 48 monolithic pillars in the prayer room are made of natural stone – with the pillar and capital each sculpted as separate units.

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The upper gallery in the tomb in Sultaniye is interspersed with large, pointed brick arches. Like the large dome, these are clad in blue and turquoise ceramic tiles.


The small mountain town of Demavend is home to the grave of Sheikh Shibli, which dates from the 12th century AD, during the Seljuk period. The octagonal tomb tower features brick ornamentation.

The Pir-e-Alamdar tower in the town of Damghan was built in 1036, during the Seljuk period. The tower is decorated with Arabic script on bands of brick.

> The patterned-brick minaret on the Friday mosque in Damghan stems from the Seljuk era and was built in 1058. > The Friday mosque in Isfahan contains aspects of almost all the periods of Persian Islamic architecture. The mosque is built around a rectangular central courtyard surrounded by arcades. Four ivans – large, covered niches – face the courtyard.

Christian A. Petersen travelled to Iran along with the architect Gerhard Heusch of Heusch Inc., which has offices in Los Angeles, Paris and Buenos Aires. The trip was planned and organised by his friend Ernst Heusch, assisted by the travel guide M. Hassan Davari. Fotos: Gerhard Heusch

The burial mosque of the Mongol ruler Oldjaitus towers over the rooftops of Sultaniye. The 51-metre-high tomb is an octagonal building in greyish-yellow brick. The great dome has an inner diameter of 25 m.

The Friday mosque in Isfahan features many organically interacting elements – e.g. arches and vaults, all made of brick. The building has survived centuries in an earthquake zone.

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