Jessika Escobar Gonzalez Escuela Colombiana de Carreras Industriales 14/04/2014
UNIVERSIDAD ESCUELA COLOMBIANA DE CARRERAS INDUSTRIALES
Fundamentos de mercadeo
Sandra Patricia Ochoa Guevara Docente ECCI
JESSIKA BRIYITH ESCOBAR GONZALEZ
Bogota Abril 14 del 2014
Advertising agency (Agencia de publicidad): It is an independent organization of professional service, that plans and conducts mass communication and provides his talent for the development of the sales, which integrates the marketing programs and public relations; Also are companies dedicated to the provision of services related to the creation, execution and distribution of advertising campaigns, in which are natural or juridical persons that are dedicated professionally and in an organized manner to create, schedule or run advertising on behalf of an advertiser.
Brand (Marca): Distinctive sign or signal that a trader puts their products to differentiate
or distinguish them from those sold by another. In business sense, the term is reserved for the brand part of the sign or hallmark is vocalizable, word or combination of words that are used to identify a product and distinguish it from others. Having completed the formalities laws say about it, most trademarks are legally protected and can not be used by persons other than the owners. This requires that the mark is recorded in the appropriate section of the Registry of Industrial Property.
Budget (Presupuesto): It is a document that reflects a forecast or prediction of how the
results will be and the flows of money that will be realized in a future period. It is a rough estimate of the revenue and expenditure that will be obtained after completion of the activity. We can say that the budget is a target for the company that has to play in the achievement of their goals and set priorities.
Complementary products (Productos complementarios): Are products for which
demand increases or decreases simultaneously because the consumption of one causes the other.
Client (Cliente): Is the person or company receiving of godos, service, product or idea,
Exchange of Money; other items of value. 4
Capitalism (Capitalismo): The Capitalism is the name applied to the socio-economic
system in which the production of capital in the form of money or wealth is the primary goal. Capitalism is the system of economic laws governing the world today and is based on the existence of certain elements that allow access to important gains to a portion of the population, but that add deeper levels of poverty in the greater part of it.
Consume (Consumo): The final stage of the economic process, especially the productive,
defined as the time when a good or service produces some utility to the consumer. In this sense there are goods and services that directly are destroyed in the act of consumption, while with others what is happening is that your consumption consists in its transformation into another type of goods or services different.
Catalog (Cat谩logo): List that are recorded, described and orders, following certain rules,
people, things or events that have some common.
Channel of distribution (Canal de distribuci贸n): The choice of the cannel of
distribution could be long term and there that have certain mudable in account for a good election: Nature of product, Price of sale, stability of product and distribuitor in the market, reputation of intermediary, cuality of the force of sales.
Cicly life product (Ciclo de vida del producto): it is evolved by the sales of a given
product during the time that it stays on the market. The life cycle of a product is generally divided into four phases or stages. Introduction Growth Matureness Decline
Catchword (Lema): It is that memorable phrase that is used in a context, either commercial or political, with the aim of representing and summarize a question in the, in the case of the political virtues of any candidate or political proposal and in the commercial field, the benefits of a product or service.
Demographic environment (Ambiente demogr谩fico): Consists of the problems that is
generated by the rates of population growth, the areas of urban concentration, emigration from the countryside to the cities, the differences in population age, sex, etc.
Duopoly (Duopolio): As end of imperfect competition, in which there are only two sellers. A special case of moligopoly, so it can be said to be an intermediate situation between monopoly and perfect competition economy.
Demonstration of a product (Demostraci贸n de un producto): You can make the
difference between the sales that decay and the high sales they generate income for manufacturers and distributors of a product. The excellent demonstrations of products are simple, custom, and highlight the benefits and the most attractive features of the product to potential customers.
Discount (Descuento): Regard the rebate or reduction of a quantity, in both, the word
presents references more strict according to the context in which it is employed.
Distribution (Distribuci贸n): Is the process of getting physically the product to the
consumer. For that the distribution is successful, the product must be available to the potential buyer at the time and place indicated.
Economic (Economia): It is defined as the science that studies the ways to proceed to the
administration and management of limited resources and available, in order to obtain goods or services that meet the needs of the people or organizations.
Economic Activity (Actividad econ贸mica): Are the process through the which create the property and services depart of some factor of production, that satisfy the needs of the consumer and it is around these that turns the economy of a country. Economic activities also serve to generate wealth to the different communities, through the different types of activities.
Empowerment (Empoderamiento): Is the fact of delegate power and autority to the subord铆nate and give the feeling of that are owner of your proper.
Electronic markets (Mercado Electronico): Online platforms are made by a company acting as a neutral third party to bring together buyers and sellers. They act as a meeting point and must meet at least one business function, either provide contact details of companies (directories), offer product catalog, classified ads, request online quotes, procurement officials or even allow online purchase of products of the participating companies.
Etiquette (Etiqueta): Have different uses and meaning, Traffic of a signal, brand that
adhere to a object for his identification, classification or assessment. The etiquettes start be used in the activity comercial for describe the content of container, recipient and package with major facility.
Exclusive distribution (Distribuci贸n exclusiva): It is the extreme form of selective
distribution. In a defined region, only one distributor receives the exclusive right to sell the brand and undertakes not to sell usually competitive brands.
Exhibition of product (Exhibici贸n de producto): is the conversion of the characteristics
of the product benefits to the customer, also is simply to give the viewer a visual displays of the brand without that this involves a process of purchase-sale, although almost always after the exhibition is merchandising.
Eslogan (Slogan): Is used in a commercial as part of a propaganda and intending to
summarize and represent an idea. The premise is that this phrase is easy to remember for the public.
Equilibrium of market (Equilibrio de mercado): It is when the forces of supply and
demand are balanced, there is no reason why the price raise or lower, provided and when the rest is maintained constant. When the market is in equilibrium sold everything that occurs.
Feudalism (Feudalismo): Consisted in properties of cultivated land especially slaves of
these elaborated production was delivered by way of census or lease to own land, embodied by a noble lord, loyal to the King of turn.
Feudalism (Feudalismo): Consisted in properties of cultivated land especially slaves of
these elaborated production was delivered by way of census or lease to own land, embodied by a noble lord, loyal to the King of turn.
Frowth of a product (Crecimiento de un producto): It is where it begins to increase its
market share. The signals that allow us to identify this stage are: positioning in the segment defined; basic differentiation growing; degree of loyalty or repetition of shopping with sustained forward; very good coverage in the distribution channels; increasing market penetration among and other more.
Interest (Interés): It is an index used to measure the return on savings or also the cost of a loan. It is generally expressed as a percentage. Given a certain amount of money and a time limit or term for your return or its use, the interest rate indicates what percentage of that money would be a benefit, or in the case of a credit, what percentage of that money would have to pay.
Inflation (Inflación): Is a measure economic that indicate the growth generalize of the
Prices of property, services and factors productive inside of one economic in a period determined. And other term is use as “the index of prices the consumption.
Index of prices producter (Indices de precios al producto): Is a indicator economic
that measure that change the that producer national sell their products and services.
Index Price consumer (Índices del precio al consumidor): Is Important for all those
who earn and spend money, why, when prices increase, the purchasing power of the Colombian peso drops. And, when prices fall, the purchasing power of the weight increases.
Intermediary (Intermediario): Is a person that connects to the producers and consumers
or to savers and investors, either to agree simply to two different parts of the same
Production process, without never acquire the ownership of assets with which trafficked, or either taking greater risks and responsibilities in this process.
Intangible products (Productos intangibles): It is something that you can touch and
feel; any material object and an intangible product is one that cannot be touched as a service or a concept.
Juncture (Coyuntura): Conjunct of economic factors that shape the present situation of a
country. It is a situation where converge or accumulate factors that promote the expansion, continuation or stagnation of economic activity.
Logistics (Logistica): It is the art of planning and coordinating all activities and processes
required for a product or service is generated and you reach the point where and when the end customer so requires, optimizing the cost.
Marketing (Mercadeo): Itâ€™s a process social in which the peoples achieve get what they
need and want through creating, offer and free Exchange of products and services that others value and need.
Market (Mercado): Set of dealings or swaps godos and services between individual or
associations of individuals. The Market makes no reference to profits or businesses but but simply to mutual agreement between the frame of the transactions.
Maslow pyramid (Pirรกmide de Maslow): This is a psychological theory that
accommodate the human needs in a hierarchy, that is to say that there is an order in which the needs should be met, which is exemplified in the shape of a pyramid of hierarchies.
MarketPlace (Plaza): All companies that are tangible or intangible have an interest in
decisions on the marketplace too call track, site delivery, distribution, location or coverage. available to users of tenders and make them accessible.
Monopoly (Monopolio): Is a situation of legal privilege or market failure, in which there is a (monopoly) producer who has great market power and is the only one that has a given product, good, or particular resource and differentiated service industry.
Merchandising: Is the movement of the merchandise to the consumer in the point of
sales. Also is part of marketing that include the technical commercial that allow present the possible buyer the product o service in the better terms material and psychological.
Marketing plan (Plan de mercadeo): It is the one that says that the marketing plan is a
document that is part of the documentation of the Strategic planning of a company. The marketing plan serves to collect the objectives and strategies, in addition to the actions that are going to be necessary to achieve these goals.
Marketing mix: It is a strategy analysis of internal aspects, commonly developed by
companies to analyze four basic variables of its activity: product, price, distribution and promotion.
Material P.O.P: It's all that promotional item that a customer can retain and which serves
for the advertising to become permanent. Advertising at the point of sale is only a form of POP.
Matrix Boston cosulting group (Matriz del Boston con el cosulting group): Is with the
aim of analyzing the strategic position of a product or a strategic business unit. The Boston Consulting Group, creates the analysis model of the business portfolio, also known as "portfolio analysis"; in our midst known as BCG matrix or matrix of crecimiento-participacion.
Matrix Tows (Matriz tows): It is an analysis tool to evaluate the external threats of a
company, external opportunities, internal weaknesses and internal strengths, hence the acronym TOWS. When complete, the user will have multiple strategies to maximize or minimize the factors mentioned above internal and external.
Mass distribution (Distribuci贸n masiva): It is to place the product in any type of
business. In this case the segmentation of the type of point of sale is secondary. The best examples are: soft drinks (coke, Pepsi) liquors: beer, cigarettes.
Needs (Necesidades): The necessity is a component basic of all human being affecting
his behavior, because feel the lack of something t olive or for is better.
Objection (Objeciones): Those barrier or obstacle that interpose the customer for avoid
the negotiation, all prospectus want reasoning for justify his buy with his family.
Product (Producto): Is the central point of de offer offering that takes all your company,
is the result of an effort has created a set of attributes tangible and intangible as packaging, colour, price, quality, brand, services and reputation of the seller; which are perceived by their customers potential.
Promoti贸n (Promoci贸n): Is a element or tool of marketing which aims: inform,
persuade, reminding the target audience about the products that the company or organization offers, thus influence their attitudes.
Principle (Principios): Is a system or a discipline is a reflection of the characteristics
essential of a system what users or researchers assumes and without which it is impossible to work, understanding or using the system.
Per capita (Perc谩pita): the term "per capita income" is used to indicate the wealth of a
country, is roughly GDP (gross domestic product) would be the value of the production of goods from one country and divide the number of people that exist in this country .... The more higher the number that goes in the division (higher income per person or per capita) is considered richest in this country and a better quality of life (quality life is measured by infrastructure, access to medicine, access to schooling, etc.).
Publicity (Publicidad): Action taken by a company to publicize their products and
stimulate demand. Set of methods and techniques used for this purpose. The word is derived from the advertising public or public voice. One thing is public when everyone owns or is known by all. In its original meaning, the term advertising means to inform the public something: a product, an idea, a person or institution. Today we often speak of publicity when it is for business purposes only, and propaganda when advertising is done for purposes other than strictly commercial (political or religious, usually). 13
Product Line (Linea de productos): It is a group of products that are closely related,
either because they meet a class of necessity or because they are used together; it is a large group of dedicated products, in essence, similar purposes or to their characteristics; this constitutes a line of products.
Product offering (Oferta de productos): Could be defined as the promise of meet or
give something. It can also be understood as the downgrade of a price. But where greater importance is the concept of bid is Economics as it is understood as one of the engines of the market.
Potential Client (Cliente potencial): Allows you to name the subject that, according to a
market analysis or study of marketing, could become purchaser, consumer or user of a particular product or service. The potential, in this case, refers to a behavior that still did not materialize. Also those are the people, companies or organizations that do not yet perform purchases to a certain company but which are considered as potential customers in the future as they have the economic resources and of the proper profile.
Perishables (productos perecederos): Perishables or with expiration period short as can
be fruits, fish, yogurt, etc...Need of setting up of special controls to minimize the losses of their deterioration. A technique useful is to ascertain the rate loss obtained on the total entries. After such knowledge, can evaluate that products, we are interested in selling and include this loss within the variable costs and set the appropriate selling price.
Products fungibles (Productos Fungibles): Those property that with his use wear or
consummate, a classic example of product fungible is the food, leave of exist as consequence of use that do they.
Products tangibles (Productos Tangibles): The term “tangible” is use for appoint the
that can be touched. In a sense more wide, also reference to the that can perceived with precisión.
Price of sale (Precio de venta): Is the Money that you have improve the consumer for
buy a product. In a market free, the Price of sale establishes to traverse of law of the offert and the demand: increase the offert, the Price drop, and the offert decrease the price augment.
Politics of quality (Políticas de calidad): Implement the program of higiene and
industrial safety, to the long and width all the company, Training of the staff for ocurrence of report some type of inconvenient they know that must do.
Psychographic environment (Ambiente psicográfico): Describes the features and the
responses of an individual to its environment (aggressiveness or passivity, resistance or openness to change, need for achievement, and so on.) The different styles of life marked different attitudes to the stimuli as everyday consumption or physical appearance as: the personality, life style, interests, tastes, concerns, opinions, values.
Product decremacion (Descremación de productos): Not descrema a product, but a
market. Slimming down a market is a pricing strategy, the launch of a new product on the market, there is a segment of customers who are willing to try it when before.
Packing (Embalaje): Are all materials, procedures and methods used to prepare, submit,
manipulate, store, store and transport goods. The packaging is the box or wrap with protecting the goods for transportation and storage. 15
Packaging (Empaque): is any material that contains or protects an article with or
without packaging in order to preserve and facilitate its delivery to the consumer. It is also known as "secondary packaging".
Packaging (Envase): It is understood the material that contains or saved to a product and
it is an integral part of the same; it serves to protect the goods and to distinguish it from other articles. In a stricter manner, the packaging is any container, lata, box or wrap own to contain any material or article.
Planning (Planeaci贸n): Is the formulation of the desired future state for an organization
and on the basis of this pose alternative courses of action, evaluate them, and thus define the appropriate mechanisms to take in order to achieve the proposed objectives, in addition to determining the allocation of human and physical resources necessary for an efficient use.
Petroleum products (Productos derivados): Are financial instruments whose value is
derived from the evolution of the prices of other assets denominated underlying assets. The underlying used can be very varied: actions, baskets of equity, fixed income, currencies, interest rates, stock indices, raw materials and more sophisticated products, even the inflation or credit risks.
Products in package (Productos en paquete): Is the set of all the products that take part
in the distribution is the portfolio of distributable products of your company. A product is represented by a material. However, it may be convenient to assign a class materials for their classification.
Retailer (Detallista): Is a person that dedicate the commerce the for minor, that sell his
products direct the final consumer.
Research methodology (Metodología de la investigación): Orderly Procedure to be
followed for establishing the meaning of the facts and phenomena toward which directs the scientific interest to find, demonstrate, refute and provide a knowledge.
Strategies (Estrategias): Is a concept that has been to encompass all actions that a
company expected carried out on marketing and communication.
Service (Servicio): Is a whole of activities what seeking ask needs of a client. The
services include diversity of activities performed by a great number of staff working for the state (utilities) or for company’s particular (private services).
Slavery (Esclavismo): Is a relationship established between two individuals and
involving the complete and absolute mastery of each other. Usually, that domain is set from the force, becoming a slave to an object or possession of the owner and losing not only their freedom but also the human condition.
Socialism (Socialismo): Is a system of organization social and economic based on
ownership and management or administration of the means of production and intends to gradually walks away.
Shortage (Déficit): Scantiness of any thing that need or that consider as essential. Also
the term can apply to differents products or property, since food untill Money.
Surplus (Superavit): Do refence to the abundance of Money that deposit or of patrimony
in comparison or the expenses or the liabilities.
Stagflation (estanflaci贸n): Dintinguished for a rise sustained in the level of prices
accompained for a increment inssuficient of the activity economic and a growing unemployment.
Segmentation of market (Segmentacion de mercado): This compound for hundreds,
thousand e even millions of individual, company that are differents ones of the others in function of location, level socioeconomic, culture, preference of purchase, style, personality and capacity of purchase.
Selective distribution (Distribuci贸n selectiva): This distribution has a reduced number
of distributors, all of these in addition, must meet several requirements.
Scientific method (M茅todo Cient铆fico): Refers to the series of stages that must be taken
to obtain a valid knowledge from a scientific point of view, using instruments that are reliable. What makes this method is to minimize the influence of the subjectivity of the scientist in his work.
Stage of the sale (Etapas de la venta): The sale process is a logical sequence of four
steps that undertakes the seller to deal with a potential buyer and it seeks to produce any desired response on the client, and the stages are: Preparation for the activity Determination of needs Argumentation Treatment of objection 18
Sales promotion (Promociòn de ventas): It is different from advertising and personal
sales, but these three forms of promotion are often used together and in an integrated manner. According to Kotler are "the short-term incentives that encourage the purchase or sale of a product or service".
Segmentation of markets (Segmentación de mercados): Is the process of subdividing a
market into distinct subsets of customers that behave the same way or have similar needs. Each subset can be conceived as a target will be achieved with a different strategy of marketing.
Sales (Ventas): A general definition is changing products and services for money. Sales
are the heart of any business, is the fundamental activity of any commercial adventure. The idea is to bring together buyers and sellers, and all aspects of the organization's work is to do what is needed to ensure that this meeting was to be successful.
The new information and communication technologies (Las nuevas tecnologías de la
información y de la comunicación): The transformation of the labor market is an exponent of the clear changes stimulated by the so-called digital economy. On the one hand, there emerge new jobs and professional profiles that require mastery of these technologies. On the other hand, arises a new model of job search: the network element acts as an intermediary between suppliers and customers. This paper provides an overview of the current situation.
The cost of production (Costos de producci贸n): Are the expenses necessary for guess a
proyect, line of prosecution or a team in operation. In a company standard, the difference between ingress (for sales and others entry) and the cost of production indicate the benefit brute.
The Market Research (La investigaci贸n de mercados): It is a systematic process of
compilation and interpretation of facts and data that are used to the address of a company to take right decisions and thereby to establish a correct market policy.
The sales pitches (Los reclamos de ventas): It is the personal communication, written or
telephone performed by customers to the company operator before potential drawbacks with the provision of the service, with the purpose of that be solved your claim and may be filed and processed.
Technical simple (Tecnicas de muestra): It is the technique for the selection of a sample
as of a population. In the sampling, if the of the sample is smaller than the size of the population can be removed two or more samples of the same population.
Technical gift (Tecnica regalo): Techniques in use vary greatly, from the consultative
selling customer-focused until the very pressured "hard close". All techniques require some experience and mix a little with psychology to know what motivates others to buy something offered by one.
Technical competition (Tecnica de concurso): The sales staff experiencing exhaustion
that can undermine their enthusiasm and momentum to pursue new potential customers. When sellers are in a routine, implements a contest to encourage it. The contests promote 20
a spirit of competition among employees, which can bring back their motivation and enthusiasm; they also have a financial sense.
Telemarketing (Telemercadeo): It is the innovative use of telecommunication
equipment and systems as part of the category of personal sales that goes to the customer.
Theory of prices (Teoria de precios): During almost the entire history the prices were
determined by negotiation between those who buy and sell. Establish a same price for all the buyers is a relatively modern idea that emerged with the development of retail sales to large-scale at the end of the nineteenth century F. W. Woolworth, Tiffany & Co. , and others announced a "strict policy of only one price" by working as many articles and supervised as many employees.
Vocabulary in sales (Vocabulario en las ventas): Occurs when the price of a product is
less than the acquisition, according to invoice, deducted the proportionate share of the discounts that they appear in the same, or the cost of replacement if this is lower than that, or to the actual costs of production if the article had been manufactured by the retailer himself, plus the shares of all indirect taxes included the operation.
Vademecum (Vademecum): It is for the law, commercial law, business and trade. Latin
term meaning "something handy", "small" refers to the policy document of a check.
Wholesaler (Mayorista): Is a merchant that not sell direct the final consumer, if not buy
to a producer or to a importer for sell, who sell the consumer, as his name indicate wholesaler is a merchandiser that sell the for major.
Wine tasting of a product (Degustaci贸n de un producto): Give a product to a
consumer, after testing it, buy it decides. In mass events or places of much public support, the brands may offer a free taste of a drink or a snack with the purpose of conquering the possible.
Libro: Administración Estratégica un Enfoque Integrado, de Hill y Jones, Mc Graw Hill Interamericana Enciclopedia: Copyright © 2006-2009 All rights reserved. Enciclopedia de economía Libro: Marketing, de R. Romero, Editora Palmir E.I.R.L. Libro: «Fundamentos de Marketing», Decimocuarta Edición, de Stanton J. William, Etzel J. Michael, Walker J. Bruce, McGraw-Hill Interamericana, 2007. Copyright © 2008-2014 - Definicion.de
Fundamentos de mercadeo