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Open Society

Journalists for the

Foundations –Armenia

Future

Monitoring of Armenian Online Media Coverage of May 6, 2012 Elections to RA National Assembly (06 February - 20 May, 2012)

June, 2012


Contents About the project …….........................................……………………………………………..…….…………...3 Methodology of the monitoring ……...................………………………………………………………….........5 9 parties/bloc included in proportional electoral system ……..……........................................................….......7 Report and conclusions on the monitoring result………..………………………………………………….......8 Overall number of references concerning parties/bloc by each website (05-20 May)……………………….11 Chapter 1 Number of references in online media by parties…...........................................................................…………12 Chapter 2 Nature of references in online media (positive, negative, neutral)…………………………….……………...16 Chapter 3 Number of references by the three representatives of parties/bloc ……………………….……………….....21 Chapter 4 May 5: Silence Day................................................................................................................................................22 Chapter 5 May 6: Elections Day ...........................................................................................................................................24 Chapter 6 Types and Nature of Articles/Stories by Sources, Number, Genre and Media Content...................................25 Owning News: General Picture..............................................................................................................25 Number of sources in news stories......................………………………………………………………26 News stories by genres ………...................................…………………………...……………………..27 News stories by media content ……....................................…………………...………………………28 Chapter 7 Diagrams for each website: Number of references, nature, number of sources, genres, media content …....29

JFF's Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media

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About the Project This monitoring is conducted by the Journalists for the Future NGO (JFF) with the financial support of the Open Society Foundations-Armenia (OSF-Armenia). The aim of the research is to study Armenian online media coverage concerning parliamentary elections during the 3 months of pre-election period and 2 weeks after the elections, i.e. February 6 – May 20, 2012 (105 days). There has been no research of online media conducted in Armenia during electoral processes. The need of such monitoring has risen during the recent 3-4 years with the increase of Internet users and the decrease of prices. The number of news-making websites increased too. In 2007, during the Parliamentary elections there were less than 10 Armenian active online media outlets. Today, there are 224 websites registered only in the “News and Media” section of Circle.am rating system. The leading 50 websites have 1.000-150.000 visitors per day (Not all news websites are registered in this system. e.g. Azatutyun.am and PanArmenian.Net). Expansion of social networks in Armenia also conduced to increasing the number of online media visitors. Especially in Facebook, almost all the Armenian websites have their corresponding page where they share the links of all articles from their website. For example, the News.am Facebook page has more than 50.000 «likes». Despite the fact that TV remains the most required media in Armenia, online media outlets are already able to affect the news-forming of traditional media with the variety and efficiency of their information. The current research will allow understanding the impartiality of online media in covering such an important social-political event in Armenia as parliamentary elections. Besides the number and nature of references, their types of sources, number, genres and media content have been monitored too. Current report presents the results of monitoring for it’s full length, as well as by following periods: 

Pre Official campaign – 62 days (February 6 – April 7)

Pre-Elections Period/Official campaign – 27 days (April 8 – May 10)

Post-Elections period – 16 days (May 5 – May 20)

Notes: the Silence Day (May 5) and the Election Day (May 6) are presented independently

JFF's Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media

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The monitoring has been conducted over 10 Armenian online media outlets selected through data of the Circle.am rating system and the survey among media experts: 1in.am

Lragir.am

7or.am

News.am

A1plus.am

Tert.am

Azatutyun.am (RFE/RL service in Armenia)

Panarmenian.net

Civilnet.tv (.am)

Panorama.am

All the references concerning 9 parties/bloc participating in the elections by proportional electoral system and/or the first three persons in the proportional list of each party found in above-mentioned websites' «News», «Politics», «Video» categories were registered and studied. If the livestreams of websites were recorded and published in the monitored categories of their websites, they were monitored too.

JFF's Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media

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Monitoring Methodology The monitoring methodology is based on the analysis of quantity and quality indexes. These indexes are based on the data registered by observers. All the references concerning 9 parties/bloc participating in the elections by proportional electoral system and/or the first three persons in the proportional list of each party have been studied. References Concerning Parties/Bloc and Their Nature 1. The reference of each party was characterized only in one variant (positive/negative/neutral) 2. If there are no references about the below mentioned parties/bloc then the material was not protocolled. 3. References concerning the first three persons representing a party/bloc were protocolled separately

only when the reference did not concern the party/bloc and without mentioning that they belong the party/bloc. In all other cases, referencec concerning the above-mentioned persons are protocolled as party/bloc cases. For example, if Tigran Sargsyan is represented as a Republican Party of Armenia member in the reference or he speaks about the activity of the Republican Party then he is viewed as a party representative. And if the article tells about the RA Prime-Minister Tigran Sargsyan it is registered as a reference concerning the first three representatives of the RPA. The reference was protocolled only once (1 point) per publication. If the publication referred to the coalition of the Republican Party, Prosperous Armenia (Properous Armenia) Party and Contry of Law Party the three members of the coalition received one point each. But if the reference said: “One of the members of coalition – the Prosperous Armenia – conducted treeplanting,” only that party was mentioned, and other members of the coalition did not get points. If the reference concerned the union of the Prosperous Armenia, Armenian National Congress (ANC) and Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun the three members were indicated. But if the reference said: «One of the members of the union – ANC – appealed to the Constitutional Court,» only ANC is indicated.

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NATURE OF REFERENCES Saying positive and negative references, those references are meant that unconditionally impress the auditory positively or negatively about parties/bloc or leaders/representatives. Those references that cannot be classified as anyway are protocolled as neutral. All doubts of an observer concerning a reference are also interpreted as neutral. Only one characteristic refering a party/bloc or its leaders/representatives is registered per publication.

FORM OF REFERENCES MAJOR ARTICLE: any reference the main plot of which is a party/bloc from the below-mentioned list has been considered as fully dedicated material. PARTIAL REFERENCE: any reference the main plot of which is not a party/bloc from the belowmentioned list but partially refers to it, is registered as partial reference. If the main plot refered to more than one parties/bloc from the below-mentioned list each party/bloc of the publication has been registered as partial. REFLECTION: any reflection, mentioning of a party/bloc from the below-mentioned list is registered as reflection. Only one variant for each party is protocolled (Major article, Partial reference, Reflection).

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9 Parties/Bloc Included in Proportional Electoral System 1. BHP (Bargavach Hayastan/Prosperous Armenia Party) 1.1. 1st 3 persons of BHP: Gagik Tsarukyan, Vardan Oskanian, Vardan Vardanyan 2. ZhP (Zharangutyun/Heritage Party) 2.1. 1st 3 persons of ZhP: Raffi Hovhannisyan, Khachatur Qoqobelyan, Zaruhi Postanjyan 3. ANC (Armenian National Congress bloc) 3.1. 1st 3 persons of ANC: Levon Ter-Petrosyan, Stepan Demirchyan, Aram Z. Sargsyan 4. ARF (Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun) 4.1.

1st 3 persons of ARF: Vahan Hovhannisyan, Armen Rustamyan, Artyush Shahbazyan

5. DPA (Democratic Party of Armenia) 5.1. 1st 3 persons of DPA: Aram G. Sargsyan, Lenser Aghalovyan, Armen Hovsepyan 6. CPA (Communist Party of Armenia) 6.1. 1st 3 persons of CPA: Ruben Tovmasyan, Vazgen Safaryan, Tachat Sargsyan 7. RPA (Hanrapetakan Kusakcutyun/ Republican Party of Armenia) 7.1. 1st 3 persons of RPA: Serzh Sargsyan, Hovik Abrahamyan, Tigran Sargsyan 8. MHP (Miavorvats Hayer/ United Armenians Party) 8.1. 1st 3 persons of MHP: Ruben Avagyan, Gurgen Hovsepyan, Gayane Andreasyan 9. OEK (Orinats Yerkir/ Country of Law Party) 9.1. 1st 3 persons of OEK: Arthur Baghdasaryan, Heghine Bisharyan, Armen Yeritsyan

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Report and Conclusions on the Monitoring Results Throughout the monitoring 16.726 articles/stories in 10 websites were registered. There were 32.589 references about the parties/bloc. Including: 

Pre Official campaign (February 6 – April 7) - 8,569 stories have been registered with 14,292

references about the parties/bloc 

Pre-Elections Period/Official campaign (April 8 – May 4) - 5,369 stories have been registered

with 11,386 references. 

Post-Elections period (May 5 – May 20) – 2,788 stories with 6,911 references (including the Silence Day (May 5) – 88 stories with 152 references, and the Election Day (May 6) – 544 stories with 1,537 references).

The most references concerning the parties/bloc were published by Tert.am, 1in.am, Panorama.am and News.am. The least number of references in monitored categories (see the methodology) belong to Civilnet.am and Azatutyun.am websites. It must be mentioned, though, that Azatutyun.am stood out by the large number of own video and audio stories. Civilnet.am published videostories too and they were the third after Azatutyun.am and A1plus.am in this kind of activity. By publishing its own materials they again occupied the third position. In all the 10 websites, leaders by the overall number of references are the Hayastani Hanrapetakan Kusaktsutyun (Republican Party of Armenia), Hayastani Azgain Congres (Armenian National Congress) and the Bargavach Hayastan Kusaktsutyun (Prosperous Armenia Party). In particular, the Republican Party (each third reference belonging to the Republican Party (35%)) had 24% of references concerning the first 3 members of the party without mentioning their belonging to the party. In these cases they were named by their positions. In most cases, the number indexes directly reflected activity of the parties dividing them into leaders, averages and outsiders. And the index of the reference nature clearly shows an emphasized attitude towards the parties/bloc as well as absence of journalistic impartiality. The 71% of references in online media concerning the parties/bloc were of neutral nature, 21% - negative, and 7% - positive. This reflects the prejudiced coverage (28%) of elections. And the unequal percentage (21% /7%) speaks for the large number of one-sided publications. The picture becomes clearer if we take a look at the index of the nature of references by each website. In this case, we can see that attitude of the websites towards the parties/bloc and their division into “favorites” and “non-favorites”. 1in.am more often published positive references concerning the Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Armenian National Congress, and negative references about the Republican Party, the Country of Law Party and the Prosperous Armenia Party.

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7or.am published positive references about the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Armenian National Congress, and negative references concerning the Country of Law Party, the Heritage Party. Azatutyun.am published mostly positive references about, the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Heritage Party, and negative references concerning the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia and Country of Law Party. Civilnet.am had more positive references concerning the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun, and negative references concerning the Republican Party, the Country of Law Party. Lragir.am’s positive references concerned the Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Armenian National Congress, the negative references concerned the Republican Party, the Country of Law Party and the Prosperous Armenia Party. News.am published positive references about the Republican Party of Armenia and negative references about the Republican Party, the Country of Law Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party. Tert.am had special trend concerning the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Country of Law Party publishing mostly neutral articles. 60% of positive stories in Tert.am concerned the Republican Party of Armenia. PanArmenian.am published positive references about the Republican Party of Armenia, and negative references concerning the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Country of Law Party. Panorama.am is an exception by the large number of positive references concerning the Republican Party. There are a number of positive references about the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun, the Republican Party of Armenia, and negative references about the Country of Law Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party and Armenian National Congress. A1plus.am published positive references about the Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Armenian National Congress, and negative references concerning the Country of Law Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Republican Party. As we can see, in some websites the nature of references are quite equal – there are both positive and negative references concerning the same party/bloc, and in other websites the nature of references are polarized. It is important to mention, that 11% of the publications does not have a clearly reflected source of information, and 80% mentions only one source. In case of a large number of positive and negative references, such an attitude speaks for the journalistic inactivity. There is a lack of genre in publications: the overwhelming majority of the publications are news, pressconferences, research results and seldom analyses and interviews. From the media content point of view, multimedia tools are used seldom even if no extra efforts are needed for their implementation.

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No precisely developed journalistic approach is noticed concerning the reliability of the reported data, the source of the facts and information, the preservation of comprehensive coverage principles. There is no clear distinction between rumors and reliable information. In some websites re-publications from other websites overwhelm the number of own material. This trend is noticed in 1in.am (25%), Tert.am (38%), PanArmenian.am (23%), Panorama.am (22%) websites where each fourth material is the full reproduction of another media publication, and Tert.am copied other media most often. In the case of existence of all the above-mentioned problems, the following steps are important to increase the level of the quality of the online media content and its reliability. 

Increasing the number of unbiased and comprehensive coverage.

Securing the variety of analytical material and genre diversity in general.

Rejecting the publication of unreliable information.

Enriching media content.

Developing professional skills for working with facts, data and information.

Demonstrating unbiased journalistic initiative.

Mentioning sources to assure the reliability of information.

Decreasing the number of re-publications from other media.

JFF's Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media

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Overall Number of References Concerning Parties/Bloc by Each Website (February 06 – May 20, 2012)

Tert.am – 4.994

7or.am – 2.970

1in.am – 4.706

A1plus.am – 2.727

Panorama.am – 4.462

Lragir.am – 2.446

News.am – 4.154

Azatutyun.am – 1.370

PanArmenian.Net – 3.580

Civilnet.tv – 1.180

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CHAPTER 1 Number of References in Online Media by Parties During the monitoring period, in 16.726 registered and monitored articles published in 10 websites parties were mentioned 32.589 times in three triples. The Republican Party of Armenia, the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia Party are in the leading triple. In particular, the references on the Republican Party overwhelmed (11.256), the Armenian National Congress (5.309) and the Prosperous Armenia Party (5.226) are the second and third respectively. As we will see later, these parties often exchange their places because of closeness of their indexes. The Heritage Party (3.416 references), the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (2.988) and the Country of Law Party (2,606) occupy interim positions. Indexes of the Heritage Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun are quite close to each other and show the same trends. The picture is different in case of the Country of Law Party. If during the pre official campaign period the indexes of the Country of Law Party are quite high and keep close to the indexes of the other parties of the triple, during the pre-elections period the number of references decreases and do not grow any more. The Democratic Party of Armenia, the Communist Party of Armenia and the United Armenians Party finish at the bottom of the list with the lowest indexes. The indexes are as follows during dfferent monitoring periods (pre official campaign, pre-elections period and post-elections period). Pre Official campaign – in 8.569 articles of 10 monitored websites the parties have been mentioned 14.292 times. Articles with references concerning the Republican Party of Armenia (5.825), the Prosperous Armenia Party (2.158) and the Armenian National Congress (2.087) owerwhelmed. The Heritage Party (1.594), the Country of Law Party (1.191) and the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun (1.148) occupied the fourth, fifth and sixth place respectively. This is the only time when the Country of Law party is rated the fifth. In all other cases it is the sixth. The Communist Party of Armenia (636), the Democratic Party of Armenia (632) and the United Armenians Party (520) finish the list. Pre-Elections Period - in 5.369 articles of 10 monitored websites the parties have been mentioned 11.386 times. Articles with references concerning the Republican Party of Armenia (3.600), the Armenian National Congress (2.002) and the Prosperous Armenia Party (1.747) owerwhelmed again. As we can see, during the pre-elections period the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia Party exchanged their places. The Heritage Party (1.747), the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (1.158) and the Country of Law Party (840) occupied the same interim positions. Only the indexes of the Country of Law Party are very low that is why there is a strong polarization between the first and the last members of the triple. Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 12


The Democratic Party of Armenia with 318 references has passed the Communist Party of Armenia (294), and the United Armenians Party (243) is on the bottom of the list as always. Post-Elections period – there were only 2.788 articles with 6.911 references on the parties/bloc during the May 5- 20 period. The quantitative trends are the same with slight changes of positions: the Republican Party of Armenia is the leader (1.831), and the Prosperous Armenia Party (1.321) and the Armenian National Congress (1.220) change their places again. The Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Heritage Party exchanged positions too, and now the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun is the fourth (682) and the Heritage Party is the fifth (668). The Country of Law Party is constantly the sixth. And as always the Communist Party of Armenia (222), the Democratic Party of Armenia (218) and the United Armenians Party (204) finish the list. Diagram 1. Number of References by Parties (Comparative Indexes for the Pre Official campaign, PreElections Period and Post-Elections periods) 1321

638 1220

2002

2087

ANC

682

1158

1148

Pre Official campaign

218 318 96

DPA

1184

1594

ZhP

ARF

1747

2158

BHP

Pre-Elections Period Post-Elections periods

222 294 120

CPA

1831

575

840

1191

OEK

204 243 73

MHP

3600

5825

RPA

Trends for overall indexes (the overall data for the 10 monitored websites for the whole monitoring period) are the same for the first triple in the A1plus.am, Azatutyun.am, Civilnet.am, Lragir.am, News.am websites. And in the case of 1in.am, 7or.am, Tert.am, Panarmenian.net, the Prosperous Armenia Party occupies the second place and the Armenian National Congress is the third. Interim positions according to separate websites are occupied by the Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Country of Law Party. Exceptions are the Azatutyun.am and Panarmenian.net websites where the Heritage Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun exchange their positions: in both cases the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun is the fourth and the Heritage Party is the fifth. Another exception is Tert.am where the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Country of Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 13


Law Party exchange their positions the Country of Law Party occupying the fifth position and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun – the sixth. It is important to mention that references concerning the coalition and the joint staff are taken into account. In case of the coalition, points are given to the Republican Party of Armenia, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Country of Law Party. References concerning the joint staff brought points to the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian National Congress and the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun. Diagram 2. Number of References by Parties (Percentages) (Comparative Indexes for the Pre Official campaign, Pre-Elections Period and Post-Elections periods) 45

40

35

30

25 Pre Official campaign Pre-Elections Period 20

Post-Elections periods

15

10

5

0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

Before the official start of the elections campaign, 41% of references concerned the Republican Party of Armenia, the Prosperous Armenia and the Armenian National Congress were equal (15%). 11% of references for the period concerned the Heritage Party. 8% of references belonged to the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Country of Law Party. The Democratic Party of Armenia, the Communist Party of Armenia and the United Armenians Party had 1% of references each. The difference between the Republican Party of Armenia and other parties/bloc decreases a bit during the pre-elections period. The Armenian National Congress is the second (18%) and the Prosperous Armenia is the third (15%). References concerning the Heritage Party and the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun during the promotion period are equal (10%). The Country of Law Party has 7%. After the pre-elections period the Prosperous Armenia occupies the second position (19%), the Armenian National Congress is the third with slight difference (18%).

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 14


During the monitoring, references concerning the first three persons of parties/bloc were registered without mentioning the party/bloc (see Chapter 3). This includes publications about official visits (president, prime-minister, president of the Olympic Committee), messages and all other material where the member of party/bloc participated without representing his party/bloc. Diagram 2.1. Numbers of References by Parties for the Whole Monitoring Period (%) (06.02-20.05). Numbers of References (%)

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

To summarize the quantitative indexes, we should study percentage shares of references concerning the parties/bloc for the whole period of monitoring. More than each third reference concerned the Republican Party of Armenia, the Prosperous Armenia Party and the Armenian National Congress share the second place with equal points (16%). The Heritage Party is the fourth (10%), the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun is the fifth (9%) and the Country of Law Party is the sixth (8%). The Democratic Party of Armenia, the Communist Party of Armenia and the United Armenians Party have 2% each.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 15


CHAPTER 2 Nature of References in Online Media (Positive, Negative, Neutral) NEGATIVE REFERENCES Overall, 57% of negative references concern the Republican Party of Armenia. The Prosperous Armenia Party is the second with 15% and the Contry of Law Party is the third with 11%: The fourth place occupies the Armenian National Congress with 9% of negative references (Diagram 3). The Heritage Party (5%) and the Armenian National Federation-Dashnaktsutyun ( %) are the fifth and the sixth respectively The Democratic Party of Armenia, the Communist Party of Armenia and the United Armenians Party have not received any negative references. As we can see, the Country of Law Party was the sixth by the overall number of references, but it has shown quite high results here, and the Armenian National Congress with the second place by the overall number of references has lower indexes from the point of view of negative references. Diagram 3. Overall Number of Negative References by Parties (%) Negative References (%)

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

To uncover the dynamics of negative references we should study the comparative data for the pre official campaign, pre-elections period and post-elections periods.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 16


Diagram 3.1. Overall Number of Negative References by Parties (Comparative Data for the Pre Official campaign, Pre-Elections Period and Post-Elections periods) (%) Pre official campaign

Pre-elections

Post-elections (%)

70

60

50

40

30

20

10

0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

In the pre-official campaign period, the share of negative references of the Replican Party of Armenia is quite high (62%). This party is followed by the Prosperous Armenia Party (13%) and the Country of Law Party (12%), the Armenian National Congress (8%). The Heritage Party (3%) and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (2%) have lower indexes (Diagram 3). The picture is almost the same for the pre-elections period: 55% of negative references concern the Republican Party of Armenia, the Prosperous Armenia Party is the second (15%), the Country of Law Party is the third (11%), the Armenian National Cognress occupies the fourth place (9%). Maintaining the same order, the indexes of the parties/bloc show some changes: the shares of negative references of the Republican Party of Armenia, the Country of Law Party and the Heritage Party have decreased, and the Prosperous Armenia Party's and the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun's have increased. The number of negative references concrening the Armenian National Congress haves slightly increased too.

POSITIVE REFERENCES The overall picture of positive references, as compared to the negative ones, is quite balanced. During the whole monitoring period, 35% of all the positive references concerned the Republican Party of Armenia. The Prosperous Armenia Party (19%) is the second; the Armenian National Congress (17%) is the third (Diagram 4). The Heritage Party (13%) and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (10%) are rated as fourth and fifth respectively.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 17


Diagram 4. Overall Number of Positive References by Parties (%)

Positive References (%) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

Diagram 4.1. Overall Number of Positive References by Parties (Comparative Data for the Pre Official campaign, Pre-Elections Period and Post-Elections periods) (%)

Pre Official campaign

Pre-Elections

Post-Elections (%)

45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

In the pre official campaign period, as in case of negative references, the Republican Party of Armenia has the highest number of references, though 41% this time (57% negative references), the Prosperous Armenia Party is the second with 18%, the Armenian National Congress is the third with 15%. Number of positive references for the Heritage Party (13%) is quite high, while it had 3% of negative references. The Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun’s 6% is also high enough as compared to the negative references index (2%). The Country of Law Party has 6% of positive references too.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 18


During the pre-elections period, the Republican Party of Armenia maintains the leading position with lower index (30%), the Prosperous Armenia Party is the second with 19%, the Armenian National Congress is the third (17%). The Diagram shows that the Country of Law Party shows quite low results this time, while the Heritage Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun have higher indexes as compared to that of negative references (Diagram 4.1) After the pre-elections period, positive references have divided quite equal among the leading three parties: the Republican Party of Armenia (28%), the Prosperous Party of Armenia (25%), the Armenian National Congress (25%). The second triple consists of the Heritage Party (11%), the Armenian Revolutionary FederationDashnaktsutyun (8%), the Country of Law Party (2%) the result of which is closer to the outsiders’ results. NEUTRAL REFERENCES The Republican Party of Armenia (28%) is again leading by the overall number of neutral references only with more modest result. The Prosperous Armenia Party that was the second by the positive and negative references gives in to the Armenian National Congress (Diagram 5). The Heritage Party (12%) and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (11%) are the fourth and the fifth again. The Country of Law Party is traditionally the sixth with 7%. The Democratic Party of Armenia and the Communist Party of Armenia have 3% each and the United Armnians Party has 2% of neutral references. Diagram 5. Overall Number of Neutral References by Parties (%) Neutral References (%) 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 19


Diagram 5.1. Overall Number of Neutral References by Parties (Comparative Data for the Pre Official campaign, Pre-Elections and Post-Elections periods)

Pre Official campaign

Pre-Elections

Post-Elections (%)

35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK

The overwhelming part of neutral references during the pre official campaign belong to the Republican Party of Armenia (35%), 16% belongs to the Armenian National Congress and 15% goes to the Prosperous Armenia Party. The Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Country of Law Party again occupy interim positions. During the pre-elections period, the first place occupies the Republican Party of Armenia (23%), the Armeinan National Congress goes next, and the Prosperous Armenia Party is the third. It is worthy to mention that 21% of the Armenian National Congress is quite close to the result of the Republican Party of Armenia. In the post-elections periods, the leader by neutral references is again the Republican Party of Armenia (20%), and the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia Party share the second place (19%). The results of the Heritage Party and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun have decreas by 1% as compared to the number of neutral references during the pre-elections period. Thus, the Republican Party of Armenia, the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia Party are the leaders by the overall number of references. In cases of positive and negative references, the Republican Party of Armenia is the unconditional leader, the Prosperous Armenia Party is the second, and the Armenian National Congress is the third. The picture changes in case of neutral references during the pre-elections period: though the Republican Party of Armenia is still leading, the difference with the Armenian National Congress occupying the second place is only 2%, and the Prosprous Armenia Party loses only 6% to the Armenian National Congress. The result of the Country of Law Party is unique with awfully low number of positive references. In postelections period, the Republican Party of Armenia occupies the first place by the overall number of neutral references, the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia share the second place.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 20


CHAPTER 3 Number of References by the Three Representatives of Parties/Bloc without Mentioning Their Belonging to the Party/Bloc The Republican Party stands out here which had 2.685 (24%) references out of 11.256 concerning the first three members of The Republican Party without mentioning their belonging to the party. Pre official campaign period, the 1.759 references (30%) out of 5.825 concerned the first three members of The Republican Party without mentioning their belonging to the party. It should be mentioned that in most of the cases references were about official speeches, visits, common and unusual events. On the other side, there were stories about the three first members of the Republican Party representing critics about government officials, economic, social and other analysis coverages. During the pre-elections period, 759 (21%) out of 3.600 references concerning the Republican Party concerned the first three presons of the party. 44 of these references were of positive nature, 537 – neutral, and 178 – negative. Next go the Armenian National Congress and the Prosperous Armenia Party. 60 (3%) out of 2.002 references of the Armenian National Congress concerned the first three persons of the bloc without mentioning their belonging to the bloc. 64 references out of 1.747 concerned the first three members of the Prosperous Armenia Party without their belonging to the party. Post-elections period, 167 out of 1.831 references concerning the Republican Party concerned the first three presons of the party without mentioning their belonging to the party The May 4 incident (see “The Silence Day) and its coverages affected this fact. Some of the references are neutral (96), others are negative (64) and only 7 references are positive.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 21


CHAPTER 4 May 5. The Silence Day On May 5, when the Silence Day was implemented according to the Election Code (when candidates have no right to promote themselves or the parties), there still were references. Overall, there were 88 stories in the monitored web-sites which contained 152 references about the parties/bloc. Most references concerned the Republican Party of Armenia (74), the Prosperous Armenia Party (28) and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (25). The references mainly touched the following themes: 

The balloon explosion during the May 4 meeting on the Republic Sqaure.

The session and the judgement of the Constitutional Cour (the appeal of ministers concerning the publication of the voters' lists (the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun and the Armenian National Congress)).

The meeting of Turkish journalists with the representatives of parties in order to cover the elections (the Heritage Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun).

The reception of International Obvservers Delegation by the Prime-Minister Tigran Sargsyan.

The incident of the Alapars village in Kotayq (the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Republican Party).

It is symbolic that the above-mentioned articles in some cases contained references about the parties/bloc and in some cases did not. The leaders in publishing articles on these themes containing references about the parties/bloc are the Panorama.am, 7or.am and 1in.am. The least number of references in their articles on May 5 had the A1plus.am, Azatutyun.am and PanArmenian.net. 127 references out of 152 were of a neutral kind, there were 4 positive and 21 negative references. The picture is clearer if we see the nature of references site by site. 1in.am – 27 references, 22 neutral, 4 negative (the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party), 1 positive (the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun). 7or.am – 24 reference, 13 neutral, 11 negative (all concerning the Republican Party). A1plus.am – 6 references, 4 neutral, 2 negative (the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party). Lragir.am – 14 references, 10 neutral, 2 negative (the Republican Party, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun), 2 positive (the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian National Congress). Tert.am – 15 references, 14 neutral, 1 positive (concerning the Republican Party). Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 22


Panorama.am – 25 references, 23 neutral, 2 negative (the Republican Party). All other web-sites contained only neutral references: Azatutyun.am – 4 references, Civilnet.am – 15 references, News.am – 14 references, PanArmenian.net – 8 references. There were 28 out 152 references concerning the first three members of the parties/bloc: 25 references concrened the Republican Party (the speech of the President, the visit of the Prime-Minister to hospitals, etc.), 2 references concerned the Prosperous Armenia Party representative Vardan Oskanyan (Facebook post on the May 4 incident), 1 reference concerned the Armenian National Congress. The representatives of other parties/bloc have not been mentioned in stories without their belonging to the party. CONCLUSIONS: Of course, the Silence Day concerns the parties, and the event coverage is the primary activity of the web-sites. But in most cases the web-sites have choice: in some articles events are covered with mentioning the parties/bloc, and some have no references concerning them. And surely, as there is no ethical or legal ruling for the online media, the web-sites are directed at their own discretion. On the other side, in case of the accident some web-sites intend to cover the event in negative light trying to turn it into an emotional impulse to affect the auditory and to form specific attitude towards a party/bloc. The neutrality principle which is very important in journalism covering any kind of event, speaks for itself especially in covering the accident.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 23


CHAPTER 5 May 6. Elections 1in.am had 119 references 151 of which were neutral; most of the negative references concerned the Republican Party of Armenia (18), the Prosperous Armenia Party (5), the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun (4), and the Country of Law Party (3); there wrer 2 positive references concerning the Prosperous Armenia Party. 7or.am had 126 references, 93 neutral, 27 negative and 6 positive. 20 negative references concern the Republican Party of Armenia, 5 – the Hertiage Party, 2- the Country of Law Party; and the positive references concerned the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian National Congress and the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun, each receiving 2 references. A1plus.am – 129 references, 108 neutral, 18 negative (the Republican Party – 15, the Prosperous Armenia Party – 3), 3 positive (the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Armenian National Congress, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun). Azatutyun.am – 41 references, 33 neutral, 4 negative (the Republican Party, the Prosperous Armenia Party), 4 positive (the Prosperous Armenia Party, the Heritage Party, the Republican Party). CivilNet.am – 92 references, 64 neutral, 24 negative (the Republican Party – 16, the County of Law – 4, the Prosperous Armenia Party – 3, the Heritage Party – 1). Lragir.am – 100 references, 66 neutral, 33 negative (the Republican Party – 18, the Prosperous Armenia Party – 8, the Country of Law – 4, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun – 3) 1 positive (the Prosperous Armenia Party). News.am – 145 references, 119 neural, 25 negative (the Republican Party of Armenia – 10, the Prosperous Armenia Party- 9, the Country of Law – 2, the Armenian Revolutionary Federation-Dashnaktsutyun – 2, the Heritage Party 1). 1 positive (the Heritage Party). Tert.am – 206 references, 167 neutral, 37 negative (the Republican Party – 17, the Prosperous Armenia Party – 12, the Armenian Revolutionary Party-Dashnaktsutyun – 3, the Country of Law – 3, the Armenian National Congress – 1, the Heritage Party – 1). PanArmenian.net – 328 references, 320 neutral, 8 negative. Panorama.am – 219 references, 185 neutral, 27 negative, 7 positive. Thus, PanArmenian.net differs from other web-sites by both the number of references and the number of neutral references, while polarized attitude is distinguished in 7or.am and 1in.am coverage.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 24


CHAPTER 6 Types and Nature of Articles/Stories by Sources, Numbers, Genre and Media Content Owning the News: General Picture The next diagram reflects the percentage of publication of information from other media in the 10 monitored websites and the percentage of their own publications. Publications containing materials from other media, social networks but to which was made an addition from the publishing website were categorized under «own» references. And if a publication was fully taken from other media it was categorized under «other media» references. In overall 16.726 articles/stories, 3.168 (19%) fully or partially copied publications were found in which the source was mentioned. If there were no sources in the publication, the news story was viewed as property of the given website. Exceptions were the cases when readers could learn about the source of a publication clicking the «read more» hyperlink. There are plenty of examples, especially in A1plus.am where there are no any other article/story reflecting the source in the content except the hyperlink. Anyway, such cases were more exceptions than trends. Diagram 6. News Source Owner

18%

Own Media Other Media

82%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 25


Number of Sources in News Stories Diagram 7 reflects the overall picture of sources in articles. Among 16.726 monitored articles/stories, in 13.307 (80%) cases information received only from one source caused publication. No source was mentioned in 1.826 (11%) publications. And only 1.593 (10%) news stories had more than one source. As we see, the majority of publications had only one source. This reflects the inactive nature of journalistic work, i.e. publishing what exists without extra efforts. While, it is impossible to present unbiased and comprehensive coverage without efforts. And another negative trend: 11% of publications had no clearly distinguished source which turns the information into rumor. Diagram 7. Number of Sources in News Stories

8%

11% No Source One Source More than one

81%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 26


News Stories by Genres Diagram 8 reflects kinds of references by genres. 14.364 (86%) publications out of 16.726 were “news”, “press-conferences”, “researches” coverage, 1.024 (6%) were were analytical, editorial articles, 723 (4%) were announcements/messages, and 376 (2%) were interviews. Speaking about the developing journalism it must be mentioned that there is no multi-genre approach, analytical publications and even interviews are rare. While, existence of this all would foster the increase of a website’s readers and the general professional level of online media. Diagram 8. News Stroeis by Genres in Percentage (%)

86

News, press conferences Analysis/Editorial

6

Announcement

4

Interviews

2

Letter

1

Other

0

Essay

0

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 27


News Stories by Media Content 16.576 (99%) articles/stories out of 16.726 contained text, 14.964 (89%) – image, and only 1.096 (7%) news contained video and 294 (2%) – audio materials. Audios were published mostly in Azatutyun.am. Videos were presented mostly in Azatutyun.am, A1plus.am and Civilnet.am. The indexes show that the use of multimedia tools is in germinal phase, and first of all this is about the journalistic approach and not the need of extra resources. For example, recordings of interviews, pressconferences would only foster the increase of reliability of a publication. While, only 2% of publications containt audio. It should be mentioned, that the picture is common for all the website categories (see Methodology). And only A1plus.am, Azatutyun.am an Civilnet.am are exceptions in this list. Diagram 9. News by Media Content in Precentage

Media Content (%) Text

99

Picture

89

Video

Audio

7

2

Note. As the majority of publications contains more than one kind of media content (for example, text and image, text and video, or text, video and image), the overall rates exceed 100% in Diagram 9.

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 28


Number and Nature of References of 10 Websites by Parties (06 February -20 May)

positive

neutral

negative

6500 6000 5500 5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 1500 1000 500 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

DPA

CPA

RPA

MHP

OEK


1in.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06 February -20 May) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources 8% 14%

25%

No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

More than one

75%

78% Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 30


1in.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06 February -20 May)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

87 100

2

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Le t

0

Ne

Audio

An

no

An

In

Ot

sa

2

Es

Video

3

1

0 r

0

7

te r

98

y

Picture

he

Text

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 31


7or.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

8%

28%

7% No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

92%

More than one

65%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 32


7or.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

Text

73

96

8

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r In

An 0

Ne

Audio

An

r

Le t

he

Ot

sa Es

3

Video

3

2

1

no

2

10

te r

96

y

Picture

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 33


A1plus.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources 8% 4%

19%

No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

81%

More than one

88%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 34


A1plus.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

86 Text

100

11

vi

An

Ne

0

1

no

In

An Audio

1

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Le t

he

Ot

sa Es

26

Video

1

0 r

0

te r

99

y

Picture

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 35


Azatutyun.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

1%

1%

33%

No Source

Own Media Other Media

One Source

66%

More than one

99%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 36


Azatutyun.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

100

2

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Ne

An

In

An

no

r

4

1

Le t

53

Ot

Audio

sa

52

Es

Video

1

0

1

te r

71

y

Picture

he

Text

91

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 37


Civilnet.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

19%

4%

12% No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

96%

More than one

69%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 38


Civilnet.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

Text

63 83

24 5

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Ne

0

An

In

no

r

An Audio

6

0

Le t

he

Ot

sa Es

25

Video

1

0

te r

53

y

Picture

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 39


Lragir.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

500 450 400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

6%

2%

36% Own Media

One Source

Other Media

98%

No Source More than one

58%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 40


Lragir.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05) Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

Text

57

100

30 7

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r In

Ne

An

An

r

Le t

he

0

Ot

Audio

sa

1

Es

Video

5

1

0

no

1

te r

82

y

Picture

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 41


News.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

ARF

DPA

CPA

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

13% 6%

12%

No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

88%

More than one

81%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 42


News.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

100

5

vi

An

Ne

0

0

no

In

An Audio

1

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Le t

Ot

sa Es

5

Video

1

0 r

0

te r

96

y

Picture

he

Text

93

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 43


Tert.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

ARF

DPA

CPA

1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

9% 1% 38%

No Source

Own Media

62%

One Source

Other Media

More than one

90% Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 44


Tert.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06.02-20.05)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

100

3

vi

Ne

0

An

no

In

An Audio

1

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Le t

Ot

sa

2

Es

Video

1

0 r

0

5

te r

68

y

Picture

he

Text

90

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 45


PanArmenian.net: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06.02-20.05) positive

neutral

negative

DPA

CPA

800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

ARF

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

11% 5%

23%

No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

77%

More than one

84%

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 46


PanArmenian.net: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06 February -20 May)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

51

49 100

0

0

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

0

Le t

Ne

An

no

An

In 0

Ot

Audio

sa

0

Es

Video

0 r

0

te r

97

y

Picture

he

Text

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 47


Panorama.am: Number and Nature of References by Parties (06 February -20 May) positive

neutral

negative

ARF

DPA

CPA

1200 1100 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 BHP

ZhP

ANC

News Source Owner

RPA

MHP

OEK

Number of Sources

6% 8%

22%

No Source

Own Media

One Source

Other Media

More than one

78%

86% Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 48


Panorama.am: News Stories Genres and Media Content (06 February -20 May)

Genres (%)

Media Content (%)

87 100

2

vi

un ews ce a w s, lysi me s pr es /Ed nt sc it on oria fe re l nc es

te r

Le t

0

Ne

Audio

An

no

An

In

Ot

sa

2

Es

Video

3

1

0 r

0

7

te r

98

y

Picture

he

Text

Monitoring of Coverage of the May 6, 2012, Parliamentary Elections by Armenian Online Media 49


Monitoring of Armenian Online Media Coverage of May 6, 2012 Elections to RA National Assembly