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PewResearch Hispanic Center

U.S. Immigrant Population Trends


The United States is the world’s leader as a destination for immigrants. 7.2 million Canada

40.4 million United States

10.8 million Germany

12.3 million Russia

7.3 million Saudi Arabia

2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS) for U.S. and 2010 World Bank estimates for all others.


A record 40.4 million immigrants lived in the U.S. in 2011. Percent of total U.S. population

87%

Native-born citizens

13%

Foreign-born immigrants

The foreign-born share of the population peaked at just under 15% from 1890 to 1920.

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS) and U.S. Department of Homeland Security 2008 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics.


Since 2000, the immigrant population has increased by 30%.

38.0

40.4

Total U.S. immigrant population continues to grow ...

31.1 million

8.4 million 2000

12.0 2007

... while unauthorized 11.1 immigration slows 2011

Immigrant population and unauthorized immigrant population estimates based on separate data sets. See Pew Research Hispanic Center, “A Nation of Immigrants,� Jan. 29, 2013.


Nearly half of all U.S. immigrants are naturalized citizens.

45%

Naturalized U.S. citizens

55%

Not citizens

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Six-in-ten U.S. immigrants live in just five states... 2 New York 4.3 million immigrants 11% of all immigrants

5 New Jersey 1.9 million immigrants 5% of all immigrants

1 California

10.2 million immigrants 25% of all immigrants

4 Florida 3 Texas

3.7 million immigrants 9% of all immigrants

4.2 million immigrants 10% of all immigrants Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


...but five other states have seen the fastest growth since 2000. 4 Wisconsin 275,000 immigrants 73% growth

1 Kentucky 143,000 immigrants 97% growth

5 North Carolina 708,000 immigrants 64% growth

2 South Carolina 3 Mississippi 68,000 immigrants 74% growth

222,000 immigrants 88% growth

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2000 Census (5% IPUMS) and 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Mexico is the largest source country of U.S. immigrants...

29% Mexico

4% Middle East 9% Caribbean

8% Central America 7% South America

25% South & East Asia 19% All others

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


...with nearly 12 million Mexican immigrants in the U.S. Mexico

11.7 million

India

1.9 million

Philippines

1.8 million

China

1.7 million

All others

23.4 million

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Most U.S. immigrants arrived in the U.S. before 2000. Percent of immigrants arriving...

Before 1990

1990-1999

Since 2000

38% 27

‘00-’05

20

1990

‘06 or later

16

2000

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)

2011


The median age of U.S. immigrants is 42. Median age of...

Mexican-born immigrants

42 years All immigrants

38

30

35

All U.S. born

35

South & East Asian-born immigrants

43

40

45

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


While most foreign-born children are English proficent, only about half of adult immigrants are English proficent. Percent of foreign-born immigrants who speak English... LESS THAN VERY WELL

Ages 5-17

Ages 18+

VERY WELL/ ONLY ENGLISH AT HOME

28%

52

72%

48

16% of all immigrants ages 5 and older speak only English at home. Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Most immigrant adults are high school graduates... Percent of foreign-born adults ages 25 and older...

31%

Less than high school diploma

69%

At least high school diploma or equivalent

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


...and about a quarter of immigrant adults are college graduates. The rates of college attainment and enrollment have been on the rise since 2000.

Attained a bachelor’s degree or more

2011

(ages 25 and older)

2000

Enrolled as undergraduate, graduate or professional student (ages 18-24)

2011 2000

27% 24%

39 26

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2000 Census (5% IPUMS) and 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Median household income is lower among the foreign born than the native born... Among households headed by someone who is:

Native born

$50,000

Foreign born

$45,000

But is higher among South-East Asian immigrants than the native born. Among the foreign born:

Mexican born South & East Asian born Born elsewhere

$34,000 $65,000 $45,900

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


The poverty rate of immigrants is higher than that of the native born. 20%

Foreign born Mexican born South & East Asian born

29 13

Born elsewhere Native born

17 15

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


A third of the foreign born do not have health insurance. Percent in the U.S. who have... NATIVE BORN

FOREIGN BORN

13%

34%

no health insurance

87% have health insurance

no health insurance

66% have health insurance

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


Immigrant householders are less likely than native-born householders to own their homes. Foreign born Mexican born

51% 45

South & East Asian born Born elsewhere Native born

57 52 67

Pew Research Hispanic Center tabulations of 2011 American Community Survey (1% IPUMS)


U.S. Immigrant Population Trends