The colors of different bloods in animalia! ! JesĂşs Maldonado! BIO 361T!
What Causes Blood Color! • In humans, we carry a Heme prosthe3c group bound within a globin protein • Fe (purple) coordinates the binding of oxygen • Aroma3c structures (in this case, nitrogen heterocycles and poryphryin por3on) form a conjugated system [connected p orbitals] can absorb certain wavelengths, and reﬂect others. • In heme, high-‐energy wavelengths are absorbed (blue) and low-‐energy wavelengths (red) are reﬂected. Only ferrous iron (Fe(II)) binds to the Heme moiety. Heme Prosthe3c Group is Used in All Vertebrate Groups with One Excep3on (later) hLp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/ 5/52/Heme_B_anion_3D_ball.png
Color Changes Based on What Binds to the Chromophore
Nitric Oxide The color changes because a.) the molecule changes conforma3on b.) electrons are in a diﬀerent arrangement and energy state c.) therefore, the electrons absorb and reﬂect diﬀerent wavelengths
Michael K Chan, Recent advances in heme-‐protein sensors, Current Opinion in Chemical Biology, Volume 5, Issue 2, 1 April 2001, Pages 216-‐222.
Found in marine invertebrates (sipunculids (worms), priapulids (worms), brachiopods (mollusk-‐like)) Binds Oxygen Colorless to Light Violet transi3on upon binding oxygen
Two Fe Binds O2 as a peroxide NOT HEME Stenkamp, R.E. Dioxygen and hemerythin. Chem. Rev. 1994, 94, 715-‐728
Directly Suspended in the Hemolymph of Cancer productus crab
Arthropods and Mollusks Two Cu (I-‐>II) ions and six H coordinate binding Colorless to blue/purple
Rehm et al. The diversity and evolu3on of chelicerate hemocyanins BMC Evolu2onary Biology 2012, 12, 19.
Erythrocruorin GIANT hemoglobins (144 globins…) Found in segmented worms Not sure if it leads to a diﬀerent color
Vanabin Found in sea squirts, ascidians, and tunicates May not carry oxygen? Vanadium binding protein. Dyes blood apple-‐green, or blue or orange depending on which vanadium oxide it binds
Ernest Baldwin, An Introduc2on to Compara2ve Biochemistry; (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 1964). 4th Edi3on.
hLp:// puphemutantdragon.ﬁles.wordpr ess.com/2011/10/blue-‐blood.jpg
Chlorocruorin Found in annelids (Green when dilute, red when concentrated!) Fox, H.M. On Chlorocruorin and Haemoglobin. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B 19 October 1949 vol. 136 no. 884 378-‐388 Similar to heme, except methylene moiety is replaced by carboxyl group
Christmas Tree Worms hLp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/
Pinnaglobin Found only in one species Pinna squamosa Manganese-‐based poryphyrin1 Clear, colorless to brown when oxygenated. No one has solved the crystal structure of the protein. (Checked pdb) Pinna squamosa is a clam. It gives brown pearls. hLp://farm3.sta3c.ﬂickr.com/2130/2165855827_5ef5159c02.jpg
Respiratory proteids: researches in biological chemistry. Chapter IV.
Coboglobins: Synthe3c Globins Cobalt-‐subs3tuted in hemoglobin – Made to elucidate the role metals have in the binding process
• Blood would be amber yellow (deoxygenated) to clear (oxygenated) • Weird, huh? •
B. M. Hoﬀman, D. H. Petering. Coboglobins: Oxygen-‐Carrying Cobalt-‐Recons3tuted Hemoglobin and Myoglobin. Proceedings of the Na2onal Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 67, No. 2 (Oct. 15, 1970), pp. 637–643
How about no globins? The Crocodile Iceﬁsh (Antar3ca, below, -‐1.9 °C) has no blood. No hemoglobin. No myoglobin. Pale Yellow blood They can live because solubility of oxygen in seawater is inversely propor3onal to T. Weird adap3ons too: Sidell, B. D. and O’Brien, K.M. When bad things happen to good ﬁsh: the loss of hemoglobin and myoglobin expression in Antarc?c iceﬁshes. J Exp Biol 2006, 209, 1791-‐1802.
Drama3c Structural Changes Cause the Fish to Adapt
Spongy hearts, increased mitochondrial density
Iceﬁsh Re3na has extensive branches
But, like, why? • Adap3ons – Animals in low-‐oxygen environments beneﬁt from a low-‐binding protein; oxygen can be dropped oﬀ easily.
• My idea is that diﬀerent adap3ons, occur, and color is a byproduct.
References • Chromophores/Blood Color – hLp://goldbook.iupac.org/C01076.html – hLp://www.wisegeek.com/what-‐is-‐a-‐ chromophore.htm#did-‐you-‐know