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Exploring Communication through Media FEATUREING: lost In Translation At this time you should have:  A pencil  A copy book  A tenth Edition, Understanding Human Communication text book by Ronald B. Adler and George Rodman, (ISBN 978-0-19-533612-2)

A
Jacob
Frost
Presenta/on



Exercise: 1a

Culture and Language


Exercise: 1b Bob
as
an
outsider
 “Using
language
is
more
than
just
choosing
a
par4cular
group
of
words
to
convey
an
idea.
Each
 language
has
its
own
unique
style
that
dis4nguishes
it
from
others.
And
when
a
communicator
tries
to
 use
the
verbal
style
from
one
culture
in
a
different
one,
problems
are
likely
to
arise” (Adler,
Rodman,2009,
p. 93)


• 

–  –  – 

More?
(pun)
 If
Bob
was
not
so
great
at
his
job
would
the
director
have
been
able
to
get
the
shoots
he
wanted?
 The
director
seems
to
know
a
good
deal
about
American
culture
and
the
English
language
yet
it
is
s/ll
difficult
for
him
to
replicate
 the
verbal
style:
“close
your
face
please.”
+
other
lack
of
communica/on.


This
film
features
two
opposing
cultures
in
terms
of
communica4on,
exemplified
through
this
clip.
 Tradi4onally
Japanese
communica4on
is
known
to
be
high
context
and
American
low
context.


• 

Low Context • 

High Context

•  “Communicators talk “around the point, allowing others to fill “Uses language primarily to express thoughts, feelings, in the missing pieces. Ambiguity and use of silence admired”. and ideas as clearly and logically as possible. Self(Adler,
Rodman,2009,
p. 93) expression valued.” (Adler,
Rodman,2009,
p. 93) • The Director always has Bobs “face” on his mind, as in •  Bob: “I think I know what you want”, “I should be he stays away from ever being abrasive to Bob. doing movies" (which is not what the director was Compared to Bob who communicates exactly what he is suggesting), “ill just think where’s where's the thinking: “I don’t get that close…” “this is not whisky” whisky” and has less of a problem with going against what the

director is saying to express how he feels.

• 
This difference in communication stems from the cultural differences around raising children, particularly in how we teach them to say “no”. • Research
shows
that
Japanese
mothers
rarely
deny
 the
request
of
their
young
children
by
saying
“no”.
 Instead
they
use
other
strategies:
ignoring…


• Because
American
norms
for
talk
are
different
it
is
common,
and
 therefore
expected,
for
American
parents
to
“just
say
no.”


• This
is
the
essence
of
why
Linguis4c
rela4vism
is
the
key
word
for
this
film,
and
why
Bob
 feels
the
need
to
crack
jokes
in
this
clip.
It’s
why
Bobs
character
is
in
general
out
of
his
 element
in
Japan.
 • “Linguis/c
rela/vism:
The
no/on
that
the
world‐view
of
a
culture
is
shaped
and
reflected
by
the
 language
its
members
speak.”
(Pilar,
2009,
p.1)



• So we can see why bobs character clashes so much in this culture because of the differences in communication. Bob follows a American life style, on top of having a unique sense of humor which is constantly putting him at odds with his surroundings throughout the film. Unfortunately this isn't the only place he is having difficulty with communication, more on that later. This film features a medplot which is basically a theme within a theme: Charlotte and her husband send each other confusing messages, their relationship is lacking. Bob’s relationship with his wife is lacking, although we are never told why but there is miscommunication involved in their phone calls and they fail to translate each others feelings. The other theme is the title of the film, the two Americans struggling to communicate in a foreign
land. • 

“China's Tang Dynasty, one of the most culturally diverse dynasties in East Asian history, still insisted upon educating all of its officials in Chinese language, poetry, and Confucianism, the state philosophy, though one did not have to be ethnically or racially Chinese to be considered a Tang Dynasty citizen. Well-connected members of any empire usually were versed in several languages and were exposed to many cultures as part of their duties, or lifestyle, so that language was not relevant to citizenship.” (Pilar,
2009,
p.1)


Exercise: 2a

Communication and identity management

VVV. Culture and Language aren’t Bob’s only problem in his lack of communication

• Perceived self <- • The person we believe ourselves to be in moments of candor. It may be identical with or different from the presenting and ideal selves.

• Presenting self -> • The image a person presents to others. It may be identical to or different from the perceived and ideal selves

• We strive to construct multiple identities <-


Exercise: 2b • Clip 1“Another study showed that communicators engage in facial mimicry (such as smiling or looking sympathetic in response to another's message) in face to face setting only when their expressions can be seen by the other person”. (Adler,
Rodman,2009,
p.
57) • When she is not grasping that he is not having fun She is mad at Bob for having an affair with someone other than her.

They argue by not so subtly by insulting each other

• Clip 3 “There are certainly advantages to being a high selfmonitor. People who pay attention to themselves are generally good actors who can create the impression they want, acting interested when bored, or friendly when they really feel quite the opposite. This allows them to handle social situations smoothly, often putting others at ease.” (Adler,
Rodman,2009,
p.
56) • He becomes professional when work is involved


Exercise: 3a Intimacy in Interpersonal Relationships Bob and Charlotte go through a multitude of levels of Intimacy.

Intellectual exchanges

Physical intimacy

emotional disclosure

shared activities


“Culture also plays a role in shaping how much intimacy we seek in different types of relationships. For instance, the Japanese seem to expect more intimacy in friendship, whereas Americans look for more intimacy in romantic relationships with a boy- or girlfriend, Fiancée, or spouse.” (Adler,
Rodman, 2009,
p.162)


Exercise: 3b •  • 

• 

• 

“Section: CURRENTS IN MODERN THOUGHT: ESSAYS If we can believe the experts, the standard for healthy intimacy in love relationships between men and women is female, and maleness is a disease in desperate need of a cure. Men, say social scientists, have a "trained incapacity to share" and have learned to overvalue independence and to fear emotional involvement. Female friendships, claim the intimacy experts, are based on emotional bonding and mutual support, and male friendships on competition, emotional inhibition, and aggression.[1] Social scientists have also pathologized maleness because men typically view love as action, or doing things for another, while women view love as talking and acknowledging feelings. In fairness to the intimacy experts, what they say about differences in the behavior of men and women has been well documented. Numerous studies have shown that men feel close to other men when working or playing side by side, while women feel close to other women when talking face to face.[2] Male group behavior is characterized by an emphasis on space, privacy, and autonomy, and female group behavior by a need to feel included, connected, and attached.[3] Male conversation tends to center around activities (sports, politics, work), and personal matters are discussed in terms of strengths and achievements. Female conversation, in contrast, is more likely to center around feelings and relationships, and there is considerably less reluctance to reveal fears and weaknesses. Men and women also appear to experience intimacy in disparate ways. In men's relationships with other men, the index of intimacy is the degree of comfort and relaxation felt when engaged in activities, such as helping a friend move furniture or repair cars. Even when men comfort one another in crisis situations, like the loss of a family member or a spouse, it is physical presence, rather than intimate talk, that tends to be most valued.”(Nadeau,
1996,
p.
11)


Exercise: 3c

• “Until recently most social scientists believe that women are better at developing and maintaining intimate relationships than men. This belief grew from the assumption that the disclosure of personal information is the most important ingredient of intimacy. Most research does show the women )taken as a group, of course) are more willing than men to share their thoughts and feelings.” (Adler,
Rodman,2009,
 p.181)

• “Sex and dating are two issues that concern evangelical parents. In the controversial book I Kissed Dating Goodbye, author Joshua Harris encourages Christian young people to evaluate our dating culture. It is not so much a book against dating as a book encouraging single people to love with what Harris calls "smart love." Smart love concentrates on loving God and others before one's self, whereas the primary thought when dating is often, "What can I get out of this?" Harris believes our dating culture has many flaws: it brings intimacy but not commitment, it tends to skip the friendship stage, and it makes a physical relationship seem like love. He says dating isolates a couple from important relationships, distracts a person from preparing for the future, and often does not let someone see the true character of another person. Harris writes that God gives us singleness as a gift, for a time. In his opinion, there is no magic formula for finding the right life partner, but there are principles for relationships. They should start out as a casual friendship, go into deeper friendship, then go into intimacy with integrity (morality and honesty), and then engagement. He believes the pattern of having many intimate relationships with boyfriends and girlfriends that frequently break up sets the stage for divorce later in life”. (Harris,
2005,
p.
87)


Thank you for participating in this digital learning presentation. Please turn your copybooks in to the teacher or head of class

While
studying
film
and
communica/on
did
you
find
actors
to
 be
more
or
less
realis/c?
Please
type
a
25
page
word
essay
on
 the
maaer
for
next
class.
 Alterna/ve:
 This
film
was
seen
as
insensi/ve
to
the
Japanese
culture.
Do
 you
feel
this
was
so?
How
can
improper
communica/on
affect
 this?
Please
prepare
a
30
minute
lecture
for
next
class.



References
 
Adler,
R.B.A,
&
Rodman,
G.R.
(2009).
Understanding
human
 communica$on.
New
York:
Oxford
University
Press.
 
Coppola,
S..
(2003).
Lost
in
Transla/on.
Various
loca/ons
in
 Tokyo:
Focus
Features.



 
Harris,
J.H.
(2005).
Could
you
kiss
da$ng
goodbye?.
Born
Again
Believers:
 evangelicals
&
charisma$cs
,
1,
87.
 
Nadeau,
N.R.L.
(1996).
Brain
sex
and
the
language
of
love.
Sexual
Poli$cs
 &
the
Feminist
Movement,
12(11),
10.
 Pilar,
Q.P.
(2009).
Mul$culturalism:
an
overview.
Great
Neck,
1(1),
1.
 
Watson,
S.W.
(2009).
What
does
a
Stranger's
choice
of
drink
tell
you
about
who
 they
really
are?.
New
Statesman,
133(4705),
p56‐56.



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