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Pre-Fab High-Rise Jessica L. Butler

Master’s Project Preparation 2012 Instructor: Iker Gil Advisor: Paul Endres

Pre-Fab High-Rise is a framework for the prefabrication of flexible, responsive and economical high-rise residential structures in quickly urbanizing areas.


Pre-Fab High-Rise Contents 3

Project Goals, Description & Argument 3 Problem 5 Goals 5 Summary 7 Methodological Case Studies 8 Reasons for Prefab 9 Cohen Brothers Developments 10 Atlantic Yards B2 Tower 12 Habitat 67 14 Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank 16 Lloyd’s Building 18 Nakagin Capsule Tower 20 Sky City Tower 23 Architectural Case Studies 24 Ordos Kangbashi District, China 25 Northeast Asia Trade Tower 26 S-Trenue Tower 27 The Hansar 29 Site Criteria, Research & Selection 32 Foshan, Guangdong Province 34 Nantong, Jiangsu Province 36 Shenyang, Liaoning Province 38 Xi’an, Shaanxi Province 41 Parameters & Strategies 41 People 43 Program 44 Design 47 Implementation 49 Next Steps 51 Resources

Southeast Asia. Credit: NASA.

Why China?

Project Goals, Description & Argument

Problem The proposal outlined in this document has been developed to address the rapid urbanization in developing countries such as China. As continental Asia is urbanizing at a rate of over 150,000 people per day, growth which is projected to sustain itself over the next 20 years1, it suggests that quality architecture is and will be in high demand to meet the needs of urban dwellers. China has reached a 50% urbanization rate,2 meaning that over 700 million people now live in Chinese cities. In terms of economy in the global recession, 18 of the world’s top 40 fastest growing cities (of the world’s largest 200) were in continental Asia3. The combination of consistent economic growth and influx of people moving to take advantage of opportunity in urban areas has created a real estate boom which is unprecedented. These trends seem to suggest that keeping up with the increasing demand for buildings to serve the burgeoning urban population will be difficult for architects utilizing a traditional design and construction process which can take years to complete one large-scale building. Allowances for creativity, site-consciousness and user experience are left by the wayside in the speed of production in current developments. The result is massive development of “cookiecutter” buildings which lack standards of quality and rarely address contextual or environmental issues.

Migrant workers moving from villages to cities in China increased by

116 million people

from 2000–2010.


Rural Population 63.9%

Urban Population 36.1%


Rural Population 49.7%

14.2% increase in urban population

Urban Population 50.3%

While some companies or developers have begun planned communities and large-scale developments to address the growth in rapidly urbanizing areas like China, the majority of them lack a 1  “12 Things to Know in 2012: Urbanization in Asia.” Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank, 29 March 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <>. 2  Sabaris, Xan. “Chart: China 2010 Population Census.” China Daily. China Daily, 29 April 2011. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <>.

Chinese urbanization figures based on 2000 and 2010 Census data. Data source: China Daily, referencing Chinese Bureau of Statistics Census Data 2010.

3  The Brookings Institution, The Global Metro Monitor 2011. 2012. Description & Argument 3

general consideration for design and quality, and some even ignore basic needs such as access to amenities and transportation. With roughly 64 million unoccupied homes in China (the majority of them new construction),4 speculative building is a commonplace activity. In addition, quality continues to be an issue with the rapid building in China, even to the point of causing deaths as in the Sichuan earthquake of 2008 which involved over 68,000 casualties. Shoddy construction contributed to many of the deaths, and brought the lack of quality control in Chinese construction to the forefront5. Even without natural disasters, methods are unreliable, causing accidents such as the 13-story residential tower that toppled over in its entirety when excavations were not properly completed and the pilings failed6. Finally, worker safety has recently become a highlighted issue in the news.7 Frequently, stories reach the US of dozens of Chinese workers being killed in manufacturing- and construction-related accidents, many of which could be prevented with better standards. Example of “cookie-cutter” buildings in Nantong, China. Credit: Xinfeng Guoji.

To mediate the demand for buildings while responding to these issues, this project proposes a prefabrication methodology to create quality, thoughtful, and sensitive architecture that is completed in a timely fashion and within a reasonable budget. Prefabrication typically reduces construction time and costs while allowing for quality control.8 By creating a framework for a prefabricated high-rise, the system can be replicable across varying geographic areas and in different contexts, thereby filling the need for new buildings in the developing areas of China that also address specificity. Creating thoughtful development that meets the current and future needs of China’s expanding metropolises will be a challenge, and this project is aimed at providing one solution. By leveraging known processes, current methods could be improved. 4­  Donald, Alastair. “Ghost Towns.” Architectural Review. September. (2012): 32-34. Print. 5­  “Sichuan Earthquake.” New York Times. New York Times, 06 May 2009. Web. 7 Oct 2012. <>. 6  “Ever see a 12 story building just fall over?.” Engineering.comLibrary. Engineering. com, 02 December 2009. Web. 7 Oct 2012. <;. 7  Multiple new sotries from 8  There aren’t many sources for the comparison of costs of prefab vs. typical construction, but residential home projects have consistently saved time and money in creating their products.


Description & Argument

There are currently

700 million Goals • Address the demand for cost-effective architecture in China. • Allow fast-paced but site- and user-sensitive buildings to be built. • Increase worker safety in construction of new buildings. • Provide quality spaces for a new and growing population that respond to cultural needs. • Allow for the element of design to be incoporated into an otherwise prescriptive process.

urban dwellers in China. That’s more than twice the population of the United States.

Summary This project will be a structural and architectural framework of prefabrication that can be used to design and build high-rise structures that are responsive to site and user conditions and remain within a reasonable budget and timeline to serve the increasing urban populations of China.

Modular Construction Schedule Design Engineering

Permits & Approvals

Site Development & Foundations

Install & Site Restoration

Time Savings

Building Construction at Manufacturing Facility

Site-Built Construction Schedule Design Engineering

Permits & Approvals

Site Development & Foundations

Building Construction

Site Restoration

Timelines of Site-Built vs. Modular construction. Source: Modular Construction Institute. Description & Argument 5

Silvercrest Western Home manufacturing facility. Credit: Frank Schott via Prefab.


Description & Argument

Why Prefab? Methodological Case Studies

Traditionally, especially in the US, prefab has been applied to mostly residential projects and has recently seen a resurgence with goals for sustainability. Applications of prefab were explored more extensively in the mid-20th century, but were eventually abandoned for more traditional techniques. Today, as construction costs continue to rise, many owners/clients/developers are looking for ways to save money and increase efficiencies, leading some to prefabrication.

In a study of typical versus manufactured single-family homes, there was

a 32% cost savings.

Among professionals who promote prefab, there are many advantages: lower labor costs in factory settings; increased quality control; less material waste; fewer weather-related delays; increased job safety for workers; less site disruption; and the ability to complete site work and building component work concurrently1. Additionally, if a prefab framework is developed and can be leveraged for a large complex or future projects, the cost savings could be substantial. The case studies presented in this section look at the different ways that prefab has been practiced in several applications. From the scale of the single-family home to a high-rise office building, the methodologies utilized have been varied and each have their own strengths and weaknesses.

1  Gonchar, Joann. “Paradigm Shift.” Architectural Record. October (2012): 144-146. Print.

Jean Prouve’s modular façade system for Noble Tower, Paris, France. 1967. Case Studies 7

Reasons for Prefab



Cost Savings

Time Less time on-site More predictable scheduling Less construction time overall Site Less conflicts on site Less site storage



Safety Safety of workers Safety of site and surroundings


Sustainability Less material waste Higher standard of materials due to quality control

~ 8â&#x20AC;&#x192;

Case Studies



Cohen Brothers Developments



Location: Colorado, USA Architect: Braun Yoshida Developer: Cohen Brothers Completion: Ongoing Area: Variable

Beginning during the housing boom of the early 2000’s, the Cohen Brothers developed a framework called the Whole House Building System, a patented process in which an entire single-family home is fabricated in a factory setting and trucked to its final site. Once a site is selected for the neighborhood development, a prefabricated warehouse structure is erected nearby in which the houses are then built. Using special trucks and platforms, the houses are then loaded and transported (less than half a mile, typically) to their site where foundations were previously laid, and bolted down and sealed. The company claims it can reduce construction time by up to 75%, costs by 20%, all while reducing errors and defects1. Once construction of the housing development is complete, the prefab factory is disassembled and taken away.

View of completed factory-made house and transportation to site. Credit: Braun Yoshida Architects.

1  Steuteville, Robert. “New housing manufacturing system tried at TND.” Better Cities & Towns. Better Cities & Towns, 01 2006. Web. 15 Oct 2012. < new-housing-manufacturing-system-tried-tnd>. Case Studies 9

Location: Brooklyn, NY, USA Architect: SHoP Architects Engineer: Arup Developer: Forest City Ratner Completion: 2014 (?) Area: 340,000sf Height: 32 stories

Atlantic Yards B2 Tower



The Atlantic Yards project has been in planning since 2003, but because of controversy over the site, issues with architects and the community as well as the economy, has been delayed for some time. The arena component recently opened this year, and the modular residential components are set to break ground before the end of 2012.

Rendering of Atlantic Yards residential complex. Credit: SHoP Architects.

Forect City Ratner has been the impetus behind developing a modular system to build the 16-building residential complex. With over 6,400 residential units, Bruce Ratner (CEO of FCR) wanted to find a more efficient way to complete the complex1. The first building, B2, which is currently being designed and is set to break ground in November, has vetted the modular system mainly through the use of BIM. The structural design of the building calls for a steel braced-frame superstructure at the core, which provides lateral support. Each of the more than 900 modular units is then built off-site (at the Brooklyn Navy Yard, 1.5 miles from the site) and has its own steelframed chassis. The modules are not totally standardized, but are 10’ tall and 15’ wide, ranging in lengths up to 45’. Once on site, these modules will be stacked, clipped into the superstructure, and then connected at the perimeter to form a structural diaphragm providing additional stability2.

Typical module with detail of process and systems integration. Credit: Engineering News-Record via SHoP Architects.


Case Studies

1  “Mad About High-rise Modular.” Engineering News-Record. July.16 (2012): 24-27. Print. 2  Gonchar, Joann. “Paradigm Shift.” Architectural Record. October (2012): 144-146. Print.

Rendering of B2 Tower. Credit: Architectural Record via SHoP Architects.

Left: Rendering of braced-frame superstructure. Credit: Architectural Record, via SHoP Architects.

Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;11

Location: Montreal, Canada Architect: Safdie Architects Engineer: August Komendant Developer: Canadian Corporation for the 1967 World Exhibition Completion: 1968 Area: 238,000sf Height: 12 stories

Habitat 67


~ Habitat 67 was initially inspired by Moshe Safdie’s thesis work at McGill University and was eventually realized for the 1967 World Exhibition in Montreal. Using prefabricated concrete modules was somewhat revolutionary for the time, but has since stood the test of time in its construction.

Detail view of the Habitat modules. Credit: Sylvain Pastor.

The concept behind the housing complex was to create units which had their own sense of privacy and outdoor space while accommodating different needs. The units range from one to four bedrooms, with terraces of varying sizes. The entire complex was designed to be a dense, urban, self-sustaining and yet pleasant environment. The structure of the complex is created with a single unitized module of precast, posttensioned concrete. Each module is 10’ tall, 17.5’ wide and 38.5’ long. These modules are stacked to create the unique and distinctive pyramid form with voids and terraces1. The 12-story structure is self-supporting within these modules and also relies on its form for stability. Apartments within the complex are created with varying combinations of the standard modules.

Floor plans of varying module combinations.

1  “Habitat 67.” Japan Architect. 133.August (1967): 53-59. Print.


Case Studies

Typical section through stacked modules showing terraces. Credit: Japan Architect via Safdie Architects.

Structural diagram and details of post-tensioned concrete modules. Credit: Progressive Architecture via Safdie Architects.

Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;13

Location: Hong Kong, China Architect: Foster + Partners Engineer: Arup Developer: Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Completion: 1986 Area: 1,065,000sf Height: 43 stories


Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank




The Hong Kong Shanghai Bank building was approached by Foster + Partners with the impending return of the territory to China’s possession in mind, in addition to the needs of the banking owner. The timeline for the project was tight, and the client wanted flexible spaces that could change with the needs of the company. In response to these needs, the architect developed a design-build framework within which over 100 subcontractors worked with the designers to imagine and create a totally prefabricated building1. The whole building was designed to be disassembled and moved to a new location should any political unrest cause issue with the site of the bank. In addition, the modularity of each component allowed the company to reconfigure all the internal spaces to meet the changing needs of the users.

Overall view of the tower. Credit: A + U via Foster + Partners.

The main structural framework allowed for sections of 5-7 floors to be suspended from a Vierendeel truss superstructure. These large structural components allowed the floor modules to go up quickly, and have also created an iconic expression on the exterior of the building. All the components of the building within the structure were modularized and fabricated offsite as well, down to the lighting, flooring, and partition wall systems. While each component of the building was essentially a new product which had to be mocked up, tested, and refined, the effort paid off in the end with a faster construction time and a flexible building which has served the client over the past 25 years2.

Structural detail. Credit: Detail Magazine via Foster + Partners.


Case Studies

1  Matsushima, Shiro. The Hongkong And Shanghai Bank. Harvard Design School Center for Informatics, 2003. Print. 2  Nakamura, Toshio. “May Extra Edition | Norman Foster: 1964-1987.” Architecture + Urbanism. May 1988: 194-209. Print.

View of interior atrium. Credit: A + U via Foster + Partners.

Sections, plans and detail section of typical floor. Credit: A + U via Foster + Partners.

Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;15

Location: London, UK Architect: Richard Rogers Engineer: Arup Developer: Lloyd’s of London Completion: 1986 Area: 592,000sf Height: 14 stories



Lloyd’s Building

~~ ~ As a historic institution of London, Lloyd’s has taken residence in four buildings since the 17th century when it was founded, with the Rogers building on Lime Street being the most recent. When approached with the project in the late 1970’s, Lloyd’s had occupied a building adjacent to the new project site for nearly 20 years and were experiencing growing pains1. The main issue with the redevelopment of the site was in providing working spaces through the entire renovation and construction project, and creating spaces that were flexible enough to grow as the company did.

Overall view. Credit: Architectural Record via Richard Rogers.

In developing the process for the building, Rogers was interested in prefabrication as a means to define static versus changeable spaces2. The main concrete superstructure was prefabricated, while the floor infill was site cast. Bathroom pods were entirely fabricated off-site and were trucked in at night and placed into the structure to reduce site storage. In addition, an innovative services network was developed with underfloor systems and compound ceiling panel systems working in tandem, relying on mostly offsite manufactured components3. The structure has allowed open and largely column-less spaces in the building that have facilitated the company’s varying uses over time. The ‘served’ and ‘servant’ spaces were originally conceived over 30 years ago, but have been able to withstand the advancement of technology.

View of interior atrium spanning all floors with exposed concrete superstructure.

1  “History of Lloyd’s Buildings.” Lloyd’s. Lloyd’s of London. Web. 15 Oct 2012. <http://>. 2  Powell, Kenneth. Lloyd’s Building: Richard Rogers Partnership. London: Phaidon Press, 1994. Print. 3  Young, John, Peter Rice, and John Thornton. “Design For Better Assembly (5), Case Study: Rogers’ And Arup’s.” Architects’ Journal 180.36 (1984): 87-94. Print.


Case Studies

Section through typical floor with prefabricated structure, service ceiling panels, and raised floor system. Credit: Architectural Record via Richard Rogers.

Top: Axonometric view. Bottom: Diagrams of structural concrete joints. Credit: Kenneth Powell via Richard Rogers. Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;17

Location: Tokyo, Japan Architect: Kisho Kurokawa Engineer: Gengo Matsui + ORS Completion: 1972 Area: 33,270sf Height: 13 stories



Nakagin Capsule Tower

~~ ~ Sited on a small plot of land in densely-built Tokyo, the Nakagin Capsule Tower was designed to utilize a hybrid tradition and prefab construction system to ease the construction process. As a member of the Metabolist Movement in Japan, Kurokawa was a proponent of collaboration between different disciplines, and emphasized flexible, interchangeable designs. The design process resulted in a tower with prefabricated pods that could be added and taken away.

Overall view of the tower. Credit: Arcspace.

Detail of capsule fabrication and assembly. Credit: Japan Architect.


Case Studies

Geared towards businessmen, the size and amenities of the living spaces within the tower are very minimal, and were totally manufactured in a factory setting. The structural framework for the building was based upon two steel-concrete composite cores that were erected on site in a relatively typical fashion. Each of the 140 capsules were made off-site and then transported to the building and clipped into the superstructure of the 11 and 13 story cores. This prevented conflicts on-site during construction, as most of the fabrication was done in the factory setting. However, the production facility was over 450 kilometers (280 miles) away, increasing the cost and complexity of the project due to transportation. Each unit is 4 by 2.5 meters (13’ x 8.2’)1. Though the architect originally intended for the capsules to be removable and replaceable, the building has fallen into disrepair and is under threat of demolition. Since the global recession of the last several years, nothing has been done yet to improve ro raze the building. Kurokawa hopes to replace the old capsules with updated ones, but will rely on financing to complete the work.

1  “Nakagin Capsule Tower Building.” Japan Architect. 47.October (1972): 17-33. Print.

Sixth floor plan with site outline. Credit: Japan Architect.

Interior view of a typical capsule. Credit: Japan Architect. Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;19

Location: Hunan, China Architect: Broad Sustainable Building Engineer: BSB Developer: BSB Completion: 2013 Area: 10,000,000sf Height: 220 stories

Sky City Tower



Causing ripples in the global news pond, Broad Sustainable Building (originally an air conditioner manufacturer) announced in mid-2012 that they would build the world’s tallest prefab building. They also noted that it would become the world’s tallest building at 838 meters, 10 meters taller than the Burj Khalifa, and they would complete it in less than half a year. Situated in rural Hunan Province, the head of BSB Zhang Junjie, decided to get into the construction business after the devastation of the Sichuan earthquake in 2008. Spending several years on developing a framework for prefab high-rise buildings, the company completed its first 30-story hotel in just 15 days, a fact that went viral over the internet with their time-lapse video of the project site. Applying the same principles, the company believes it can complete a much larger scale building. Combining the design, manufacturing, and assembly process under one umbrella, BSB has essentially streamlined the process for creating a building. Factories that fabricate all the necessary components of the buildings are within close proximity to the building site, transportation of components has been optimized and assembly of the building parts on-site has been improved. The whole process works much like a large, extended assembly line.

Rendering of completed Tower. Credit: Broad Sustainable Building.

The structure of the system is essentially boiled down to interlocking floor panels and columns, which have been tested for earthquake stability. All components are uniform and unitized for efficiency and ease of transportation. Wired Magazine put together a series of graphics to illustrate the manufacturing and assembly processes, shown on the next page1.

1  Hilgers, Lauren. “Meet the Man Who Built a 30-Story Building in 15 Days.” Wired. Wired, 25 Sept 2012. Web. 6 Oct 2012. <>.


Case Studies

Sky City Tower Manufacturing & Assembly Process All images credited to Wired Magazine, Jason Lee

Floor platforms are manufactured in the nearby factory facility of steel framing, all the same modular size. On-site, each module is lifted into place with a climbing crane, including all necessary materials for assembly.

Systems are installed within each modular platform, to be connected on-site upon installation.

Finally, each platform is clipped into the overall structural system and all elements connected, sealed, and then exterior cladding is placed.

Each platform is then loaded into a standardized truckload with all materials needed to construct that module, including systems connectors, wall panels, columns, and bolts. Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;21

Shanghai, China.

22â&#x20AC;&#x192; Case Studies

There are currently

66 buildings over 150m

Why High-rise? Architectural Case Studies

While still arguable, many architecture professionals believe that higher-density development is more sustainable. In Asia and China, many developers are proposing mixed-use, high-density tall buildings to meet their own requirements for rate of return and tenant occupancy, while also providing a sustainable lifestyle for its users with access to necessary amenities, transportation and quality living and working spaces.

under construction in Shenyang, more than 3 times the amount in the entire US.

In China alone, 45 buildings over 150 meters were completed in 2011,1 with 107 completed in Asia as a whole. Twelve of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s top 20 tallest buildings in the world in 2020 will be in China, as projected by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. Tall buildings serve the living and working needs of a growing urban population, and density encourages sharing of resources. In looking to develop a high-rise design for growing urban areas in China to serve the people moving into cities, projects have been studied here for their spatial components as integrated within a mixed-use building, along with their architectural strategies. Each case has its types of spaces indicated with icons as follows:

70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20%






2000 1â&#x20AC;&#x192; CTBUH. (2012): Skyscraper Center. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <http://www.skyscrapercenter. com>.



Percentage of top 20 tallest buildings in the world that have been located in China over time. Data source: Case Studiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;23

Location: Ordos, China Architect: various Developer: Zhongfu Real Estate Co. Completion: ongoing Area: 14 square miles

Ordos Kangbashi District, China

A city planned for 1 million people, the Kangbashi New Town in Ordos City is the epitome of overdevelopment and overspeculation. While the district has one of the higher GDP per capita in the country and has a wealth of mineral resources, the radical plan to build an entirely new city for 1 million new inhabitants has resulted in a virtual ghost town. Originally planned to be 137 square miles, the failing status of the current 14 square mile swatch has essentially halted progress. While high-quality amenities such as museums, hotels, and restaurants have been planned and built along with the many residences to accomodate the hypothetical inhabitants, less than 30,000 people live in an area which could easily serve 300,000.1

View of residential construction at Ordos. Credit: Architectural Review. Right: View of empty streets into a residential district or Ordos. Credit: Michael Brown, CNN.

1  “China’s Ghost Towns.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 18 2011. Web. 17 Oct 2012. <http://>.


Case Studies

Northeast Asia Trade Tower

Location: Incheon, Korea Architect: Kohn Pederson Fox Engineer: Arup Developer: Gale International Completion: 2011 Area: 1,500,000sf Height: 68 stories

The Northeast Asia Trade Tower (NEATT) is the current tallest building in Korea and occupies a prominent space in the New Songdo City development. The tower’s form changes from a trapezoid at its base to a triangle at the top, responding to the programs in the building with larger floor plates for offices and smaller floors with improved views for residences. Sustainable strategies such as horizontal shades and a graywater collection system were incorporated within the building in response to solar conditions and the lack of potable water.1

1  “Northeast Asia Trade Tower, Incheon.” Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH, n.d. Web. 17 Oct 2012. <;.

Overall view from Songdo Central Park. Credit: H. G.Esch.Left: Building elevations and section showing program distribution. Credit: Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates.

Case Studies 25

Location: Seoul, South Korea Architect: MASS Studies Engineer: Junwoo Structure Developer: SK Networks Completion: 2009 Area: 430,000sf Height: 36 stories

S-Trenue Tower

The S-Trenue tower is totally unique in several ways: its program is made of integrates “live/work” spaces; its composite structure is comprised of three separate towers; and it provides an unusual amount of outdoor and green space to its tenants. Instead of a typical format, the tower is based around a central concrete core which is connected with 32 bridges to two flanking towers. Aside from the retail in the podium, the stacked floors are comprised of live/work spaces.1

Overall view. Credit: Wan Soon Park. Right: Detail view of stacked floors. Credit: Wan Soon Park. 1  K., David. “S-Trenue: Bundle Matrix | MASS Studies .” plusMOOD. plusMOOD, 11 2011. Web. 17 Oct 2012. <>.


Case Studies

The Hansar

Location: Bangkok, Thailand Architect: WOHA Architects Engineer: Warnes Associates Developer: Ativa Hospitality Corp. Completion: 2011 Area: 500,000sf Height: 43 stories

The main concept behind the design of the Hansar was to create a fully permeable and naturally ventilated residential tower that responded to its tropical climate. The form of the building responds to the scale of the site with setbacks and perforations for skygardens. Natural lighting and ventilation were given priority in the design, as well as easy access to outdoor spaces. Skygardens, skypavillions, and even green walls have been installed to ensure access from both public and private areas. Materials were chosen for their relation to the cultural standards of the area and their ability to prevent solar heat gain and allow breathability. Hotel rooms occupy the lower floors while condominium residences take up the upper floors.1

Overall view. Credit: Patrick BinghamHall. Left: Detail view of façade and balconies. Credit: Patrick BinghamHall. 1  Summ, Wong Mun, and Richard Hassell. “The CTBUH Journal.” CTBUH Journal. 1 (2012): 12-17. Print. Case Studies 27

Shenyang, China.

28â&#x20AC;&#x192; Site Research & Selection

Foshan was the fastest growing city in the world in 2011, and saw an income increase

Fastest Growers Site Criteria, Research & Selection

With six of the world’s top 10 fastest growing cities in the world, China has established itself as a premiere place for expansion.1 In looking for the most active areas where architectural development would be useful, a variety of criteria were considered to narrow down the field of opportunities. Four cities were chosen for their array of qualities, each providing a unique situation with differing conditions to be addressed in the design process. The criteria that were used to evaluate and narrow down the options in China were the following :

• High rates of urbanization • Variety in climate • Variety in economic status (GDP) • Variety in density • Externally recognized for growth Utilizing resources such as the China National Bureau of Statistics Census data and UN Habitat survey as well as Google Earth, site were chosen for their representative qualities of the varying regions and typologies in China. Each of the four locations chosen represent a different condition.



of 6.7% in one year.





Changsha Chengdu Foshan Guangzhou Haikou Hangzhou

Urban Density Population Growth Rate, 1990-2010

Hefei Linyi Nantong Shenyang Shenzhen Wuhan Xi'an Zhengzhou 0





1  Kermeliotis, Theodore. “Six of the world’s 10 fastest growing cities in China.” CNN. com. CNN, 31 2011. Web. 15 Oct 2012. <>.







Graph of population growth rates and density of 14 cities that were evaluated as candidates. Data sources: (CNBS). Site Research & Selection 29

The Chinese middle class is defined at ¥30,000, or about


Each of the three major inhabited climate zones are represented, as well as economic status based on GDP from $5,000 to $27,000, though these cities are generally above the typical Chinese middle class of about $4,700.2 Each of the cities was recognized by either CNN or the Economist Intelligence Unit as cities which are fast-growing or becoming highlydeveloped urban areas which will define China’s future landscape. Environmental and geographic factors will likely be major factors in the design process, along with demographics and urban fabric. To evaluate and compare the different sites, icons for indicators which may impact the design process are outlined below:

History Education Commerce Transport Industry Healthcare


(in millions)





















$5 Shenyang


Graph of Population and GDP per capita for each of the four chosen sites. Data sources: citypopulation. de (CNBS) and Economist Intelligence Unit.


Site Research & Selection


(in billions)



GDP per Capita

Choosing a specific project site within each of these cities would be less rigorous than the initial selection process, but in general sites should meet the following criteria to be most successful for the proposed project: $15 • Close proximity to transportation routes • Relatively cheap real estate investment • Less dense area For the purposes of this project, specific lot sites will not be chosen to allow for the development of several prototypes based on the general characteristics of each location.


2  “Supersized Cities: China’s 13 Megalopolises.” Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist, 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. < mpaignid=Megalopolis2012>.



Continental Arctic

Xiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;an Nantong

Subtropical Temperate


Map of major Chinese climate types. Data Credit: Encyclopedia of Earth.

Site Research & Selectionâ&#x20AC;&#x192;31

Population: 7.1 million Climate: Humid Subtropical GDP: $76 billion GDP/capita: $10,760 Pop. increase ‘90-’10: 2267% Pop. increase ‘00-’10: 78% Urban density: 1,900 per km2

Foshan, Guangdong Province

January – March April – June July – September October – December


Site Research & Selection

Foshan is located in the Pearl River Delta zone in the greater Guangzhou region. Located in close proximity to other large urban areas as well as the coast, its economy has been fueled by international investment and industry. Traditionally known for its porcelain industry, it has now become a major center for manufacturing of all types of goods. It also has several Agricultural Model Districts which serve to modernize agricultural practices, and so has became a major food source. It is also known for having a large immigrant population. Foshan had the 14th highest GDP per capita in China in 2010, and continues to show economic and physical growth. With a humid subtropical climate, the area has hot, humid summers and cool, mild winters with most precipitation occurring during the summer months. Prevailing winds come from the northeast and south. Current residential sales in Foshan have been slow in 2012, which has been mostly blamed on restrictions by the government limiting supply and access. Demand is expected to increase.

Above: Central Foshan. Below: Skyline of Foshan at night.

Above: Ancestral Temple at Foshan, built 1372.

Site Research & Selectionâ&#x20AC;&#x192;33

Population: 2 million Climate: Humid Subtropical GDP: $54 billion GDP/capita: $27,100 Pop. increase ‘90-’10: 567% Pop. increase ‘00-’10: 233% Urban density: 1,200 per km2

Nantong, Jiangsu Province

January – March April – June July – September October – December


Site Research & Selection

Nantong is located on the Yangtze River, and as such has a deep water harbor which serves the area for major shipping. Located in close proximity to Shanghai, connections between the two cities are facilitating growth and increased economic opportunities. Known historically for its cotton and textile industry, it currently has a large fishing sector. As part of the Yangtze River Delta Economic Zone, it is part of a larger region which brings in 20% of China’s overall GDP. With a humid subtropical climate and location on the banks of the river, it generally has a humid, damp climate. The commercial sector in Nantong is growing at a strong rate, and is driving most construction in the city.

Top Row: Sutong Bridge, connecting Nantong to Shanghai. Aerial view of Nantong. Nantong Urban Planning Museum.

Below: Skyline of Nantong.

Site Research & Selectionâ&#x20AC;&#x192;35

Population: 5.7 million Climate: Humid Continental GDP: $80 billion GDP/capita: $14,000 Pop. increase ‘90-’10: 54% Pop. increase ‘00-’10: 24% Urban density: 1,700 per km2

Shenyang, Liaoning Province

January – March April – June July – September October – December


Site Research & Selection

Shenyang boasts the remains of a 7,200 year old neolithic village which is a tourist draw. As the largest city in northeastern China and the 11th largest in the country overall, it is a more stable growth city. The eastern part of the city leads to mountain foothills while the wester portion is a flat plain running into the Liao River. With a humid continental climate, it is similar to many other major coastal cities in China with the exception that it is influenced by the Siberian anicyclone weather in winter. Shenyang is primarily a heavy industrial center, which is how it began its growth initially in the early 20th century, but is also a large agricultural center and high-tech producer. More recently, auto and software manufacturing has prevailed. Shenyang is known for being a multi-ethnic center, with various minority groups and expatriates. Demand for high-end real estate in Shenyang has remained relatively stable in the past year, while demand for rental properties has increased.

Above: View of typical residential properties in Shenyang. Below: Skyline of Shenyang over Liao River.

Above: View of street market and background housing. Credit: Anne Dudek.

Site Research & Selectionâ&#x20AC;&#x192;37

Population: 6.5 million Climate: Temperate/Semi-Arid GDP: $35 billion GDP/capita: $5,350 Pop. increase ‘90-’10: 183% Pop. increase ‘00-’10: 67% Urban density: 1,200 per km2

Xi’an, Shaanxi Province

January – March April – June July – September October – December


Site Research & Selection

Xi’an is a city with a lot of history, and is considered one of the Four Great Ancient Capitals of China. It is the site of the Terracotta Army of Qin Shi Huang, and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in the country. As the most populous city of inland China, Xi’an has a very different geography and climate than most other prominent coastal cities. The Xi’an Economic and Technological Development Zone was formed in 2000, and has brought foreign investors such as CocaCola, General Motors, HP, Mitsubishi Electric and Siemens. Major industries include electronics and high-tech products, bio-pharmeceuticals and light industry. It also has a large focus on software. Xi’an borders mountains to the north and the Wei River to the south. Its temperate, semi-arid brings hot, humid summers and cold, dry winters. Residential property sales in Xi’an increased 30% year over year from 2011, likely reaching its peak.

Above: View from Xi’an main city wall, built in the 14th century.

Above: Wild Goose Pagoda, built 652.

Below: Xi’an skyline.

Site Research & Selection 39

Lloydâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Building, Richard Rogers. Credit: Kenneth Powell.

40â&#x20AC;&#x192; Parameters & Strategies

Making Prefab Parameters & Strategies


The Chinese goverment plans on building 20 new cities a year

for the next 20 years.

Looking at the type of people currently living in cities and those moving in who have the highest need for buildings, many of them are itinerant workers, along with people looking to invest in real estate. Each area that could possibly be developed with this framework has its own demographic distribution of people with differing needs, so a survey of possible housing types has been established here for a variety of users, in addition to considering general stakeholders for the project as a whole. Government. The Peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Republic of China has been and will almost certainly continue to drive expansion and development across the country, and will therefore play a role in the development and deployment of this framework. Working with them to ensure code compliance and deployment strategy will be key in the success of the project. Owner & Developer. As the scale of the use of this framework could become quite extensive, it is likely that a large investor or developer would be beneficial for its development and success. Though a higher up-front investment would be required in the development phase, a higher return on investment would follow as the system is replicated over time.

View of large-scale development outside Shenyang. Credit: Anne Dudek.

Users. A wide variety of people with differing needs are coming into Chinaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s cities, so this array has been outlined to better understand the impact on the project. While the types of users present at any given site will vary, getting a basic understanding of each will directly impact the decisions made in the design of the framework. Parameters & Strategiesâ&#x20AC;&#x192;41

Within 2 years of occupancy,

over 70%

of the Hong Kong Shanghai Bank Building had been internally reorganized.

Permanent Condominium Owners

Many long-term residents of growing cities are looking to invest in real estate as the property bubble continues in most of China, so creating opportunities for this group will support the development as a whole. These users will need stability, will likely be given priority to views where available, and have access to private amenities.

Consistent Apartment Renters

Semi- or mostly-permanent city residents who are not yet able or interested in purchasing property will be looking for rental units. These units should be well-equipped to deal with a variety of family sizes and be built to withstand a lot of use.


As people move into cities, starting a business or continuing one is a means of support. Providing spaces in which new residents can live but also support themselves will increase the sustainability of the development and surrounding urban area. These spaces will need to be the most flexible to accomodate a variety of uses.

Temporary Renters

While many people are permanently moving to the city, hundreds of thousands of migrant and itinerant workers move into the cities seasonally, usually for 6-12 months. While some may choose to stay, providing temporary residency opportunities would be beneficial.

Business Owners

Condominium Owners

Each building should provide basic retail/business spaces on lower levels to create opportunities for residents and neighbors. These spaces will need to be as flexible as possible to meet the needs of changing tenants over time.

Apartment Renters Liveâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; Workers Temporary Renters 1 Year Timeline of typical occupancy by resident type.


Parameters & Strategies

2 Years

Program Residential. Given that the focus of this project is accommodating the growing influx of people into Chinese cities, the foremost goal of the program must be to provide a variety of living spaces for these people. In addition, looking at China’s 100 tallest buildings, only 15% of them offer a residential component.1 Providing a variety of flexible living spaces which can accommodate different needs will be important, and will inform the structural and architectural design of the framework. Basic Needs. In addition to this basic need, research on China has shown that the increasing urban population has put unforeseen stress on typical infrastructure such as health care and educational facilities, so providing basic program to supplement these needs would be best as well.2 Public Amenities. Lastly, one or more retail components as well as common areas may be needed depending on the available surrounding resources. Each site that the framework may be deployed in will have different needs, and therefore the program will have to respond accordingly. The proportions of each established type of program may vary as a response to the existing amenities, residential opportunities, and population.

Higher Transient Population



Chinese technical worker in a typical blue uniform.

Short-term Rentals

Live-Work Space




Public Common

Less Local Amenities

Less Residential Opportunities

Higher Permanent Population

1  CTBUH. (2012): Skyscraper Center. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <http://www.skyscrapercenter. com>.

Four variations of program distribution based on differing site characteristics.

2  “Supersized Cities: China’s 13 Megalopolises.” Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist, 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. < mpaignid=Megalopolis2012>. Parameters & Strategies 43

Only two

Metabolist buildings were constructed: Safdie’s Habitat 67 and Kurokawa’s Capsule Tower.

Design Flexibility & Use. Looking back in history to the Metabolist movement of post-war Japan, similar goals were present in terms of creating buildings to serve a demand for housing that had an architectural response as well as a consideration for efficiency and feasibility. A similar approach to the design and implementation processes should be taken with this project, in terms of team integration and collaboration, as well as creating a framework that is flexible over its life span.

Clusters in the Air, Arata Isozaki. 1962.

Aesthetics. The architecture that is currently being constructed in China seems to be consistent in its lack of attention to aesthetics. By utilizing the structural framework in conjunction with an architectural approach, the buildings created with this framework will have a unique and distinctive aesthetic, standing out from their peers. Sustainability & Experience. In looking at Safdie’s motivations behind the design for Habitat 67, creating an outdoor space for each residential unit was of particular importance. As more people move into cities and sacrifice direct contact with nature, creating access to outdoor or green spaces as well as natural light and air will be key for promoting the experience of living in tall buildings. In addition, passive strategies can be leveraged when outdoor or green spaces are incorporated into buildings, improving overall performance. Many people moving into cities may not be as economically stable as more established residents, and therefore not have access to the same amenities. Creating pleasant open and green spaces in the building will hopefully improve the experience within the building, as well as impact the exterior perception of it from a non-resident’s point of view.


Parameters & Strategies

Community. In rural Chinese towns and villages, communal living is a key part of life. Within larger cities and residential living, people continue to form their own types of communities, in addition to or in spite of the architecture. Multi-generational living is also common, combining members of the same family that are a variety of age groups. A common, but quickly diminishing typology of lowdensity living is the hutong, which forms and architectural and spatial community. While many Americans live with vast amounts of space (on average 800sf/ person1), the Chinese are typically more likely to live in much smaller areas, averaging less than 100sf/person2, in both rural and urban settings.

Long Chang Road, Shanghai, community of 250 families. View of shared courtyard.

The architecture of the framework, while being flexible, should allow for opportunities to create shared spaces within the building to facilitate and promote the growth of a community within it. To accomplish this, the module for the building will be developed to allow for larger volumes to open up within the building structure. Openness and natural light will be key to promoting communal aspects of the building, and the outdoor and green spaces will be leveraged for this purpose as well. Structure & Architecture. The structural and architectural systems of the framework will need to work together to create 1  Dietz, Robert, and Natalia Siniavskaia. “The Geography of Home Size and Occupancy.” Housing Economics. National Association of Home Buildings, 01 2011. Web. 2 Dec 2012. <>.

Hutong-style housing outside of Beijing.

2  Rein, Shaun. “Why China Needs to Keep Building.” Seeking Alpha. Seeking Alpha, 24 2011. Web. 2 Dec 2012. <>.

Parameters & Strategies 45

Sky City will supposedly be completed in

87% less time

than its height counterpart, the Burj Khalifa. Primary

a cohesive whole. Structurally, a kit-of-parts will be devised which adhere to the requirements for transportation, but allow more than one prescribed choice to create variety within the architectural expression of the buildings created. While relying heavily on structure for its articulation, the architecture of the building will also be defined by the palette of available materials and exterior options for the buildings, which will be driven by site context and climate. Safety. Aside from safety considerations during the fabrication and construction processes which will be addressed, the safety of building inhabitants is key as well. Most of China lies within seismic zones, and in the past has had negative experiences with lack of properly designed architecture and earthquakes. The inherent stability of the framework must be tested and vetted to ensure its performance during seismic events. In addition, more than adequate egress must be provided.

Limitations of Transportation Structural Flexibility & Stability Replicability Fabrication Methodology

Secondary Architectural Aesthetics & Context Vertical Circulation & Structural Implications Systems Integration & Flexibility Spatial Flexibility Access to Community Space

Tertiary Building Performance Impact of Materials Access to Exterior Spaces Transparency of Ground Level


Parameters & Strategies

Looking at the strategies in several of the case studies considered here, such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank, pushing primary vertical circulation to the exterior of the building could be an alternative to typical centralized circulation that also provides additional structural stability.

90% of all Implementation Team. Initially, an integrated team should be formed comprising architects, engineers, and constructors to vet and complete the framework so that it may be implemented on a large scale. Once the system has been fully vetted, an architect may take on the task of building individual buildings by 20’ Container utilizing the framework to its full 20’ L x 8’W x 8’6”T 6m x 2.4m x 2.6m advantage. Fabrication. In fast-growing cities with high demand for new buildings, it would be ideal to construct a fabrication facility in close proximity to that area for easy transportation of prefabricated components. The initial cost of the facility will be offset by the savings of extensive design fees for individual buildings, as well as reduced waste in both materials and time. Areas with less intense demand and/or proximity to industry may leverage the opportunity to work with an existing manufacturer to lease their facilities for production. A kit-of-parts system will be devised so that mass production of the system can be streamlined over time. Depending on transport, the overall building cost for each iteration of the framework will decrease over time due to repeated processes, but will also allow for innovation and improvement.

Chinese buildings between 100m and 200m are made of structural concrete.

40’ Container

40’ L x 8’W x 8’6”T 12.2m x 2.4m x 2.6m

45’ Container

45‘ L x 8’W x 9’6”T 13.7m x 2.4m x 2.9m

53’ Container

53’ L x 8’6”W x 9’6”T 16.2m x 2.6m x 2.9m

Diagram of international shipping container sizes. Parameters & Strategies 47

The fabrication site for the Nakagin Capsule Tower was

450 kilometers away from the project site in Tokyo.

Transportation. Ideally, production would be as close to potential sites as possible to reduce costs due to transportation. Road transportation costs vary, but are around US$0.06 per tonne/km, meaning it costs six cents to carry one tonne for one kilometer. Therefore, the feasibility of the framework will decrease the farther than prefabricated components must travel to the building site. Some projects may have the ability to foot a larger transport budget, but limiting the location of fabrication to less than 100km away from the primary target locations seems reasonable to reduce overall costs. Assembly. Depending on site conditions, components will be brought to the site for assembly as required while optimizing for transportation loads, reducing area needed for material storage and component assembly. Site-built aspects of the framework will also be partially prefabricated (where possible) to reduce site demand and speed up on-site construction time.


Xiâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;an Nantong


Diagram of 50km and 100km radius areas around each target city.


Parameters & Strategies

Prefab Execution Next Steps

To move forward with this framework, the following steps will be addressed to being the design process: • Create an architectural approach for each individual site based on climate and culture. • Establish the primary and secondary structural system strategies, materials, and fabrication methods based on the common needs of all sites • Establish general program and spatial requirements for each site framework. • Determine exterior envelope needs and strategies for each site. • Determine how the kit-of-parts framework will be broken up and fabricated in terms of systems, envelope, fixtures, and finishes.

FCR estimates they can reduce construction costs

by over 20% with prefabrication, a figure which will likely increase as it is replicated.

Once the needs of each site have been addressed, a ‘universal’ system will be developed. While this framework will be created to address the needs of varying geographic, demographic, and climatic conditions across China, the framework will likely need to change over time and across new areas. However, once initial structural and architectural processes have been developed, they can be replicated, saving time and money.

Parameters & Strategies 49

About Prefab Resources

Contributors David Taylor Peter Weismantle

Asia/China “12 Things to Know in 2012: Urbanization in Asia.” Asian Development Bank. Asian Development Bank, 29 March 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <http://>. “China | Data.” The World Bank. The World Bank, 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <>. “Chinese Migrant Workers Totaled 225.42 Million at the End of 2008 .” Boxun News. Boxun News, 27 2009. Web. 22 Oct 2012. <http:// Totaled_225_42_Million_at_the_End_of_2008.shtml>. CTBUH. (2012): Skyscraper Center. Web. 5 Oct 2012. <http://www.>. Dietz, Robert, and Natalia Siniavskaia. “The Geography of Home Size and Occupancy.” Housing Economics. National Association of Home Buildings, 01 2011. Web. 2 Dec 2012. < aspx?genericContentID=171558&channelID=311>. Donald, Alastair. “Ghost Towns.” Architectural Review. September. (2012): 32-34. Print. “Economist Intelligence Unit: Foshan.” Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist, 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. < Guangdong/Foshan>. “Ever see a 12 story building just fall over?.” Library., 02 December 2009. Web. 7 Oct 2012. <http://www.;. Hilgers, Lauren. “Meet the Man Who Built a 30-Story Building in 15 Days.” Wired. Wired, 25 Sept 2012. Web. 6 Oct 2012. <http://www.wired. com/design/2012/09/broad-sustainable-building-instant-skyscraper/ all/?pid=917&viewall=true>.

Resources 51

Kermeliotis, Theodore. “Six of the world’s 10 fastest growing cities in China.” CNN, 31 2011. Web. 15 Oct 2012. <http://www.cnn. com/2011/WORLD/asiapcf/10/31/population.fastest.growing.cities/ index.html>. Rein, Shaun. “Why China Needs to Keep Building.” Seeking Alpha. Seeking Alpha, 24 2011. Web. 2 Dec 2012. < article/271646-why-china-needs-to-keep-building>. Sabaris, Xan. “Chart: China 2010 Population Census.” China Daily. China Daily, 29 April 2011. Web. 5 Oct 2012. < photo/2011-04/29/content_12416971.htm>. “Sichuan Earthquake.” New York Times. New York Times, 06 May 2009. Web. 7 Oct 2012. < topics/earthquakes/sichuan_province_china/index.html>. “Supersized Cities: China’s 13 Megalopolises.” Economist Intelligence Unit. The Economist, 2012. Web. 5 Oct 2012. < topical_report.aspx?campaignid=Megalopolis2012>. The Brookings Institution, The Global Metro Monitor 2011. 2012. eBook. UN Habitat. State of the World’s Cities 2010/2011: Bridging The Urban Divide. Malta: Earthscan, 2008. eBook.

Case Studies “China’s Ghost Towns.” Mail Online. Daily Mail, 18 2011. Web. 17 Oct 2012. <>. “Die Hongkong Bank.” Detail. 4.April (1986): 357-366. Print. Gonchar, Joann. “Paradigm Shift.” Architectural Record. October (2012): 144-146. Print. “Habitat 67.” Japan Architect. 133.August (1967): 53-59. Print. “History of Lloyd’s Buildings.” Lloyd’s. Lloyd’s of London. Web. 15 Oct 2012. <>. K., David. “S-Trenue: Bundle Matrix | MASS Studies .” plusMOOD. plusMOOD, 11 2011. Web. 17 Oct 2012. <http://plusmood. com/2011/01/s-trenue-bundle-matrix-mass-studies/>.



“Mad About High-rise Modular.” Engineering News-Record. July.16 (2012): 24-27. Print. Matsushima, Shiro. THE HONGKONG AND SHANGHAI BANK. Diss. Harvard University, 2003. Harvard Design School Center for Informatics, 2003. Print. “Nakagin Capsule Tower Building.” Japan Architect. 47.October (1972): 1733. Print. Nakamura, Toshio. “May Extra Edition | Norman Foster: 1964-1987.” Architecture + Urbanism. May 1988: 194-209. Print. “Northeast Asia Trade Tower, Incheon.” Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH, n.d. Web. 17 Oct 2012. < TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/NortheastAsiaTradeTowerIncheon/ tabid/2203/language/en-US/Default.asp&xgt;. Powell, Kenneth. Lloyd’s Building: Richard Rogers Partnership. London: Phaidon Press, 1994. Print. Steuteville Robert. “New housing manufacturing system tried at TND.” Better Cities & Towns. Better Cities & Towns, 01 2006. Web. 15 Oct 2012. <>. Summ, Wong Mun, and Richard Hassell. “The CTBUH Journal.” CTBUH Journal. 1 (2012): 12-17. Print. “T30A Tower Hotel Technical Briefing.” Broad Group, Jan 2012. Web. 12 Sep 2012. < asp>. Young, John, Peter Rice, and John Thornton. “Design For Better Assembly (5), Case Study: Rogers’ And Arup’s.” Architects’ Journal 180.36 (1984): 87-94. Print.

Prefabrication Arieff, Allison. Pre Fab. Layton, UT: Gibbs Smith, 2002. Print. Gibb, Alistair G.F. Off-site Fabrication: Prefabrication, Pre-assembly and Modularisation. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1999. Print. Hardiman, Tom. “Increasing Productivity with Modular Building.” The Construction Specifier. November (2012): 18-22. Print. Syal, Matt, and Makarand Hastak. “Whole House Production.” Partnership for Advancing Technology in Housing. PATH, n.d. Web. 7 Oct 2012. < >. Resources 53

Pre-Fab High-Rise  

Compilation of research and discussion of design argument for 2013 Master's Thesis project, Pre-Fab High-Rise.

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