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LIVE WORK PLAY MOVE A STUDY AND EXPLORATION OF HYBRIDIZED ARCHITECTURE

JEREMY FUTERMAN 5th YEAR THESIS PROJECT STANNARD STUDIO 2014


THIS IS A BOOK IN PROGRESS WHICH CONTAINS A LOT OF FILLER TEXT AS WELL AS A LOT OF COPIED TEXT. ALL TEXT WILL EITHER BE REPLACED OR CITED BEFORE TRULY PUBLISHING! First published 2013 by BLURB Š 2013 By Jeremy Futerman All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writing from the author. This book has been produced in an effort to complete coursework for a Bachelors of Architecture degree at the California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo. Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the material and site all sources.


To my family, To my teachers, To my friends, I MADE IT BECAUSE OF YOU


CONTENTS

PREFACE

00

WHAT IS A CITY?

01

URBAN MIGRATION

02

A HYBRIDIZED ARCHITECTURE

03

A FRAGMENTED CITY

04

THE ROAD TO PICO CENTER

05

PICO CENTER

THE INTRO

THE ISSUE

THE SOLUTION

THE SITE

THE PROCESS

THE PROJECT

BIBLIOGRAPHY


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PREFACE In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building.5


10

00

WHAT IS A CITY?


The foundation of this thesis is rooted in urban design and how the built environment can provide a more efficient way of living. Therefore, before diving into architectural discourse and creating a proposal for a different type of city living, it is imperative to have a basic understanding of urban design principles as well as a definition of the city and its various components. What is a city?

“The city, in its complete sense, is a geographic plexus, an economic organization, an institutional process, a theatre of social action, and an aesthetic symbol of collective unity.” (Lewis Mumford, What is a city?, 1937)

The city is a part of our everyday vocabulary. One might say “I work for the city” or “I live in the city” or “What part of the city is that located in?” We know what we mean when we make these statements and we all have a clear picture in our heads of what constitutes a city, but when one begins to think about the boundaries of the city and what differentiates a city from a town or a village, that clear picture becomes much more blurry.6 So how does one define a city? One can look to a dictionary, but the definition will provide no more than a brief physical description. The difficulty in defining this word lies in the fact that a city is a complex entity composed of physical, cultural, economical, and sociological conditions that are in a constant flux based on time and location. In other words, the definition of a city changes based on what time period one lives in and where in the world one lives. Perhaps looking back at the world’s earliest cities and why these cities formed will give insight to a definition. The very first cities were found in Mesopotamia after the Neolithic revolution around 7500 BCE and the conventional theorists believe that agriculture was the catalyst for city growth. Farming allowed for a surplus of food therefore enticing those with nomadic lifestyles to settle near the agricultural hubs. This migration brought greater densities to certain area and because of the closer proximity of people there was a reduction in the cost of food, transportation and trade.7 To greater distinguish these newly forming cities from earlier settlements and villages, V. Gordon Childe, a renowned 20th Century archeologist, composed a list of ten traits; 1) The size and density of the cities should be greater than previous settlements. 2) There is a differentiation in the population, which leads to specialists in certain crafts. 3) The payment of taxes to a king or diety; 4) monumental public buildings that symbolized the social surplus; 5) the creation of a ruling class; 6) a system of writing; 7) systems of recording and practical science; 8) the development of symbolic art; 9) trade and import of raw materials; 10) specialist craftsmen from outside the kin group.8 The remainder of this section is not yet completed.


12

The following is filler text: theory and project surrounding this thesis are deeply rooted in urban design. Therefore, before discussing the issues and proposals involved with this thesis, it is imperative to answer some fundamental questions. What is a city? What is urban? And what is the difference between urban and suburban? What is a city? Defining the term city is a very difficult thing and has been debated ever since the creation of the first city thousands of years ago. The difficulty lies in the fact that a city can be defined with regards to its physical, social, or economical characterisitics. Physically, a city can be defined by its location, its citizens and its visual appearance. The following will continue to talk about what makes up a city. It will discuss what differentiates a city from a town or hamlet.It will then expand upon the creation of the first city and why that was deemed a city. It will discuss Lewis Mumford’s idea of the city and its social characteristics. What is economically imperative to the city and try to establish my own definition of the city. The following is just filler text for what is discussed above: In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth the pedestrian off the street and taken away a key element in creating a strong and vibrant community. More specifically the project will cover a hotel and condominium tower.8 It is the hope that the proposed building will incorporate the vibrant atmosphere of LA Live and will continue to revitalize the urban core of Los Angeles. the hope that a complex that hybridizes function and provideto the ty. It is also the hope that such a model can be adapted throughout the urban world to accommodation want to enjoy city living. kfjksdhfkdlshfsdlkfhsklfhkhfkdhfkhdkfhdkfhkdhfkdhkdhfkshfkdhfkdhfkdhfkdhfkdhfkdhfks hfksdhfkdhfk sociologist and literary critic, published a paper architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses,


but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building. In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, volumes are districts, and diagonals are boulevards.6” While the building was never actualized, the ideas and aesthetic proposed in this project have been incorporated in recent projects across Asia. Such projects include; BIG’s “Cross # Towers” in Seoul, MVRDV’s “Vertical City” in Jakarta, and Takenaka Corporation’s Skycity 1000 in Tokyo.7 While the hybridized typology has begun to manifest itself in the eastern part of the world, this thesis will strive to understand how such a typology can exist and contribute to an urban environment within the United States. What is urban? This section will discuss the characteristics of the urban city. Physically urban is classified by characteristics such as population, population density, geographic area, boundaries, but the requirements for what is considered urban vary by county, state, and country. This section will also go on to discuss the theory of Jane Jacobs and Le Corbusier and what they deemed a city. Finally I will discuss the concept of megacities and their relation to this thesis. The following is filler text for this section: The proposed hybridized skyscraper will be placed in the downtown core of Los Angeles, a city known across the world for its horizontal development and urban sprawl. Los Angeles’ dependency on the automobile has also pushed the pedestrian off the street and taken away a key element in creating a strong and vibrant community. More specifically the project will cover a couple of lots bounded by S Figueroa Street on the north, S Flower Street on the south, W Pico Blvd on the west and W 11th Street on the east. The site currently contains two street level parking lots and sits on top of the Pico metro stop. The site sits adjacent to the newly constructed LA Live


14

District which encompasses 5.6 million square feet of apartments, ballrooms, bars, concert theatres, movie theatres and a 54- story hotel and condominium tower.8 It is the hope that the proposed building will incorporate the vibrant atmosphere of LA Live and will continue to revitalize the urban core of Los Angeles. With over 200,000 weekday employess but only 45,518 permenant residents, the downtown core is in a constantly growing state and serves as the perfect testing ground for such a project.9 It is the hope that a complex that hybridizes function and provides a convenient downtown location will entice not only the younger generations but also those currently in the suburbs to migrate back to the urban core and revitalize and invigorate a tight knit community. It is also the hope that such a model can be adapted throughout the urban world to accommodate the new wave of people that want to enjoy city liviIn the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, volumes are districts, and diagonals are boulevards.6” While the building was never actualized, the ideas and aesthetic proposed in this project have been incorporated in recent projects across Asia. Such projects include; BIG’s “Cross # Towers” in Seoul, MVRDV’s “Vertical City” in Jakarta, and Takenaka Corporation’s Skycity 1000 in Tokyo.7 While the hybridized typology has begun to manifest itself in the eastern part of the world, this thesis will strive to understand how such a typology can exist and contribute to an urban environment within the United States. In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth


with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? What is suburban? This section will discuss the history of migration from the city to the suburbs and then make a clear distinction between the suburbs and the central city. It will conclude by mentioning a new migration into the cities which will launch the next chapter. The following is filler text for the remainder of this section: This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building. In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the


16

01

URBAN MIGRATION


“It is evident that each great movement of population, in sum, presents a new opportunity and a new task, and wisdom consists in taking advantage of the movement while it is still fluid.” (Lewis Mumford, “The Fourth Migration,” 1925)

THIS CHAPTER HAS YET TO BE WRITTEN. The following section will discuss in more depth the movement of population to cities. It will also discuss and define what the United Nations considers as an urban area. There will be a discussion of this issue on a global scale and a more local scale. While globally there is a migration from the rural communities to the cities, at the local scale we might begin to see a shift from the suburbs to the metropolitan areas. What sort of people are moving back? This section will also touch on the environmental issues of the suburbs and how a migation back to the city will greatly reduce our environmental impact. THis is filler text :In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? The Global Issue The following is filler text for this section: In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, volumes are districts, and diagonals are boulevards.6” While the building was never actualized, the ideas and aesthetic proposed in this project have been incorporated in recent projects across Asia. Such projects include; BIG’s “Cross # Towers” in Seoul, MVRDV’s “Vertical City” in Jakarta, and Takenaka Corporation’s Skycity 1000 in Tokyo.7 While


18

the hybridized typology has begun to manifest itself in the eastern part of the world, this thesis will strive to understand how such a typology can exist and contribute to an urban environment within the United States. The proposed hybridized skyscraper will be placed in the downtown core of Los Angeles, a city known across the world for its horizontal development and urban sprawl. Los Angeles’ dependency on the automobile has also pushed the pedestrian off the street and taken away a key element in creating a strong and vibrant community. More specifically the project will cover a couple of lots bounded by S Figueroa Street on the north, S Flower Street on the south, W Pico Blvd on the west and W 11th Street on the east. The site currently contains two street level parking lots and sits on top of the Pico metro stop. The site sits adjacent to the newly constructed LA Live District which encompasses 5.6 million square feet of apartments, ballrooms, bars, concert theatres, movie theatres and a 54- story hotel and condominium tower.8 It is the hope that the proposed building

UNITED STATES 301.2 MILLION 363.2 MILLION 249 MILLION 305 MILLION

BRAZIL 190 MILLION 226.9 MILLION 163 MILLION 207 MILLION

WORLD POPULATION (2007) WORLD POPULATION (2025) URBAN POPULATION (2007) URBAN POPULATION (2025)

3,290 MILLION 4,580 MILLION


will incorporate the vibrant atmosphere of LA Live and will continue to revitalize the urban core of Los Angeles. With over 200,000 weekday employess but only 45,518 permenant residents, the downtown core is in a constantly growing state and serves as the perfect testing ground for such a project.9 It is the hope that a complex that hybridizes function and provides a convenient downtown location will entice not only the younger generations but also those currently in the suburbs to migrate back to the urban core and revitalize and invigorate a tight knit community. It is also the hope that such a model can be adapted throughout the urban world to accommodate the new wave of people that want to enjoy city living. In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,� a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing

CHINA

1,317.9 MILLION 1,504.7 MILLION 561 MILLION 822 MILLION

INDIA

1,159.1 MILLION 1,477.2 MILLION

NIGERIA 147.2 MILLION

341 MILLION

247.1 MILLION

538 MILLION

71 MILLION 127 MILLION

6,602.2 MILLION 8,100 MILLION


20

what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? The Local Issue The following is filler text for this section: This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building.5 In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population


living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a growing population and it’s demands for housing, infrastructure, jobs and community? This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic.


22

02

A HYBRIDIZED ARCHITECTURE


THIS CHAPTER HAS YET TO BE WRITTEN. It will discuss the history and use of mixed use buildings and will segment into the new live/ work buildings and then will explain and discuss the hybridized buildings and the zoning and social issues that arrise with such a building. The chapter will conclude with commentary on how a hybridized architecture can greatly decrease carbon emissions and how it is a sustainable model. thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building.5 This section will expand upon the above paragraph. It will discuss the history and use of mixed use buildings and will segment into the new live/ work buildings and then will explain and discuss the hybridized buildings and the zoning and social issues that arrise with such a building. The chapter will conclude with commentary on how a hybridized architecture can greatly decrease carbon emissions and how it is a sustainable model. Many case studies will also be incorporated into this section. The following is filler text for this section.In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations


24

census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building.5 The following is filler text for this section.In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers sus data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction. The following are case studies:The following is filler text for this section.In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded


city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers sus data there were approximately 2.5 billion peopt The following are case studies: The Hyperbuilding_ Rem Koolhaas The hyperbuilding is an theoretical self-contained city for 120,000 people located in Bangock, Thailand. “To preserve the environment and the necessary proximity between home and work space, the Hyperbuilding is a self-contained city, but it is not disconnected from the surrounding urban dynamic. To achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, volumes are districts, and diagonals are boulevards. The Hyperbuilding has multiple transportation systems: four boulevards with cable cars, gondolas and train elevators connect the hyperbuilding with the city below, six streets with high and low speed elevators are the main vertical connections and a walkable promenade of 12km goes from ground level to the top. The Hyperbuilding can be read as the integration of several buildings into a larger whole. The different elements support each other in every sense: architecturally, they form an integrated complex; technically, issues of stability, access, circulation and servicing are organised collectively; urbanistically, the entire building becomes an urban quarter of a new kind.9“


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Cross # Towers_ BIG These proposed mixed use towers for the Yongsan master plan in Seoul, Korea begin to display a sense of what a hybridized building can be. By incorporating the bridges between the towers, BIG begins to bring some of the street life into the building. “The Cross # Towers constitute a three-dimensional urban community of interlocking horizontal and vertical towers. Three public bridges connect two slender towers at different levels – underground, at the street and in the sky. Catering to the demands and desires of different residents, age groups and cultures the bridges are landscaped and equipped for a variety of activities traditionally restricted to the ground. The resultant volume forms a distinct figure on the new skyline of Seoul – a “#” that serves as a gateway to the new Yongsan Business District signaling a radical departure from the crude repetition of disconnected towers towards a new urban community that populates the three-dimensional space of the city.” Thomas Christoffersen, a partner at big comments, “The typical tower inherently removes life from the city it occupies. Circulation is linear and social interactions occur only in lobbies or awkward elevator rides. We propose a building that triples the amount of ground floor – triples the amount of social interaction and reintroduces the idea of neighborhood within the tower complex.10”


Vertical City_ MVRDV The vertical city proposed by MVRDV, is a 88 story, 400 meter tall building that comes closest to an actualized version of the hybridized typology. The tower incorporates a great variety of office and housing typologies, from large office surfaces to living/working units, from lofts to townhouses, from terraced houses to patio living. Each of these stacked urban blocks comes with a semi-public roof park, an abundance of gardens, playgrounds, spas, gym’s, outdoor restaurants and swimming pools available to the inhabitants and office employees. Winy Maas, MVRDV co-founder stated “Peruri 88 is vertical Jakarta, it represents a new, denser, social, green mini-city – a monument to the development of Jakarta as a modern icon literally raised from its own city fabric.11” While this building comes close to the hybridized typology, the fact that it is so copartamentalized and stacked puts it in the mixed use typology rather than the hybridized typology.


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Skycity 1000_ Tenaka Corporation Skycity 1000 is a proposed supertall skyscraper in Tokyo. And is intended to be a full service tower. Since its conception in 1989, different industries have been testing and experimenting with systems in order to address circulation, fire and structural concerns. The plan consists of a building 1,000 metres (3,281 ft) tall and 400 m (1,312 ft) wide at the base, and a total floor area of 8 km2 (3.1 sq mi). The design, proposed in 1989 by Takenaka Corporation, would house between 35,000 and 36,000 fulltime residents, as well as 100,000 workers. It comprises 14 concave dish-shaped “Space Plateaus� stacked one upon the other. The interior of the plateaus would contain greenspace, and on the edges, on the sides of the building, would be the apartments. Also included in the building would be offices, commercial facilities, schools, theatres, and other modern amenities.12


Transbay Terminal_ Pelli Clarke Pelli San Francisco’s newest transit hub will centralize all the transportation in the city by accomodating nine systems under one roof. Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects have designed a new terminal, a 1.3 mile extension of the Caltrain rail line, and the redevelopment of the surrounding area which will add 2,600 new homes, a 5.4 acre park roof and a retail street. And a loan of over $170 million given by the Transportation Infrastructure Finance and Innovation Act has given the project an extra push foward. Once completed in 2014, the terminal will include wind turbines, geothermal heating methods and a graywater recycling system. The hub will be a strong message that green technology can successfully be combined with modern transportation. “We are thrilled to be one of the first modern rail stations in the United States to achieve this historic milestone and look forward to continuing to make progress on the Transbay Project,” explained Maria Ayerdi-Kaplan, Executive Director of the Transbay Joint Powers Authority (TJPA).13


30

ANOTHER CASE STUDY COMING SOON


MORE CASE STUDIES TO COME


32

03

A FRAGMENTED CITY


“The Big Orange”, “Tinseltown”, “The Entertainment Capital of the World”, “The City of Angels,” “L.A.” these are the many nicknames that have been given to the city of Los Angeles.15 Located in Southern California in Los Angeles County, the city of Los Angeles is home to 3.86 million people and covers an area of over 469 square miles. Although Los Angeles might be considered a young city, the modern day Los Angeles is a center for international trade, banking, manufacturing, entertainment and tourism. Diverse in its people, culture and geology Los Angeles truly has something to offer everyone.16 However, Los Angeles is not without its problems. Since the introduction of its immense freeway system in the 1940’s and the migration to the suburbs after World War II, Los Angeles has become this sprawling metropolis that has become completely dependent on the automobile. It is because of this sprawl that L.A. suffers from many environmental issues, air quality being at the top of the list. Sprawl has also taken this diverse melting pot of cultures and fragmented it into neighborhoods classified by race or culture. It is because of both its glory and its issues that Los Angeles has been chosen as the testing ground for this thesis. The following chapter discusses the geography, climate, history, culture and demographics of the city of Los Angeles.

Geography & Geology Los Angeles is a very diverse region both climatically and geologically. Located in sunny Southern California, the city is bordered by the Pacific Ocean on the south and the west, the Santa Monica Mountains on the north and the San Gabriel


Mountains on the east.16 Once a bountiful land with a healthy river, dense forests, and many wetlands and swamps, today Los Angeles consists of both hilly and flat terrain and a barren river that has been lined in concrete.17

34

Because of its diverse geological and climatic conditions, the Los Angeles area is prone to many federally identified natural threats. At the top of the list are earthquakes, fires, and severe weather and flooding. Sitting just south of the San Andreas Fault, Los Angeles is greatly susceptible to earthquakes. The Emergency Management Department of the City of Los Angeles, estimates that there are about 10,000 earthquakes annually. While most of these are small and never felt, the city is constantly aware of the possibility of this natural disaster. Los Angeles is also prone to wildfires during the summer months due to high winds and dry hillsides. Finally, flooding and mudslides are also dangers during the winter months when there is heavy rainfall.18 Climate Los Angeles is classified as a Mediterranean climate, meaning that it experiences dry summers and rainy winters. The average yearly temperature for Los Angeles is 66 degrees, averaging around 75 degrees during the day and 57 degrees at night. Los Angeles receives about 15.14 inches of precipitation annually.19 Because of the size of the city and its diverse geological conditions, Los Angeles experiences a variety of micro-climates. While it is generally cooler on the coast, it is much hotter inland and in the valley.

90% 80% 70% 60%

50%

40%

30%

20% NATURAL VENTILATION

WINTER SPRING SUMMER FALL

10%

THERMAL MASS COMFORT

Psychometric chart

PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING

41

50

59

68

77

86

95

(AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE F)

104

113


N

SUN PATH

20 30 1st Jun

1st Jul

40 50

1st May

1st Aug

60 70

1st Sep

80

1st Apr

270

90

1st Oct

1st Mar 1st Nov

1st Feb

1st Dec

1st Jan

Annual sun path diagram

180

SKY COVER 2 am 4 am 6 am 8 am 10 am 12 noon 2 pm 4 pm 6 pm

10-30 %

Annual sky cover chart

30-60 %

8 pm

60-80 %

10 pm

>80 % 12 pm JAN

FEB

MAR

APR

MAY

JUN

JUL

AUG

SEP

OCT

NOV

DEC

With regards to design, because of the city’s moderate climate a building would call for passive solar heating in the winter, natural ventilation in the summer and thermal massing all year long. The diagrams below show how such strategies could be implemented.


36

demonstration of passive cooling Flora and Fauna While there are a vast amount of different species of plants and animals native to the los angeles region, a few are picture below. From the top left: California poppy, Matilija poppy, Toyon, Coast Live Oak, Giant Wildrye, Big Pod California Lilac, California Mountain Lion, Coyotes, and Steelhead trout. Although many believe the palm tree to be a native species to Los Angeles, the only native palm is the California Fan Palm.20


History THIS SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL DISCUSS THE HISTORY OF LOS ANGELES AND MORE SPECIFICALLY THE HISTORY OF DOWNTOWN. THE FOLLOWING IS FILLER. s for the whole city. This section will also introduce the climate and flaura and fauna of the region. This section will also discuss transportation issues Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experiencing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boulevards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building. Culture THE FOLLOWING SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL DISCUSS THE CULTURAL MONUMENTS AND ACTIVITIES THAT ARE IN DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES. The following text is filler for this section: constitute streets, horizontal elements are parks, In 1925, Lewis Mumford, an American historian, sociologist and literary critic, published a paper discussing the migration of humans to and from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experienc-


38

ing what Robert Fishman terms the “Fifth Migration” which is a unprecedented movement of population from rural areas and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architecture.3/4 In doing so, the hope is to push the limits of a hybridized architecture, an architecture that not only accomodates a variety of programatic uses, but one where those uses relate to one another and begin to share a single identity. Whereas a mixed use building uses floor plates and walls to seperate programmatic functions and human interaction, a hybridized structure creates vertical boule-

vards and multiple story atriums that blur the lines between programmatic uses and starts to produce a microcosm of the city within the building.5 Transportation THIS SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL DISCUSS THE ONSET OF THE LOS ANGELES FREEWAY SYSTEM AS WELL AS THE CURRENT IMPACT THAT THE FREEWAYS HAVE ON THE CITY. IT WILL ALSO DISCUSS THE FUTURE OF MASS TRANSIT. is filler text for this section.In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the


idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers sus data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with

69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the theoretical approach of Le Corbusier’s Radiant City, Jane Jacob’s enclosed pedestrian oriented philosophy and Ken Yeang’s pragmatic approach to an ecologically integrated architec The following is filler text for this section.In the modern context, Rem Koolhaus jumstarted the idea of a hybridized architecture in 1996 with his proposal of the “Hyperbuilding” in Thailand. As a response to the overcrowded city of Bangkok, Koolhaus proposed a self- contained city for 120,000 people. The proposal stripped down the technical aspects of the city and in order “to achieve urban variety and complexity, the building is structured as a metaphor of the city: towers sus data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population living in cities.2 With such a large migration of people moving to the urban core, how will cities accommodate and sustain a This thesis seeks to challenge the traditional responses to population growth and city densification, by synthesizing the


The Site THIS SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL GIVE AN OVERVIEW OF THE SELECTED SITE AND THE NEIGHBORHOOD IN WHICH IT IS LOCATED. will discuss the zoning, boundaries, and demographics of downtown los angeles and will introduce thecensus data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement s and suburbs back to the cities.1 According to United Nations census data there were approximately 2.5 billion people inhabiting this planet in 1950, 29.1 percent of which lived in cities. By the year 2050 it is projected that there will be over 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the

W. 11th S

th W. 12

ST.

W. PICO BLVD

S. FLOW ERS ST.

EROA A VE.

T.

S. FIGU

40


101

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Y

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AN

TA A

NA

FW

Y

FW

RB

11

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HA

LA RIVER

10

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AN

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42

MARRIOT + RITZ CARLTON NOKIA THEATRE ESPN CENTER

S.

FIG

UE

RO

AA VE

STAPLES CENTER

CONVENTION CENTER COMMERCIAL SPACE W. P

ICO

RESIDENTIAL APARTMENTS

SITE:

BLV

D

1200 S. FiGUEROA AVENUE


GRAMMY MUSEUM/ COMMERCIAL SPACE OFFICES LUXE CITY CENTER

W. 11 th

RESIDENTIAL

ST

ST

OFFICES

S.

FL OW

ER

RESIDENTIAL

OFFICES

RETAIL SPACE

N (CURRENTLY ALL SURFACE PARKING)


44

DEMOGRAPHICS

47% MALE

53% FEMALE

$98,700 MEDIAN INCOME

1.8 AVERAGE FAMILY SIZE

52,400 RESIDENTS

DROVE ALONE

56.4%

48.6% 25.5%USED PUBLIC TRANSIT

RESIDENTS THAT WORK DOWNTOWN

37% MALE

63% FEMALE

COMMUTE

$98,020 MEDIAN INCOME

76% COMPLETED 4- YEAR DEGREE

500,000 + EMPLOYEES >5%

DROVE ALONE

50.5% 35.8%

EMPLOYEES THAT LIVE DOWNTOWN

COMMUTE

USED PUBLIC TRANSIT


USES THIS SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL DISCUSS THE MULTIPLE USES OF LAND WITHIN DT LA. ext: 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experience.

TRANSPORTATION AND DEVELOPMENT THIS SECTION IS NOT YET COMPLETED BUT WILL DISCUSS THE UPCOMING DVELOPMENT IN DT LA AS WELL AS THE TRANSPORTATION OPTIONS WITHIN DT. ion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experience.10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experience.10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface to discuss the “Fourth Migration,” a mass movement of the


population from city centers to the suburbs. As we continue forward through the 21st century we are experience. 10 billion people on Earth with 69.3 percent of the population from cities throughout American history. He used this as a preface

46

ZONING The following zoning codes were taken from the Los Angeles Sports and Entertainment District (LASED) Specific Plan which sets forth regulations in addition to the Los Angeles Municipal Code. However, whenever the regulations of LASED Plan differ from the municipal code the LASED code always supercedes.22

Map of the extents of the Los Angeles Sports and Entertainement District. Site in blue.


Section 5.B Maximum Permitted Floor Area. The maximum total permitted Floor Area within the Specific Plan area shall not exceed 5,827,313 square feet. Section 5.C Project Land Use. The Specific Plan shall be developed with the following land uses. These land uses shall be developed in those locations, as shown on Map 2, the Specific Plan Land Use Map; provided, however, that the amount of square footage permitted for the individual uses listed below may be modified, and the locations of these land uses may be modified, pursuant to Equivalency Transfers as set forth in Section 9 of this Specific Plan. Land Use Category

Square Footage

Hotel and Ballroom

1,389,106

Retail/Entertainment/Restaurant

789,486

Convention Center Expansion

250,000

Office

847,600

Residential Cinema Total Square Footage

2,423,794 127,327 5,827,313

Section 6.A Land Use Equivalency Transfers. The Land Use Equivalency Matrix is established to provide development flexibility by permitting shifts of permitted Floor Area between certain land uses over the life of the Specific Plan, while maintaining the intent and regulatory requirements of the Plan. The Land Use Equivalency Matrix allows for Floor Area reallocations between the land uses, utilizing conversion factors that are based upon environmental impact equivalencies.


48

12

1a 1b

3

2

1 4

5

6 7 9

10 11

Specific Plan land use map

8


Section 10.A.4 Building Height and Massing. The maximum permitted height and setback of any Project on a lot within the Figueroa Central Subarea, as shown on below, shall be limited as follows: Podium Height: Podiums shall not exceed 100 feet in height. Tower Height: This part of the Subarea may be developed with a combination of tower heights, ranging from over 100 feet up to 575 feet in height, subject to the following limitations: (a) The combination of all Towers over 100 feet and up to 160 feet in height shall Los Angeles Sports and Entertainment District 22 not exceed 60% of the total land area within the Subarea; or (b) The combination of all Towers which are over 455 feet and up to 575 feet in height shall not exceed 10% of the total land area within the Subarea, and the combination of all Towers which are over 160 feet and up to 455 feet in height shall not exceed 20% of the total land area within the Subarea; or Tower Setback: Towers which are adjacent to Figueroa Street frontage shall be set back 20 feet from that edge of the Podium that is adjacent to Figueroa Street.

Tower Max. Height 575’ on 10% of Development Site

Tower Max. Height 455’ on 20% of Development Site 575’

Figueroa Central Subarea

455’

160’

Setback to Tower 20’ (Figueroa)

100’

Tower Max. Height 160’ on 60% of Development Site

160’

Podium Max. Height 100’


Section 10.A.5 Building Height and Massing. The maximum permitted height of any Project on a lot within the Figueroa South Subarea, as shown below, shall be limited as follows:

50

Podium Height: Podiums shall not exceed 100 feet in height. Tower Height: Towers shall not exceed 400 feet in height; however, the footprint of all Towers in this Subarea combined shall not exceed 34% of total land area within this Subarea. Tower Setback: Towers which are adjacent to Figueroa Street frontage shall be set back 20 feet from that edge of the Podium that is adjacent to Figueroa Street.

Tower Max. Height 400’ on 34% of Development Site

400’

Podium Max. Height 100’

Setback to Tower 20’ (Figueroa)

100’

Figueroa South Subarea

Section 10.D.2 Residential Open Space Requirements. A minimum total of 150 square feet of residential open space area shall be provided for each residential unit, and may be provided in any combination of common or private residential open space areas. f. A private residential open space area shall be contiguous to the dwelling unit and maintain a minimum eight foot clearance under any projection in order to be counted toward the open space requirement.

Minimum 150 sq. ft.

Min. 8’ Clearance 8’


Section 10.F.2 General Pedestrian Linkage Requirements. Projects shall provide a public sidewalk width and a Private Setback width of 8 feet along Figueroa Avenue. In most instances, the public sidewalk shall be 15 feet in width. The Specific Plan requires the provision of private setbacks in certain locations to increase the width of the pedestrian realm, as required by Design Guideline 2 of Appendix A. Street furniture, sidewalk dining amenities, tables, chairs, lighting, heating, decorative dining area railings no higher than 42 inches, and other similar elements are permitted within this setback, subject to the approval of the Director of Planning. Buildings may encroach into the Private Setback area, provided that such building encroachments are 30 feet or more above grade and otherwise conform to the Design Guidelines outlined in Appendix A. Building encroachments which are less than 30 feet from grade shall be permitted only pursuant to a Director’s finding that such building encroachment does not impact pedestrian uses and streetscape trees and other amenities within the Private Setback area.

30’ Min. 30’ Clearance Above Private Setback

8’ Setback Min. 15’ Sidewalk

8’

15

Section 15 Transfer of Floor Area. Except as provided in Section 6 of this Specific Plan, Owners of a lot located within the Specific Plan area may transfer unused permitted Floor Area to another lot within the Specific Plan area, or may transfer unused permitted Floor Area into the Unused Floor Area Pool, pursuant to the procedures of this Section.


52

04

THE ROAD TO PICO CENTER


VELLUM_ MODUS This series of lamps presents an exploration into how the division of form effects the essence of an object. Each of the three pieces use the same materials, light source and form, but the method in which they are constructed are vastly different. This difference does not only effect the quality of light projected from each lamp, but also effects the spatial and experiential qualities of the piece. While at as smaller scale this experimentation produces a series of elegant lamps, at a larger scale the same divisions correlate with the seperation of program. It is this respect that the lights serve as the first physical exploration into this thesis project. Each light fixture within the series corresponds with a different building typology; mixed use, single use, and hybrid use. The mixed use typology is represented by the fixture that is assembled through a waffle technique. Similar to the division of mixed use buildings, the waffled fixture is very compartementalized and subdivided. The single use typology is represented by the fixture that has a light in the center with a shell around it. And the hybrid typology is represented by the fixture assembled with the radial slats. Similar to a hybridized architecture this fixture has division of space, but each division is visually accesible to all the others and each seperated space flows into the next.

From left to right: single use typology, mixed use typology, hybrid typology


54


PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT

56

The following program outline in a combination of spaces that fulfill the zoning requirements outlined in chapter 03 as well as meet the criteria for the building to take on the hybrid typology. As stated in chapter 02, a hybrid buidling does not simply accomodate a variety of programmatic uses but places those uses in a fashion where each use becomes an integral piece to its adjacent function. Therefore this program has been derived at two scales; a master plan which provides the overall scheme of the building and a more specific plan which breaks down the spaces further.

Programmatic charrette which used graphics and action words to begin to think about programmatic spaces and adjacencies.

NESTLE

DECORATE SLEEP

LIVE

EAT SETTLE

GROW

SMILE DREAM

CLEAN

CONNECT

TALK HANG PREPARE OWN BAKE SHARE

INVENT LEARN RELAX SUCCEED ANSWER CONTRIBUTE EMPLOYDRESS EXCITE DEVELOP CAREWELCOME EARN MANAGE ENTERTAIN EXPLAIN ADVISE WATCH CALCULATE PRODUCE EXCERCISE REMAIN WANDER PRACTICE DANCE FAX INSTRUCT ANALYSE COMPETE BEFRIEND APPLAUD GATHER JOG SMILE EDUCATE TALK DIVIDE TRAVEL CHEER UNITE PLANT BOOK FILE TALK COMMUNICATE TALK OBSERVE RIDE CROSS CALL DISCOVERVISIT FILM PERFORM WALK SHOP COACH EATCONVERSE EFFICIENT WAIT RUSH CARRY ORDER ENJOY PASS RACE IMAGINE ENGAGE CONNECT DISPERSE HURRY CYCLE PAUSE CHASE BOLT ESCAPE

WORK

MOVE

PLAY


MASTER PLAN

LIVE_ The apartments and homes will run vertically through

the tower and will accomodate various family sizes and different styles of living. Such styles include standard apartments and condominiums, live/ work units, townhomes and penthouses. All units will recieve individual private outdoor space.Residents will also have communal outdoor space which will only be accessible to the tenants. Units will be arranged in such a fashion where they will have a visual connection with the neighboring properties which will create strong and safe neighborhoods within the complex.

WORK_ The offices will run vertically through the tower and

will vary in size. The offices will be a shell allowing tenants a very flexible floor plan. All offices will be daylit and have ample outdoor space. There will also be large conference rooms, galleries and banquet rooms within the podium of the tower which will allow companies to rent additional space on an as need basis.

PLAY_ The complex will include retail, resturaunts, sports

facilities, parks, trails, art installations, art galleries, cinema and screening rooms, a supermarket and a gym. Most of these facilities will be located within the podium of the building and at street level however, certain amenities will also cascade through the tower. There will be a large park that floats above the podium that will serve as the transition between the podium and the tower and will serve as a secondary street level.

MOVE_ There currently is a metro line that runs adjacent to

the site. This project hopes to reroute that line underground and make a transportation hub at the base of the complex. This hub will acommodate the metro lines, bus stops and future high speed rail. The transportation hub will also include the entrance to the parking garage as well as ample bike storage. By creating a more sheltered transportation hub it is the hope that the size of the parking garage can be minimized and public transportation be greater utilized to move throughout the city as well as be a gateway to the L.A. Live District.

Lobbies and Interstitial Space_ The tower will incorporate a

variety of lobby spaces which serve two function, creating a visual connection between program uses and blurring the boundaries between inside and outside spaces. The lobbies will house the vertical circulation throughout the building and serve as community gathering spaces..


58

SPECIFIC PLAN [note: all square footage in this version are approxiamate]

LIVE [1.2 million sq. ft.] 600 Apartment/ Condo Units 500 Live/ Work Units 400 Townhomes 200 Family Homes 100 Penthouse Units

400-1,000 800-2,000 1,200- 2,200 1,200-4,000 3,000-6,000

sq. ft. sq. ft. sq.ft. sq. ft. sq. ft.

WORK [600,000 sq. ft] 50 Office Spaces 10 Communal Conference Rooms 2 Communal Banquet Halls 4 Galleries

2,000-100,000 sq.ft.

PLAY [450,000 sq. ft] Parks/ Sports Facilities Retail Resturaunts Screening Rooms Galleries Supermarket Gym

MOVE [250,000 sq. ft] Metro Hub metro tracks metro offices break rooms locker rooms bus loading passenger waiting high speed rail stop Parking Garage Bike Garage

Lobbies and Interstitial Space [200,000 sq. ft] Elevator Lobbies Communal Spaces Stairs Lounges


CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT Before diving into the design of Pico Center, it was first imperative to establish the project goals.

GOAL 1:

GOAL 2:

GOAL 3:

Minimize the impact of the automobile and increase the use of public transit and pedestrian accessibility

Create architecture that translates to a human scale

Integrate the elements of a hybrid architecture within the chosen site


60

HYBRIDIZATION In chapter 3, I introduced and defined hybridization as well as introduced many case studies that have some association with the topic. Moving forward with the design process required defining building methods and elements that would project and incorporate the idea of hybridization.

single use typology

mixed use typology

hybridized typology

The above diagrams not only shows the difference between the three typologies, but begin to show how the blending of program manifests itself within the shared spaces of the building.

+

=

In addition to blending interior program, the hybridized typology also blends the inside with the outside. The greenscape starts to become a part of the building. This concept not only disolves the boundaries of the building but also serves as a sustainable feature, providing a use for greywater, decreasing rainwater runoff and decreasing rooftop temperatures.

home environment

office environment

The final concept deals with the transformation of program over time. Each space can be designed with transformative elements that allow the program of a space to change with new tenancy.


FORM GENERATION In addition to achieving the project goals and incorporating the elements of hybridization, the form is also influenced by environmental factors, site orientation, and interior circulation. summer sun winter sun

74.06˚

32.5˚

Sun angles begin to influence building orientation as well as the slope of the building shell.

Because the site sits 52 degrees from north, the site has two very important axis, it’s north-south axis and it’s street axis.

By rotating the street grid vertically, we can begin to visualize the building in section and we begin to see the streets turn into vertical boulevards and plazas turn into atriums.


62

SITE INFRASTRUCTURE Because the site sits in between the very busy and loud entertainment district and the quieter more residential South Park neighborhood it is important to incorporate the site within the neighborhood. At the same time it is important to incorporate the project goals. To do so, the idea is to reduce the lanes on Figueroa Street and increase the traffic on Flowers Street. The scheme will also move the metro line underground and install bike lanes on both streets.

S FIGUEROA STREET _6 LANES - TWO WAY

METRO TRANSITION FROM ABOVE GROUND TO UNDERGROUND

S. FLOWER STREET _3 LANES - ONE WAY _1 METRO STATION _METRO TRACKS IN BOTH DIRECTIONS

PICO BLVD METRO STATION


SCHEME 1 This initial scheme implements the infrastructural changes around the site as well as serves as a first attempt at deriving a form and podium. The green podium peels back from the edges of the site in order to provide enterances into the building as well as public plazas. The tower form is derived from three rectalinear forms that have begun to blend together.

RESIDENT/ EMPLOYEE UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC ENTERANCE

RESIDENT ENTERANCE

S FIGUEROA STREET _4 LANES - TWO WAY _BIKE LANES IN BOTH DIRECTIONS _STREET CLOSURE DURING CERTAIN HOURS

S. FLOWER STREET 4 LANES - TWO WAYS METRO TRACKS AND STATION MOVED UNDERGROUND BIKE LANES BOTH WAYS

GUEST/ VISITOR UNDERGROUND PARKING


64


This initial section of the podium focuses on the multi level green roof, the underground metro station, the underground drop off zone and the double atrium spaces.

This initial section of the tower focuses on creating large connected atriums while at the same time seperating program. Certain grooves and indentations within the form also indicate the thought of sunlight penetrating the building.


66

DEVELOPMENT In preperation for the section show, the complex was further developed in section. The focus was mainly on the northsouth section of the tower and how to incorporate the ideas of hybridization while at the same time allowing for ample daylight and ventilation. The following pages show the many iterations of section drawings that were done in order to detrmine form and program division.

idea 1


idea 2

idea 3


68

idea 4


SCHEME 2 This scheme starts to think about the complex in a more logical manner. The tower form is a response to site conditions and restraints and the podium is composed of an artificial topography that serves as a large green park in the center of this district.

RESIDENT/ EMPLOYEE UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC ENTERANCE

RESIDENT ENTERANCE

S FIGUEROA STREET _4 LANES - TWO WAY _BIKE LANES IN BOTH DIRECTIONS _STREET CLOSURE DURING CERTAIN HOURS

S. FLOWER STREET 4 LANES - TWO WAYS METRO TRACKS AND STATION MOVED UNDERGROUND BIKE LANES BOTH WAYS

GUEST/ VISITOR UNDERGROUND PARKING


70

SITE NOISE With the entertainment district on the northeast and retail on the southwest there is a noise gradient accross the site that will effect the location of program.

BLENDING PROGRAM The recreational program is stretched and dispersed through the building and begins to blur the lines between programmatic elements.

SITE DENSITY Building density and height increase as the site moves towards the downtown core.

SCALED TOWER The facade is stepped back in order to break up the height of the tower. This visually allows for a more human scale and also provides outdoor green spaces along the facade of the tower.

ENVELOPE The Entertainment District building code prescribes the limits of the building envelope. The podium may be no higher than 100’, the tower up to 455’ may not occupy more than 20% of the site and the tower up to 575’ may not occupy more than 10% of the site.

ORIENTING SOUTH The tower is twisted to allow for more southern exposure. The tower’s cap is angles to accomodate sun angles.

PROGRAMMATIC FUNCTION Rather than a horizontal seperation of program (typical of mixed use) this hybridized structure blends elements of live (pink), work (blue), and play (green) in a vertical fashion.

THE GREEN CARPET A green carpet is draped over the podium of the tower, providing the area with a large public greenspace.


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This section expands further on the idea of hybridization. There are connecting vertical atriums and circulation cores. The outdoors is also beginning to work its way into the interior atriums.

N


This detailed section shows the office side of the tower and begins to show ideas of structure and skin. It also shows the multi level atriums and how they begin to connect to one another.

perforated skin

interior atrium space

diagrid structure

secondary structure connecting atrium space


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SCHEME 3 Expanding on scheme 2, this scheme further develops the recreational and circulation spaces. This scheme also begins to successfully breakdown the massing in order to allow light into different parts of the building.

RESIDENT/ EMPLOYEE UNDERGROUND PARKING

PUBLIC ENTERANCE

RESIDENT ENTERANCE

S FIGUEROA STREET _4 LANES - TWO WAY _BIKE LANES IN BOTH DIRECTIONS _STREET CLOSURE DURING CERTAIN HOURS

S. FLOWER STREET 4 LANES - TWO WAYS METRO TRACKS AND STATION MOVED UNDERGROUND BIKE LANES BOTH WAYS

GUEST/ VISITOR UNDERGROUND PARKING


ENVELOPE The Entertainment District building code prescribes the limits of the building envelope. The podium may be no higher than 100’, the tower up to 455’ may not occupy more than 20% of the site and the tower up to 575’ may not occupy more than 10% of the site.

SPLIT PROGRAM The recreational program weaves its way through the live and work spaces creating varying programmatic forms. These forms are further broken up to allow for light to penetrate the building.

PROGRAMMATIC FUNCTION Rather than a horizontal seperation of program (typical of mixed use) this hybridized structure blends elements of live (pink), work (blue), and play (green) in a vertical fashion.

ORIENTING SOUTH The tower is twisted to allow for more southern exposure. The tower’s cap is angles to accomodate sun angles.

BLENDING PROGRAM The recreational program is stretched and dispersed through the building and begins to blur the lines between programmatic elements.

THE GREEN CARPET A green carpet is draped over the podium of the tower, providing the area with a large public greenspace.


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PROGRAM DISTRIBUTION RESIDENTIAL

OFFICE

VERTICAL CIRCULATION

RECREATIONAL

SUPERMARKET

TRANSIT HUB

PARKING


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GATHERING SPACE

RESIDENCES

OFFICES

LOBBY

METRO TUNNEL

PARKING


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ENERGY ANALYSIS For the intitial energy analysis a basic massing of the tower and podium were inserted into vasari and altered slightly. The first analysis was based off of a massing with 60% glazing. The second analysis was based off a massing with 50% glazing. The last analyis was based off a massing with 50% low e glazing. The energy usage and solar heat gain decrease with each analysis.

ANALYSIS 1 Building Performance Factors

Energy Use Intensity

Life Cycle Energy Use/Cost

Renewable Energy Potential


ANALYSIS 2 Building Performance Factors

Energy Use Intensity

Life Cycle Energy Use/Cost

Renewable Energy Potential


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ANALYSIS 3 Building Performance Factors

Energy Use Intensity

Life Cycle Energy Use/Cost

Renewable Energy Potential


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04

PICO CENTER


COMING WINTER AND SPRING 2014


Works Cited

86 1

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2

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3

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4

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5

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6

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9

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10

“HYPERBUILDING .” OMA . N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Oct. 2013. <http://www.oma.eu/ projects/1996/hyperbuilding>.

11

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12

“MVRDV proposes 400 meter tall ‘vertical city’ in Jakarta.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 Dec. 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/295962/mvrdv-proposes400-meter-tall-vertical-city-in-jakarta/>.

13

“Top 8 Skyscrapers That Will Push the Limits of Design.” Popular Mechanics. N.p., n.d. Web. 15 Nov. 2013. <http://www.popularmechanics.com/technology/ engineering/architecture/4343115>.

14

“Transbay Transit Terminal / Pelli Clarke Pelli Architects.” ArchDaily. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Nov. 2013. <http://www.archdaily.com/48181/>.


15 “Nicknames for Los Angeles.” VOA. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http:// learningenglish.voanews.com/content/nicknames-for-los-angeles/1644584. html>. 16 “Los Angeles: Introduction.” City-Data.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Dec. 2013. <http://www.city-data.com/us-cities/The-West/Los-Angeles-Geography-andClimate.html>. 17 “A Short History of Los Angeles.” A Short History of Los Angeles. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Dec. 2013. <http://cogweb.ucla.edu/Chumash/LosAngeles.html>. 18 “LA Emergencies & Threats.” The City of Los Angeles Emergency Management Department . N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://emergency.lacity.org/ EmergencyCheckList/LAEmergenciesThreats/index.htm>. 19 “Climate of the Los Angeles Basin.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 24 Nov. 2013. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_of_the_Los_ Angeles_Basin>. 20 “Plants and Wildlife .” LAMountains.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Dec. 2013. <http://www.lamountains.com/parks_plants.asp>. “Los Angeles Sports and Entertainment District Specific Plan.” City of Los Angeles- Department of City Planning. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Nov. 2013. <http:// cityplanning.lacity.org/complan/specplan/pdf/lased.pdf>.


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Live work play move