3 DE DICIEMBRE Jesus Ivan Torres Teoria y Critica de la arquitectura
Index Introduccion :
• Arquitectura postmodernista • Kenneth Frampton • Regionalismo Critico • Modernismo en Mexico • Regionalismo Mexicano • Luis Barragan • Ricardo Legorreta • Obras regionalistas • Arquitectos regionalistas • Conclusiones • Criticas
Introduccion : This work will analyze the regional Mexican architecture, starting from what was the beginning of modern architecture in Mexico to what we continue to build today. Within the work some of the important events that gave way to the regional Architecture of Mexico will be made, an investigation will be done about architecture and his works more representatives that gave rise to regionalist architecture. during this work it will also be an an esalisis of what color has meant for Mexican architecture. architecture in Mexico from the twentieth century begins to have a new identity, an identity that was no longer only representative in the country, but throughout the world, an architecture that adopted Mexican culture, which was created from culture ,the traditions and materials that exsitify in Mexico, in Mexico no longer only adopted an international style. this architecture that was built generating an identity for Mexico, the regionalism that is built in Mexico is the result of Mexican culture and society.
Postmodern architecture Postmodernism The modern movement left morearcade the history of architecture, from the comiezos of the twentieth century modernism took over the architecture that was built all over the world, the neglecting of ornamentation and some of the traditions in architecture led to that modernism did not meet the demands of society. modern constructions set aside elements such as ornamentation, identity, nature, and is eaten to build without regard to the environment. another of the main ideas of modernism was building at the scale of the automobile, which led to the development of modern cities to have problems with citizens, since not having the infrastructure for the pedestrian leads to many problems when people want to move around the city. rationality and designing without taking into account aspects of the region led to the emergence of postmodernism. in Mexico at the end of the revolution against Porifirio Diaz, the first modern constructions began to emerge, marked by European modernism, post revolutionary constructions began to put aside the ornamentation and began to focus on functionalism, the first theorics in Mexico started from the idea of starting functional constructions without leaving any trace of the identity of the country. With the empios that was left to modernism in architecture and in society is how the first post-modernist ideas begin to emerge, it begins to be a trend in the 1950s and it is until 1970 that it begins to be an international movement.
Kenneth Frampton Architect formed by the Architectural Association School of Architecture, Kenneth Frampton has taught since 1972 at Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture, Planning and Preservation in New York.
As an architect, writer and critic he has inspired several generations of students and architects. Modern architecture a critical history, is one of his most recognized books.
Towards a Critical Regionalism, was a writing that framed the influence of architects to revalue context, place and culture. His studies on tectonic culture were a key work to highlight the connection between the language of construction and the language of architecture.
Critical regionalism Kenneth Frampton and Alex Tzonisdevelops the concept of critical regionalism, a concept which would seek to refer to intergaring elements such as place, topography, climate, light, social aspects, culture and environment. Frampton ensures that the duty of critical regionalism is to meet the needs of modern architecture in addition to adding some value to the context. Within the regionalism it is also mentioned that this goes against universalization, since it proposes an international style, without taking into account the culture and the region as well as rescuing cultural aspects that were lost within the period of modernism. frampton proposes in his writing were taken back from what was not taken into account for modernism, Regionalism goes against globalization. problem that countries suffer by being within the globalization, since it tells us to have a more global thought, but at the same time it harms us, since it makes us forget in occasion our identity. Modernism led us to create the international style, this style greatly influenced the underdeveloped countries, since the modern style expanded through Latin America, modern architects built great works, which were fucnional and rational. this hurt several countries, since in the quest for modernity they set aside the values and identity of the place.
Modernism in Mexico Mexican architecture has been one of the most influential in the world, this begins to undergo great changes under the influence of the modern movement, since during the first half of the twentieth century, it is when the Mexican revolution ends in 1917, it is during these years that during these years that Mexican culture and society are beginning to change and to seek a new identity that defines Mexican culture.
El modernisno en Mexico comenzo a surgir con influencias diectas del movimiento en europa , grandes arquitectos como Jose Villagran y Juan Oâ€™ Gorman , comenzaron a expandir estas ideas por todo Mexico .
Postmodernism begins to emerge in Mexico from the 1950s, as an opposition to modernist ideas, with the aim that Mexican architecture has an identity and is not only functional, but also represents something to Mexican culture. Some of the styles and currents that are inserted into Postmodernism in Mexico are: Neohistoricism, Neoclassicism, Neocolonialism and Brutalism. Although modern architecture gave Mexico a great avanze fails to refer to what it wanted to represent in Mexico. Postmodernism has as main purposes the following: to recover historical references, achieve an identity, resume ornamentation, achieve a sensitivity with the environment, and achieve a functional building. Postmodernism takes up some elements of the region, gives way to the neovernacula architecture, which would seek to refer to the place and its history. As an opposition to modernism, the architects are looking for new ideas retaken from postmodernism, referring to the historical constructions of the country, as was the case of architects such as Luis Barragan, Ricardo Legorreta, Teodoro Gonzalez de Leon
Mexican Regionalism Resuming the ideas of Postmodernism and with the ideas introduced by Kenneth Frampton, it is sought to create in Mexico an architecture that has an identity, that retakes ideas of Mexican culture and that has its own value, containing the new international styles. In Mexico it continued with the search for its own identity, the first half of the twentieth century was to give way to modernism during the second half began to have new ideas about the direction of architecture in Mexico. Regionalism would seek to resume and refer to the region, its climate, culture, materials of the area. With these ideas the Mexican architects began to design and build works throughout Mexico, some with the idea of resuming vernacula architecture, and carriedrationalism and modern ideas.
Criticas Centro de artes visuales Santa fe 1999 ,Ricardo Legorreta
Legorreta through his years as an architect he was recognized munially, this led him to build in different parts of the world, within the United States was the place where he began to build great works, first they were relapses and then larger works as buildings public, this is the case of the center of visual arts in Santa fe, New Mexico, this city during the last years has grown in infrastructure and especially in cultural spaces such as galleries and museums. With the idea of continuing to grow the university of Santa fe decides to create the center for visual arts in order to attract more students. the project would be almost 10 ,000 m2 so it would be a very large project, and to develop it would call Legorreta . during this stage Legorreta had already built a large number of deficious in Mexico and in the world, already has defined his style and the way he built.
Representation: This work was conceived with the idea of a small town, Legorreta was based on the Mexican villages, the buildings encompassed large lands so i could experience their ideas on a larger scale that in turn was understood with the landscape and the environment of the city , in this work the representation would be defined by the shape of the buildings, the scale would allow us to appreciate the spaces of better way Legorreta as in his works he would use elements such as interior patios and the use of colors to help with the represetacion.
Language: The leguanje is clear, as with Barragan's works the works of Legorreta pose a language defined by elements that allow the works to speak on their own, the works convey a language that is unique, tell us a lot about Mexican culture and its elements unique ones, which transmits serenity in each space with the play of light and shadows allow us to better understand each space, for the students of this university it is a unique experience to tour this school, and above all understand a little of Mexican culture.
Way: The buildings are designed with simple geometric shapes, Legorreta uses rectangular shapes for the most part, defining the shapes from the plan distribution, also uses triangular shapes that can be seen from the top of the building, the Shapes are very clean, they allow us to see the accesses and windows very clearly, besides that the buildings are painted in different colors, which allows us to differentiate between each space.
Space: The space generated by this work is very important for the university, because being a private space allows students to live within the university safely and above all to appreciate each space. the spaces are open have a very good light entrance Legorreta makes the leftovers present again, with the openings to the outside allow the space to be ilimunidado with natural light. despite being a very great work, the work has easy journeys. Truth: This work conveys to us that feeling of truthfulness in each space, since it has very cheerful spaces, which transmits us feelings of tranquility, the mataeriales and the use of color in the building speak to us of the truthfulness, it has spaces with apparent materials what c c they allow us to feel them.
Casa Galvez , Luis Barragan
The architecture of Barragan was recognized for its unique style, of combining different styles in favor of one, the galvez house is an example of this combination and of this architecture with an identity of its own, this house like many of its works stands out for the consections and routes from the interior spaces to the exterior, creating a unique sensitivity. This house was commissioned by Antonio Galvez, who after meeting Barragan and visiting his house is amazed by his style, after this Barragan begins with the design, which he sought to make it a tradational mexican architecture, but which in turn was a Modern style.
Casa Galv Representation: This is one of the houses that Barragan built under his own style, during the steppe that I was intended he had already designed his studio house, in which I manage to put into practice and experience new elements, so during the design process of the house Galvez can you realize that Barragan's career was beginning to consolidate, this project was proof of that is a representation of the style of regional, created by Barragan.
Language As in many of his works Barragan's language is clear, with his works he transmits many sensations and emotions, in this house circulations are an important part of the design, the transition between spaces, and the use of natural light transmit us a message Je spiritual, the use of materials from the region, conveys to us that message of an architecture with Mexican identity, which in turn is modern.
Way: The shape of the house is given in connection with the interior spaces, the distribution on the floor is what guides the shape of house, the shape seen from the extrior can be difficult to understand if the spaces are not known, the form is not very important in this house , the distribution is what defines the spaces.
Space: The spaces are the ones that define this house, each space transmits something different, some interior spaces are directly related to the extrerior which makes the house transmit different sensations when touring it, the transitional spaces are very interesting, since these are defined by architectural elements, which Barragan manages to combine, elements such as low walls, ponds and different textures make the house a unique space. the house has three levels. The spaces are composed of elements that Barragan was thinking, for the room has a double height. this is composing pink, and allowing the entrance of light, the house has vestibules, which allow a better transition between each space, the patios are important spaces, has two gardens, in front and in the back of the house , these gardens interact with the interior spaces, inside the gardens are have trees which can be seen from the living room and the dining room, so it makes you feel a relationship between the outside and the interior.
Truth: Barragan's works are of the works that can most be defined as true, since the spaces are pure, clean and create a sensitivity when touring them, as in other works of Barragan this is composed of apparent materials and some repellent finishes q after they are painted by colorful paint, in this house the apparent materials in floors and the color on each wall make us feel an atmosphere of tranquility with elements such as water and shadows also achieve that sensation of spiritualit
Conclusiones : Mexican architecture is one of the most beautiful in the world, through the history of architecture in Mexico has been built with a unique seal. Mexican regionalism is the result of an architecture with identity. this begins from the time of the colony, then it would be retolled in the modern years and then in the contemporary, Mexican regionalism has been built over the years, however it was until the time of Luis Barragan where this style was conmanessed , which tells us about an architecture that is part of our culture, and our history, traditional Mexican architecture is the one that we must continue to support and above all continue to talk about it, since part of our duty as architects is to be able to continue to work Nsmiting in our architecture to Mexican culture, the that our architecture has an identity is very important for all of us. regionalism allows us to keep these elements of identity alive, this style is not transient this can be maintained forever, if we continue to combine it with the new elements that sruga within the architecture.
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Bibliografia de imágenes :ez Luis Barragan Imagen 1 portada : foto recuperada del la pagina : http://legorretalegorreta.com/centro-de-artesvisuales-de-santa-fe/ Imagen 2 introduccion :foto recuperada de la pagina : http://tallersmariavictrix.blogspot.com/2015/12/luis-barragan.html Imagen 3 pagina 4 : foto recuperada de https://ivansanchezcyd2.wordpress.com/arquitecturapostmoderna/ Imagen 4 pagina 5: foto recuperada de https://blogs.iteso.mx/arquitectura/tag/kenneth-frampton/ Imagen 5 pagina 6 : foto recuparada de https://www.archdaily.mx/mx/898316/la-importancia-de-laluz-en-las-vibrantes-obras-de-luis-barragan
Imagen 7 pagina 8 : foto recuperada de https://www.mexicoescultura.com/recinto/54482/museocasa-estudio-diego-rivera-y-frida-kahlo.html Imagen 8 pagina 9 : imagen recuperada de https://www.timeoutmexico.mx/ciudad-demexico/hoteles/hotel-camino-real-polanco Imagen 9 pagina 10 foto recuperada de http://legorretalegorreta.com/centro-de-artes-visuales-desanta-fe/ Imagen 10 pagina 11 : recuperada de http://legorretalegorreta.com/centro-de-artes-visuales-desanta-fe/ Imagen 11 pagina 12 recuperada de http://legorretalegorreta.com/centro-de-artes-visuales-de-santafe/ Imagen 12 pagina 13 recuperada de https://es.wikiarquitectura.com/edificio/casa-galvez/ Imagen 14 pagina 15 : foto recurada del libro : fotografias de la arquitectura de Luis Barragan .
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