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POST-IMPRESSIONISM: PAUL CÉZANNE Overview

The 1880s through to 1920, in France, were the years of the Post-Impressionism Movement. This movement embraced certain aspects of the previous

era,

Impressionism;

such

as

the

small/thin brushstrokes, open composition, real depiction of light, along with “true to life” subject matter. What the artist of this movement did add was unnatural color and a strong focus on geometric form. The artist that composed

Painting from nature is not copying the object; it is realizing one's sensations.

this movement all uniquely had their own “style” or techniques that differentiated them from the

-Cézanne

rest.

About the Artist: French Artist Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) was one of the primary artists of this movement. Unlike most Post-Impressionism artists, Cezanne preferred to work indoor rather than “en plein air”; however still creating landscapes, with using strong brushstrokes, layers of paint, and undefined forms. Cezanne technique was the result of a rare occasion in art where science and art arrive independently at complementary altitudes.1 The theory added the variable of perception. Thus meaning that an image changes or shifts as you are observing it, with the movement in your gaze. With the addition of simplifying shapes so that they can be broken down to geometric shapes, a Cezanne masterpiece was created.


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Artist: Paul CĂŠzanne Date: 1905 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Staatsgakerie Moderner Kunst, Munich, Germany.

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Cezanne’s subject matter varied in subject matter. “The Bend in The Road” (1908) is a landscape composed of hills and rocks in the distance, with a road disappearing into the distance. With the technique of strong brushstrokes and layers of paint, movement is created. Not only in the distant hills and vegetation, however as well along the road and the sky. This adds a sense of realism to a not “traditional” painting. The overall piece is very well balanced; with the bended road being in the center of the canvas, and as well as the harmony between the multiple shades of orange, beige, green, and blues. The use of similar hues in bold colors as used in Cezanne’s painting, this unites all aspects of the subject matter, along with having the most movement or contrast in the center horizontal section of the work. In this specific piece, the use of contrast between dark and light colors creates depth and perspective to the landscape, as well realism. At first glance, one cannot help but feel at peace or “Zen” due to the remote and excluded outdoor area. The way the road bends in behind the hills give optimism to the viewer, along with the natural colors used. The value in color is used to focus in or draw attention to a specific point in the subject matter; In Cezanne’s piece, it is evident that the dark colors of green, black, dark blue are used to give the painting the effective “bend in the road”. The texture of the trees is due to the large brushstrokes, as well as the clouds, the road, and the hills. The shape presented in the dark oval shaped mass creates negative depth between the road and the beige hills, thus representing that the Post-Impressionist technique of geometric shapes and bold colors still held realism.

Continued…

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Pellentesque:

Artist: Paul CĂŠzanne

Consectetuer: Sed

Date: 1906 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia Size: 208 x 249 cm

venenatis, augue non

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“The Large Bathers” (1906)

Female nudes have been a popular subject matter since the era of Classical Antiquity. Just as every era or movement before Post-Impressionism, nudes were still a popular subject matter. Unlike the classical nudes, Cezanne reproduces the nonsensual female body. As seen in Cezanne’s “The Large Bathers” (1906) the image is composed of, as what appears to be, thirteen females located by a river of some sort. The foreground is composed of a faint image of a man and a horse walking through a field, leading up to faint images of a church and vegetation. Due to the think brushstrokes and almost watercolor appearing texture, there is movement created in the trees and their green leaves, the clouds and as well as the waterfront. Similar in color as seen in “The Bend in The Road” by Cezanne, the use of several shades and hues in beige, green, blue and browns; the color harmonizes (unites) the entire image. In addition to color, the placement of the subject matter unites the overall piece. By using perception or depth, the image is given realism and relates all aspects of the subject matter to one another. In this specific artwork, contrast is used to create realistic lighting and define the form. At first glance, one can feel at ease due to the nature setting, but as well an element of confusion because of the large group of nude females being by the water as well as the way the they are located on the side of a river in the trees, one would be curious as to where this is taking place.

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FAUVISM: HENRI MATISSE Overview After the Post-Impressionism Movement, the Fauvism Movement (1904-1908) was born. The artists of this movement embraced the strong brushstrokes and layers of paint from the previous Movement, but added a new twist that would later have critics rejecting their new ways of expression through bold pure colors. The movement strongly embraced bright colors to express personal emotion and not being the true color of the subject matter, as well as vehicle of describing light and space and the artist’s emotional state1. These artists were later called “Les Fauves” meaning “The Wild Beasts” due to their refusal to imitate nature. Furthermore were taken as anarchist ideas due to their very expressional art. The founder of this Modern Movement, was Henri Matisse (1869-1954) was accused of hedonism due to the erotic subject matter of nudes, but enforced that “Les Fauves” did not have any politics or social issues, and only shared beliefs towards color and art.

I don't paint things. I only paint the difference between things. -Matisse

About the Artist: Being the founder, Matisse played a huge role in the Movement, as well being the most influential artist of this time. Being inspired by the Post-Impressionist artist Van Gogh and Cezanne, Matisse used color of subject to express his mood and personal state. Matisse and other artists of this Movement rejected the “Fantastic Imagery” of PostImpressionism and returned to more traditional subjects such as: landscapes, cityscapes, and scenes of bourgeois leisure.1 Matisse was not only famous for his bold and electric paintings but his drawing and sketches that he believed to be the most intimate means of expression; along with etching press, dry points and print making.


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Artist: Henri Matisse Date: 1918 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Private Collection Size: 90 x 71 cm 7


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Spending most of his holidays in Nice, Matisse produced many artworks due to this inspiration of the beautiful landscapes that surrounded him daily. In 1918 he created the landscape titled “The Bay of Nice”. The painting being composed of a side view from a balcony window, looking out on the bay of Nice, containing few palm trees and hills as the water wraps around the land. With the sea and sky being endless horizons of light and creation1 the painting is true to the perception and depth of the way the piece of land and shore line curve into the horizon. The strong brushstrokes as well create movement to the painting; the palm trees, sea and sky. The soft pastel like tones of the blues, green and yellow unites the thick strokes, with the use of black for the hills and outline of what appears to be dock of some sort. The use of black adds a great amount of contrast to the lighter colors and as well highlights them to the viewers’ eyes. Due to the strong technique of perceiving color as the current emotion felt by the Fauvist, the color used in Matisse’s piece portrays a feeling of content and relaxation, the type of emotion one would feel having vacationed to this specific spot and looking out to this wonderful landscape. In addition, the strong brushstrokes that create movement along the water and trees add a true calm feeling to the artwork. Color, as in all fauvism paintings, is a vehicle to inform the viewer of the specific or current emotion that was being felt during the duration of creating the piece. In “The Bay of Nice” the soft blue of the ocean give a calm and peaceful emotion, along with the soft pastel yellow used of the side of the building and either the road or sidewalk beside the shore line adds a tropical and emotion of happiness to the image. In addition to the mood, Matisse uses color to create a fluidity of the pictorial space.1 Texture is portrayed through the strong and thick brushstroke characteristic of the Fauves. In this artwork, the demonstrative strokes along the mass of the water and vegetation add movement to the otherwise flat image. The Line created along the shoreline and into the horizon is used to suggest movement and a feeling of vitality.

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Artist: Henri Matisse Date: 1908 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Nasjonalgalleriet, Oslo, Norway Size: 60.5 x 73.5 cm

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In 1907 Matisse created a bronze sculpture entitled “Reclining Nude I (Aurora)” which inspired multiple paintings for the artist by incorporating the sculpture, such as “Sculpture and Persian Vase” 1908. The oil painting is composed in an indoor space with the woman reclining back on what appears to be the floor, with a table beside her with a vase holding three red flowers. The painting holds little movement with the exception of the female; the bold outlines give the illusion of movement. The use of deep orange throughout the subject matter; the floors, walls and model, this creates a uniting between all aspects. Furthermore the blue used for the table and backing, creates a balance and not letting the oranges over power or “wash out” the image. The demonstration of the case and dark green piece of the floor creates a contrast between the overall subject matter, drawing the eye to the darker pieces and as well creating depth to the image. At first glance, one may feel an erotic or some sort of sexual feeling due to the passionate orange and reds; and due to the position of the woman gives this sensual feeling. Furthermore, the sensual mood is given by the way the sprout of the vase appears to be penetrating her body as a phallus.1 In this case, line is used to outline the female’s body, and create curves, instead of it appearing to be a mass of different shades of yellows. The value created by the use of different hues highlighting the female, created a focal point to Matisse’s artwork, as well as placing darker objects or subject matter around her. With the technique of strong and layers of paint, the painting is given texture throughout the piece. Form in a painting can be a certain piece of the subject matter, but it can as well be the mass around a piece of the subject matter creating a focalization or depth. In this case, the dark contrast from the vase, flooring, backdrop creates the eye to truly focus on the female.

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FUTURISM: NATALIA GONCHAROVA Overview The Fauves opened the eyes of artists to different techniques and perceiving art in different ways than the traditional. In Italy between 1909 and 1916, the Social Movement “Futurism” was born. The artists of this Movement used futuristic forms of art such as paintings, graphic design theater, film, and architecture as well as the interior design such as in automobiles. The founder of this movement was the Italian writer, Filippo Tommasa Marinetti, who loathed everything old such as political views and art. Following the quote “However Daring, However Violent” in the sense of the liberation from the classical portraits and subject matter, the Movement encourage the Modern. Lines, division of light, repetition, rhythm, movement, bright strong colors, and the creation of illusions, to be original were the focus in the Futurism Art. Key artists such as Umberto Boccioni, Giacomo Balla, Gino Severini and Carlo Carra, along with Russian artist Natalia Goncharova were all fascinated by the modern way of life- society, urban, painting and graphic design.

About the Artist: Natalia Goncharova grew up in Russia in a creative environment that encouraged her creativeness. Towards the beginning of her art, she found inspiration in traditional Russian Folk Art and early Russian Icons and then began to break social conventions and rigid cultural canons. Natalia was famous in Russia for shocking the public with her casual cross-dressing attempts and sharp comments on Art and Society. But in the 1930’s Goncharova was the costume and stage design major stage productions world wide, including the Diaghilev Ballets Russes 1 , which she did a decorative cloth as a background entitled “Design for Final Backcloth” (1926). 11


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Artist: Natalis Goncharova Date: 1926 Technique: Clothe and Paint

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The piece is composed of stylized Russian city of towers and minerets.1 Designed in royal reds, blues and gold, the subject matter appears to be the hillside of a major town in Russia. The cloth holds little movement due to the flat representation of the city of towers. However, due to the texture of the sky, there appears to be little movement in the background. There are many elements of the subject matter that unite the entire piece such as: the constant use of the red, blue and gold, the similar shapes of the many towers. Furthermore, having the brick wall holding in all of these towers frames/balance the subject matter in relation to the sky framing. The lighter shades of beige and gold against the dark blue sky, along with the royal red, create a large contrast that highlights and almost illuminates the towers. At first regard, due to the impressive and almost overwhelming subject matter one may feel in “awe”, as well considering the details along each and ever tower. In this piece, color plays a large role into how well or realistic the image appears to the viewer. The artist uses color to add dimensions, by using darker shades, to give the image depth and realism. This overall, gives the other wise flat image depth and truly gives the feel of the chaotic and backed city. Shape can cause a piece of the subject matter to stand out. In Gonchorova’s piece, the dark sky/rectangle shape at the top of the cloth causes the pale beige, gold and deep reds to “pop out” of the image as well focuses the eye to the towers and not the sky. Finally, line plays a role in the way that when admiring the piece, the eye is focused onto the city and not what frames it, in this case it is the brick wall that is holding in the city. Opposite to this very geometric representation of the City of Towers, “The Cyclist” (1912) contains a large amount of movement.

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Artist: Natalia Goncharova Date: 1912 Technique: Oil on Canvas

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Being that urban life and movement, “The Cyclist” (1912) is composed of a man riding a bicycle on the classical European cobble stone streets. The background is composed of what appears to be an abstract interputation of store windows and the movement of the man passing by them. The painting holds movement throughout the entire piece. The way the man on the bicycle has multiple “pieces” of him around him demonstrates that he is moving as well as the curved black lines around the tires are placed are perceived at movement. Furthermore, the way that the store windows are chopped up and the font of one is on top of the man demonstrates the movement of the man biking. Regardless of the amount of movement that is held in the painting, it is still very well balanced and all subject matter is united, nothing looking out of place. This is achieved by the way bold and strong colors are used throughout the subject matter; from the black, brown, yellow, and blue, the subject matter contains “togetherness”. Contrast plays a role in the realism aspect. The use of dark and light colors creates depth and as well it catches the attention of the viewer, focusing the eye on specific parts. At first glance, the mood of over whelming can be felt due to the very busy representation of the subject matter, with the addition to multiple lines (movement) and furthermore due to the top right corner is chopped with the font on the biker. Texture is used in this piece to emphasis movement. In this case, the blurring of the cobble stones and the human form is to push the sense of movement even further and to be able to be seen; almost true to nature, how when something is passing an individual their perception of it is blurred. The use of dark colors, such as the black and dark blue, are used to create an emphasis on the movement being demonstrated as well to grab the eye’s attention. Lines are used throughout the entire painting to emphasis movement and truly illustrate it effectively. By creating multiple lines “outlining” the moving objects motion is created.

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Artist: Natalia Goncharavo Date: 1957 Technique: oil on canvas

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“Space” (1957) is composed of what appears to be an abstract representation of a sunset that fades as the image rises into the night sky/space. The image is constructed of strictly geometric shapes. There is little movement, which is demonstrated through colors fading into one another. At first glance, the image appears to be balanced due to the constant use of geometric shapes, such as rectangles and circles. But when the image is closer observed, there appears to be little unitiation in regards to the black accent triangles and rectangle that chops the artwork into pieces. There is a large amount of contrast throughout the artwork of Gonchorova, with the use of pale yellows at the bottom of the piece, and it fading into a royal blue then into black. As well having the multiple yellow circles on top of the black background creates a contrast that they eye automatically acknowledges. Furthermore, the use of the black triangles and rectangle not only chops up with image, however adds contrast against the pale yellow and blue. At first glance, the sense (mood) of overwhelming can be apparent due to the chopped and busy subject matter, as well as being unsure of what one is seeing. Once the eye has acknowledged the moons at the top, a sense of sublime is create; The same feeling one would feel when admiring a starry night. The lines that give the sky a “puzzle” appearance are created to give the painting an illusion of the sky being a puzzle. Furthermore with the background being a sunset, as well as the night sky, lines are used to have two subject matters (landscape) in one. Colors are used to create an emphasis of the sunset transforming into the night sky. With the use of pale yellows and blue while slowly incorporating a royal blue creates this focus on the sunset but in addition telling the eye that it is a night setting. Space plays a role in the perspective of the image. By over lapping the moons at the top right hand corner, this gives the illusion of the top moon being closer to the viewer. Being the first Social Movement, Les Fauves embraced all that was modern, and décor as well; from the interior of cars to the architecture, they used lines, contrast in light, rhythm, movement, strong colors and illusions through all of their art. They were daring, original, and individual compared to every art movement before them. Facing rejection from the public and people in the Art Society, they did not stop the birth of the freedom to create. 17


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FAUVISM: PABLO PICASSO Overview Every Era is a rejection of the previous, but once a movement is finished, the next tries to “one up” it by being even further from the traditional. That is exactly what Cubism (1907-1914) was about. This Movement was the most influential visual art style in the 20th century. This radical and new Movement was born in Paris with Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) and Georges Braque (1882-1963) being the founders of this radical approach of seeing art, which expanded the possibilities of art in the same way that technology was extending the boundaries of communication and travel for the world.1 The style consisted was the first Abstract style of Modern Art, which at first glance one had no idea what the piece of art was composed of however there was a possibility of figuring it out. The technique of dividing, dissembling and then reassembling the subject matter was the strong focus of Cubism along with the illumination of logic. The Cubism style was divided into two types: Synthetic and Analytical. Synthetic is where the subject matter is completely broken into pieces with the use of only monochromatic, in order the focus to be on the subject matter and not the distortion of it. Analytical Cubism is where the subject matter is larger and more decorative, with smooth and rough edges along with Collage.

Painting is a blind man's profession. He paints not what he sees, but what he feels, what he tells himself about what he has seen. -Picasso

About the Artist: The one and only Picasso was born in Spain and in his life time created 22, 000 pieces of art in all different mediums; Such as paintings, ceramics, mosaics, stage design, graphic design and mosaics. Throughout the early 1900’s he spent most of his time in Paris where Cubism was born with one painting, “Les Demoiselle D’avignon” (1907). This innovative painting was what started Analytical Cubism. While synthetic cubism was born in the 1920’s, Picasso was working with more classical themes, similar to the Art of the Classical Antiquity. During these years he produced monumental nudes and monsters.1 18


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Artist: Pablo Picasso Date: 1907 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Museum of Modern Art, New York. Size: 243.9 x 233.7 cm

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The First Wave of Cubism began when African Sculpture and Ancient Art inspired Picasso in 1907 to create “Les Demoiselles d’Avignon”. The painting is composed of a geometrical and decorative five female nudes, who appear to be mixed ethnological backgrounds. The majority of the females, painting in pale pinks and reds, are in similar poses to those of the Greek Classical. The painting holds movement in the drapery in the background as well that is incorporated to the models poses. The combination of smooth and rough edges and the division of the background into three parts (red, white, and blue) unbalance and “chop” up with subject matter. Furthermore, having three out of the five with a more realistic demonstration of their form, and the other two being more abstract in the face, breaks the image further down into separate parts. Having parts of the background in different colors creates a contrast to the pale pinks used for the nudes’ skin tone. In addition, the models on the left hand contrast the ones of the left due to their unrealistic or geometrical representation. Due to the soft tones in color and the relaxed expressions of the three females on the left hand side a sense of tranquility is created; however as the eye drifts to the other two models a sense of confusion and almost disgust emerges. Value is used to create shadows along the skin of the human figures, which regardless of it being a distorted representation,

adds

realism

and

demonstrates

perceptive.

By

super

composing the images, layering, this gives the illusion of space and depth. Lastly, lines are used throughout the painting to not only demonstrate the shadows of the drapery, but to separate the subject matter.

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Artist: Pablo Picasso Date: 1903 Technique: Oil on Canvas 21


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Very different to “Les Demoiselle d’Avginon” (1907), “Girl Before A Mirror” (1903) is a much bolder representation of the female. The painting is composed of background of geometric squares and circles with a female, looking into her reflection; she is represented in strictly geometrical shapes, lines and bold patterns. Even though there is dimension to the piece, the image contains little movement. Except for the way the woman is demonstrated in darker colors in her reflection could suggest movement. What unites the busy subject matter is the constant use of bold and energetic colors, with the background. Furthermore, by having the woman on the left hand side and her reflection on the right balance the painting. The use of such bold and bright colors with black used throughout the piece to either outline or creates a pattern gives the piece a high amount of contrast. A first glance, empathy is felt due to the almost sad facial expression she is giving herself as she looks at herself in the mirror. However, with the use of such bright colors and distorted imitation of the woman, confused rises. In Picasso’s piece, lines are used to create a decorative pattern throughout the image, from the background to the woman’s garments. Texture is visible in the face of the woman, with the use of different shades and brush strokes.

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Artist: Pablo Picasso Date: 1909 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: MOMA, New York. Size: 92.1 x 70.8 cm 23


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In 1909, while Picasso spent his summer in his native, Spain, he composed a synthetic geometrical representation of his partner, Fernande Olivier, entitled “Woman with Pears”. The painting is done with the classical monochromatic colors where he strictly divides the subject matter into geometric shapes. The background of the image is what contains the most movement. Movement is achieved by using a gradient and strong lines to give the illusion. By creating the image in monochromatic, this promotes the entire subject matter being united and balanced regardless of the large amount of shapes and lines used that cut the image into segments. The orange tones and green tones increase the amount of contrast in the already high-contrasted painting. The way the eyes of the model are shadowed and her head is tilted to the side gives an intriguing mood, however there is a sense of sadness in her eyes, and the way they are lanky staring into “space”. Color, oranges and greens, are used to illuminate the image and demonstrate the lighting that is creating shadows. The use of space with the technique of layering subject matter on top of one another to give the illusion of depth is used with the placement of the table and pears in the background. Lines are used throughout the piece to illustrate definition of the geometric shapes and drapery behind the woman.

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ART NOUVEAU: ALFONS MUCHA Overview After Cubism and its rejection to the natural, Art Nouveau (1890-1914) was born. The inspiration of the artwork

was

natural

lines,

curves

and

the

environment. Similar to Futurism and Cubism, Art Nouveau was the escape from the historical style and tradition; grasping inspiration from organic and geometrical forms along with natural curved lines similar to those of plants and flowers. This Movement focused on the new, such as urban life, modern life, furniture, architecture and graphic design. Fellow artist of this Movement was Alfons Mucha (1860-

"Nothing has changed in these past two thousand years. Only the names are slightly different." -Mucha

1939).

About the Artist: Mucha was an unknown artist from Czech who lived in Paris most of his life. His art focused on advertising and stage sets where he signed a 6-year contract with Sarah Bernhardt, where he would create he posters for all of her works. His fame began with the creation of “Sarah Bernhardt� poster created in December 1894. 25


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Artist: Alfons Mucha Date: 1894 Technique: lithograph Location: Private collection Size: 216 x 74.2 cm

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The poster is composed of a woman with a decorative gown in the center holding a branch. The top section of the image contains a decorative arch containing the woman’s name, Sarah Bernhardt where the bottom has a decorative square with “Theatre de la Renaissance” labeled onto it. The image holds little movement in regards to the entire piece. However, when closely observed, one will notice the movement in the leaves of the branch and her floral crown. Furthermore the shadow on her left hand side gives movement to the lighting. Having the overall piece in harmonious tones such as gold, brown, orange, ect… unites the piece; As well due to the constant use of the floral/nature design used in the gown, and the square above her. By having a description box at the top and bottom of the image and the model in the center, this gives complete balance/symmetry. There is contrast with respects to the foreground and the background. Having the top square in a darker shade draws attention and creates a large amount of contrast with the model’s pale skin and hair and the floral crown. Furthermore, there is little contrast throughout the piece; this is due to the use of harmonious and similar shades in colors. At first glace, a mood of confusion and awkwardness is born. This is because of the unnatural pose of her left arm playing with her hair, with the combination of her looking at a point that is unsure from the viewers’ point of view. Lines are the biggest characteristic of the Art Nouveau artists. This piece strictly demonstrates the natural curved lines that are very similar to the ones of a plant. As well, the lines created at her feet and shoulder frames the gown, focusing the eye to the decorative pattern. Texture is achieved by the use of detail. All along her gown, texture is created by having such detail and adding in the brown for contrast; the same for the square above her. By having the little details of small tiles, and lines this gives the true texture of a mosaic piece. Color plays a role in the overall effectiveness of the image or to emphasis. In this case, color is used to create emphasis. The dark brown/orange draws the eye so that it is evident that this is not simply apiece of art but that Sarah Bernhardt is the true focus of the image.

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Artist: Alfons Mucha Date: 1897 Technique: Lithograph Location: Austrian Museum of Applied Arts, Vienna. Size: 110 x 76 cm

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“Monaco Monte-Carlo” (1897) is a poster composed with a female at the center of the image with her hands to her face in admiration to the sky. The background contains the Mediterranean blue sea, coastline and mountains. The woman is surrounded by extravagant floral patterns. The illustration holds a large amount of movement due to the floral pattern that circles the woman, giving the illusion that it is growing by the second, as well the way her gown has fallen on her knees as she kneels down demonstrates movement. By incorporating birds above her, adds even more movement to the illustration because they are hovering above her, they are moving to stay there. The use of blue unites the image. By having it present is in all subject matter, whether it is an accent color or tone, it balances the image by relating the floral to the girl, to the background. Due to the extensive use of floral and the combination of the facial expression of the woman, one cannot help but feel in “awe” when viewing the piece. Furthermore, with the Mediterranean background a feel of relaxation and calm is created. In this piece, the color red is used to emphasis the flowers and as well to draw the eye to the intense flowers. Shape plays a role in the overall setting of the illustration. By having negative space between the flowers and veins, this creates room for the background to be seen and acknowledge the location. Texture is demonstrated in the background, alone the mountains. The use of brushstrokes with the combination of shading, a realistic mountain is created.

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Artist: Alfons Mucha Date: 1898 Technique: Lithograph Location: Private Collection Size: 60 x 38 cm 30


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“Dance” (1898) is composed of a woman in the center, wrapped in drapery, with a decorative circle framing her from the knees up. The background is composed of a wash of pale beige, blue and white. The illustration contains a large amount of movement due to the way the model’s hair is curved over by the “wind” and the pedals that are floating around her/drifting to the ground. The use of similar tones and colors, red, pinks, grey, and browns, unites and balances the image so that the overall subject matter “flows” into one another. By having the background a pale color and the more vibrant colors for the foreground creating a contrast between the two. An erotic tone/mood is given to the illustration due to the facial expression of the woman ho appears to be drawing in the viewer directly, and well due to her being nude with drapery wrapped around her, with the wind in her hair. The use of lines adds realism to the illustration. By adding lines along the drapery gives the cloth the illusion of movement as well as being realistic. Color is used to create emphasis on the top half of the piece, allowing the eye to focus on the female and the decorative aspects. Lastly, value in color is used along the drapery to add movement and to demonstrate dimension.

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ABSTRACT ART: MARK ROTHKO Overview Abstract Art is the creation of illusion, giving the painting no direct subjet matter, causing the viewer to look through the art rather than directly at what one sees. It began in the 20th century and is still present in todays art. The pieces created of this style are a visual experience and as well is completely

unrecognizable.

Abstract

Art

is

divided into two types, Expressionism and Color Field. Famous artists from both styles were Jackson Pollock (1912-1956), Ashile Gorky (1904-1948),

Art to me is an anecdote of the spirit, and the only means of making concrete the purpose of its varied quickness and stillness.

Mark Rothko (1903-1970) and Morris Louis (19121962).

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-Rothko


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Artist: Mark Rothko Date: 1953 Technique: Oil on Canvas Location: Museum of Contemporary Art, LA Size: 115 x 92 cm 33


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“No. 61� (1951) is composed of three main colors, a rusted red, a bright blue and a darker tone of blue. The image is separate into three sections all being different colors. The image contains movement in regards to the layering of color, giving more depth to the flat image. What unites all three sections is the absence of definition lines creating a separating rather than the colors blending together in this case. Furthermore by having multiple layers of color present in all three sections, it unites them. There is a high amount of contrast due red and blue being complimentary colors, and with the use of bright and dark colors creates a contrast along the image. At first glance, one may feel confusion due to the lack of subject matter, however, with the use of contrasting colors of both dark and light, one may feel calmness due to the similar appearance as to a sunset. The use of color plays a role in unity the foreground to the background, causing no difference between the two. Furthermore, color is used as a creation of depth, by over lapping multiple colors together. Texture is achieved by this technique of overlapping colors and strong brushstrokes. Lastly, form is achieved by the layering of colors in order to give some depth to the image, rather than it being pure colors.

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Art History