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fall 2013 |


TN celebrates national

plug in day


exciting biogas developments clean cities coalition updates e85 use increases in minnesota natural gas rolling tour and more ev updates!





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Natural Gas Rolling Tour | p. 8 Farm to Fork | p. 38

Northern Colorado Clean Cities

Sacramento Clean Cities

Air Quality Leader in UT | p. 25 Utah Clean Cities

Newly Rebrand

Louisiana Clean F


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NGV Workshop in ND | p. 11 North Dakota Clean Cities

EVs in Winter | p. 26 Granite State Clean Cities

E85 Usage Up in MN | p. 16 Twin Cities Clean Cities

EV Incentive Program | p. 17 Metro Car Receives Award | p. 10 Detroit Area Clean Cities

Massachusetts Clean Cities

GPCC Seeks Expansion | p. 35 Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities

SPADP Update | p. 12 Virginia Clean Cities

Feces to Fuel | p. 28 It’s Electric! | p. 20

Triangle Clean Cities

East Tennessee Clean Fuels

nded in LA | p. 22


Waste Companies Clean Up | p. 15 Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuels

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advertisers index AFDC 36 AFV Resale 19 BBI International 18-19, 29, 34 EMI 9, 37 NGV America 18, 29 NGVi 2, 19 Ravin Energy 19 REGI 13 Roush CleanTech 3, 18 Simpkins Energy 14 SmartWay 23 US Gas Vehicles 19 Webasto 6, 19

up front Editor’s Letter | 7 The Quick Fix | 18 Cover Story: Celebrating NPID | 20

focus features Natural Gas Rolling Tour | 8 Saddle Creek Logistics | 37

special features Clean Cities TV | 24 Flux Report | 26 Question of the Month | 32 American Beauty | 39

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editor’s letter Whirlwind Adventure Whirlwind: noun, something that involves many quickly changing events, feelings, etc. Merriam-Webster’s definition basically sums up the past few months for us! We were going full-tilt to organize nine Plug In Day events in the weeks and months leading up to September 28 (yes, we are tooting our own horn here, but just a bit). It’s really powerful to be a part of a great, national cause like Plug In Day. We represented just part of the 98 events that happened all across the country to raise awareness about EVs. You can read more about Tennessee’s presence at Plug In Day in our cover article, and be sure to look for more EV information spread throughout this edition (just look for the asterisk). In our normal fashion, we have tried to bring you some alternative fuel diversity, so be sure to check out our other articles as well. From gaseous fuels to biofuels, there’s something for everyone. As always, we welcome your feedback. Drop us a line and let us know what you think.

publisher & senior editor

Jonathan G. Overly East TN Clean Fuels Coalition

designer & editor Kristy Keel-Blackmon East TN Clean Fuels Coalition

The Fuels Fix is published quarterly by the East Tennessee Clean Fuels Coalition in collaboration with the brilliant and groovy DOE Clean Cities coalition coordinators across the United States. Advertising information may be obtained by visiting or contacting the editors.

Publication Date: October 14, 2013

Happy charging,

fall 2013 |


Partner Focus

natural gas rolling tour

CNG Rolling Tour promotes natural gas as vehicle fuel with five-stop event in western Colorado aimed at fleet owners When the CNG Rolling Tour pulled into the Shell station in Rifle, CO on August 28, a shiny new trash truck just happened to be filling up at the station’s compressed natural gas (CNG) pump. The truck was headed from the manufacturer’s plant in Minnesota to the buyer in California, tracking a route of CNG fueling stations across the country. The two-year-old Rifle Shell CNG station has made cross-country deliveries like this possible, said station owner Kirk Swallow. The one-day, 90-mile, five-stop CNG Rolling Tour, which crossed the trash truck’s route in Rifle, attracted fleet owners along the way who wanted to learn about the advantages of switching to CNG. The tour started in Grand Junction, CO and traveled east on I-70 to Parachute, Rifle, and Glenwood Springs.

CNG costs $1 to $1.50 less per gallon compared to gasoline or diesel, and it’s a Colorado-produced fuel with a history of steady prices, said Rolling Tour organizer Mike Ogburn, energy engineer with CLEER: Clean Energy Economy for the Region. CNG vehicles cost more, but the payback on fuel and maintenance savings, coupled with federal tax credits for private sector buyers, offsets those costs within a few years, Ogburn told fleet owners. In Grand Junction, the tour started at the City of Grand Junction’s CNG fueling station. Behind a fence,

the city’s CNG trash trucks, dump trucks, street sweeper, and transit buses use a time-fill pump. Outside the fence, Monument Clean Fuels runs a fast-fill public fueling station that is open 24/7. The Parachute stop drew 200 people for the opening of the Encana Natural Gas Inc. fueling station. Encana is opening public fueling stations across the U.S. and Canada in communities near its gas drilling operations. Encana is already running half its Parachute-area trucks on CNG and is moving to CNG-powered drilling rigs, said David Grisso, Encana operations field leader in Parachute.

After stopping in Rifle, the Rolling Tour headed to Glenwood Springs for tours of the regional transit agency’s bus barn, where 22 CNG-powered transit buses are based, and the GMC dealer’s new CNGcapable service bays are located. Article courtesy of CLEER (Clean Energy Economy for the Region) on behalf of Northern Colorado Clean Cities By Heather McGregor, 970-704-9200



from perc

Metro Cars, a ground transportation provider in southeast Michigan and Detroit Area Clean Cities stakeholder, recently received a “Top User” award from the Propane Education & Research Council (PERC) at the BusCon conference in Chicago. The award recognizes Metro Cars for its progressive use of propane autogas in transportation operations. The company has also been recognized for its success with two MotorWeek segments and as a winner of the Detroit Free Press Michigan Green Leaders Award in 2001. In 2007, it received a similar award from PERC. In that same year, Metro Cars invested more than a half-million dollars to convert 75 luxury sedans and 30 airport shuttles to propane. Since 2010, the company has partnered with Clean Energy Coalition, host of the Detroit Area and Ann Arbor Clean Cities Coalitions, to deploy another 90 luxury sedans, SUVs, and shuttles running on propane. In addition, the company installed propane infrastructure in Grand Rapids to complement its recent expansion into West Michigan. The funding came via the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, through the United State Department of Energy’s Clean Cities program. Since 2007, Metro Cars has displaced nearly 2 million gasoline gallon equivalents (GGE) by using propane. This year, the company expects to record its largest

displacement total yet with 670,000 GGE. Dave Satawa, Vice President of Finance, says it’s “definitely a win/win; propane burns cleaner and it’s cheaper. It’s a benefit to our drivers, the company, and the environment”. For more information about Metro Cars, please contact Paula Mikola, Vice President of Sales and Marketing at 734-946-1701. For more information about this project, Detroit Area Clean Cities, or Clean Energy Coalition, please contact Coordinator Aaron Champion.

arron champion Detroit Area Clean Cities 734-585-5720 x23


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Natural Gas Vehicle Workshops Stir Interest in North Dakota This past spring, the North Dakota Clean Cities Coalition hosted a six-city natural gas vehicle tour. Free informational workshops were held in some of North Dakota’s largest cities—Bismarck, Dickinson, Fargo, Grand Forks, Minot, and Williston—from April 22–26. The tour included presentations from natural gas industry groups, local utilities, and North Dakota Clean Cities. Workshop attendees were able to see compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles provided by Chevrolet and First CNG, a firm that installs natural gas fueling infrastructure. These bi-fuel vehicles can use both CNG and traditional gasoline. Natural gas for these vehicles was provided by Montana-Dakota Utilities who operates the only two natural gas facilities currently open in the state. Presenters Joey Roberson-Kitzman with the North Dakota Clean Cities provided an overview of natural gas as a vehicle fuel; Paul Jensen and Tim Milburn from Green Way Energy spoke on natural gas refueling infrastructure and public policy; Walt Knake from NGV RePower covered natural gas vehicle options;

and Dan Genovese from Chesapeake Energy and Larry Oswald from Montana-Dakota Utilities gave a presentation on opportunities and benefits for fleets. The workshops drew attendees from public and private fleets and fuel providers. It also attracted significant media coverage in the Bismarck Tribune, Fargo Forum, Minot Daily News, and stories on four television newscasts. As a result of the workshops, the North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition was formed and meets monthly. The North Dakota Clean Cities Coalition was also invited to speak about natural gas vehicles at the Bakken Infrastructure Finance & Development Summit, a major oil and gas industry conference in Bismarck, ND in September. For more information on the North Dakota Natural Gas Vehicle Coalition, contact Joey Roberson-Kitzman.

joey roberson-kitzman North Dakota Clean Cities 701-223-5613

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spadp update

Largest Clean Cities Propane Autogas Vehicle Deployment Program in history Is complete Virginia Clean Cities is proud to announce that all vehicles participating in the Southeast Propane Autogas Development Program (SPADP) have been successfully converted to run on propane autogas. SPADP’s fleet was composed of 1,189 vehicles from 36 different fleets. The conversions, completed through SPADP’s 11 conversion centers, will be poised to annually displace about 1.2 million gallons of gasoline and decrease America’s CO2 footprint by about 6,000 tons. The program has also positively impacted air quality in partnership with nine other Clean Cities Coalitions. The conversions in the Program involved taking vehicles that traditionally ran on gasoline, such as police cars and taxicabs, and installing a bi-fuel Prins VSI propane autogas system. This bi-fuel approach was enticing to fleets because the system automatically reverts to gasoline if the autogas tank runs out. Additionally, at the end of vehicle life, many parts of each conversion kit can be switched from a retiring vehicle to a certified newer model with little cost or downtime. While the bi-fuel approach eased fleet concerns for the nascent public fueling infrastructure,


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the Program boosted the autogas market by installing private fleet refueling sites throughout 10 southeast states, as well as in Pittsburgh and Denver, through SPADP partner Alliance AutoGas. With more than 17 million autogas vehicles on the road globally, propane autogas is a widely used alternative fuel. The fuel is cleaner than gasoline, and costs around $1.50 less per gallon. Propane is cost-effective and widely available now with over 90% of the U.S. autogas supply made in America. The Program was supported by funding from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act and the U.S. Department of Energy’s Clean Cities Program. It was managed by the Virginia Department of Mines, Minerals, and Energy and Virginia Clean Cities at James Madison University. To learn more, please visit or

alleyn harned Virginia Clean Cities 540-568-8896

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waste companies clean up

Keeping Southeast Louisiana Neighborhoods and Air Clean Two Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuel Partnership (SLCFP) stakeholders are cleaning up garbage collection in the New Orleans region. Progressive Waste in Jefferson Parish and Metro Disposal in New Orleans are both transitioning their refuse and recycling fleets to cleaner, more economical compressed natural gas (CNG). The switch reduces emissions and noise along neighborhood streets while using a local fuel that supports Louisiana’s economy. Both companies stand to reap the economic benefits of lower fuel prices and maintenance costs, along with the convenience of onsite fueling. Louisiana’s Alternative Fuel Vehicle and Fueling Infrastructure Tax Credit as well as federal tax incentives contributed to the economic viability of the projects. The fleet stationed in Jefferson Parish is part of a larger roll out by Progressive Waste Solutions Ltd. to convert their multi-national operation of waste and recycling vehicles to CNG. Luis Lizama, Division Manager with Progressive Waste/IESI, noted that the overall cost of operating a CNG fleet is worth the investment. Ten vehicles are dedicated CNG trucks already, with plans to eventually convert all 85 vehicles in their fleet. Accessibility to fueling is key to their deployment strategy. Locally, Progressive Waste partnered with Clean Energy to fuel at their public

CNG fueling station in Kenner, LA, until Progressive Waste’s dedicated station was operational. The switch to CNG meets Metro Disposal’s ongoing commitment to environmental responsibility and sustainability. Twenty diesel vehicles have already been replaced with dedicated CNG vehicles this year with plans to have 80% of Metro Disposal’s 70-vehicle fleet running on CNG in the next 18 months. Both fleets noted the acceptance of the new fuel by both mechanics and drivers who were trained extensively on the new technology and safety protocols. The mechanics are impressed by the cleanliness of the CNG engine as compared to diesel engines and the drivers report that they enjoy the reduced noise and emissions aspects of the fuel.

rebecca otte

Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuels 504-483-8513

E85 Usage Up in the North Star State

The Twin Cities Clean Cities Coalition (TC4) reports that sales of cleaner-burning E85 fuel are up significantly, compared to the same period last year. Fuel retailers report strong demand for the ethanol-based fuel, with nearly two million gallons sold each month in Minnesota last summer. The increase in sales can be partially attributed to E85’s lower price per gallon, compared to regular unleaded. The alternative fuel is selling for 70 cents to a dollar less per gallon than gasoline, says Lisa Thurstin, coordinator for TC4. “We are seeing flex fuel vehicles lined up at E85 pumps to take advantage of the cleaner, locally produced alternative to gasoline.” No state has more E85 stations than Minnesota, with over 350 stations located statewide. In 1998, the U.S. Department of Energy selected Minnesota as a pilot market for E85. At the time, Minnesota had a dozen E85 retail outlets, and many people who owned flex fuel vehicles were unaware they could use anything other than gasoline.


fall 2013 |

Led by the American Lung Association in Minnesota, a public-private partnership called the Minnesota E85 Project helped to increase annual sales of E85 from a little more than 37,000 gallons in 1998 to about 23 million gallons in 2008. In this 10-year period, E85 sales prevented more than 300,000 tons of lifecycle carbon dioxide emissions and other harmful pollutants from entering Minnesota’s air. Building on the success with E85 and adding supporters of biodiesel, propane, natural gas, and electric vehicles, TC4 was officially designated as part of the Clean Cities program in 2001. The American Lung Association in Minnesota administers grants for E85 infrastructure, and the number of E85 outlets in Minnesota is on the rise. “People want choices at the pump,” Thurstin said. “In Minnesota, these choices continue to grow.”

lisa thurstin

Twin Cities Clean Cities Coalition 651-223-9568

Launching of Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Incentive Program

(L) Massachusetts Dept of Energy commissioner Mark Sylvia, flanked by Energy Secretary Rick Sullivan and Dept. of Environmental Protection commissioner Ken Kimmel, provides details on the exciting initiative. (R) Massachusetts is one of two states in the nation to identified vehicles that have large drive batteries so that first responders can approach the vehicle in the proper manner in the case of a crash.

The Massachusetts Electric Vehicle Program (MassEVIP) was announced earlier this year to crowds gathered in Greenfield and Clemsford, MA. MassEVIP, supported by the Patrick-Murray Administration, will provide funding for cities and towns to reduce their own air pollution by introducing electric vehicles into their fleets. According to the Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, this $2.5 million incentive program will help Massachusetts cut greenhouse gas emissions by 80% of 1990 levels by 2050 as proscribed by the Global Warming Solutions Act in the Clean Energy and Climate Plan. Funding from MassEVIP is designed to encourage municipalities to buy electric or plug-in hybrid passenger vehicles and install charging stations in their communities. The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection will grant up to $7,500 for each electric vehicle purchased and $15,000 for each public charging station installed through MassEVIP. The program was developed in cooperation with the Massachusetts Clean Cities Coalition to rapidly increase the number

of zero-emission cars on the road, create a greater awareness of electric vehicles, improve air quality, and reduce fuel cost and reliance on foreign oil. MassEVIP is closely related to and will enhance the work of the Green Communities initiative within the Department of Energy Resources through which communities strive to be cleaner and more energy efficient by purchasing only fuel-efficient vehicles. According to statistics provided by the State Office of Energy and Environmental Affairs, the transportation sector makes up one-third of the total greenhouse gases emitted in Massachusetts. Given that a single electric vehicle can reduce fuel consumption by over 6,000 gallons of gasoline in its lifetime, the effect of MassEVIP on fuel consumption may be very significant.

stephen russell Massachusetts Clean Cities 617-626-7325

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Cover Story

it’s electric!

TN Commits to Plugging in for Electric Vehicles Tennessee really stepped out this year for National Plug In Day (NPID), organizing the most per capita events in the nation with a total of nine separate events spread across the entire 440 miles of the Volunteer State. NPID is a nationwide celebration and awareness day for electric vehicles (EVs), and TN did just that, joining with 90 other events that were scheduled across the U.S. Each event had its own flavor; some locations allowed for ride-and-drives, some allowed for a great vehicle show. In each case, there were passionate and dedicated leaders who staffed each event and talked their hearts out about EVs. A few events were lucky to have some start players show up in the form of the Tesla Model S and Tesla Roadster. 20

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What’s significant about these nine events is the collaboration from entities all across the state. It took hours of partnership from TN’s Clean Cities coalitions and their partners, the TN Department of Environment and Conservation, the University of TN at Knoxville’s EcoCAR2 team, UT Cycle UShare, local dealerships, and many more. In order to keep our nine events moving in the right direction, “Team TN” held biweekly conference calls which were facilitated by East TN Clean Fuels. The result of this series of events is that thousands of Tennesseans were exposed to these exciting vehicles, and hundreds more received direct education about electric technologies and how they can fit into many different types of lifestyles.

Above: Organizers talk about the Volt with UT Vol fans at one of Knoxville’s events. Left: Knoxville’s NPID event had a myriad of EVs, including this converted Blakely Bernardi.

Not only are EVs freeing Tennesseans from the gas pump and cleaning our community’s air, they are more fun to drive. The East TN Plug In Day events showed our community how cars and trucks can drive thousands of miles without any oil or gas, saving money, making driving more fun, and slashing carbon pollution, air pollution, and our dependence on foreign oil.

kristy keel-blackmon East Tennessee Clean Fuels 865-974-9665

- Jonathan Overly, Executive Director, East TN Clean Fuels

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newly rebranded Louisiana Clean Fuels Louisiana Clean Fuels will continue working hand-in-hand with stakeholders and partners. This EVSE ribbon cutting at the Whole Foods in Baton Rouge was held the same day as the expansion. L to R: representatives of Whole Foods, Solar Alternatives, Clean Cities, and Kip Holden, mayor and president of East Baton Rouge.

Louisiana Clean Fuels is the new name for the Greater Baton Rouge Clean Cities Coalition. Lauren Stuart, Executive Director proudly announced the name change and the finalization of a territory expansion for the organization at the stakeholder luncheon today. This expansion will extend the boundaries to seven of the eight state planning districts. The mission of LCF is to improve the air quality, increase national energy security and promote economic opportunity in the state of Louisiana by increasing the use of alternative fuels. The expansion of the LCF territory will fill the need for enhanced regional collaboration on fueling corridor development and will provide these regions with access to help and information for development. It also responds to LCF’s recent involvement in improving the air quality around the state through cleaner fuels and transportation opportunities. Our corporate objectives include developing a sustainable market


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for alternative fuels and alternative fuel vehicles and educating the public about the economic benefits of affordable, domestically available transportation fuels. Louisiana Clean Fuels will work in partnership with the Southeast Louisiana Clean Fuels Partnership, which represents the Greater New Orleans Region. The LCF territory includes all of Louisiana except for those parishes covered by our sister organization namely: Jefferson, Orleans, Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Tammany, St. Charles, St. John the Baptist, and Tangipahoa. Both coalitions work closely with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources and are designated affiliates of the US Department of Energy’s Clean Cities Program.

ann shaneyfelt Louisiana Clean Fuels 225-334-8083


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Utah Transit Authority

an Air Quality Leader

The geography of the Wasatch Front offers northern Utah residents stunning vistas and unique air quality challenges. Several counties along the Wasatch Front are classified as “air quality maintenance areas” for carbon monoxide and ozone as well as “non-attainment areas” for particulate matter. Since 1994, the Utah Clean Cities Coalition (UCCC) has actively worked with stakeholders to reduce petroleum consumption and resulting emissions in the transportation sector. As an original stakeholder, the Utah Transit Authority (UTA) has worked with UCCC for nearly two decades to determine viable fuel alternatives that would allow UTA to mitigate its impact on this sensitive air shed. A golden opportunity arose in 2009 when UCCC was awarded a $14.9 million American Reinvestment and Recovery Act grant. UTA, one of UCCC’s 34 grant partners, purchased 20 hybrid transit buses. In the first two years of operation, these buses have provided more than 900,000 passenger trips and over 3.4 million passenger miles (see Table 1).

UTA has continued to advance alternative fuels in its fleet, with its most recent purchase of 24 CNG transit buses. The initial 12 buses, delivered in the spring of 2013, have already provided over 63,000 passenger trips and over 240,000 passenger miles (see Table 2). UTA plans to transition its entire bus fleet to new technology that will not only meet today’s stringent federal standards, but will also improve air quality, reduce greenhouse gases, and increase our nation’s energy security. By choosing alternative fuels and advanced vehicles technologies, UTA continues its commitment to improve the quality of life for Wasatch Front residents.

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Diesel Emissions Saved

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Table 2: 2013 CNG Transit Bus Emissions Savings (Data from 2013)

irene rizza

Utah Clean Cities Coalition 801-535-7736

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how do Electric Vehicles fare in

New Hampshire’s Winter?

New Hampshire dealerships are no strangers to electric vehicles (EVs); they’ve been selling and leasing them for two years. Over a hundred Chevy Volts, Nissan Leafs, and Mitsubishi IMiEVs are sporting NH license plates and most have experienced their first New England winter. So, how did they fare in our cold, mountainous region where winter temperatures range from -14° to of 50°? There’s no debating that EVs are more sensitive to extreme temperatures than their gasoline counterparts. Technologies in these vehicles rely heavily on large batteries and can experience a decrease in power or charge in very cold temperatures. Charging times increase too, as the cold temperatures slow the chemical process within the battery. This can mean charging longer for less range.

Above: Larry, a New Hampshire EV driver, shows his Nissan Leaf to onlookers. Below: Larry’s “NOGAS” license plate.

Larry, a New Hampshire Leaf owner, admits his car is less efficient in the winter, with 20-25% reduction in range, but says it depends on how much he uses his interior heater which also draws on the battery, thereby reducing the amount of charge available for driving. He preheats the vehicle by turning the

interior heater on when the vehicle is plugged in, allowing electricity to be pulled directly from his household current. Larry also notices a difference in efficiency when the lights and wipers are on. Nick, a Volt owner, also experienced a reduction in battery range of nine miles this past winter and a slight reduction in fuel economy consistent with gasoline vehicles. General Motors calls the Chevy Volt an extended range electric vehicle as the electric motor that powers the vehicle is supported by an internal combustion engine. Battery-only range is up to 40 miles under normal circumstances. When the battery is depleted, the engine acts as a generator to charge the battery, run the heater and air conditioner, and supplements the motor in powering the vehicle. Worth noting is that the 2013 Volt comes with a hold mode that allows the driver switch off the battery and run on the gas engine for short periods.


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There are ways EV owners can help their vehicle through a long, cold winter. First and foremost, the battery should be kept warm. When possible, vehicles should be plugged in when not operating. Keeping the vehicle in a garage helps; both Larry and Nick garage their cars at night. The interior heater in the Leaf can be operated prior to unplugging the car to drive (Larry preserved his Leaf driving range by preheating). This tactic also works for cooling the Leaf’s interior in summer. GM suggests Volt owners use the remote starting features and to switch the climate mode setting from Comfort to Eco. It is important to use temperature-appropriate motor oil in the Volt’s internal combustion engine as well.

All in all, both Larry and Nick were pleased with the performance of their EVs on New Hampshire’s hilly, frost-heaved winter roads. As with all vehicles, it is important to perform regular maintenance for miles of driving in any condition.

dolores rebolledo Granite State Clean Cities 603-271-6751

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Feces to Fuel

Hog waste could reduce gasoline consumption in NC by Four Percent The Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS) presents a unique opportunity in North Carolina’s developing green economy. The RFS mandates a renewable volume obligation (RVO) for suppliers and requires that a minimum volume of renewable fuel will be used in the national transportation fuel supply to offset gasoline and diesel consumption. RVOs increase each year, and in 2012, RVOs became higher than market demand. To meet RVOs, refiners utilize the renewable identification number (RIN) market to purchase offsets. Recent changes to the RFS have broadened RIN qualifications to include electricity and biogas or compressed natural gas (CNG) derived from manure digesters as an advanced biofuel. North Carolina is the second largest hog farm producer in the U.S. Anaerobic digesters could convert the hog manure produced in the state into 169 million gasoline gallon equivalents per year. North Carolina consumed 4,336 million gallons of motor gasoline in 2011. Using biogas derived from hog manure would result in a 4% reduction in gasoline consumption statewide.

However, there are only six active anaerobic digesters in North Carolina. None of these systems integrate biogas for transportation fuel, but instead opt for electricity production and waste heat utilization. Only one, Loyd Ray Farms, is involved in voluntary carbon offset trading in partnership with Duke University, Duke Energy, and Google. As new gasoline vehicles become more fuel-efficient and investments into mass transit systems increase, gasoline consumption is projected to decrease. This will result in increasing difficulty to comply with the RFS without trading offsets in the RIN market. As electric and CNG vehicles enter the market, demand for biogas may also increase. However, there are significant challenges to widespread utilization. The Triangle Clean Cities Coalition, a member of the Alternative Fuel Implementation Team (AFIT), held a natural gas for transportation charrette in June to identify the issues and opportunities to the integration of natural gas as an alternative fuel. AFIT members are currently creating a toolkit to facilitate the integration of natural gas into the North Carolina transportation fuel market.

Figure 1 NC Biogas Potential: 19.5 million MMBtu per year (Source: Duke University, 2013)

marie curtis

Triangle Clean Cities Coalition 919-558-9402


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question of the month From September 2013

What are the key terms to know when discussing electric drive vehicles and their fueling infrastructure? It is important to know how to “talk the talk” when it comes to electric drive vehicles. Becoming familiar with the terms below will help you better understand these vehicles and the associated fueling (charging) infrastructure, so that you can ask the right questions and make informed decisions: Vehicle Types There are two main categories of electric drive vehicles: • Hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are powered by an internal combustion engine or other propulsion source that runs on conventional or alternative fuel, as well as an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The battery is charged through regenerative braking and by the internal combustion engine, and is not plugged in to charge. Regenerative breaking is a technology by which energy normally lost during braking is captured by the electric motor and stored in the battery for extra power during acceleration. There are two different types of HEVs: - Mild hybrid: This type of HEV uses a battery and electric motor to help power the vehicle and can allow the engine to shut off when the vehicle stops (such as at traffic lights or in stop-and-go traffic). Mild hybrid systems cannot power the vehicle using electricity alone. Example: Chevrolet Malibu Eco - Full hybrid: This type of HEV generally has more powerful electric motors and larger batteries, which can drive the vehicle on just electric power for short distances and at low speeds. Example: Toyota Prius HEVs can be designed in two different configurations: - Parallel: This configuration connects the engine and the electric motor to the wheels through mechanical coupling and allows both the electric motor and the engine to drive the wheels directly, either simultaneously or independently. - Series: In this configuration, only the electric motor drives the wheels. The internal combustion engine is used to generate electricity for the motor. • Plug-in electric vehicles (PEV) refer to any on-road vehicle that can be charged through an external source of electricity. There are two different types of PEVs available: 32

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- Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV): Like HEVs, these vehicles are powered by an internal combustion engine that can run on conventional or alternative fuel, as well as an electric motor that uses energy stored in a battery. The difference is that these vehicles can be plugged into an electric power source to charge the battery. PHEVs can have a parallel or series design as well. Example: Chevy Volt - Electric vehicle, or all-electric vehicle (EV): These vehicles use a battery to store the electric energy that powers the motor. EV batteries are charged by plugging the vehicle into an electric power source. EVs are sometimes referred to as battery electric vehicles (BEVs). Example: Nissan Leaf - Neighborhood electric vehicle (NEV): These vehicles are smaller and have less battery power than traditional EVs, and are often referred to as low-speed vehicles. NEVs are confined to roads with lower speed limits and states set specific regulations regarding their use. Infrastructure Terminology Charging equipment for PEVs is known as electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE). Charging times vary based on how depleted the battery is, how much energy it holds, the type of battery, and the type of EVSE. Before exploring types of EVSE, it’s important to first understand the basics of electricity through the following terminology: • Current type: - Alternating current (AC): Movement of electric current that reverses or alternates direction. AC is the form of current normally generated and delivered by an electric utility to homes and businesses. - Direct current (DC): Movement of electric current that continuously flows in the same direction. DC is the form of current normally delivered through batteries and is essential to charging vehicle batteries. As certain types of EVSE only provide AC (Level 1 and Level 2 described below), all PEVs are equipped with onboard equipment to convert the current to DC. • Amperage: The amount of electrical current, which can be thought of as the rate of flow. Amperage is measured in amperes, commonly referred to as amps.

• Voltage: The electric potential energy per unit charge, which can be thought of as the force or pressure that drives the electric current. Voltage is measured in volts (V). - By multiplying amperage by voltage, you can find the unit of power, otherwise known as watts (W). There are 1000 watts in a kilowatt (kW). A typical residential three-prong outlet can supply 12 amps at 120V, or 1.44 kW based on the following equation: 12 amps x 120V = 1440 W / 1000 = 1.44 kW

- PEV battery pack energy capacity is measured in kilowatt-hours (kWh). A kWh is a unit of energy that indicates the ability to provide a given amount of power for one hour. In theory, a 24 kWh battery pack would take 16.7 hours to charge using a standard 3-prong outlet based on the following equation: 24 kWh / 1.44 kW = 16.7 hours EVSE Categories There are five different types of EVSE outlined in the table below.

EVSE Categories Category

Basic Information


Charge Time

Level 1

- 120V AC plug - Typical for residential charging; uses a standard household outlet - All PEVs come with a two-ended Level 1 EVSE cordset. One end has a standard threeprong plug, and the other has a connector that plugs into the receptacle on the vehicle

SAE J1772, NEMA 5-15, or NEMA 5-20

2 to 5 miles of range per hour of charging time to a light-duty PHEV or EV

Level 2

SAE J1772 - 240V AC plug (residential applications) or 208V AC plug (commercial applications) - Typical for residential, workplace, fleet, and public facilities - Most homes have 240V service available but require equipment installation and a dedicated circuit of 20 to 80 amps, depending on EVSE requirements

10 to 20 miles of range per hour of charging time to a light-duty PHEV or EV

Level 3

- Pending industry consensus on definition



DC Fast

- 480V AC input with AC-DC converter - Enables rapid charging along heavy traffic corridors and at public stations

Three types: - CHAdeMO - SAE J1772 Combo - Tesla Supercharger

60 to 80 miles of range to a light-duty PHEV or EV in 20 minutes

Legacy “Paddle” Inductive

- Uses an electromagnetic field, which transfers electricity without a cord - Today’s available PEVs do not use this type of charging

Small paddle or large paddle inductive


Wireless Inductive

- Uses an electromagnetic field, which transfers electricity without a cord - Currently in planning and testing stages, not yet available

SAE J2954 (pending)


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Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities

Seeks Expansion

The Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Program (GPCCP) was one of the first designated Clean Cities organizations in the country. At that time, alternative fuels were a novel concept within the mainstream business and municipal transportation models. But pioneers must begin somewhere. The GPCCP has grown with the industry and is now the go-to group concerning alternative fuels and technologies in the Delaware Valley. GPCCP’s original designation by the Department of Energy covered five counties in southeastern Pennsylvania: Bucks, Montgomery, Delaware, Chester, and Philadelphia (which is its own county). Last November, GPCCP, in partnership with Pittsburgh Region Clean Cities Coalition, officially requested to be re-designated by the Department of Energy to cover an additional 28 counties in central and eastern Pennsylvania. GPCCP is rapidly making its presence known in these other regions by working with the State Department of Environmental Protection to promote alternative fuels. The GPCCP name will also be changing to reflect

our new region and looks forward to helping any municipality, company, or utility switch to alternative fuels and vehicles. GPCCP considers it a pleasure to continue working with partners as well as helping new fleets with their foray into alternative fuels. Throughout the years, GPCCP has helped many fleets convert to alternative fuels and we have been actively supporting both public and private entities in its designated borders and beyond. One prime project involves the Lower Merion School District. They currently operate the East Coast’s largest school bus fleet that runs on compressed natural gas with over 50 vehicles (Video 1). Additionally, Enterprise Holdings is creating an even bigger impact on the reduction of usage of petroleum. Enterprise Holdings is the owner and operator of Philly Car Share, a company that is anticipating having at least 100 alternative fuel vehicles to be used in a car share model (Video 2). It is this type of work that puts GPCCP in the spotlight throughout Central and Eastern PA. As the alternative fuel industry grows and changes, the coalition will, too.

tony bandiero

Greater Philadelphia Clean Cities Coalition 215-990-8200 fall 2013 |


Do you know about the


that are

available to


Check out the Alternative Fuel Data Center’s Tools page to help assist fleets, fuel providers, and stakeholders. Click here to get started!

Partner Focus

Saddle Creek Logistic Services is taking a bite out of their carbon emissions by employing a new fleet of CNG delivery trucks. Watch the video to find out more about this great initiative!

Farm to Fork to Fuel

and back again

Sacramento Clean Cities, working with stakeholders CleanWorld, Atlas Disposal, Greenwise, Sacramento Air District, City of Sacramento Fleet, BREATHE California, CalRecycle, and SacEV are making the production of renewable fuel from biodegradable food waste a reality in the Sacramento Region. Dr. Ruihong Zhang, a professor of Biological and Agricultural Engineering at the University of California, Davis has developed a multi-stage, low-water, anaerobic digestion (AD) technology that has been licensed to CleanWorld. Refuse company Atlas Disposal collects biodegradable food waste and drops it at one of the two CleanWorld ADs currently operating in Sacramento.

CNG refuse and sweepers on order. This fleet has also just signed a contract to use both liquefied and compressed RNG in all their natural gas trucks. The Sacramento Clean Cities Coalition has held seven “Zero Waste” events where the food and paper products were taken to the AD. In 2014, neighborhood waste collection sites will be established, significant outreach to major biodegradable waste generators will be programmed, and several workshops will be conducted.

CleanWorld is currently operating two ADs in Sacramento and constructing a third at UC Davis. The smaller of the two in Sacramento is supplying electrical energy to a manufacturing facility. The larger is producing renewable natural gas (RNG) that is compressed and dispensed at a co-located card lock station where both “blue” CNG (fossil natural gas) and “green” RNG are available. A third AD is under construction at UC Davis where it will use animal waste and food waste and generate renewable electricity (RE) for use in a new “Net Zero” housing development on campus. Some of this RE will also power electric vehicles, making it a second renewable transportation fuel that can be made from the biodegradable waste. At present, Atlas is running 14 trucks in their refuse fleet on RNG, and a station upgrade is underway to quadruple the size of the AD, making much more RNG available. The City of Sacramento Fleet currently operates over 100 LNG refuse trucks and has nine

keith leech

Sacramento Clean Cities Coalition 916-808-5869


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american beauty The new public access CNG station on I-65 at exit 354 in Athens, Alabama makes the Nashville to Birmingham trip a breeze on CNG.

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Fall 2013 Fuels Fix  

Your resource for alternative fuel news from across the nation.

Fall 2013 Fuels Fix  

Your resource for alternative fuel news from across the nation.